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CONTENTS CONTENTS CONTENTS CONTENTS CONTENTS
Red Alert .....................................................1
About the Book .......................................................... 1
About the Physics Test ............................................... 2
Scoring .............................................................................. 3
Taking the Test .................................................................. 3
SAT II Physics Study Plans ......................................... 4
Preliminary Preparations .................................................. 5
The 18-week Plan.............................................................. 6
The 9-Week Plan ............................................................... 8
Panic Plan.......................................................................... 9
Key Formulas and Equations ................................... 11
Units and Conversions ............................................. 12
Diagnostic Test ...........................................13
Answers and Explanations ...................................... 31
Chapter 1: Preliminary Concepts .................45
Simple Equations and Algebra ................................. 47
Graphs ...................................................................... 48
Right Triangles ......................................................... 52
Units and Conversions ............................................. 56
Scalars and Vectors................................................... 57
Chapter Summary.................................................... 67
Chapter 2: Mechanics .................................69
Statics ...................................................................... 71
CONTENTS
Torques ..................................................................... 77
Kinematics ............................................................... 80
Motion in Two Dimensions...................................... 87
Newton’s Laws of Motion ........................................ 90
Work and Energy ..................................................... 96
Momentum............................................................. 100
Circular and Rotary................................................ 103
Chapter Summary.................................................. 109
Chapter 3: Waves ....................................113
Wave Properties ..................................................... 115
Chapter Summary.................................................. 135
Chapter 4: Heat and
Thermodynamics ......................................137
Temperature........................................................... 139
Thermal Properties of Matter ................................ 140
Thermodynamics ................................................... 149
Chapter Summary ................................................. 160
Chapter 5: Electricity and
Electromagnetism.....................................161
Electrostatics .......................................................... 163
Electric Fields ......................................................... 166
Electric Circuits ...................................................... 168
Magnets and Magnetic Fields ................................ 179
Chapter Summary.................................................. 191
Chapter 6: Modern Physics .......................193
Particulate Theory of Light .................................... 195
Photoelectric Effect ................................................ 198
Relativity................................................................. 201
Chapter Summary.................................................. 211
Chapter 7: The Atom.................................213
The Atom................................................................ 215
Radioactivity........................................................... 224
Particles .................................................................. 232
Chapter Summary.................................................. 234
Practice Test 1 ..........................................237
Practice Test 2 ..........................................271
Practice Test 3 ..........................................305
Practice Test 4 ..........................................337
CONTENTS
Peterson’s: www.petersons.com RED ALERT 1
RED ALERT
ABOUT THE BOOK
Now that you have decided to tackle the SAT II Physics Test, you need
to develop a plan to maximize your chances of achieving a high score.
The reason you want a high score is simple. The higher your score, the
better you look to the admissions officers at the college of your choice.
The SAT II Physics Test is designed to measure the knowledge and
achievement of high school students who have completed a college
preparatory physics class. This book will help you review for the SAT
II Physics Test. If you have not taken a Physics class yet, it may be
advisable to wait until after you complete one before you progress
further.
This book is arranged in several sections, beginning with a diag-
nostic test. The purpose of this test is to identify your strengths and
weaknesses. It will also help to familiarize you with the testing method
used by the College Board. Do not skip the diagnostic test! Find a
quiet, comfortable spot, turn off the TV, computer, and music, and try to
take the entire diagnostic test within the time allotted. If you run out
of time, mark on your answer sheet where you ran out of time. Then
keep going until you complete the test.
After finishing the test, you deserve a break, so take one. But be
sure to come back after no more than 15 minutes and check your
answers. Then go back, reread the questions you missed, and try to
figure out what went wrong. Did you jump to a conclusion, misread
the question, stop at the first correct answer (sometimes there are
multiple correct answers to one question), or just not know the mate-
rial? None of these reasons is cause for serious concern right now,
because every reason mentioned can be overcome. In fact, as you work
through this book, each of these will be addressed.
Once the diagnostic test is done it’s time to settle down to your
preparation for the real SAT II Physics Test. Move on to the Physics
review and study each section as if you had to learn the material all
over again. Those sections you know well will go by smoothly and help
you to build confidence, while your review of unfamiliar terms and
concepts will allow you to learn it quickly and effectively.
RED ALERT Peterson’s SAT II Success: Physics
RED ALERT
2
When you have finished your review, take the practice tests. Once
again, you should try to set up a test-like situation. Make sure all the
electronic toys are out of the way (besides, the College Board doesn’t
allow them), time yourself, and do your best. After you check each test,
read the explanations for those questions you missed, and for addi-
tional reinforcement, reread the Review Section that covers the mate-
rial in the question.
ABOUT THE PHYSICS TEST
The SAT II Physics Test is a 75-question multiple-choice test. The test
covers the following topics:
• Mechanics
• Heat/Kinetic Theory/Thermodynamics
• Waves
• Electricity and Magnetism
• Modern Physics
• Miscellaneous Topics (may include measurement, math, and history)
Nearly 40 percent of the SAT II Physics Test will test your knowl-
edge of Mechanics. Electricity and Magnetism also make up a signifi-
cant proportion of the material, accounting for about 25 percent of the
questions. Approximately 20 percent of the questions deal with waves,
and the remaining 15 percent covers the other topics listed above.
Because the material covered in high school physics courses can
vary widely, you will probably find some questions on the test that
cover topics with which you are unfamiliar. This may be impossible to
avoid entirely; however, solid preparation and review of the concepts
and information covered in this book will go a long way to helping you
navigate unfamiliar territory.
The testing procedures for the SAT II Physics Test are similar to
those you already know from your high school classroom. A few
questions will be simple recall; about half of the questions will require
you to be able to apply a physical concept for a given situation; and the
more difficult questions will require that you be able to apply multiple
concepts to multiple relationships.
In addition to a college preparatory physics course, you will also
need a solid working knowledge of algebra and trigonometry, as well
as laboratory experience. Familiarity with the metric system is critical.
Y YY YYou ar ou ar ou ar ou ar ou are not per e not per e not per e not per e not permitted to use a calculator dur mitted to use a calculator dur mitted to use a calculator dur mitted to use a calculator dur mitted to use a calculator during the test. ing the test. ing the test. ing the test. ing the test.
The calculations focus on simple arithmetic and will not require a
calculator.
RED ALERT
RED ALERT 3 Peterson’s: www.petersons.com
SCORING
Your score on the SAT II Physics Test will be reported on a scale of
200–800. Each question you answer correctly counts as one point. Each
incorrect answer counts as
1
4 point against you. Unanswered questions
do not count for or against you.
Clearly, the more incorrect answers you can eliminate from a set
of choices, the better your chances of finding or guessing the correct
answer.
TAKING THE TEST
You will be given one hour (60 minutes) to complete seventy-five
questions. Because of the limited amount of time you have for each
question, it is vital that you adopt a test-taking strategy and stick to it.
There are several things that you can do to give yourself the best
possible chance to score well on the test.
Set up a study program for yourself and faithfully follow it. Do
not skip any part(s) of the program.
1. When you take the diagnostic and practice tests, make sure to
familiarize yourself thoroughly with the test directions, as they
are patterned after the actual directions on the SAT II Physics
Test you will be taking. Becoming familiar with the directions
saves you time in re-reading them on test day.
2. Quickly read the entire test question by question. Answer imme-
diately the questions you know or can do as you read through the
test the first time; skip those questions you can’t answer right
away.
3. Once you’ve gone through the entire test, go back to the begin-
ning and work on the questions you skipped. Look for answers
to eliminate. The more answers you can eliminate, the better your
chances to recognize or guess the correct answer.
4. If you finish the test before time is up, go back and look over
your answers. Only change an answer if you are absolutely sure
you have the incorrect answer selected.
5. Get a good rest the night before the test. A primary reason for
poor test performance is lack of sleep.
RED ALERT Peterson’s SAT II Success: Physics
RED ALERT
4
SAT II PHYSICS STUDY PLANS
You already know the importance of a study plan when preparing for
this test. Needless to say, the amount of time you have before you’re due
to take the test has a lot to do with which of the following plans you’ll
select for your exam preparation.
Those of you who are not taking the SAT II Physics Test in the
near future should follow our leisurely 18-week plan. This plan is
favored because it gives you plenty of time to thoroughly prepare,
review all required concepts, and restudy the material you find chal-
lenging.
The next option is the 9-week plan, which calls for a more con-
centrated effort on your part. You will have to pay more attention to
your diagnostic and practice test results in this plan, as those questions
you miss become indicators for the material to which you should pay
extra attention.
Finally, the last method is the Panic Plan. This plan is for you if
you’ve got hardly any time to prepare but still want to do your best,
like when you find out your college of choice wants to see your SAT II
Physics Test score and the next test administration is in just a few
weeks! Using this plan you will spend as much time as you have avail-
able preparing for the SAT II Physics Test by using this book to line you
up for the test.
RED ALERT
RED ALERT 5 Peterson’s: www.petersons.com
PRELIMINARY PREPARATIONS
Browse through the book. Look at the chapter summaries. Take the
Diagnostic Test. Follow the instructions for taking the test and then
check your answers. After you have taken the test and graded it, be
sure to read all the explanations for the answers. Pay particular atten-
tion to the explanations for the questions you missed. Try to identify
the reasons why you answered a question incorrectly. Was it careless-
ness on your part? You would be surprised at the number of students
who miss a question they knew by inadvertently marking the wrong
choice. Perhaps you misread the question, or maybe you were hurrying
too much.
Look through the answers and explanations for the questions you
missed. Be sure you understand why the correct answer is correct.
Write down the numbers of the questions you missed or would like to
understand a little better. They are your benchmark questions. If you
miss a lot of the questions about magnetism or thermodynamics, for
example, this tells you where to concentrate your efforts. Identifying
these weak areas is especially important if you are following the Panic
Plan and will be helpful no matter how long you have to prepare.
Sometimes students say the test questions are tricky, but the
students who know the material are difficult to fool and quickly elimi-
nate the “tricky” answers. This is not to say that they don’t have to
think about what they are doing. Some of the questions are truly
challenging and will require your best effort, so prepare yourself well.
Start each chapter by reading the summary at the end, which lists
everything in the chapter. As you read through a chapter, work out the
problems on your own when you come to them. When you reach the
end of a chapter, read the summary again. Repetition is a po Repetition is a po Repetition is a po Repetition is a po Repetition is a pow ww wwerful erful erful erful erful
learning tool. learning tool. learning tool. learning tool. learning tool.
RED ALERT Peterson’s SAT II Success: Physics
RED ALERT
6
THE 18-WEEK PLAN
W WW WWeek 1 eek 1 eek 1 eek 1 eek 1 Diagnostic Diagnostic Diagnostic Diagnostic Diagnostic T TT TTest est est est est
Review the answers to the Diagnostic Test.
Review Chapter 1: Preliminary Concepts
W WW WWeek 2 eek 2 eek 2 eek 2 eek 2 Chapter 2 Chapter 2 Chapter 2 Chapter 2 Chapter 2: Mechanics : Mechanics : Mechanics : Mechanics : Mechanics
Statics
Kinematics
Dynamics
W WW WWeek 3 eek 3 eek 3 eek 3 eek 3 Chapter 2 Chapter 2 Chapter 2 Chapter 2 Chapter 2: Mechanics : Mechanics : Mechanics : Mechanics : Mechanics
Work and Energy
Momentum
Circular and Rotary Motion
W WW WWeek 4 eek 4 eek 4 eek 4 eek 4 Chapter 3: Chapter 3: Chapter 3: Chapter 3: Chapter 3: W WW WWa aa aav vv vves es es es es
Wave Properties
Reflection
Refraction
W WW WWeek 5 eek 5 eek 5 eek 5 eek 5 Chapter 3 Chapter 3 Chapter 3 Chapter 3 Chapter 3: :: :: W WW WWa aa aav vv vves es es es es
Polarization of Light
Interference
Diffraction
W WW WWeek 6 eek 6 eek 6 eek 6 eek 6 Chapter 4 Chapter 4 Chapter 4 Chapter 4 Chapter 4: :: :: Heat and Heat and Heat and Heat and Heat and Ther Ther Ther Ther Thermod mod mod mod modynamics ynamics ynamics ynamics ynamics
Thermal Properties of Matter
Kinetic Molecular Theory
Gases
W WW WWeek 7 eek 7 eek 7 eek 7 eek 7 Chapter 4 Chapter 4 Chapter 4 Chapter 4 Chapter 4: :: :: Heat and Heat and Heat and Heat and Heat and Ther Ther Ther Ther Thermod mod mod mod modynamics ynamics ynamics ynamics ynamics
Laws of Thermodynamics
Heat Engines
Calorimetry
W WW WWeek 8 eek 8 eek 8 eek 8 eek 8 Chapter 5 Chapter 5 Chapter 5 Chapter 5 Chapter 5: Electricity and Electromagnetism : Electricity and Electromagnetism : Electricity and Electromagnetism : Electricity and Electromagnetism : Electricity and Electromagnetism
Coulombs Law
Electric Fields and Potential
DC Circuits
W WW WWeek 9 eek 9 eek 9 eek 9 eek 9 Chapter 5 Chapter 5 Chapter 5 Chapter 5 Chapter 5: Electricity and Electromagnetism : Electricity and Electromagnetism : Electricity and Electromagnetism : Electricity and Electromagnetism : Electricity and Electromagnetism
Magnets and Magnetic Fields
RED ALERT
RED ALERT 7 Peterson’s: www.petersons.com
W WW WWeek 10 eek 10 eek 10 eek 10 eek 10 Chapter 6 Chapter 6 Chapter 6 Chapter 6 Chapter 6: Modern Physics : Modern Physics : Modern Physics : Modern Physics : Modern Physics
Quantum Mechanics
Work Function
W WW WWeek 11 eek 11 eek 11 eek 11 eek 11 Chapter 6 Chapter 6 Chapter 6 Chapter 6 Chapter 6: Modern Physics : Modern Physics : Modern Physics : Modern Physics : Modern Physics
Relativity
Heisenberg
Compton
deBroglia
W WW WWeek 12 eek 12 eek 12 eek 12 eek 12 Chapter 7 Chapter 7 Chapter 7 Chapter 7 Chapter 7: :: :: The The The The The Atom Atom Atom Atom Atom
The Nucleus
Atomic Spectra
Bohr’s Atom
W WW WWeek 13 eek 13 eek 13 eek 13 eek 13 Chapter 7 Chapter 7 Chapter 7 Chapter 7 Chapter 7: :: :: The The The The The Atom Atom Atom Atom Atom
Nuclear Reactions, Equations, and Radiation
Fission and Fusion
Binding Energy and Mass Defect
W WW WWeek 14 eek 14 eek 14 eek 14 eek 14 Pr Pr Pr Pr Practice actice actice actice actice T TT TTest est est est est 1 and Pr 1 and Pr 1 and Pr 1 and Pr 1 and Practice actice actice actice actice T TT TTest 2 est 2 est 2 est 2 est 2
Review Answers and Explanations
Reread all the chapter summaries
W WW WWeek 15 eek 15 eek 15 eek 15 eek 15
Review the material from the questions you missed on
Practice Test 1 and Practice Test 2
Reread the chapter summaries
W WW WWeek 16 eek 16 eek 16 eek 16 eek 16 Pr Pr Pr Pr Practice actice actice actice actice T TT TTest est est est est 3 and Pr 3 and Pr 3 and Pr 3 and Pr 3 and Practice actice actice actice actice T TT TTest 4 est 4 est 4 est 4 est 4
Review Answers and Explanations
Reread all the chapter summaries
W WW WWeek 17 eek 17 eek 17 eek 17 eek 17
Review the material from the questions you missed on
Practice Test 3 and Practice Test 4
Reread the chapter summaries
W WW WWeek 18 eek 18 eek 18 eek 18 eek 18
Start the week by reading all of the chapter summaries.
Go over all of the test questions you missed on the
Diagnostic Test and the four practice tests. Review the material
you are not sure you have mastered! Think positive. You are
ready!
RED ALERT Peterson’s SAT II Success: Physics
RED ALERT
8
THE 9-WEEK PLAN
W WW WWeek 1 eek 1 eek 1 eek 1 eek 1 Diagnostic Diagnostic Diagnostic Diagnostic Diagnostic T TT TTest est est est est
Chapter 1 Chapter 1 Chapter 1 Chapter 1 Chapter 1: :: :: Pr Pr Pr Pr Preliminar eliminar eliminar eliminar eliminary Concepts y Concepts y Concepts y Concepts y Concepts
W WW WWeek 2 eek 2 eek 2 eek 2 eek 2 Chapter 2 Chapter 2 Chapter 2 Chapter 2 Chapter 2: Mechanics : Mechanics : Mechanics : Mechanics : Mechanics
W WW WWeek 3 eek 3 eek 3 eek 3 eek 3 Chapter 3 Chapter 3 Chapter 3 Chapter 3 Chapter 3: :: :: W WW WWa aa aav vv vves es es es es
W WW WWeek 4 eek 4 eek 4 eek 4 eek 4 Chapter 4 Chapter 4 Chapter 4 Chapter 4 Chapter 4: :: :: Heat and Heat and Heat and Heat and Heat and Ther Ther Ther Ther Thermod mod mod mod modynamics ynamics ynamics ynamics ynamics
W WW WWeek 5 eek 5 eek 5 eek 5 eek 5 Chapter 5 Chapter 5 Chapter 5 Chapter 5 Chapter 5: Electricity and Electromagnetism : Electricity and Electromagnetism : Electricity and Electromagnetism : Electricity and Electromagnetism : Electricity and Electromagnetism
W WW WWeek 6 eek 6 eek 6 eek 6 eek 6 Chapter 6 Chapter 6 Chapter 6 Chapter 6 Chapter 6: Modern Physics : Modern Physics : Modern Physics : Modern Physics : Modern Physics
W WW WWeek 7 eek 7 eek 7 eek 7 eek 7 Chapter 7 Chapter 7 Chapter 7 Chapter 7 Chapter 7: :: :: The The The The The Atom Atom Atom Atom Atom
W WW WWeek 8 eek 8 eek 8 eek 8 eek 8 Pr Pr Pr Pr Practice actice actice actice actice T TT TTests ests ests ests ests 1 11 11 and 2 and 2 and 2 and 2 and 2
Review the answers to the questions you missed
W WW WWeek 9 eek 9 eek 9 eek 9 eek 9 Pr Pr Pr Pr Practice actice actice actice actice T TT TTests ests ests ests ests 3 and 4 3 and 4 3 and 4 3 and 4 3 and 4
Review the answers to the questions you missed.
Reread the chapter summaries, paying particular attention
to any material you missed previously
RED ALERT
RED ALERT 9 Peterson’s: www.petersons.com
PANIC PLAN
This last plan is for the group of students (and I hope it is small) who
for whatever reason don’t have much time to prepare for the SAT II
Physics Test. Perhaps you have just completed a physics class and you
don’t think you need to spend much time in preparation, or maybe you
have just decided to take the test. Only you know how much study
time you have and how much energy you are willing to devote to
preparation. Try to use both your time and energy wisely.
The list below will help you to prepare for the test in whatever time
you have available. By all means try to do everything on the list. If that
is not a possibility, the most important items are first. Do them! In fact
do as much as you can.
• Read the chapter summaries, which will help you renew your basic
physics knowledge.
• Take the Diagnostic Test, and review the questions you miss. This
gives you an idea of your needs.
• Take Practice Test 1, and go over any questions you miss.
• Take Practice Test 2, and go over the questions you miss.
• Take Practice Test 3, and go over the questions you miss.
• Take Practice Test 4, and go over the questions you miss.
• Reread the chapter summaries
Good luck!
Peterson’s: www.petersons.com 11
KEY FORMULAS AND EQUATIONS
S V t at
o
= +
1
2
2
S gt =
1
2
2
F = ma
W
t
= mg
Work = F • S • cos q
PE = mgh
KE= l/2 mv
2
Power
work
time
=
P = mv
Ft = m∆V
F
mV
r
c
=
2
F G
m m
r
=
( )( )
1 2
2
θ
radians
arclength
radius
= =
s
r
s
tan
= qr
V
tan
= Wr
a
tan
= αr
V = λ f
f =
1
Τ
h
h
q
p
i
0
=
1 1 1
f p q
= +
n
1
sin q
1
= n
2
sin q
2
(Snell’s Law)
nλ = d sinq
PV = n r t
P
1
V
1
= P
2
V
2
V
T
V
T
1
1
2
2
=
P
T
P
T
1
1
2
2
=
( )( ) ( )( ) P V
T
P V
T
1 1
1
2 2
2
=
∆Q = ∆U + ∆W
Q = cm∆T
F K
q q
r
=
( )( )
1 2
2
F = EQ
V = IR
R R R R R
t
= + + +
1 2 3 …
1 1 1 1
1 2
3 R R R R
t
= + +
P = VI
F = B

IL
F = B

qV
EMF = BLV
V
V
N
N
s
p
s
p
=
E = hf
φ = hf
∆ E = E
2
–E
1
Slope =


y
x
r
2
= y
2
+ x
2
sin q =
y
r
cos q =
x
r
tan q =
y
x
∑ F = 0
∑ F
x
= 0
∑ F
y
= 0
∑ F
z
= 0
Τ = F≥
∑ Τ = 0
∑ +Τ = ∑ −Τ
Speed (U)
distance
time
=
d
t
V
S
t
=
V
V V
f
=
+
0
2
∆V = V
f
– V
0
∆t = t
f
–t
o
a
V
t
=


a
V V
t t
f
f
=


0
0
V
f
= V
0
+ at
V
f
2
= V
o
2
+2as
Relativistic Factor
1
1
2













( )
v
c
E = mc
2
Activity
N
=

∆t
T
1/2
=
.693
λ


N
N
o
t
= λ
Peterson’s SAT II Success: Physics 12
UNITS AND CONVERSIONS
SI Units SI Units SI Units SI Units SI Units
length meter m
mass kilogram kg
time second s
electric current ampere A
temperature Kelvin K
Metric Prefixes Metric Prefixes Metric Prefixes Metric Prefixes Metric Prefixes
T tera 1 × 10
12
10
12
G giga 1 × 10
9
10
9
M mega 1 × 10
6
10
6
hK hectokilo 1 × 10
5
10
5
ma myria 1 × 10
4
10
4
K kilo 1 × 10
3
10
3
h hecto 1 × 10
2
10
2
d deka 1 × 10
1
10
1
Basic Unit Basic Unit Basic Unit Basic Unit Basic Unit 1 meter – 1 gram – 1 liter
d deci 1 × 10
–1
10
–1
c centi 1 × 10
–2
10
–2
m milli 1 × 10
–3
10
–3
dm decimilli 1 × 10
–4
10
–4
cm centimilli 1 × 10
–5
10
–5
u micro 1 × 10
–6
10
–6
n nano 1 × 10
–9
10
–9
p pico 1 × 10
–12
10
–12
Diagnostic Test
PHYSICS PHYSICS PHYSICS PHYSICS PHYSICS TEST TEST TEST TEST TEST
Peterson’s: www.petersons.com 15
DIAGNOSTIC TEST
PHYSICS PHYSICS PHYSICS PHYSICS PHYSICS TEST TEST TEST TEST TEST
While you have taken many standardized tests and know to blacken completely the ovals on the
answer sheets and to erase completely any errors, the instructions for the SAT II Physics Test differ in
an important way from the directions for other standardized tests. You need to indicate on the answer
key which test you are taking. The instructions on the answer sheet will tell you to fill out the top
portion of the answer sheet exactly as shown.
1. Print PHYSICS on the line under the words Subject Test (print).
2. In the shaded box labeled Test Code fill in four ovals:
—Fill in oval 1 in the row labeled V.
—Fill in oval 6 in the row labeled W.
—Fill in oval 3 in the row labeled X.
—Fill in oval C in the row labeled Y.
—Leave the ovals in row Q blank.
V
W
X
Q
Test Code
Subject Test (print)
Physics
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
1 2 3 4 5 A B C D E
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
Y
There are two additional questions that you will be asked to answer. One is “How many semesters of
physics have you taken in high school?” The other question lists courses and asks you to mark those
that you have taken. You will be told which ovals to fill in for each question. The College Board is
collecting statistical information. If you choose to answer, you will use the key that is provided and
blacken the appropriate ovals in row Q. You may also choose not to answer, and that will not affect
your grade.
When everyone has completed filling in this portion of the answer sheet, the supervisor will tell you
to turn the page and begin. The answer sheet has 100 numbered ovals, but there are only approxi-
mately 75 multiple-choice questions on the test, so be sure to use only ovals 1 to 75 (or however many
questions there are) to record your answers.
PHYSICS TEST
Peterson’s SAT II Success: Physics 16
PHYSICS PHYSICS PHYSICS PHYSICS PHYSICS TEST TEST TEST TEST TEST
P PP PPar ar ar ar art t t t t A AA AA
Directions: Each of the sets of lettered choices below refers to the questions and/or statements
that follow. Select the lettered choice that is the best answer to each question and fill in the
corresponding oval on the answer sheet. In each set, each choice may be used once, more than
once, or not at all.
Questions 1-3 relate to the following chart,
which is a partial energy level diagram for the
hydrogen electron.
− =

.
.
54 5
85
eV n
eV




n
eV n
eV
=
− =

4
1 51 3
3 4
.
.

n
eV n
=
− =
2
13 6 1 .
Use the choices below to answer the questions
that follow. The questions relate to a hydrogen
electron located at E-3.
A) ±. .. ..66eV
B) ±. .. ..966eV
C) ±1. .. ..89eV
D) ±10. .. ..2eV
E) ±12. .. ..09eV
1. What is the emission energy when the
electron falls to E-2 from E-3?
2. What is the absorbed energy when the
electron jumps to E-5 from E-3?
3. What is the emission energy when the
electron falls to E-1 fromE-3?
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Questions 4–6 relate to the changes that could
be made in the following scenario and the
results such changes would produce.
A pendulum swings at a rate of .75 vibrations/
second.
A) Mass of the bob was increased
B) Length of the pendulum was increased
C) Mass of the bob was decreased
D) Length of the pendulum was decreased
E) Displacement from zero was increased
4. The period of the vibrations would increase
because…
5. The frequency of the vibrations would
decrease because…
6. The velocity of the pendulum would in-
crease because…
Questions 7–9 relate to the following scenario.
A dog walks 120 m due east before turning and
running 45 m west. He then turns and trots 40
m due north. After completing his journey, he is
85 m northeast of his home. When he hears his
master call him, he runs directly home.
A) The eastward leg
B) The westward leg
C) The northward leg
D) The distance from home
E) The distance to home
7. Which part of the trip is a negative vector?
8. Which part of the trip is an equilibrant?
9. Which part of the trip is the longest vector?
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Questions 10–12 relate to the following.
A) Frequency
B) Amplitude
C) Wavelength
D) Velocity
E) Period
Directions: Each question or statement below is followed by five possible answers. In each case,
select the best possible answer and fill in the corresponding oval on the answer sheet.
P PP PPar ar ar ar art B t B t B t B t B
The choices below give a description of the
quantities listed above. Match the statement
below with the quantity it describes above.
10. The number of wave crests passing a given
point per unit of time.
11. The distance between two points or two
consecutive waves.
12. The product of the frequency and the
wavelength.
13. A wooden crate is pushed across a concrete
floor at 5 m/s and released. It slides to a
stop after moving a short distance. The
same crate is filled until it weighs twice as
much as it did previously and again slid
across the floor at 5 m/s and released. The
stopping distance for the crate will be
(A)
4
1
as far.
(B)
2
1
as far.
(C) the same distance.
(D) twice as far.
(E) four times as far.
14. A team of skydivers jumps from a plane
and holds hands to form a flower-like
design. As the skydivers begin their free fall,
their velocity increases and their
(A) acceleration increases.
(B) acceleration decreases.
(C) acceleration is constant.
(D) acceleration is zero.
(E) air resistance is reduced.
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15. A professional golfer drives a golf ball 230
meters down the fairway. When the club
head strikes the golf ball
(A) the impact force on the golf ball is
greatest
(B) the impact force on the club head is
greatest
(C) the impact force is the same for both.
(D) the impact force has no effect on the
club
(E) the impact force has no effect on the
ball
16. When a woman pushes on her grocery cart,
the woman moves because of
(A) the force the woman exerts on the
grocery cart.
(B) the force the grocery cart exerts on
the woman.
(C) the force the woman exerts on the
ground.
(D) the force the ground exerts on the
woman.
(E) the force the grocery cart exerts on
the ground.
17. During a company picnic, 6 accounting
department workers participate in a tug of
war with 6 sales force personnel. Each
team pulls on the rope with 1200N of
force. What is the tension in the rope?
(A) 2400N
(B) 1200N
(C) 600N
(D) 200N
(E) 100N
18. The catcher prepares to receive a pitch
from the pitcher. As the ball reaches and
makes contact with his glove, the catcher
pulls his hand backward. This action
reduces the impact of the ball on the
catcher’s hand because
(A) the energy absorbed by his hand is
reduced.
(B) the momentum of the pitch is re-
duced.
(C) the time of impact is increased.
(D) the time of impact is reduced.
(E) the force exerted on his hand remains
the same.
19. A 12,500 kg boxcar rolling through a
freight yard has a velocity of 1 m/s

when it
strikes another boxcar of the same mass
that is at rest. Both cars stick together and
continue to roll down the track with a
momentum of
(A) 0 kg • m/s
(B) 3125 kg • m/s
(C) 6250 kg • m/s
(D) 12,500 kg • m/s
(E) 25,000 kg • m/s
20. A 750 g peregrine falcon dives straight
down towards a 400 g pigeon, which is
flying level to the ground. Just before the
falcon makes impact its velocity is 35 m/s.
The velocity of the falcon and the pigeon in
its talons immediately after impact is most
nearly
(A) 35 m/s
(B) 31.95 m/s
(C) 28.9 m/s
(D) 25.85 m/s
(E) 22.8 m/s
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21. A father holds his child on his shoulders
during a parade. The father does no work
during the parade because
(A) no force acts on the child.
(B) the momentum of the child is con-
stant.
(C) the potential energy of the child is
gravitational.
(D) the child’s kinetic energy is constant.
(E) the child’s distance from the ground
remains the same.
22. Golden Glove boxers, who are amateurs,
use larger, more padded gloves than profes-
sional boxers use. The amateur boxers are
more protected from injury because
(A) the larger glove exerts a larger im-
pulse on the boxer.
(B) the larger glove exerts a larger force
on the boxer.
(C) the larger glove exerts more energy
on the boxer.
(D) the larger glove increases time of
impact on the boxer.
(E) the larger glove increases the power
exerted on the boxer.
23. The driver of an automobile traveling at 80
km/hr locks his brakes and skids to a stop
in order to avoid hitting a deer in the road.
If the driver had been traveling at 40 km/hr,
how much faster would he have stopped?
(A) 4 times the distance
(B) 2 times the distance
(C)
2
1
the distance
(D)
4
1
the distance
(E) Not enough information to tell
24. During a laboratory experiment, a 19.6N
pile driver is dropped 2 m on to the head
of a nail, which is driven 2.45 cm into a
wood board. The frictional force exerted
by the wood on the nail is
(A) 96.04N
(B) 165N
(C) 1600N
(D) 1960N
(E) 3200N
25. For question 24 above, what is the magni-
tude of the acceleration of the pile driver
while it drives the nail into the board?
(A) –165 m/s
2
(B) –800 m/s
2
(C) –1600 m/s
2
(D) –2000 m/s
2
(E) –3200 m/s
2
26. A child is swinging on a swing set. As the
child reaches the lowest point in her swing
(A) the tension in the rope is equal to her
weight.
(B) the tension in the rope supplies a
centrifugal force.
(C) her kinetic energy is at maximum.
(D) her tangential acceleration equals
gravity.
(E) her angular velocity is minimum.
27. A bicycle wheel spins on its axis at a
constant rate but has not yet made a
complete rotation. Which of the following
statements is correct?
(A) The angular displacement is zero.
(B) The linear displacement is zero.
(C) The angular acceleration is zero.
(D) The angular velocity is zero.
(E) None of these is zero.
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28. An Olympic diver performs a
1
3
2
somer-
sault. During his dive he uses the tuck
position so that he will have
(A) larger angular momentum.
(B) smaller angular momentum.
(C) larger rotational rate.
(D) smaller rotational rate.
(E) longer time in the air.
29. While riding on a merry-go-round, you
decide to move from a position close to the
center to a position on the outside rim of
the merry-go-round. After you have
changed position, which of the following
has remained the same?
(A) Tangential acceleration
(B) Centripetal force
(C) Angular displacement
(D) Tangential velocity
(E) Tangential displacement
30. The International Space Station is currently
under construction. Eventually, simulated
earth gravity may become a reality on the
space station. What would the gravitational
field through the central axis be like under
these conditions?
(A) zero
(B)
4
1
g
(C)
2
1
g
(D)
4
3
g
(E) 1 g
31. A person who normally weighs 900N at sea
level climbs to the top of Mt. Everest. While
on top of Mt. Everest that person will
weigh
(A) zero.
(B) approximately 900N.
(C) considerably less than 900N but more
than zero.
(D) considerably more than 900N.
(E) Need more information.
32. If a shaft were drilled through the center of
the earth and all you had to do was step
into the shaft to “fall” to the other side, and
a 800N person took the trip, her weight at
the exact time she passed through the
exact center of the earth would be
(A) zero.
(B) 800N.
(C) less than 800N but more than zero.
(D) more than 800N.
(E) Need more information.
33. A 750N person stands on a scale while
holding a briefcase inside a freely falling
elevator. Which of the following is true?
(A) If the briefcase were released it would
rise to the ceiling.
(B) The person’s acceleration is zero.
(C) The person’s attraction toward the
earth is zero.
(D) The person’s apparent weight is zero.
(E) If the briefcase were released it would
fall to the floor.
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34. The time it takes a satellite to make one
orbit around the earth depends on the
satellite’s
(A) acceleration.
(B) weight.
(C) direction of rotation.
(D) distance from earth.
(E) launch speed.
35. Geosynchronous satellites remain over the
same spot on the earth’s surface because
they
(A) orbit the earth every 24 hours.
(B) are in polar orbits.
(C) rotate opposite the earth’s rotational
direction.
(D) have a varying orbital height.
(E) use terrain reading technology to
remain on station.
36. Rutherford’s results in his famous gold foil
experiment proved that atoms
(A) are mostly space.
(B) are in continuous motion.
(C) have negative orbitals.
(D) have diffuse charge distribution.
(E) have dense crystalline structure.
37. A hanging weight stretches a spring 8 cm.
If the weight is doubled and the spring
constant is not exceeded, how much will
the spring stretch?
(A) 4 cm
(B) 8 cm
(C) 12 cm
(D) 16 cm
(E) 20 cm
38. The volume of an ideal gas is reduced to
half its original volume. The density of the
gas
(A) remains the same.
(B) is halved.
(C) is doubled.
(D) is tripled.
(E) is quadrupled.
39. Refrigerators and freezers perform their
functions by
(A) converting hot air to cold air.
(B) keeping hot air out with cold air
pressure.
(C) removing heat from inside themselves.
(D) blowing cold inside them.
(E) producing cold air.
40. An empty soda can with a few ml of water
inside is heated to steaming and quickly
inverted into an ice water bath. The can is
instantly crushed because
(A) energy in the can is lost.
(B) water vapor condenses leaving a
vacuum, which sucks the can in.
(C) water vapor condenses and outside air
pressure crushes the can.
(D) the cold water shrinks the hot can.
(E) water pressure in the ice bath crushes.
the can
41. The first law of thermodynamics is a
restatement of
(A) Guy-Lassac’s Law.
(B) the principle of entropy.
(C) the principle of enthalpy.
(D) conservation of energy.
(E) Avogadro’s hypothesis.
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42. If 360 g of water at 95°C is mixed with 275
g of water at 10°C, what is the resulting
temperature of the water?
(A) 37°C
(B) 49°C
(C) 58°C
(D) 70°C
(E) 82°C
43. While anchored at sea, a captain notices the
wave peaks are separated by 16 m and
occur at a rate of 1 wave every 2 seconds.
What is the velocity of these waves?
(A) 4 m/s
(B) 8 m/s
(C) 16 m/s
(D) 32 m/s
(E) 64 m/s
44. Some opera singers are able to use their
voice to shatter a crystal glass. They can do
this because of
(A) acoustic reflection.
(B) multiple echoes.
(C) interference.
(D) resonance.
(E) beats.
Questions 45–47 refer to the waves shown
below. Each wave is moving in the direction
shown by the arrow.

Select the graph that answers the questions
below.
45. Which set of pulses will soon show con-
structive interference?
46. Which set of pulses has already been
through interference?
47. Which set of pulses will soon show destruc-
tive interference?
48. A rider on a subway train hears the engi-
neer blow the train whistle. A moment
later she hears an answering whistle from
an approaching train. Why does the
whistle she hears from the approaching
train change pitch?
(A) The frequency of the waves of the
approaching train’s whistle is decreas-
ing.
(B) The frequency of the waves of the
approaching train’s whistle is increas-
ing.
(C) The loudness of the waves of the
approaching train is decreasing.
(D) The loudness of the waves of the
approaching train is increasing.
(E) The echoes of the two trains’ whistles
are combining.
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49. Two charged objects are moved 50% closer
to one another. Which statement about the
electric force between the objects is true?
(A) The force between them doubles.
(B) The force between them halves.
(C) The force between them remains the
same.
(D) The force between them reverses.
(E) The force between them operates in
the same direction.
50. The distribution of the charge density on
the surface of a conducting solid depends
upon
(A) the density of the conductor.
(B) the shape of the conductor.
(C) the size of the conductor.
(D) the age of the conductor.
(E) the substance of the conductor.
51. A pair of point charges, which have charges
of –3 micro coulombs and –4 micro cou-
lombs, is separated by 2 cm. What is the
value of the force between them?
(A) 600N
(B) 300N
(C) 540N
(D) 270N
(E) 400N
52. At what point between a pair of charged
parallel plates will the electric field be
strongest?
(A) It is strongest between the plates.
(B) It is strongest near the positive plate.
(C) It is strongest near the negative plate.
(D) The field is constant between the
plates.
(E) The field is variable, therefore the
strong point also varies.
53. Which of the following best describes the
electric field about a positive point charge?
(A) The field strengthens as the distance
from the point charge increases.
(B) The field is a constant throughout
space.
(C) The field weakens as the distance
from the point change increases.
(D) The field is oriented toward the point
charge.
(E) The field cannot be determined.
54. A 6 volt battery is connected across a
resistor, and a current of 1.5 A flows in the
resistor. What is the value of the resistor?
(A) 2Ω
(B) 4Ω
(C) 6Ω
(D) 8Ω
(E) 10Ω
55. As a battery ages, its internal resistance
increases. This causes the current in the
external circuit to
(A) remain the same.
(B) polarize.
(C) reverse direction.
(D) increase.
(E) decrease.
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Questions 56–58 refer to the circuit below.
56. What is the resistance in the parallel circuit
above between points B and C?
(A) 2Ω
(B) 4Ω
(C) 6Ω
(D) 8Ω
(E) 10Ω
57. The current in the circuit is
(A) 1 A
(B) 2 A
(C) 3 A
(D) 9 A
(E) 18 A
58. What is the voltage change between point
B and point C?
(A) 1 V
(B) 2 V
(C) 3 V
(D) 9 V
(E) 18 V
59. A charged particle moving through a
magnetic field will experience the largest
force when
(A) moving with the field.
(B) moving against the field.
(C) moving at a 45° angle to the field.
(D) moving at a 90° angle to the field.
(E) the particle will not be affected.
60. Which of the following is caused com-
pletely or in some part by magnetic lines of
force?
(A) The picture on a computer screen
(B) Radio reception interference
(C) Aurora Borealis
(D) V.H.S. films
(E) All of these
61. Electrical energy is converted into mechani-
cal energy by which of the following?
(A) Magnet
(B) Transformer
(C) Motor
(D) Generator
(E) Battery
62. A transformer contains 4000 turns on its
primary side and 500 turns on the second-
ary side. If the input voltage is 240 V,
calculate the voltage output of the second-
ary side.
(A) 15 V
(B) 30 V
(C) 60 V
(D) 120 V
(E) 240 V
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63. While standing in front of a plane flat
mirror and looking at yourself, you raise
your right hand. Which is the best descrip-
tion of the image you see?
(A) Erect and enlarged
(B) Erect and reduced
(C) Erect and reversed
(D) Inverted and reversed
(E) Inverted and reduced
64. Which of the following occurs when light
passes into a clear glass cube?
(A) The light’s wavelength changes.
(B) The light’s frequency changes.
(C) The light’s speed changes.
(D) The light is polarized.
(E) Both A and C
65. A light ray is moving parallel to the princi-
pal axis of a concave mirror, which it
strikes. How will the light ray be reflected?
(A) Back upon itself
(B) Through the focal point
(C) Through the radius of curvature
(D) Through a point equal to
f
2
1
(E) Through a point equal to 2r
Questions 66 and 67 refer to the drawing below.
The drawing represents the results in a Young’s
double slit interference pattern experiment.
66. Which letter represents the wavelength of
the light?
67. Which letter represents the zeroth order
fringe?
68. What does the photoelectric effect demon-
strate?
(A) The particulate nature of light
(B) The wave nature of light
(C) The diffuse reflection of light
(D) The total internal reflection of light
(E) The polarization of light
69. An electric current is applied to a gas
discharge tube, causing it to glow. When the
discharge is viewed through a spectro-
scope, which type of spectrum is seen?
(A) Monochromatic
(B) Continuous
(C) Line absorption
(D) Line spectra
(E) Polarimeter
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70. Einstein based his theory of relativity on
the postulate that
(A) photoelectrons absorb and emit
photons.
(B) the velocity of light is the same for all
observers.
(C) mass and energy are intra-convertible.
(D) the universe is an entropic system.
(E) energy and momentum are conserved.
71. DeBroglie theorized that all moving objects
emit waves (matter waves) based on their
momentum
h
mv
æ ö
ç ÷
è ø
. Accordingly, as your
team’s defensive end, it is your job to stop
the other team’s 250 pound fullback. If you
could hear the fullback’s matter waves and
you listened as the opposing fullback
received the ball and accelerated toward
you, what sound would you hear?
(A) An increase in loudness and an in-
crease in frequency
(B) An increase in loudness and a decrease
in frequency
(C) A decreasing loudness and an increas-
ing frequency
(D) A decreasing loudness and a decreas-
ing frequency
(E) Just a loud thump! thump! thump!
72. An atom that has lost an electron is consid-
ered to be a(n)
(A) positron.
(B) negatron.
(C) baryon.
(D) hadron.
(E) ion.
73. What is the major product of the fission
reaction of 235 U? The basic fission reac-
tion is
235
92
1
0
141
56
3
1
0
U p Ba p = + + ?
(A) Protons
(B) Neutrons
(C) Radiation
(D) Heat
(E) Light
74. A radioactive isotope of iodine has a half-
life of 8 hours and causes a counter to
register 180 counts/min. Find the count
rate for this sample of iodine two days
later.
(A) 1.4/min
(B) 2.8/min
(C) 5.6/min
(D) 11.2/min
(E) 22.4/min
75. The three natural radiations, in order from
most penetrating to least penetrating, are
(A) alpha, beta, and gamma.
(B) beta, gamma, and alpha.
(C) gamma, alpha, and beta.
(D) gamma, beta, and alpha.
(E) beta, alpha, and gamma.
STOP STOP STOP STOP STOP
IF IF IF IF IF Y YY YYOU FINISH BEFORE OU FINISH BEFORE OU FINISH BEFORE OU FINISH BEFORE OU FINISH BEFORE THE THE THE THE THE TEST SESSION ENDS, TEST SESSION ENDS, TEST SESSION ENDS, TEST SESSION ENDS, TEST SESSION ENDS, Y YY YYOU MA OU MA OU MA OU MA OU MAY REVIEW Y REVIEW Y REVIEW Y REVIEW Y REVIEW Y YY YYOUR OUR OUR OUR OUR W WW WWORK ON ORK ON ORK ON ORK ON ORK ON THIS THIS THIS THIS THIS TEST TEST TEST TEST TEST
ONL ONL ONL ONL ONLY YY YY. .. .. Y YY YYOU MA OU MA OU MA OU MA OU MAY NO Y NO Y NO Y NO Y NOT T T T T TURN TURN TURN TURN TURN T TT TTO O O O O ANY O ANY O ANY O ANY O ANY OTHER THER THER THER THER TEST IN TEST IN TEST IN TEST IN TEST IN THIS BOOK. THIS BOOK. THIS BOOK. THIS BOOK. THIS BOOK.
PHYSICS TEST
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ANSWER SHEET
Leave any unused
answer spaces blank.
Test Code
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22 O
A
O
B
OC O
D
O
E
23 O
A
O
B
OC O
D
O
E
24 O
A
O
B
OC O
D
O
E
25 O
A
O
B
OC O
D
O
E
26 O
A
O
B
OC O
D
O
E
27 O
A
O
B
OC O
D
O
E
28 O
A
O
B
OC O
D
O
E
29 O
A
O
B
OC O
D
O
E
30 O
A
O
B
OC O
D
O
E
31 O
A
O
B
OC O
D
O
E
32 O
A
O
B
OC O
D
O
E
33 O
A
O
B
OC O
D
O
E
34 O
A
O
B
OC O
D
O
E
35 O
A
O
B
OC O
D
O
E
36 O
A
O
B
OC O
D
O
E
37 O
A
O
B
OC O
D
O
E
38 O
A
O
B
OC O
D
O
E
39 O
A
O
B
OC O
D
O
E
40 O
A
O
B
OC O
D
O
E
41 O
A
O
B
OC O
D
O
E
42 O
A
O
B
OC O
D
O
E
43 O
A
O
B
OC O
D
O
E
44 O
A
O
B
OC O
D
O
E
45 O
A
O
B
OC O
D
O
E
46 O
A
O
B
OC O
D
O
E
47 O
A
O
B
OC O
D
O
E
48 O
A
O
B
OC O
D
O
E
49 O
A
O
B
OC O
D
O
E
50 O
A
O
B
OC O
D
O
E
51 O
A
O
B
OC O
D
O
E
52 O
A
O
B
OC O
D
O
E
53 O
A
O
B
OC O
D
O
E
54 O
A
O
B
OC O
D
O
E
55 O
A
O
B
OC O
D
O
E
56 O
A
O
B
OC O
D
O
E
57 O
A
O
B
OC O
D
O
E
58 O
A
O
B
OC O
D
O
E
59 O
A
O
B
OC O
D
O
E
60 O
A
O
B
OC O
D
O
E
61 O
A
O
B
OC O
D
O
E
62 O
A
O
B
OC O
D
O
E
63 O
A
O
B
OC O
D
O
E
64 O
A
O
B
OC O
D
O
E
65 O
A
O
B
OC O
D
O
E
66 O
A
O
B
OC O
D
O
E
67 O
A
O
B
OC O
D
O
E
68 O
A
O
B
OC O
D
O
E
69 O
A
O
B
OC O
D
O
E
70 O
A
O
B
OC O
D
O
E
71 O
A
O
B
OC O
D
O
E
72 O
A
O
B
OC O
D
O
E
73 O
A
O
B
OC O
D
O
E
74 O
A
O
B
OC O
D
O
E
75 O
A
O
B
OC O
D
O
E
76 O
A
O
B
OC O
D
O
E
77 O
A
O
B
OC O
D
O
E
78 O
A
O
B
OC O
D
O
E
79 O
A
O
B
OC O
D
O
E
80 O
A
O
B
OC O
D
O
E
81 O
A
O
B
OC O
D
O
E
82 O
A
O
B
OC O
D
O
E
83 O
A
O
B
OC O
D
O
E
84 O
A
O
B
OC O
D
O
E
85 O
A
O
B
OC O
D
O
E
86 O
A
O
B
OC O
D
O
E
87 O
A
O
B
OC O
D
O
E
88 O
A
O
B
OC O
D
O
E
89 O
A
O
B
OC O
D
O
E
90 O
A
O
B
OC O
D
O
E
91 O
A
O
B
OC O
D
O
E
92 O
A
O
B
OC O
D
O
E
93 O
A
O
B
OC O
D
O
E
94 O
A
O
B
OC O
D
O
E
95 O
A
O
B
OC O
D
O
E
96 O
A
O
B
OC O
D
O
E
97 O
A
O
B
OC O
D
O
E
98 O
A
O
B
OC O
D
O
E
99 O
A
O
B
OC O
D
O
E
100 O
A
O
B
OC O
D
O
E
Diagnostic T Diagnostic T
Diagnostic T Diagnostic T Diagnostic Test est
est est est
ANSWERS ANSWERS ANSWERS ANSWERS ANSWERS AND EXPLAN AND EXPLAN AND EXPLAN AND EXPLAN AND EXPLANA AA AATIONS TIONS TIONS TIONS TIONS
Peterson’s: www.petersons.com 33
DIAGNOSTIC TEST: ANSWERS AND EXPLANATIONS
Quic Quic Quic Quic Quick-Scor k-Scor k-Scor k-Scor k-Score e e e e Ans Ans Ans Ans Answ ww wwer er er er ers ss ss
1. C
2. B
3. E
4. B
5. B
6. E
7. B
8. E
9. A
10. A
11. C
12. D
13. C
14. B
15. C
16. D
17. B
18. C
19. D
20. E
21. E
22. D
23. D
24. C
25. B
26. C
27. C
28. C
29. C
30. A
31. B
32. A
33. D
34. D
35. A
36. A
37. D
38. C
39. C
40. C
41. D
42. C
43. B
44. D
45. D
46. A
47. E
48. B
49. E
50. B
51. D
52. D
53. C
54. B
55. E
56. A
57. A
58. B
59. D
60. E
61. C
62. B
63. C
64. E
65. B
66. D
67. B
68. A
69. D
70. B
71. A
72. E
73. D
74. B
75. D
Peterson’s SAT II Success: Physics 34
DIAGNOSTIC TEST
ANSWERS ANSWERS ANSWERS ANSWERS ANSWERS AND EXPLAN AND EXPLAN AND EXPLAN AND EXPLAN AND EXPLANA AA AATIONS TIONS TIONS TIONS TIONS
ANSWERS TO PART A
QUESTIONS 1-12
1. 1. 1. 1. 1. The cor The cor The cor The cor The corr rr rrect ans ect ans ect ans ect ans ect answ ww wwer is (C). er is (C). er is (C). er is (C). er is (C). The solution to the problem is found
by ∆E = E
3
– E
2
. The calculation yields +1.89 eV. The positive sign
tells us the electron releases energy as it falls to a lower energy
level.
2. 2. 2. 2. 2. The cor The cor The cor The cor The corr rr rrect ans ect ans ect ans ect ans ect answ ww wwer is (B). er is (B). er is (B). er is (B). er is (B). The solution is found again by using
Bohr’s equation, ∆E = E
3
– E
5
. The calculation yields –.966 eV.
The negative sign tells us the electron absorbs energy as it moves
further from the nucleus.
3. 3. 3. 3. 3. The cor The cor The cor The cor The corr rr rrect ans ect ans ect ans ect ans ect answ ww wwer is (E) er is (E) er is (E) er is (E) er is (E). Also using Bohr’s equation we have
∆E = E
3
– E
1
. The answer is +12.09 eV, therefore the electron
releases energy.
4. 4. 4. 4. 4. The cor The cor The cor The cor The corr rr rrect ans ect ans ect ans ect ans ect answ ww wwer is (B) er is (B) er is (B) er is (B) er is (B). The period of the pendulum is
T 2π

g
. We can see from the equation that the shorter the
length of the pendulum, the shorter is the period of the pendu-
lum.
5. 5. 5. 5. 5. The cor The cor The cor The cor The corr rr rrect ans ect ans ect ans ect ans ect answ ww wwer is (B). er is (B). er is (B). er is (B). er is (B). The frequency is the inverse of the
period. Lengthening the pendulum increases the length of the
period, which means the frequency decreases.
6. 6. 6. 6. 6. The cor The cor The cor The cor The corr rr rrect ans ect ans ect ans ect ans ect answ ww wwer is (E). er is (E). er is (E). er is (E). er is (E). An increase in the displacement of
the pendulum raises the pendulum bob to a greater height, which
gives it more potential energy. When the bob passes through the
zero point, the potential energy will be transformed into greater
kinetic energy, which means a greater velocity.
7. 7. 7. 7. 7. The cor The cor The cor The cor The corr rr rrect ans ect ans ect ans ect ans ect answ ww wwer is (B). er is (B). er is (B). er is (B). er is (B). When you set the problem into the x,
y coordinate system, the negative y axis is the westward direc-
tion. Any vector in the western direction is negative.
Peterson’s: www.petersons.com 35
DIAGNOSTIC TEST: ANSWERS AND EXPLANATIONS
8. 8. 8. 8. 8. The cor The cor The cor The cor The corr rr rrect ans ect ans ect ans ect ans ect answ ww wwer is (E). er is (E). er is (E). er is (E). er is (E). The resultant vector is the distance
the dog is from home. The opposite of the resultant vector is the
equilibrant vector.
9. 9. 9. 9. 9. The cor The cor The cor The cor The corr rr rrect ans ect ans ect ans ect ans ect answ ww wwer is (A). er is (A). er is (A). er is (A). er is (A). The numerical value is the magnitude
of the vector. The one with the largest numerical value is the
longest vector.
10. 10. 10. 10. 10. The cor The cor The cor The cor The corr rr rrect ans ect ans ect ans ect ans ect answ ww wwer is (A) er is (A) er is (A) er is (A) er is (A). The definition of the frequency of a
wave is correctly stated in A
11. 11. 11. 11. 11. The cor The cor The cor The cor The corr rr rrect ans ect ans ect ans ect ans ect answ ww wwer is (C). er is (C). er is (C). er is (C). er is (C). This is the correct definition for
wavelength.
12. 12. 12. 12. 12. The cor The cor The cor The cor The corr rr rrect ans ect ans ect ans ect ans ect answ ww wwer is (D) er is (D) er is (D) er is (D) er is (D). The product of the frequency and
the wavelength can be obtained by the dimensional analysis.
V f λ , which yields
V
m m

¸
¸

_
,

¸
¸

_
,

wave
wave
sec s
, a velocity unit.
ANSWERS TO PART B
QUESTIONS 13-75
13. 13. 13. 13. 13. The cor The cor The cor The cor The corr rr rrect ans ect ans ect ans ect ans ect answ ww wwer is (C). er is (C). er is (C). er is (C). er is (C). The coefficient of friction remains
the same so the frictional force doubles, but the net force also
doubles. Thus the crate is brought to a stop in the same distance.
14. 14. 14. 14. 14. The cor The cor The cor The cor The corr rr rrect ans ect ans ect ans ect ans ect answ ww wwer is (B). er is (B). er is (B). er is (B). er is (B). The acceleration of the skydivers
continues to decrease until the terminal velocity of the group is
reached. When the air resistance reaches the point where it
exactly balances the force exerted on the divers by the earth’s
gravitational attraction, their acceleration becomes zero.
15. 15. 15. 15. 15. The cor The cor The cor The cor The corr rr rrect ans ect ans ect ans ect ans ect answ ww wwer is (C). er is (C). er is (C). er is (C). er is (C). The contact between the golf club
and the ball constitutes an equal and opposite force pair.
Peterson’s SAT II Success: Physics 36
DIAGNOSTIC TEST
16. 16. 16. 16. 16. The cor The cor The cor The cor The corr rr rrect ans ect ans ect ans ect ans ect answ ww wwer is (D). er is (D). er is (D). er is (D). er is (D). The woman pushing on the ground
is one part of a force pair. The second part of the pair is the
ground pushing on the woman. The force the woman exerts
cannot move the ground, but the force the ground exerts does
move the woman.
17. 17. 17. 17. 17. The cor The cor The cor The cor The corr rr rrect ans ect ans ect ans ect ans ect answ ww wwer is (B). er is (B). er is (B). er is (B). er is (B). The tension in a rope is the same
throughout. Both teams must pull with a force of 1200N to
maintain static equilibrium, so the total tension is 2400N.
18. 18. 18. 18. 18. The cor The cor The cor The cor The corr rr rrect ans ect ans ect ans ect ans ect answ ww wwer is (C). er is (C). er is (C). er is (C). er is (C). The momentum of the pitched ball is
changed by the impulse Ft. The catcher reduces the magnitude
of the force on his hand by increasing the time required to
change the momentum of the ball.
19. 19. 19. 19. 19. The cor The cor The cor The cor The corr rr rrect ans ect ans ect ans ect ans ect answ ww wwer is (D). er is (D). er is (D). er is (D). er is (D). This is a conservation of momentum
question. Since the momentum before an event must equal
the momentum after an event, the momentum must be
12,500 kg • m/s.
20. 20. 20. 20. 20. The cor The cor The cor The cor The corr rr rrect ans ect ans ect ans ect ans ect answ ww wwer is (E). er is (E). er is (E). er is (E). er is (E). Use conservation of momentum for
the problem.
P
before
= P
after
which is (mV
f
+ mV
p
)
before
= (m
f
+ m
p
)V
after
.
The pigeon has no downward velocity before the collision,
leading to:
(m
f
V
f
)
before
= (m
f
+ m
p
) V
after
Rearrange, substitute, and solve:

m V
m m
V
g m s
g g
f f
f p
+


+

750 35
750 400
22 8
/
. m/s.
21. 21. 21. 21. 21. The cor The cor The cor The cor The corr rr rrect ans ect ans ect ans ect ans ect answ ww wwer is (E). er is (E). er is (E). er is (E). er is (E). The father holds the child at the same
distance from the ground. If there is displacement, there is no
work done.
Peterson’s: www.petersons.com 37
DIAGNOSTIC TEST: ANSWERS AND EXPLANATIONS
22. 22. 22. 22. 22. The cor The cor The cor The cor The corr rr rrect ans ect ans ect ans ect ans ect answ ww wwer is (D). er is (D). er is (D). er is (D). er is (D). The larger amount of padding in the
amateur gloves causes the time of impact to be increased, which
results in less force being exerted.
23. 23. 23. 23. 23. The cor The cor The cor The cor The corr rr rrect ans ect ans ect ans ect ans ect answ ww wwer is (D). er is (D). er is (D). er is (D). er is (D). The same car traveling at twice the
velocity has four times the energy. Constant frictional force from
the tires will therefore require four times the stopping distance.
The car moving at the lower rate only requires
1
4
the stopping
distance.
24. 24. 24. 24. 24. The cor The cor The cor The cor The corr rr rrect ans ect ans ect ans ect ans ect answ ww wwer is (C). er is (C). er is (C). er is (C). er is (C). This is a work-energy problem.
PE = Work → mgh = F•D.
Rearrange, substitute, and solve (remember m • g = wt):
mgh
D
N ∴

F
N m
m
19 6 2
0245
1600
.
.
25. 25. 25. 25. 25. The cor The cor The cor The cor The corr rr rrect ans ect ans ect ans ect ans ect answ ww wwer is (B). er is (B). er is (B). er is (B). er is (B). The velocity of the pile driver at the
time it first contacts the head of the nail is V
f
2
= 2gs. Since, by
conservation of energy,
1
2
2
mVp mgd .
V is also the original
velocity as the nail is driven into the wood for a distance of
.0245m.
Stating the equations:

and
but
an
V gd
V ad
V V
f
f
2
0
2
2
0
2
2
2

dd
m/s m
2 .0245m
m/s
2
2 9 8 2
800
2
• •
• −

.
26. 26. 26. 26. 26. The cor The cor The cor The cor The corr rr rrect ans ect ans ect ans ect ans ect answ ww wwer is (C). er is (C). er is (C). er is (C). er is (C). All the gravitational potential energy
at the top of the child’s swing pathway is converted into kinetic
energy at the bottom of her swing pathway.
27. 27. 27. 27. 27. The cor The cor The cor The cor The corr rr rrect ans ect ans ect ans ect ans ect answ ww wwer is (C). er is (C). er is (C). er is (C). er is (C). The wheel is moving at a constant
rate (angular velocity). There is no angular acceleration because
∆ωis zero.
Peterson’s SAT II Success: Physics 38
DIAGNOSTIC TEST
28. 28. 28. 28. 28. The cor The cor The cor The cor The corr rr rrect ans ect ans ect ans ect ans ect answ ww wwer is (C). er is (C). er is (C). er is (C). er is (C). The diver needs to complete the
rotations as quickly as possible. The tuck position reduces the
moment of inertia of the diver’s body, allowing the diver to spin
at a higher rate.
29. 29. 29. 29. 29. The cor The cor The cor The cor The corr rr rrect ans ect ans ect ans ect ans ect answ ww wwer is (C). er is (C). er is (C). er is (C). er is (C). Regardless of where on the merry-
go-round you are located during the ride, your angular displace-
ment is the same for the whole ride.
30. 30. 30. 30. 30. The cor The cor The cor The cor The corr rr rrect ans ect ans ect ans ect ans ect answ ww wwer is (A). er is (A). er is (A). er is (A). er is (A). The central axis would have a gravita-
tional force of zero because there is no radial distance to provide
a centripetal acceleration or centripetal force.
31. 31. 31. 31. 31. The cor The cor The cor The cor The corr rr rrect ans ect ans ect ans ect ans ect answ ww wwer is (B). er is (B). er is (B). er is (B). er is (B). Although the person has moved
further from the center of the earth, that person now has the
additional mass of Mt. Everest under him.
32. 32. 32. 32. 32. The cor The cor The cor The cor The corr rr rrect ans ect ans ect ans ect ans ect answ ww wwer is (A). er is (A). er is (A). er is (A). er is (A). Since F G
m m
r


1 2
2
, the person will
be weightless at the center of the earth because r = 0, and all the
mass of the earth is attracting the person from outside the center.
33. 33. 33. 33. 33. The cor The cor The cor The cor The corr rr rrect ans ect ans ect ans ect ans ect answ ww wwer is (D). er is (D). er is (D). er is (D). er is (D). The apparent weight is zero. The
person is in free fall. No forces are acting on the person except
gravity.
34. 34. 34. 34. 34. The cor The cor The cor The cor The corr rr rrect ans ect ans ect ans ect ans ect answ ww wwer is (D). er is (D). er is (D). er is (D). er is (D). The centripetal force required to
keep a satellite in orbit remains constant. That means the closer
to earth a satellite is, the faster it must travel in its orbit
F
mV
r
c

2
. .. .. The farther the satellite is located from the earth, the
slower it travels in orbit.
35. 35. 35. 35. 35. The cor The cor The cor The cor The corr rr rrect ans ect ans ect ans ect ans ect answ ww wwer is (A). er is (A). er is (A). er is (A). er is (A). The geosynchronous satellite circles
the earth at the same rate as the earth turns beneath it. Thus the
satellite stays in the same position relative the earth.
36. 36. 36. 36. 36. The cor The cor The cor The cor The corr rr rrect ans ect ans ect ans ect ans ect answ ww wwer is (A). er is (A). er is (A). er is (A). er is (A). Most of the alpha particles passed
through the gold foil, leading Rutherford to conclude that atoms
were composed mostly of space with a dense core.
Peterson’s: www.petersons.com 39
DIAGNOSTIC TEST: ANSWERS AND EXPLANATIONS
37. 37. 37. 37. 37. The cor The cor The cor The cor The corr rr rrect ans ect ans ect ans ect ans ect answ ww wwer is (D). er is (D). er is (D). er is (D). er is (D). Based on Hooke’s Law, F = kx
where F is mg and x is the elongation. Solving for
x
mg
k
,
so if m
is doubled, x is doubled as well. .. ..
38. 38. 38. 38. 38. The cor The cor The cor The cor The corr rr rrect ans ect ans ect ans ect ans ect answ ww wwer is (C). er is (C). er is (C). er is (C). er is (C). The same number of gas particles
now occupies half the volume. The formula for density is
d
m
v

where mass can be restated as the mass of the gas = (mol. Mass)
(Avogadro’s Number). Thus the mass is directly related to the
number of particles in the space. More particles in less space
yield greater density.
39. 39. 39. 39. 39. The cor The cor The cor The cor The corr rr rrect ans ect ans ect ans ect ans ect answ ww wwer is (C). er is (C). er is (C). er is (C). er is (C). Refrigerators and freezers operate in
a reversed direction from a heat engine. Instead of using a hot
source to produce work, work is done on a warm source and
heat is removed, producing the cooling effect.
40. 40. 40. 40. 40. The cor The cor The cor The cor The corr rr rrect ans ect ans ect ans ect ans ect answ ww wwer is (C). er is (C). er is (C). er is (C). er is (C). The water vapor in the can is hot
and at atmospheric pressure. Cooling the can quickly condenses
the water vapor, which also reduces the pressure inside the can.
The outside atmospheric pressure is greater, thus crushing the
can.
41. 41. 41. 41. 41. The cor The cor The cor The cor The corr rr rrect ans ect ans ect ans ect ans ect answ ww wwer is (D). er is (D). er is (D). er is (D). er is (D). The first law of thermodynamics can
be stated as:
the heat added
to a system
the work done
by the system

¸

1
]
1


¸

1
]
1


¸

1
]
1

the increase in
system energy
or
Q W U ∆ ∆ ∆
Peterson’s SAT II Success: Physics 40
DIAGNOSTIC TEST
42. 42. 42. 42. 42. The cor The cor The cor The cor The corr rr rrect ans ect ans ect ans ect ans ect answ ww wwer is (C). er is (C). er is (C). er is (C). er is (C). This is a calorimetric problem. Since
the ratio of C° to K is 1 to 1, we will not change temperature
scales.
Our working equation is Cm Cm
1 2
0 ∆ Τ ∆ Τ
hot cold
+
Cm t t Cm t t
C s m t t m
f hot f cold
f
1 0 2 0
0
0 ( ) ( )
’ ( )
− + −
− + factor out the (( )
( ) ( )
t t
g t C g t C
gt gC
f o
f f
f

− ° + − °
− ° +
0
360 95 275 10 0
360 34200 275ggt gC
gt gC
t
gC
g
C
f
f
f
− °
− °

°
°
2750 0
635 36950 0
36950
635
58
43. 43. 43. 43. 43. The cor The cor The cor The cor The corr rr rrect ans ect ans ect ans ect ans ect answ ww wwer is (B). er is (B). er is (B). er is (B). er is (B). The velocity of a wave is v f • λ . .. ..
Substitute into the equation and solve.
v f •

¸
¸

_
,

¸
¸

_
,

λ
16 5
meters
wave
waves
second
8
meters
second
.
44. 44. 44. 44. 44. The cor The cor The cor The cor The corr rr rrect ans ect ans ect ans ect ans ect answ ww wwer is (D). er is (D). er is (D). er is (D). er is (D). If the input frequency of a wave
system is equal to its vibrating frequency, the resonant system
acts to amplify the waves, thus transferring their energy into the
delicate crystal and breaking it.
45. 45. 45. 45. 45. The cor The cor The cor The cor The corr rr rrect ans ect ans ect ans ect ans ect answ ww wwer is (D). er is (D). er is (D). er is (D). er is (D). When the two impulses are located
at the same point they will algebraically add the two positive
peaks, yielding a larger wave, which is equal to both of their
magnitudes.
46. 46. 46. 46. 46. The cor The cor The cor The cor The corr rr rrect ans ect ans ect ans ect ans ect answ ww wwer is (A). er is (A). er is (A). er is (A). er is (A). The two waves are moving away
from one another.
47. 47. 47. 47. 47. The cor The cor The cor The cor The corr rr rrect ans ect ans ect ans ect ans ect answ ww wwer is (E). er is (E). er is (E). er is (E). er is (E). When the two pulses are located at
the same point they will algebraically add the positive peak to
the negative peak yielding no wave or disturbance. They have
destroyed one another at that spot.
Peterson’s: www.petersons.com 41
DIAGNOSTIC TEST: ANSWERS AND EXPLANATIONS
48. 48. 48. 48. 48. The cor The cor The cor The cor The corr rr rrect ans ect ans ect ans ect ans ect answ ww wwer is (B). er is (B). er is (B). er is (B). er is (B). The sound waves from the approach-
ing whistle strike the listener’s ears at an increasing rate, produc-
ing the increasing pitch.
49. 49. 49. 49. 49. The cor The cor The cor The cor The corr rr rrect ans ect ans ect ans ect ans ect answ ww wwer is (E). er is (E). er is (E). er is (E). er is (E). The charge on the two does not
change, so the force between them MUST operate in the same
direction. The magnitude of the force increases by 4.
50. 50. 50. 50. 50. The cor The cor The cor The cor The corr rr rrect ans ect ans ect ans ect ans ect answ ww wwer is (B). er is (B). er is (B). er is (B). er is (B). Charge will distribute itself equally
over the surface of a body because of the repulsion the electrons
have for one another.
51. 51. 51. 51. 51. The cor The cor The cor The cor The corr rr rrect ans ect ans ect ans ect ans ect answ ww wwer is (D). er is (D). er is (D). er is (D). er is (D). Coulombs Law is
F k
q q
r

1 2
2
.
The solution is F
m
C
f f
m

×
¸
¸

_
,

− × − ×

− −
9 10
3 10 4 10
02
270
9
2
2
6 6
2
N
N
( )( )
(. )
52. 52. 52. 52. 52. The cor The cor The cor The cor The corr rr rrect ans ect ans ect ans ect ans ect answ ww wwer is (D). er is (D). er is (D). er is (D). er is (D). The electric field between two
parallel plates is constant throughout. The value of the field is
defined as
E
F
q

where E is the electric field, F is force, and q is
charge.
53. 53. 53. 53. 53. The cor The cor The cor The cor The corr rr rrect ans ect ans ect ans ect ans ect answ ww wwer is (C). er is (C). er is (C). er is (C). er is (C). The value of the electric field about a
point source is E k
q
r

2
. The distance from the point in question
determines the strength of the electric field in this case.
54. 54. 54. 54. 54. The cor The cor The cor The cor The corr rr rrect ans ect ans ect ans ect ans ect answ ww wwer is (B). er is (B). er is (B). er is (B). er is (B). This is a problem that requires an
Ohm’s Law calculation to find resistance. Rearrange the equation
to find resistance.
V IR
R
V
I
V
A

6
1 5
4
.

Peterson’s SAT II Success: Physics 42
DIAGNOSTIC TEST
55. 55. 55. 55. 55. The cor The cor The cor The cor The corr rr rrect ans ect ans ect ans ect ans ect answ ww wwer is (E). er is (E). er is (E). er is (E). er is (E). The higher internal resistance in the
battery leads to a reduction in the terminal potential of the
battery. The lower terminal potential can produce less current in
the circuit.
56. 56. 56. 56. 56. The cor The cor The cor The cor The corr rr rrect ans ect ans ect ans ect ans ect answ ww wwer is (A). er is (A). er is (A). er is (A). er is (A). The total resistance is found by using
the reciprocal method.
R
R R
t

+

+

1
1 1
1
1
3
1
6
1
1
2
2
1 2
Ω Ω

57. 57. 57. 57. 57. The cor The cor The cor The cor The corr rr rrect ans ect ans ect ans ect ans ect answ ww wwer is (A). er is (A). er is (A). er is (A). er is (A). V = IR, rearrange and
I
V
R
t

I
V V
A
+ +

6
2 2 2
6
6
1
Ω Ω Ω Ω
58. 58. 58. 58. 58. The cor The cor The cor The cor The corr rr rrect ans ect ans ect ans ect ans ect answ ww wwer is (B). er is (B). er is (B). er is (B). er is (B). Use Ohm’s Law to solve the problem.
V IR
A V

( )( ) 1 2 2 Ω
59. 59. 59. 59. 59. The cor The cor The cor The cor The corr rr rrect ans ect ans ect ans ect ans ect answ ww wwer is (D). er is (D). er is (D). er is (D). er is (D). The more magnetic field lines a
charged particle crosses, the stronger the force exerted on the
particle. Moving through the magnetic field in a perpendicular
path (90°) will cause the particle to cross the most field lines.
60. 60. 60. 60. 60. The cor The cor The cor The cor The corr rr rrect ans ect ans ect ans ect ans ect answ ww wwer is (E). er is (E). er is (E). er is (E). er is (E). Your computer picture is caused by
manipulating a magnetic yoke to produce a picture. The interfer-
ence with radio is caused by magnetic lines and radio waves
interacting. VHS films are produced by magnetic pulses, and the
Aurora Borealis is the visual show produced when cosmic par-
ticles enter the earth’s magnetic field.
61. 61. 61. 61. 61. The cor The cor The cor The cor The corr rr rrect ans ect ans ect ans ect ans ect answ ww wwer is (C). er is (C). er is (C). er is (C). er is (C). Motors are used in a variety of
mechanical devices such as saws, sanders, drills, and pumps. The
electric energy is converted to mechanical energy by the rotation
of a loop of wire in a magnetic field.
Peterson’s: www.petersons.com 43
DIAGNOSTIC TEST: ANSWERS AND EXPLANATIONS
62. 62. 62. 62. 62. The cor The cor The cor The cor The corr rr rrect ans ect ans ect ans ect ans ect answ ww wwer is (B). er is (B). er is (B). er is (B). er is (B). The transformer equation is
V
V
V
V
p
s
s
p

# of primary turns
#of secondary turns
#of seco ( )( nndary turns)
# of primary turns
turns)
t
V
V
s

( )( 240 500
4000 uurns
30V
63. 63. 63. 63. 63. The cor The cor The cor The cor The corr rr rrect ans ect ans ect ans ect ans ect answ ww wwer is (C). er is (C). er is (C). er is (C). er is (C). Your image is standing upright. Your
feet and the image of your feet are down, and your head and the
image of your head are up. When you raise your right hand, the
left hand of the image is raised. This is a reversal of left and right.
64. 64. 64. 64. 64. The cor The cor The cor The cor The corr rr rrect ans ect ans ect ans ect ans ect answ ww wwer is (E). er is (E). er is (E). er is (E). er is (E). Light slows down when it enters a
material that is more optically dense. Since the velocity is related
to both the frequency and the wavelength by V f λ it follows
that one of these quantities will change, too. Since the distance
between the waves changes at the optical boundary, the wave-
length also changes. The frequency remains unchanged.
65. 65. 65. 65. 65. The cor The cor The cor The cor The corr rr rrect ans ect ans ect ans ect ans ect answ ww wwer is (B) er is (B) er is (B) er is (B) er is (B). A ray parallel to the central radius is
reflected through the focal point.
66. 66. 66. 66. 66. The cor The cor The cor The cor The corr rr rrect ans ect ans ect ans ect ans ect answ ww wwer is (D). er is (D). er is (D). er is (D). er is (D). The relative retardation of the light
wave (the letter D in the diagram) is also its wavelength. The
bright spots produced on the screen represent n = 1,2,3, etc.,
whole number values of wavelengths.
67. 67. 67. 67. 67. The cor The cor The cor The cor The corr rr rrect ans ect ans ect ans ect ans ect answ ww wwer is (B). er is (B). er is (B). er is (B). er is (B). The zeroth fringe is the central bright
spot where both waves from the two slits have traveled the same
distance.
68. 68. 68. 68. 68. The cor The cor The cor The cor The corr rr rrect ans ect ans ect ans ect ans ect answ ww wwer is (A). er is (A). er is (A). er is (A). er is (A). The wave nature of light does not
satisfactorily explain why low frequency light cannot energize
electrons from the surface of metals, which high frequency light
does. The intensity of the light doesn’t matter. This is explained
by the particle theory in which photons carry energy, which is
transferred to electrons in the metal.
Peterson’s SAT II Success: Physics 44
DIAGNOSTIC TEST
69. 69. 69. 69. 69. The cor The cor The cor The cor The corr rr rrect ans ect ans ect ans ect ans ect answ ww wwer is (D). er is (D). er is (D). er is (D). er is (D). The energized atoms of the gas emit
energy in specific regions of the visible spectrum called line
spectra.
70. 70. 70. 70. 70. The cor The cor The cor The cor The corr rr rrect ans ect ans ect ans ect ans ect answ ww wwer is (B). er is (B). er is (B). er is (B). er is (B). One of two postulates of Einstein’s
theory of special relativity is that the speed of light in a vacuum is
the same for all observers.
71. 71. 71. 71. 71. The cor The cor The cor The cor The corr rr rrect ans ect ans ect ans ect ans ect answ ww wwer is (A). er is (A). er is (A). er is (A). er is (A). A combination of Doppler effect and
matter waves. The waves being emitted by the moving fullback
reach you at a rate greater than they are produced. Additionally
the approaching fullback is getting louder, too.
72. 72. 72. 72. 72. The cor The cor The cor The cor The corr rr rrect ans ect ans ect ans ect ans ect answ ww wwer is (E). er is (E). er is (E). er is (E). er is (E). All charged particles are called ions.
73. 73. 73. 73. 73. The cor The cor The cor The cor The corr rr rrect ans ect ans ect ans ect ans ect answ ww wwer is (D). er is (D). er is (D). er is (D). er is (D). The reactors produce heat, which in
turn changes water to steam, which is used to turn the turbines
to generate electricity.
74. 74. 74. 74. 74. The cor The cor The cor The cor The corr rr rrect ans ect ans ect ans ect ans ect answ ww wwer is (B). er is (B). er is (B). er is (B). er is (B). Half-life means that half of the
substance decays away during that time. Over 48 hours there are
6 half-lives.
48 hours
8 hours
halflife
6 half lives
counts/m

¸
¸

_
,

1
2
180
6
( iin) 2.8 counts/min
75. 75. 75. 75. 75. The cor The cor The cor The cor The corr rr rrect ans ect ans ect ans ect ans ect answ ww wwer is (D). er is (D). er is (D). er is (D). er is (D). The penetrating capability of radia-
tion is based upon its energy. Gamma radiation is most energetic
followed by beta then alpha.
Chapter 1
PRELIMIN PRELIMIN PRELIMIN PRELIMIN PRELIMINAR AR AR AR ARY CONCEPTS Y CONCEPTS Y CONCEPTS Y CONCEPTS Y CONCEPTS
Peterson’s: www.petersons.com 47
CHAPTER 1
PRELIMIN PRELIMIN PRELIMIN PRELIMIN PRELIMINAR AR AR AR ARY CONCEPTS Y CONCEPTS Y CONCEPTS Y CONCEPTS Y CONCEPTS
SIMPLE EQUA SIMPLE EQUA SIMPLE EQUA SIMPLE EQUA SIMPLE EQUATIONS AND ALGEBRA TIONS AND ALGEBRA TIONS AND ALGEBRA TIONS AND ALGEBRA TIONS AND ALGEBRA
Physics is the branch of science that studies physical phenomena.
Why does the sound of a starter’s pistol reach an observer standing at
the race finish line after the puff of smoke is seen when the gun is
fired? Why do some objects float in water, while other objects sink?
What causes a ball to roll downhill?
These questions and more are the stuff of physics. Sometimes the
study of physical phenomena involves observation, experimentation,
and calculation. The calculations used in this review are accomplished
by using a little algebra, a little geometry, and a little trigonometry.
Many relationships in physics can be expressed as equations. For
example:
F = ma
s = vt
Sometimes the value to be found is not by itself (isolated) in the
equation. Take, for example, the linear motion equation:
V
f

2
= V
0

2
+ 2as
Let’s suppose the acceleration a is the only unknown quantity in
the equation. We must perform a little algebraic manipulation to
isolate a so that it is the only quantity on its side of the equal sign.
Before starting the process, remember one simple rule: whatever
operation you perform on one side of the equal sign, you must also
perform on the other side of the equal sign.
Let’s begin by isolating a in the equation below:
V
f

2
= V
0

2
+ 2as
We then subtract V
o
2
from both sides:
V
f
2
–V
o
2
= V
o
2
–V
o
2
+ 2as
Peterson’s SAT II Success: Physics 48
This leads to:
V
f
2
– V
o
2
= 2as
Then we divide both sides by 2s:
V V
s
as
s
f
2
0
2
2
2
2

=
Clearing fractions gives:

V V
s
a
f
2
0
2
2

=
If you find this algebra to be difficult, you might need to stop
here and review your math skills before proceeding.
GRAPHS
Some relationships studied in physics exist between experimental
values. The relationships between these quantities can be shown using
a technique called g gg ggr rr rraphing aphing aphing aphing aphing. With this technique, one quantity (the
independent variable) is carefully controlled, while the other quantity
(the dependent variable) is measured at each value of the independent
variable.
The independent variable is plotted along the x axis of the graph,
and the dependent variable is plotted along the y axis of the graph.
The slope for the graph is calculated by dividing the ∆ Y by the
∆ X.
Slope
y
x
=


A graph is a picture of the relationship between two or more
quantities. A direct relationship is one in which both quantities
increase (or decrease) in the same manner. In an inverse relationship,
one quantity increases and the other decreases. A parabolic relation-
ship exists when one quantity varies as the square of the other.
CHAPTER 1
Peterson’s: www.petersons.com 49
DIRECT RELATIONSHIP
GRAPH A
Graph A shows a linear relationship between x and y. For every 2
units’ increase in variable x, variable y increases by 1 unit. The slope
of the graph is calculated as rise over run.
GRAPHS
Peterson’s SAT II Success: Physics 50
INVERSE RELATIONSHIP
GRAPH B
Graph B shows an indirect linear relationship between x and y.
CHAPTER 1
Peterson’s: www.petersons.com 51
PARABOLIC RELATIONSHIP
GRAPH C
Graph C shows a parabolic relationship between x and y.
The ability to read a graph is crucial. They are used to display and
compare physical concepts. Be sure you can read and evaluate
graphs.
GRAPHS
Peterson’s SAT II Success: Physics 52
RIGHT TRIANGLES
Any triangle with a 90° internal angle is defined as a right triangle. In
such a triangle, the remaining two internal angles of the right triangle
sum to an additional 90°. If you are sure you are dealing with a right
triangle, the Pythagorean theorem Pythagorean theorem Pythagorean theorem Pythagorean theorem Pythagorean theorem becomes a useful tool when
trying to find one of the sides.
The right triangle above is labeled according to convention. The
side opposite the 90° angle is called the hypotenuse and is labeled c.
The side beside the smaller of the remaining two angles is called the
adjacent side b, and the side across from the smaller angle is called
the opposite side a.
The Pythagorean theorem is stated mathematically as
c
2
= a
2
+ b
2
. Thus, should we know the size of any two sides, we can
find the missing side.
Side
Side
Side
c a b
a c b
b c a
= +
= −
= −
2 2
2 2
2 2
Right triangles have special relationships not only with their
sides but also with their internal angles. For every right triangle, the
sides of that triangle and the internal angles of that triangle form a
ratio.
CHAPTER 1
Peterson’s: www.petersons.com 53
These are given as:
sine or sin
cosine
θ θ
θ
= =
=
opposite
hypotenuse
a
c
adjacent
hypoteenuse
b
c
opposite
adjacent
a
b
or cos
tangent or tan
θ
θ θ
=
= =
Further, no matter how long the sides of the triangle may be, the
ratio between the three sides remains the same as long as the internal
angle remains the same.
Triangles 1, 2, 3, and 4 above all have an internal angle of 30°.
Thus the sine, cosine, and tangent values are the same in all four
triangles.
CARTESIAN COORDINATES
The construction and use of right triangles is a valuable tool in
solving physics problems. Unfortunately, not all measures and quanti-
ties begin neatly at zero. Rather than allow this to complicate mat-
ters, we simplify by using the Cartesian Coordinate System Cartesian Coordinate System Cartesian Coordinate System Cartesian Coordinate System Cartesian Coordinate System in
conjunction with triangles. You may also recognize this as the four
quadrant x and y system.
RIGHT TRIANGLES
Peterson’s SAT II Success: Physics 54
• The region between the x and y coordinates on the upper right is
called the first quadrant. All x and y quantities in the first quadrant
are positive.
• The region between the x and y coordinates on the upper left is
called the second quadrant. All x quantities in the second quadrant
are negative, and all y quantities in the second quadrant are posi-
tive.
• The region between the x and y coordinates on the lower left is
called the third quadrant. All x and y quantities in the third quad-
rant are negative.
• The region between the x and y coordinates on the lower right is
called the fourth quadrant. All x quantities in the fourth quadrant
are positive and all y quantities in the fourth quadrant are negative.
Quadrant
I
II
III
IV
X coordinate
+x
--x
--x
+x
Y coordinate
+y
+y
--y
--y
CHAPTER 1
Peterson’s: www.petersons.com 55
Situations where the Cartesian Coordinate System is used con-
ventionally follow the x, y system for labeling purposes. When a right
triangle is placed within the coordinate system, its sides can be
renamed as follows:
Thus, we could look at the trigonometry functions for a right
triangle that has been placed into the coordinate system as:
sin changes to sin
cos changes to cos
ta
θ θ
θ θ
= → =
= → =
a
c
y
r
b
c
x
r
nn changes to cos θ θ = → =
a
b
y
x
The conventional a, b, c labeling is changed to represent the
physics application, thus becoming x, y, r, where r is the hypotenuse.
The Pythagorean Theorem now looks like this:

Conventional labeling becomes coordinate system labeling.
RIGHT TRIANGLES
Peterson’s SAT II Success: Physics 56
UNITS AND CONVERSIONS
Oftentimes students will be given a value for a physical quantity such
as 50 km/hr

and asked to perform operations that require them to
convert to m/sec. Finding the correct units in this situation means
that you must be able to change kilometers to meters and to change
hours to seconds. Experience has shown most students to be very
capable at performing the mathematic operation. The problem seems
to be one of setting up the conversions between the differing units.
50 km/hr = ? m/sec
One factor that can cause difficulty with conversions is that
many students lack some basic information. You should know in-
stantly that there are 60 seconds in one minute and 3600 seconds in
one hour. The metric units you should know are:
1000 meters = 1 kilometer
100 centimeters = 1 meter
1000 millimeters = 1 meter
Then there are the equivalent values for volume (liters) and mass
(grams) as well. There is a list of constants, equivalents, and physics
formulas on page 15. Be sure you are very familiar with this informa-
tion.
Returning to the conversion mentioned, we begin:
50 km/hr = ? m/sec
There are 1000 meters in a kilometer, thus we multiply 50 km by
1000 m/km, yielding 50,000 meters.
Now we have:
50,000 m/hr = ? m/sec
There are 3600 seconds per hour, thus we multiply one hour by
3600 sec/hr, yielding 3600 seconds.
Divide distance by time for the final value.
50 000
3600
13 88
,
sec
. / sec
m
m =
CHAPTER 1
Peterson’s: www.petersons.com 57
The whole conversion can be made into a one-step calculation by
writing each part and solving.
(50 km/hr)(1,000 m/km)
hr
13.88m/sec
1
3600sec








=
During the conversion process it is absolutely essential that you
state and complete your dimensional analysis.
SCALARS AND VECTORS
SCALARS
The treatment of physical quantities is based upon the kind of quan-
tity in question. Two important physical quantities we will study are
scalars and vectors.
Quantities defined strictly by their magnitude are called scalar
quantities. Scalars are easy to recognize: a dozen eggs, a gross of
paper clips, half a dozen apples, a kilogram of cheese. All the stated
quantities denote a number (12, 144, 6, 1) of the item listed, nothing
more.
Therefore, a Sunday drive could easily be described by the
number of miles traveled: “We drove 80 km today.” Should we wish to
add more information, such as where we traveled, then another
physical quantity is used.
VECTORS
Quantities defined both by their magnitude and direction are called
vector quantities. Vectors are also easily recognized, as they must
include both magnitude and direction: four steps to the right, 50
meters south, 9N @ 45º. Taking another look at the Sunday drive
above, we can define it as a vector by saying “We drove 80 km to the
museum and back today.” Vectors are always stated in respect to a
reference point.
SCALARS AND VECTORS
Peterson’s SAT II Success: Physics 58
SOLVING SCALAR AND VECTOR PROBLEMS
Numerical operations with scalars are simply a matter of adding or
subtracting the numbers.
Example Example Example Example Example
We have 9 marbles and find 5 marbles. How many do we now have?
Solution Solution Solution Solution Solution
9
5
14
marbles
marbles
marbles
( ) +
As you can see, simply add to perform the operation.
The same operation with vector quantities requires a bit more
thought, as both the magnitude and direction must be included.
We’ll start with a straightforward addition problem.
Example
A student walks 4 blocks east and stops at an ice cream truck. After
purchasing a snow cone, he walks another 10 blocks east. Where is
the student in respect to his starting point?
Solution
4 blocks @ east
(+)10 blocks @ east
14 blocks @ east
The student has walked a total of 14 blocks due east.
As in this example, when two vectors are added together, the
result is conveniently called the resultant vector. The original vectors,
which were added together, are the component vectors.
The problem above shows the nature of vectors. Both magnitude
and direction must be included in operations with vectors.
CHAPTER 1
Peterson’s: www.petersons.com 59
The next problem requires the use of the Pythagorean Theorem
when we add a pair of vectors. We will also use the Cartesian Coordi-
nate System (x and y axis).
Example
A bird is perched in the tree where it has its nest. The bird flies 500 m
due east and lands on the ground in a field where it finds a worm.
When the bird takes off, it is chased by a hawk, so the bird flies 300 m
due north before landing in a tree.
What direction must the bird fly to find its nest, and how far
away is the nest?
Solution
When solving physics problems, always use a convenient method with
which you are comfortable. This is how you should approach any
problem you are solving. A method is suggested below.
1. Draw a diagram (above)
2. Isolate and label the parts of the problem
3. Identify both x and y components
4. Write the equation
5. Solve for the unknown
Let’s place the bird’s starting point at the x, y juncture, which is
also its starting point at the nest. The bird is presently located at the
head of the 300 m north vector.
Before solving the problem, convert the compass values to the
x, y coordinate system. The due east vector is located directly along
the x coordinate, which is 0º. The due north vector is located directly
along the x coordinate, which is 90º.
SCALARS AND VECTORS
Peterson’s SAT II Success: Physics 60
As we inspect the problem it becomes clear that the Pythagorean
Theorem is the best way to solve the problem.
c
2
= a
2
+ b
2
Change to the x, y coordinates and
c
2
= y
2
+ x
2
identify c (the hypotenuse) as the resultant
r
2
= y
2
+ x
2
vector.
r
r
= +
=
( ) ( ) 300 500
583
2
m m
m
This is the magnitude value of the resultant vector. The direction
for the resultant can be found with a little right triangle trigonom-
etry.
tan
tan
tan .
θ
θ
θ
θ
=
=
=
= °
y
x
300
500
6
31
m
m
Thus the resultant vector (where the bird is located in respect to
its starting point) is
583m @ 31°
Recall that the bird wanted to fly back to its nest. It can’t fly at
31° from its current position because that path takes the bird farther
from its nest. The direction we have found must be reversed for the
bird to return to its nest.
The resulting direction is exactly 180° opposite the direction the
bird must fly. Take the resultant vector and add (or subtract) 180°

to
or from the vector’s direction.
180° + 31° = 211°
The bird must fly 583 m @ 211° from its present position to
reach its nest. When this is done, the bird will effectively cancel out
the resultant vector. That’s why its flight will be the equilibrant.
CHAPTER 1
Peterson’s: www.petersons.com 61
An equilibrant vector is a vector that is exactly equal in magni-
tude and opposite in direction from the resultant vector.
Example
Let us look at one more vector problem.
Suppose 4 ropes were used to pull on a stationary object.
• Rope a pulls in a direction of 15° with a force of 25N.
• Rope b pulls in a direction of 215° with a force of 16N.
• Rope c pulls in a direction of 75° with a force of 20N.
• Rope d pulls in a direction of 300° with a force of 30N.
If a single rope were to replace the four ropes, with what force
and in what direction must the rope pull?
Solution
The diagram above allows us to see each vector in relation to all the
other vectors.
We will isolate each vector in its turn and break each one into its
x and y components. Then we can combine all the individual x and y
components to find the resultant vector.
First, check and make sure that when you construct your tri-
angles, the y side of the triangle is the opposite side of the triangle,
and the x side is the adjacent side of the triangle.
SCALARS AND VECTORS
Peterson’s SAT II Success: Physics 62
Rope a extends 15° into the first quadrant.
Side y = Side r (sin 15°) = (30N) (.26) = 7.8N
Side x = Side r (cos 15°) = (30N) (.97) = 29.1N
Both components of rope a are located in the first quadrant.
y
x
positive 7.8N
positive 29.1N
= ∴+
= ∴+
CHAPTER 1
Peterson’s: www.petersons.com 63
Rope b extends 35° into the third quadrant .
Side y = (side r) (sin 35°) = (16N) (.57) = 9.1N
Side x = (side r) (cos 35°) = (16N) (.82) = 13.1N
Both components of rope b are located in the third quadrant.
y
x
negative N
negative N
= ∴−
= ∴−
9 1
13 1
.
.
SCALARS AND VECTORS
Peterson’s SAT II Success: Physics 64
Rope c extends 75° into the first quadrant.
Side y = (side r) (sin 75°

) = (20N) (.97) = 19.4N
Side x = (side r) (cos 75° ) = (20N) (.26) = 5.2N
Both components of rope c are located in the first quadrant.
y
x
= ∴+
= ∴+
positive N
positive N
19 4
5 2
.
.
CHAPTER 1
Peterson’s: www.petersons.com 65
Rope d extends 30° into the third quadrant.
Side y = (side r) (sin 60°) = (30N) (.87) = 26.1
Side x = (side r) (cos 60°) = (30N) (.5) = 15.0N
Both components of rope d are located in the fourth quadrant.
y
x
= ∴−
= ∴+
negative N
positive N
26 1
15 0
.
.
SCALARS AND VECTORS
Peterson’s SAT II Success: Physics 66
All four ropes have been broken into their component vectors
at this point. It is time to add them up. We can accomplish this by
using a simple x, y chart. The chart is filled in with the individual
components we have just found. Having done that, we then algebra-
ically combine all the y components and do the same with the
x components
ROPE
Rope a
Rope b
Rope c
Rope d
Y axis
+ 7.8N
-- 9.1N
+19.4N
--26.1N
X axis
+29.1N
--13.1N
+ 5.2N
+15.0N
–8N in x direction
+36.2N in y direction
After combining the x components and the y components, the
values are the two components of the new resultant vector. Apply the
Pythagorean Theorem to find its magnitude.
r x y
r
r
= +
= − + +
=
2 2
2
8 36 2
37
( ( . ) N) N
N
2
Now that we know the magnitude of the resultant, we’ll use the
tangent function to find the direction of the resultant vector.
Using the tangent function yields:
tan
N
N
θ = =

+
= − = − °
y
x .
8
36 2
22 1 .
This number tells us that the direction of the resultant vector is
–1°. That means that to find the value of the resultant vector, we
simply subtract 1° from 360° to find the direction a single rope must
pull to equal the pull from the original four ropes.
The resultant vector is 37N @ 359°
Simply stated: One rope pulling with a force of 37N in a
direction of 359° accomplishes the exact same thing as the other
four ropes.
CHAPTER 1
Peterson’s: www.petersons.com 67
CHAPTER SUMMARY CHAPTER SUMMARY CHAPTER SUMMARY CHAPTER SUMMARY CHAPTER SUMMARY
• Scalar quantities are defined by their magnitude only. They are
treated simply as numbers in the mathematics operations
involving them.
• Vector quantities are defined by both their magnitude and
direction. Mathematics operations involving vectors require
both the magnitude and the direction to be included.
• The direction of a vector may be implied, given as compass
headings, or given as Cartesian Coordinates
• A resultant vector is the vector formed when two or more
other vectors are combined.
• Every vector may be broken into its x and y components.
• An equilibrant vector is a vector whose magnitude is exactly
equal to and opposite in direction of a given vector.
CHAPTER SUMMARY
Chapter 2
MECHANICS MECHANICS MECHANICS MECHANICS MECHANICS
Peterson’s: www.petersons.com 71
CHAPTER 2
MECHANICS MECHANICS MECHANICS MECHANICS MECHANICS
STATICS
Objects that are not free to move are said to be in equilibrium. For an
object to be in equilibrium, the following two conditions must be met:
1. All the applied forces must equal zero.
2. All the applied torques must equal zero.
Let’s stop a moment to give a quick definition for force. A force
is a push or a pull.
That’s all there is to it, a push or a pull.
All forces occur in pairs, and the force pairs act on different
bodies. When a force is directed toward a point of contact, the force is
called a compression. When a force is directed away from a point of
contact, the force is called a tension.
Using what we know about vectors, we can see that every set of
forces can be resolved into just three lines of action: along the x axis,
the y axis, and the z axis. We can restate the above (called the First
Condition of Equilibrium) in the following manner:
ΣF = 0
This can be broken down to address the three axes
individually.
Σ
Σ
Σ
F
F
F
x
y
z
=
=
=
0
0
0
The symbol “Σ” is read as “the sum of.” We’ll use it to state the
conditions of equilibrium mathematically.
The x axis is horizontal (side to side), the y axis is vertical (up
and down), and the z axis is altitude (in and out).
Peterson’s SAT II Success: Physics 72
Example
One illustration of the first condition of equilibrium is a book resting
on a flat surface as shown above. The book rests on the surface with a
force equal to its weight, say 10 N. The surface doesn’t collapse or
push the book away from itself, which means that the surface is
pushing back on the book with a force equal to the force the book
exerts on it. The book is in equilibrium. This statement can be shown
as an equation.
Σ
Σ
Σ
Σ
F
F
F
F
y
z
= ∴
=
=
=
0
0
0
0
x
Solution
Looking at the individual axes:
Σ
Σ
F x
F z
x
=
=
0 (there are no forces)
0 (there are no for
z
cces)
y
ΣF F F
F F
book surface
book surface
= = − =
=
0 0
CHAPTER 2
Peterson’s: www.petersons.com 73
Example
A problem involving an object hanging by a wire is solved in a similar
manner.
A 25N mercury vapor light is hung from the ceiling by a wire.
What is the tension (T
1
) in the wire?
Don’t forget the force pairs:
• The light pulls on the cable.
• The cable pulls on the light.
• They are equal in magnitude and opposite in direction to one
another.
STATICS
Peterson’s SAT II Success: Physics 74
Solution
Σ
Σ
Σ
Σ
Σ Σ
F
F
F
F
F F
x
y
z
x z
=
=
=
=
= =
0
0
0
0
0 0 and because no forces are appplied
on either of the or axes
N
T N
1
x z
F T
y
Σ = − =
=
1
25 0
25
Example
Another problem involving objects constrained by cables requires us
to use some trigonometry to find a solution.
A 100N traffic light is suspended in the middle of an intersection
by three different cables. The three cables meet at point A. Find the
tensions in T
1
, T
2
, and T
3
.
CHAPTER 2
Peterson’s: www.petersons.com 75
Solution
There is no movement of point A, so point A must be in equilibrium.
Summing forces about point A:
Σ
Σ
Σ
F
F no z
F
z
x
=
=
=
0
0
0
(there are forces on the axis)
(there a are x
F are y
y
forces on the axis)
(there forces on the Σ = 0 axis)
We can solve the axis tension first
N
y
y
F T
=
= − = Σ
1
100 0
TT
1
100 = N
• T
2
is a resultant vector with components located along the x and y
axis.
• T
2
is an unknown value, but it does pull upward toward the +x
direction.
• If T
2
is both pulling up and to the right against point A, then some-
thing must be pulling down and left against point A.
• Pulling down is T
1
and pulling left is T
3
.
STATICS
Peterson’s SAT II Success: Physics 76
Having identified the equilibrant pulls as T
1
and T
3
, we can set
T
2 y
against the upward pull of T
2
, which is T
2y
. This meets the condi-
tion of equilibrium on the y axis, which is stated in the equation
below.
ΣF T T
T T
T
T
T
y y
y
y
= − =
=
=
=
1 2
1 2
1
2
2
0
100N
100 N
is found by substitutiing and solving
100N
N
200N
2
= °
=
=
T
T
T
2
2
30
100
5
(sin )
.
T
3
could have been found before T
2 ,
but the order in which these
two are found is not critical. Looking at point A again, T
3
is identified
as the left pull, and we can set T
3
against the right pull of T
2
, which is
T
2x
. This meets the condition of equilibrium on the x axis, which we
state in the following equation.
ΣF T T
T T
T
T
T
T
x x
x
x
y
x
= − =
=
=
°
=
3 2
3 2
3
2
3
0
30
100
5
tan
.
Substitute for
N
2
88
172
3
T = N
CHAPTER 2
Peterson’s: www.petersons.com 77
Alternate method
ΣF T T
T T
T T
T
T
x x
x
x
= − =
=
= °
=
3 2
3 2
3 2
3
0
30
200
(cos )
(.
Substitute for
N
2
886
172
3
)
T = N
The solution to the problem is The solution to the problem is The solution to the problem is The solution to the problem is The solution to the problem is
T
1
= 100N
T
2
= 200N
T
3
= 300N
TORQUES
When all the forces acting on an object along the three axes sum to
zero, there can be no up and down, side to side, or in and out motion.
However the object can still spin or rotate. The First Condition of
Equilibrium addresses straight line or concurrent forces, which do not
cause objects to rotate. The Second Condition of Equilibrium relates to
the turning effects that act upon an object. These turning effects are
called torques. The Second Condition of Equilibrium states that the
sum of all the applied torques must equal zero.
ΣT = 0
Having written the second condition of equilibrium, we can
restate it as:
Σ (+ T) = Σ (− T)
This tells us that the turning effects in one direction about a
point must equal the turning effects in the other direction about the
point (pivot point). These effects can be labeled clockwise/counter-
clockwise, left/right, or up/down. My preference is to use the (+) and
(–) signs. This way one direction can always be set opposite the other
without worrying about additional perspectives.
Torques are further defined as T F =

, where F is an applied
force and is the distance from the applied force to the point of
rotation (pivot point).
TORQUES
Peterson’s SAT II Success: Physics 78
When working with torques we must also consider the weight
of the object involved. Gravity pulls on each and every part of an
object. These parts cause torques about the central point in the object.
If all the individual torques were set against one another and canceled
out, then one point, a point about which all the other points rotate,
would remain. All the weight of the object could be considered to
operate from this point too. That point is called the Center of Gravity
(CG).
A force whose action line passes through the pivot point exerts
no torque. The is the “lever arm,” which is defined as the perpen-
dicular distance from the applied force to the pivot point.
When an object is supported at its center of gravity, the point of
rotation for torques is also located at the CG. Therefore, the weight of
the object is not a factor in the identification of the applied torques.
This occurs because of the definition of the lever arm. The object is
supported at the CG, so the force exerted by the object’s weight does
not have a lever arm; there is no distance from the applied force to
the pivot point.
The uniform rod above weighs 2N and is 1m long. The force F
1
is applied at the end of the rod, as shown. The lever arm
1
is the
distance from the force F
1
to the pivot point P. Should values of 10N
be added for the force and a length of .5m for

, the calculation of
the torques becomes:
T F
T
T
=
=
= •

( )(. ) 10 5
5
N m
N m
Note: The units of torque are a force unit multiplied by a length
unit.
CHAPTER 2
Peterson’s: www.petersons.com 79
The situation above can change drastically by simply allowing
the rod to rotate at a different point.
The new situation above requires that we remember the weight
of the object in addition to the already known F
1
. The calculation of
the torques is:
T F F
T
wt wt
= + ( ) ( )
1 1

There are two torque-producing entities.
== • + •
= • + •
= •
( ) ( . ) 10 1 2 5
10
11
N m N m
N m 1N m
N m
T
T
Should we pick the other end of the rod as the pivot point, F
1
completely cancels out of the problem and the applied torque be-
comes 1N • m.
TORQUES
Peterson’s SAT II Success: Physics 80
KINEMATICS
MOTION IN A STRAIGHT LINE
An object that changes its position as time passes is in motion.
Straight line motion deals with objects that begin, continue, or com-
plete their motion along a straight line.
The quantities speed and velocity are often used interchangeably.
Speed is a scalar quantity and velocity is a vector quantity. Although
they are different physical quantities, they can be used together as
long as the motion involved is an absolutely straight line. We simply
accept that there is an inferred direction.
Speed Speed Speed Speed Speed is defined as the distance an object travels per unit of
time taken.
Speed
distance
time
( ) U
d
t
= =
The units of speed are m/s.
The distance shown has no direction, so it makes no difference if
the motion is a straight line or not.
V VV VVelocity elocity elocity elocity elocity is defined as the displacement of an object per unit of
time taken.
Velocity
displacement
time
( ) v
s
t
= =
The units of velocity are m/s.
The use of the term “displacement,” which is a vector and reads
displacement vector, confirms that velocity is also a vector quantity.
When the displacement is the total displacement of an object
and the time is the total time taken, the velocity of the object is its
average velocity.
v
s
t
=
Sometimes it is necessary to know the velocity of an object
exactly at a specific instant in time. This is called instantaneous
velocity. Instantaneous velocity is found by restricting the passage of
time to as close to zero as possible. The exact velocity of an object at a
specific time is called its instantaneous velocity (v
ins
). An instanta-
neous velocity is used to monitor the velocity of an object before it
CHAPTER 2
Peterson’s: www.petersons.com 81
starts moving, at any time while it is moving, or just as it stops mov-
ing. These are called the original velocity (v
o
) and the final velocity
(v
f
), respectively. Both the original velocity and the final velocity
together can be used to find the average velocity.
v
v v
f o
=
+
2
The quantity ∆ v means change in velocity and can be found by
∆ v = v
f
– v
o
.
This is important because when an object undergoes a ∆ v
(change in velocity) it is considered to be accelerated. An acceleration
is defined as a time rate change in velocity.
a
v
t
a
v v
t t
f o
f o
= =




or
The units for acceleration are m/s
2
. Acceleration is a
vector quantity.
The basic linear equations are:
v
s
t
v v v
t t t v
v v
a
v
t
a
v v
t t
f o
f o
f o
f o
f o
= = −
= − =
+
= =






2
KINEMATICS
Peterson’s SAT II Success: Physics 82
The equations above are used to derive three more useful linear
motion equations, which are shown below.
v v at
v v as
s v t at
f o
f o
o
= +
= +
= +
2 2
2
2
1
2
In general, students do well solving linear motion problems, so
we’ll only try one here.
Example
A subway train starts from rest at the station and accelerates at a rate
of 1.25 m/s
2
for 14 seconds, then coasts at a velocity for 50 seconds.
The conductor then applies the brakes to slow the train at a rate of
1.2 m/s
2
to bring it to a complete stop at the next station. How far
apart are the two train stations?
Solution
Upon analysis of the situation we find there are three parts to the
problem:
1. The train speeds up (acceleration).
2. The train coasts (constant velocity).
3. The train slows down (negative acceleration).
The operation s v t at
o
= +
1
2
2
is suitable for part one. Remember
that the train started from rest, so the (v
o
t ) term is zero. The working
equation is:
s at
s
s
=
=
=
1
2
1
2
1 25 14
122
2
2 2
( . )( sec) m/s
m
CHAPTER 2
Peterson’s: www.petersons.com 83
The train coasts at velocity for the second part of the problem.
Once we find the velocity, we will be able to determine how far the
train coasts in 50 seconds. We must start at the station with the train
at rest in order to find the velocity of the train when the acceleration
stops. The equation (v
f
= v
o
+ at) works, but remember, the train is
initially at rest, making v
o
= 0, which drops the term from the equa-
tion to yield
v
f
= at.
Substituting and solving gives the final velocity of the train when
acceleration stops. Remember that this is also the average velocity
while the train is coasting.
v at
v
v
f
f
f
=
=
=
( . )
.
1 25
17 5
m/s )(14s
m/s
2
Now we find the displacement while the train coasts, using:
s = v t
s = (17.5 m/s)(50s)
s = 875 m
The equation that best fits the third part of the problem is
(v
f
2
= v
o
2
+ 2as). Again we can drop a term from the equation. The
final velocity of the train is zero, which allows us to eliminate it.
Before writing the equation think about the situation. What is happen-
ing? The train is slowing down. This is a negative acceleration, which
must be entered as such in the equation. The average velocity the train
has had for the past 50 seconds now becomes the original velocity at
the start of the negative acceleration (deceleration).
v
v a s
v
a
s
s
s
f
o
o
2
2
2
2
2
0
0 2
2
17 5
2 1 25
1
=
= + −


=


=
=
( )
( )
( )
( . )
( .
m/s
m/s)
227 6 . m
KINEMATICS
Peterson’s SAT II Success: Physics 84
Before completing the problem, let’s take a look at the solution
above. Correct signs are critical! When v
o
2
was subtracted from both
sides of the equation, we were manipulating a negative squared
quantity. When the v
o
quantity is squared, the negative sign does not
become positive. Likewise the acceleration is negative. When the –a is
divided into both sides of the equation, we are left with a negative
again. Carrying out the solution gave a positive displacement when
both negative signs cancelled out, an expected result since the train
continued in the same direction as it slowed to a stop.
Calculating the final answer to the problem requires the addition
of the displacement of the train during each of the three parts. They
are:
122 m Part 1 (acceleration)
875 m Part 2 (constant velocity)
+ 127.6 m Part 3 (negative acceleration)
1124.6 m
The total distance between the two subway stations is
1124.6 meters.
FREE FALL
When an object is released near the earth and nothing except the
earth affects the object, the object is in free fall. We notice that as
soon as any object is placed into free fall, the object moves toward the
earth at an increasing rate. That being the case, the object must be
accelerating. In the absence of air, all objects fall toward the earth at a
constant rate of 9.8 m/s
2
. The acceleration due to the earth’s gravita-
tional attraction is commonly referred to as “g.”
Several interesting situations occur when an object is thrown
straight up. Since we will be discussing vector quantities, the direction
of the vector will be mentioned first. The direction toward the earth
(down) will be considered positive. The direction away from the earth
(up) will be considered negative.
Restating: An object is thrown straight up.
While the object is rising:
• The displacement of the object is up (negative).
• The velocity of the object is up (negative).
• The acceleration of the object is down (positive).
CHAPTER 2
Peterson’s: www.petersons.com 85
The instant the object reaches its maximum height:
• The displacement of the object is zero.
• •• •• The velocity of the object is zero.
• The acceleration of the object is down (positive).
While the object is falling:
• The displacement of the object is down (positive).
• •• •• The velocity of the object is down (positive).
• The acceleration of the object is down (positive).
All objects in free fall near the earth are accelerated toward the
earth (down) at a rate of 9.8 m/s
2
. .. ..
Other interesting facts about objects that are thrown straight up near
the earth and return to the same spot are:
• •• •• Time up = time down.
• •• •• Displacement up = displacement down.
• •• •• Velocity up = velocity down.
Example
Imagine that we drop a rock from the top of a watchtower. Since all
objects fall at the same rate (ignoring air resistance), the mass and
size of the object do not matter. The rock is found to hit the ground
below in 4.25 seconds. How high is the tower?
Solution
At first you might think that we need more information, but we don’t.
This is really a linear motion problem with constant acceleration (g).
We know the object starts from rest, accelerates at 9.8 m/s
2
, and takes
4.25 seconds to hit the ground. The displacement can be found with
the following equation:
s v t gt
o
= +
1
2
2
KINEMATICS
Peterson’s SAT II Success: Physics 86
Notice the g instead of a. The object starts from rest, which
allows us to eliminate the (v
o
t) term, leaving the working equation:
s gt
s
s
=
=
=
1
2
1
2
9 8
88 5
2
( .
.
m/s )(4.25sec)
m
2 2
Example
Let’s look at a problem where an object is thrown into the air and
returns.
A girl throws a baseball straight up and catches the ball
at the same height 2.6 seconds later. How fast did the girl
throw the ball into the air?
Solution
Again, we can use the equation s v t gt
o
= +
1
2
2
. Displacement is a vector
quantity, so when the ball returns to the girl’s hand, there is no dis-
placement (the ball started in her hand and has therefore not gone
anywhere). The equation becomes:
0
1
2
2
9 8 2 6
2 2 6
12 74
2
2
2
= +
− =
− =
− =
v t gt
v
gt
t
v
v
o
o
o
o
( . )( . )
( . )
.
m/s s
s
m/
2
ss
2
Note: The negative v
o
lets us know that the girl is throwing the
ball upward.
CHAPTER 2
Peterson’s: www.petersons.com 87
MOTION IN TWO DIMENSIONS
CURVILINEAR MOTION
The motion of a football observed when a quarterback throws a long
pass or when a baseball is hit into the air are examples of curvilinear
motion. Curvilinear motion is the flight of an object as it first rises
into the air and then falls to the ground while at the same time
moving from one point to another in a straight line along the x axis.
Let’s look at an example of curvilinear motion.
A boy is playing with some marbles on the kitchen table. As he
rolls the marbles around, one of them rolls off the edge of the table.
Does the marble fall directly to the floor? No it doesn’t. Why not? The
answer is because once the marble is in free fall, the only force acting
on it is the earth’s gravitational attraction.
Nothing slows the marble in its movement along the x axis. The
marble would continue moving along the x axis permanently if it
didn’t strike the floor. When the marble clears the tabletop it is in free
fall. Its velocity with respect to the y axis is zero, but in free fall, the
marble is accelerated toward the earth at a rate of 9.8 m/s
2
. The time
it takes the marble to fall to the floor is also the time the marble can
continue to move along the x axis. That is why the marble does not hit
the floor directly under the edge of the table.
The same condition applies to the motion of an object that is hit
or released at an angle above the horizontal (also called projectile
motion).
MOTION IN TWO DIMENSIONS
Peterson’s SAT II Success: Physics 88
Example
Consider a fisherman making a long cast. His lure is released as the
rod moves forward on the cast. The lure rises into the air while at the
same time moving forward across the water. The lure then falls to the
water as it reaches the fisherman’s target.
After careful observation, one can state the following informa-
tion about the fisherman’s cast (above): The lure always leaves the rod
tip (considered ground level) at an angle of 30° and a velocity of 22
m/s. How far does the fisherman cast his lure?
Solution
This is another two-axis problem. The x-axis solution requires that we
know the time. The y-axis information is sufficient to find the total
time the lure is in free fall, thus providing the time to complete the x-
axis solution.
We’ll begin with the y axis. The actual straight up velocity v
y
is
not known. The velocity the lure has as it leaves the tip of the
fisherman’s rod is v
L
and can be considered to be the hypotenuse of a
right triangle in which v
y
is the opposite side.
CHAPTER 2
Peterson’s: www.petersons.com 89
After finding v
y
, apply the appropriate free fall equation to find
the time.
v
y
= v
L
(cos 30°)
v
y
= (22 m/s)(.5) = 11 m/s
The equation that yields the time is v
fy
= v
oy
+ at (using the
subscript “y” to denote the vertical axis).
v v at
v v
a
t
t s
fy oy
fy oy
= +

=
− −
= =
( ) ( )
.
.
11 11
9 8
2 24
2
m/s m/s
m/s
The total time the lure is in the air (free fall) is 2.24 seconds.
The x component of the lure’s velocity (v
x
) must also be calcu-
lated with the trigonometry.
v
x
= v
L
(cos 30°)
v
x
= (22 m/s)(.866)
v
x
= 19 m/s
With both the time and x velocity known, the distance the lure
travels can be found using:
s = v t
s = (19 m/s
2
) (2.24 sec)
s = 42.56 m
MOTION IN TWO DIMENSIONS
Peterson’s SAT II Success: Physics 90
NEWTON’S LAWS OF MOTION
Unbalanced forces are the cause of motion. This can be seen by taking
a walk and watching any objects that are not moving. A stone on the
ground, a flowerpot on a window ledge, or a hat on someone’s head
all remain where they rest unless something happens. What exactly
must happen? Sir Isaac Newton applied his attention to that same
question almost 400 years ago. The result was Newton’s Laws of
Motion. The first Law of Motion as expressed by Sir Isaac has come to
be known as the Law of Inertia.
Ne Ne Ne Ne Newton’s F wton’s F wton’s F wton’s F wton’s Fir ir ir ir irst La st La st La st La st Law of Motion w of Motion w of Motion w of Motion w of Motion:
An object that is at rest will remain at rest, and an object in
motion will remain in motion unless a nonzero force acts upon
the object.
This means that all objects have a tendency to remain as they
are. They do not easily change their state of rest or motion. Should you
push on an object such as a chair, the chair pushes back on you. That
same chair with someone sitting in it becomes much more difficult to
push. This is because the chair is now an object with more mass. The
greater difficulty in pushing the chair happens because of the larger
mass of the chair with a person sitting in it, and therefore the chair
has a larger inertia.
Ne Ne Ne Ne Newton’s wton’s wton’s wton’s wton’s Thir Thir Thir Thir Third La d La d La d La d Law of Motion: w of Motion: w of Motion: w of Motion: w of Motion:
For every action there is an equal and opposite reaction.
This is called the action-reaction law. A good example of the
action-reaction is when a balloon has been blown up and released. The
balloon flies about the room. The action in this case is pressurized gas
escaping from the opening in the balloon. The balloon provides the
reaction by flying about the room. The action-reaction statement is
what leads us to the following statement:
All forces occur in pairs.
Force pairs are always equal in magnitude and opposite
in their direction. This means they act upon different objects.
They do not act on the same object.
Ne Ne Ne Ne Newton’s Second La wton’s Second La wton’s Second La wton’s Second La wton’s Second Law of Motion: w of Motion: w of Motion: w of Motion: w of Motion:
Newton’s Second Law of Motion is the one from which we derive
the famous equation F = ma. This tells us that an unbalanced
force accelerates an object in the same direction as the applied
force. By rearranging the equation, we get
F
m
a = . We can see
that the acceleration is directly related to the applied force and
indirectly related to the mass of the body involved.
CHAPTER 2
Peterson’s: www.petersons.com 91
When a force is applied to a body, the body is accelerated in the
direction of the force at a rate that is indirectly related to the mass of
the body and directly related to the force applied.
The unit for force is kg • m/s
2
, which is more commonly called
the Newton (N). Force is a vector quantity.
The mass of an object is not the same as the weight of an object.
Mass is an inertial measure of matter, while weight is the measure of
the earth’s gravitational attraction to an object. From this statement,
we can see that weight and force are two quantities that are really the
same:
F ma mg
F
= =
= • = = •
wt
kg m/s wt kg m/s
2 2
An example of the force required to initially move an object
resting on a surface is shown on the following diagram. It is a typical
representation for the force required to overcome the frictional force
between two surfaces.
As we see in the graph above, more force is required to start an
object in motion than is required to keep the object in motion.
NEWTON’S LAWS OF MOTION
Peterson’s SAT II Success: Physics 92
APPLICATION OF NEWTON’S SECOND LAW
Newton’s Second Law makes it clear that an object will not change its
state of motion or non-motion unless a force is applied to it. Objects
on earth that have forces applied to them will move once frictional
forces are overcome.
Example
The coefficient of friction between the surfaces above is .22. Find the
unbalanced force and the acceleration of the block.
Solution
Remember that frictional force resists motion and will always be
opposite to the direction of the applied force.
F
A
is the applied force, and F
f
is the frictional force.
F ma
F F ma
A f
=
− =
The applied force is 20N
The frictional force iss
N)
N 22N
µ •
− =
− =
n
F ma
ma
A
.
(. )( 22 100
20
We can stop here. The block will not move! This is because the
applied force is not large enough to overcome friction.
CHAPTER 2
Peterson’s: www.petersons.com 93
Let’s change the applied force to 62.8N and find the acceleration
with the new conditions. Once again F
A
is the applied force, and F
f
is
the frictional force.
F ma
F F ma
A f
=
− =
The applied force is 62.8N.
The frictional forcee is
N)
N 22N is larger than
u n
F ma
ma F F
A
A

− =
− =
.
(. )(
.
22 100
62 8
ff
.
The block will move.
mass of the block
100N
9.8 m/s
kg
62.8N 22N
10.2 kg
4
2
= =

=
10 2 .
a
m/s
2
= a
The block accelerates in the direction of the unbalanced force.
NEWTON’S LAWS OF MOTION
Peterson’s SAT II Success: Physics 94
Example
The frictional force between the surface above and the mass resting
on it is 3N. The hanging object has a mass of 600 g. Find the accelera-
tion of the system. (The string is massless and the pulley is friction-
less). The applied force is from the hanging mass (m • g = wt) minus
the frictional force.
Solution
Start the problem by writing the Second Law Equation, and then
insert all the values into the equation step by step.
F = ma
F
A
–F
f
= ma
We are looking for a, so we rearrange and insert values.
a
a
=

+
=
(. )
.
6
1 37
kg)(9.8 m/s (3N)
.6 kg 1.5 kg
m/s
2
2
The 600 g (.6 kg) hanging mass is the cause of the applied force
in the system. Multiply this mass by g (9.8 m/s
2
) to convert it into
weight. Friction is subtracted because friction always opposes motion.
Both masses will be accelerated (if motion does occur), so we add
them together.
CHAPTER 2
Peterson’s: www.petersons.com 95
The diagram above shows a block sliding down a raised plane at
a constant rate. The force parallel (F
||
) is the applied force, the weight
(wt) of the object acts directly toward the earth, the normal force
(F
N
) acts directly out of the surface, and the frictional force (F
f
)
opposes the motion of the block.
The (F
N
) is the result of a part of the weight being directed down
the plane. [F
N
= (wt sin 30°)]. The (F
N
) is also called the perpendicular
force (F

)

and is directed from the plane into the block.
[ F
N
= F

= (wt cos 30°)]. The block slides down the plane at a
constant rate, meaning no acceleration; thus no unbalanced forces are
in operation down the plane. Under these conditions, the force of
friction equals the force parallel (F
||
= F
f
). The coefficient of friction is:

F
F


= = =
wt
wt
sin
cos
sin
cos
tan
θ
θ
θ
θ
θ
NEWTON’S LAWS OF MOTION
Peterson’s SAT II Success: Physics 96
WORK AND ENERGY
WORK
Work is defined as the product of a displacement and a force in the
direction of the displacement. This translates to:
Work = • • F s cosθ
When the direction of the force applied is the same as the
displacement and is in the same direction as the proposed work, the
cosθ is cos 90°, which is 1, and may be dropped from the equation.
The force unit is the Newton (N), and displacement is in meters (m).
The unit of work is N • m, or Joule (J). Work is not a vector quantity.
Work is done by carrying, pushing, or pulling an object some
distance, or it may be done in lifting an object to a height against
gravity. In these cases work is accomplished and is a positive quantity.
Should the applied force not move the object in question, no work is
done, or worse, negative work is done (imagine pushing forward
against a car that is rolling backwards).
The act of holding an object does not constitute the performance
of work. A displacement is always required for work to be done.
When a moving automobile skids along a road, the road does fric-
tional work against the tires. That is what brings the car to a stop.
Work is usually mentioned with energy because the two quanti-
ties are interchangeable.
ENERGY
Energy is defined as the ability to do work. There are two types of
energy: kinetic energy (KE) and potential energy (PE). The interrela-
tionship of work, potential energy, and kinetic energy can be seen
through the manipulation of the equations representing them.
CHAPTER 2
Peterson’s: www.petersons.com 97
Work
N m
PE
kg m/s m
N m
KE
1
2
kg
m
2
= •
= •
=
=
= • •
= •
=
=
= •
F s
Joule
mgh
Joule
mv
2
22
2
s
N m = •
= Joule
It should be pointed out that the Work and PE equations are
essentially the same. The mg in the PE equation is the weight of the
object, while the h (height) is a displacement yielding an alternate for
PE as Wt • s, which is essentially the same as F • s.
Clearly the three entities are really one and the same. That’s why
they are interchangeable. The Law of Conservation of Energy is stated,
“energy can not be created or destroyed,” leading to the following
equation for work and energy.
(Work + KE + PE)
before an event
= (Work + KE + PE)
after an event
When an object possesses 50 J of potential energy, the object has
the ability to do 50 J of work or to gain 50 J of kinetic energy.
WORK AND ENERGY
Peterson’s SAT II Success: Physics 98
The 250N boulder shown in the diagram above possesses PE,
which can be stated in equation form below.
PE = mgh = wt h
= (250N)(50m)
= 12,500 J
If the boulder fell to the ground, all of the PE would transform
into KE just before the boulder struck the ground. Thus its KE would
be 12,500 J. When the boulder came to rest after striking the ground,
the ground would have done 12,500 J of frictional work to bring the
boulder to a halt.
Should we know that the boulder penetrates 6 cm into the
ground, then the work/energy theorem can be used to find the fric-
tional force exerted by the ground on the boulder.
(Work + PE + KE)
before
= (Work + PE + KE)
after
At the top of the cliff the boulder only has PE, so the work and
KE disappear from the equation, leaving
PE
before
= (Work + PE + KE )
after
At the bottom of the cliff, all of the PE is transformed into KE,
which promptly changes to the work done on the ground. Conve-
niently, the work done by the boulder on the ground is exactly the
work done by the ground on the boulder, leaving:
PE
before
= Work
after

mgh= F • s • cos θ
CHAPTER 2
Peterson’s: www.petersons.com 99
Cos θ is 1 in the problem because all motion is in the direction
of the proposed work. Therefore, it may be dropped.
mgh
s
F
f
= Remember to change cm to m.
12,5000
6cm
100cm/m
N
J
= 208333 3 .
A pendulum is a device that shows the interchange of potential
energy and kinetic energy. When the pendulum bob is raised above
the zero point, it gains potential energy. Releasing the bob and allow-
ing it to swing freely allows the PE to convert to KE. The bob falls and
swings through its zero or resting point, where the PE has been
changed to KE. As the bob swings to and fro, the PE and KE continue
to transform into one another.
A spring is another device that shows the transformation of
potential energy into kinetic energy. Stretching and compression of
the spring provide the PE interchange with the KE, which is maxi-
mized in between the two extremes of the stretching and compres-
sion of the spring. Both the pendulum and the spring also undergo
“simple harmonic motion” when they vibrate. That concept will be
discussed in Chapter Three.
POWER
Power is defined as the rate at which work is done or energy is
produced.
Power = =
work
time
Joule
s
The unit for power is the
Joule
s
or the Watt.
Variations of the power equation are either of the energy
units divided by time.
PE KE
time
or
time
WORK AND ENERGY
Peterson’s SAT II Success: Physics 100
When a person climbs a flight of stairs, his or her body weight is
lifted a distance against gravity. The work performed to move up the
stairs is the same as the PE required when moving any object away
from the surface of the earth (mgh). Walking up the stairs slowly
takes longer than running up them, but the work performed in either
case is the same. The difference is the time. Power output when
walking up the stairs is definitely less than when running up the
stairs.
MOMENTUM
Momentum is the product of the mass of an object multiplied by the
velocity of the object. Momentum is represented by P.
P mv =
= • kg m/s
The unit for momentum is the kg • m/s. Momentum is a
vector quantity.
Objects resist changes in their state of motion. Remember
Newton’s First Law of Motion, which states that an object has inertia
whether it is at rest or in motion. This statement is not true for the
momentum of an object. A physics book at rest on a desk has inertia,
but it has zero momentum. Anyone could move the book simply by
picking it up, yet how many of us would like to try to catch that same
book as it fell from the top of the Empire State Building? Not me, for
sure! Nor you either, I suspect.
The falling book not only has inertia, it also has the momentum it
gained in falling from the top of the building. As you can tell from
looking at the momentum equation, the greater the velocity of an
object, the more momentum it will possess. In fact that is one momen-
tous physics book!
Whenever an object moves it has momentum. A change in the
velocity of an object produces a change in the momentum of that
object. Manipulation of Newton’s Second Law equation gives:
F ma
F m
v
t
v
t
a
=
=
=


CHAPTER 2
Peterson’s: www.petersons.com 101
The m∆ is a change in momentum. An equivalent term, Ft, is
called impulse. A change in the momentum of an object only occurs
when an impulse is applied to the object. Thus, an impulse produces
a change in momentum.
Let’s investigate an example of momentum (mv), a ∆ momentum
(m∆ v), and an impulse (Ft) event.
The space shuttle takes off from Cape Canaveral on its way to
the International Space Station (ISS). As the shuttle approaches the
space station, it is moving with a larger velocity than the space
station, so the pilot fires the shuttle’s retro-rockets to slow down and
match speeds with the ISS. Before the retro-rockets fire, the shuttle
has a velocity (v
o
) that, when combined with the mass of the shuttle,
give it a momentum of mv
o
.
The retro-rockets fire, thereby exerting a force (F) on the shuttle
for the time the rockets are fired. This produces an impulse (Ft),
which acts on the shuttle. After the retro-rockets have finished the
burn, the shuttle has a new momentum of (mv
f
).
F ma
F m
v
t
Ft m v
=
=
= ∆

This is the impulse that caused the change in momentum
we expected and required for the shuttle to dock with the ISS.
COLLISIONS
When objects collide, the collisions are called perfectly elastic, inelas-
tic, or perfectly inelastic. A perfectly elastic collision is one in which
no kinetic energy is lost from the system. A perfectly inelastic colli-
sion is one in which all kinetic energy is lost from the system. An
inelastic collision is any collision in between the two perfect condi-
tions and is how collisions really occur in the real world. The lost
energy (from the system in discussion) appears elsewhere, so the law
of conservation of energy is not disobeyed.
MOMENTUM
Peterson’s SAT II Success: Physics 102
If two pool balls of equal mass collide head on under perfect
conditions, no kinetic energy would be lost. Leading to the following
situation:
After the collision v
1 o
equals v
1 f
and v
2o
equals v
2 f
. The momen-
tum of each pool ball before the collision is the same as their momen-
tum after the collision. Momentum is conserved, leading to the state-
ment of the Law of Conservation of Momentum.
The Law of Conservation of Momentum states that the momen-
tum of an isolated system remains constant.
Example
Here is an interesting example of an inelastic collision.
A freight train is being assembled in the freight yard. An empty
car (A) with a mass of 4000 kg is moving along the track with a
velocity of 1.5 m/s. Another car (B) is completely loaded, has a mass
of 16,000 kg, and is moving in the opposite direction at 10 m/s. The
boxcars collide, couple together, and move off. What is the velocity
and direction of movement of the two boxcars?
CHAPTER 2
Peterson’s: www.petersons.com 103
Solution
The combined momentum of the two boxcars before the collision
must equal their combined momentum after the collision. Thus:
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
( )( )
m v m v m v m v
m v
A A B B BEFORE A A AFTER B B AFTER
A A
BEFORE
+ = +
− ++
+
=
( ) m v
m m
v v
B B
A B
AFTER A
choosing as negative
(4000kgg)( 1.5m/s) (1600kg)( m/s)
4000kg 1600kg
m/s
− +
+
=
=
10
7 7
v
AFTER
.
Notice the velocity is positive. Both boxcars are moving in the
same direction as boxcar B was moving at the start.
CIRCULAR AND ROTARY
CIRCULAR MOTION
A body moving in a circular path is said to have uniform circular
motion. Amusement park rides such as the Ferris wheel and the
carousel are common examples of bodies moving with uniform
circular motion. A student watching the slow constant motion of the
second hand around the face of the clock is another example, as is the
boy who twirls a rubber stopper on a string around his head at a
constant rate. The rate is constant, but the direction is not. This consti-
tutes a change in velocity, which is an acceleration.
According to Newton, acceleration is caused by an unbalanced
force, so where is the force in this case? In investigating the case of
the string and stopper, it’s clear the stopper will fly off in a straight
line if the string is cut. The string attached to the stopper provides the
force that keeps the stopper turning in a circle. That force is called
centripetal force and is directed inward toward the center of the
circle.
CIRCULAR AND ROTARY
Peterson’s SAT II Success: Physics 104
The equation for centripetal force is:
F
mv
r
c
=
2
And by substituting ma for F
c
we have:
ma
mv
r
=
2
Which leads us to the equation for centripetal acceleration by
factoring (canceling) the masses out of the equation.
a
v
r
c
=
2
Planets and satellites stay in their orbits due to the gravitational
force exerted on them by the body they circle. Newton stated his
explanation of satellite motion in his law of universal gravitation.
Essentially, it says that all matter in the universe attracts all other
matter based upon the mass of the bodies and the inverse of the
square of the distance between them. The gravitational constant is:
( . ) G e
m
= •

6 67
11
2
2
N
kg
The centripetal force that keeps the planetary bodies in their
proper places around the sun and the sun in its place in the galaxy
can be explained by using the equations below.
F G
m m
r
=
( )( )
1 2
2
Recognizing F as a centripetal force and substituting the two
equations for the equivalent forces yields
F F
G
m m
r
mv
r
G c
=

=

( )( )
1 2
2
2
Newton’s law of gravitation was a summary of the work done by
Copernicus, Galileo, and Kepler.
CHAPTER 2
Peterson’s: www.petersons.com 105
KEPLER’S LAWS
Johannes Kepler derived the following three laws of planetary
motion:
1. Planets move in ellipses. The sun is at one focus.
2. A line joining any planet to the sun sweeps out equal areas in
equal times.
3. For all the planets in the solar system, the cube of the average
distance from the sun divided by the square of its period of
revolution is a constant
k
r
=
3
2
T
Example
Try the following problem involving the Laws of Gravitation.
A newly discovered planet in another solar system was deter-
mined to have a mass .85 that of the earth, and its diameter was 1.25
that of earth. How would your weight on the planet compare to your
weight on the earth?
Solution
The earth’s attraction for your body and the new planet’s attraction
for your body can be found by using the gravitation equation for both
planets and setting the two equal to one another.
F G
m m
r
F G
m m
r
e
e
p
p
=
=
( )( )
( )( )
2
2
2
2
and
Factor out the G’s, and your mass, too.
m
r
m
r
e
e
p
p
2 2
=
Letting the earth values equal unity we have:
1
1
85
1 25
544
2 2
= =
.
( . )
.
This tells us that your weight on the new planet would
be a little more than half your weight on the earth.
CIRCULAR AND ROTARY
Peterson’s SAT II Success: Physics 106
Example
Let’s go back to the International Space Station (ISS), which has a
period of 98.2 minutes and is at an average height of 380 km above
the earth’s surface. Find the orbital velocity of the ISS (the radius of
Earth is 6400 km and its mass is 6 × 10
24
kg).
Solution
F
mv
r
F G
m m
r
v
Gm
r
c
= =
=
2
1 2
2
and

( )( )
Setting the equations equal to each other and rearranging yields:

v
v
=
×



× )
× + ×
= ×

6 67 10 6 10
6 4 10 3 81 10
5 9
11 24
6 5
.
. .
.
N
m
kg
kg
m m
2
2
110
6
m/s
WEIGHTLESSNESS
The strength of the earth’s gravitational field decreases as the dis-
tance from the earth’s center increases. A person stands on a scale on
the earth and reads his weight as 800N. If the scale worked at
300 km, 900 km, and 2000 km above the earth’s surface, the person’s
weight would be 727N @ 300 km, 613N @ 900 km, and 462N @
2000 km. Remember the force with which the earth attracts is based
on the inverse of the square of the distance
1
2
r
.
The apparent weightlessness of a body orbiting the earth is the
result of the object freely falling toward the earth’s surface at all
times. The body never reaches the earth because the earth’s surface
curves out from under it at the same rate at which the object falls.
ROTARY MOTION
Objects that roll along a surface exhibit two kinds of motion: linear
motion as the object moves from point A to point B, and rotary
motion as the edge of the object rotates about a central point or axis.
An example of these types of motion is a bicycle wheel rolling along
the ground. The rotation of the wheel is measured by the number of
CHAPTER 2
Peterson’s: www.petersons.com 107
circular turns the wheel makes and is measured in rotations per
minute (rpm), revolutions per minute (rev), or the number of degrees
turned by the wheel. The radian is another convenient and frequently
used method for measuring angular values.
The radian measure is a ratio between the arc length of a circu-
lar path and the radius of the circle. Angular displacement θ is also
the ratio of the arc length to the radius of the circle.
θ
RADIANS
s
r
= =
arc length
radius
Remember: 1 rev = 1 rotation = 360° = 2 radians
• The rotational analog of linear velocity (v) is angular velocity ω .
• The rotational analog of linear acceleration (a) is angular accelera-
tion α .
• The rotational analog of linear displacement (s) is angular displace-
ment θ.
Each of these quantities is the rotational analog of its linear
counterpart, so all the linear velocity equations work in the same way
simply by substituting the angular quantity for the linear quantity.
Let’s return to the bicycle wheel to discuss a quantity
that is both rotational and linear (tangential quantities). While
the wheel rolls along the ground, it moves a linear distance as
it simultaneously moves an angular distance.
s r
tan
= θ
The linear distance traveled by the wheel is a direct result of the
angle through which the wheel turns and the radius of the wheel. The
constant linear rate at which the bicycle wheel moves from point A to
B can be expressed tangentially as:
v r
tan
= ω
Should the bicycle wheel be changing velocity, then a linear and
an angular acceleration occurs.
a r
tan
= α
The radian measure must be used in solving tangential
quantities.
CIRCULAR AND ROTARY
Peterson’s SAT II Success: Physics 108
Example
A bicyclist coasts a distance of 180 m in 30 seconds. How many
revolutions do the wheels make in that time? The bicycle wheels are
80 cm in diameter.
Solution
The information given is linear, while the requested quantity is rota-
tional (angular displacement θ).
s r
s
r
tan
tan
=
=
=
=
θ
θ
θ
θ
180m
.4m/radian
450 radians
Change radians to revolutions (see previous)
450
2
71 6
radians
radians/revolutions
revolutions
π
= .
The angular velocity of the wheels can be found easily
enough, too.
v r
v
r
tan
tan
=
=
=
=
ω
ω
ω
ω

m
30s
.4 m/radian
15 radians/s
180
CHAPTER 2
Peterson’s: www.petersons.com 109
CHAPTER SUMMARY
ST ST ST ST STA AA AATICS TICS TICS TICS TICS AND AND AND AND AND T TT TTORQ ORQ ORQ ORQ ORQUES UES UES UES UES
• Statics is the study of objects that are not free to move.
• Objects that are not free to move are in equilibrium.
• The two conditions of equilibrium are:
—The sum of all applied forces is equal to zero.
—The sum of all applied torques is equal to zero.
• A torque is defined as the product of a force multiplied by its
lever arm.
• A lever arm is defined as the perpendicular distance from the
line of an applied force to the pivot point.
• Lines of force that pass through the pivot point cause no
torques.
• The center of gravity (CG) of an object is the point from
which all the weight of an object is considered to act.
KINEMA KINEMA KINEMA KINEMA KINEMATICS TICS TICS TICS TICS
• Displacement is the straight-line distance between two points.
• Velocity is the time-rate change in displacement.
• Acceleration is the time-rate change in velocity.
• Free fall is the condition where the only force acting on an
object is the earth’s gravitational attraction.
• All objects in free fall near the earth are accelerated toward
the earth at a constant acceleration of 9.8 m/s
2
.
MO MO MO MO MOTION IN TION IN TION IN TION IN TION IN TW TW TW TW TWO DIMENSIONS O DIMENSIONS O DIMENSIONS O DIMENSIONS O DIMENSIONS
• Objects in free fall that are moving in a curved path can be
viewed as having linear motion on both the x and y axis
simultaneously.
• The horizontal motion (x axis) and the vertical motion (y axis)
of a projectile are independent of one another.
• The time during which an object is in free fall is the length of
time an object can be moving along the x axis when the object
exhibits curvilinear motion.
CHAPTER SUMMARY
Peterson’s SAT II Success: Physics 110
NEWT NEWT NEWT NEWT NEWTON’S LA ON’S LA ON’S LA ON’S LA ON’S LAWS OF MO WS OF MO WS OF MO WS OF MO WS OF MOTION TION TION TION TION
• Newton’s First Law of Motion is called the Law of Inertia
• Newton’s Third Law of Motion is called the Action-Reaction
Law
• Newton’s Second Law of Motion stated in equation form is
F = ma.
• Frictional forces oppose the movement of objects
• The coefficient of friction is defined as the ratio of the fric-
tional force to the normal force of an object
U
F
f
=
N
.
• The normal force (F
N
) always acts perpendicular to the sur-
face from which it emanates.
• Force is a vector quantity.
W WW WWORK ORK ORK ORK ORK AND ENERGY AND ENERGY AND ENERGY AND ENERGY AND ENERGY
• Energy cannot be created nor can it be destroyed.
• Work is the product of a force and a displacement.
• Kinetic Energy is the energy of a moving object.
• Potential Energy is the energy of position or condition.
• Work, potential energy, and kinetic energy are the same
quantities.
• The rate at which work is done is called power
MOMENTUM MOMENTUM MOMENTUM MOMENTUM MOMENTUM
• The symbol P is used to represent momentum.
• mv also represents momentum.
• Ft is an impulse. It produces a change in momentum m∆ v.
• The law of conservation of momentum is stated: The momen-
tum of an isolated system remains constant.
CHAPTER 2
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CIRCULAR CIRCULAR CIRCULAR CIRCULAR CIRCULAR AND R AND R AND R AND R AND RO OO OOT TT TTAR AR AR AR ARY MO Y MO Y MO Y MO Y MOTION TION TION TION TION
• The force that produces uniform circular motion is called
centripetal force.
• Newton’s Law of gravitational force describes the mutual
force of attraction between any two bodies in the universe.
• Kepler’s laws describe the motion of the planets and satellites
(third law) in the solar system.
• The actual weight of an object depends on its position in a
gravitational field.
• Weightlessness is caused by the constant free fall of a body in
orbit.
• Angular quantities all have linear equivalents (analogs), so the
angular equations are identical to the linear equations except
that θ, ω , and α must be substituted for s, v, and a. .. ..
• A rolling or spinning wheel exhibits both linear motion and
angular motion, which are related by the tangential quantities.
CHAPTER SUMMARY
Chapter 3
W WW WWA AA AAVES VES VES VES VES
Peterson’s: www.petersons.com 115
CHAPTER 3
WA WA WA WA WAVES VES VES VES VES
WAVE PROPERTIES
Waves are energy carriers. We are familiar with water waves, light
waves, and waves in a string, but there are other types of waves as
well. The different types of waves have many similarities and
behave alike in many respects. We will begin our discussion of
waves by looking at their common characteristics.
If we were to stand on an ocean pier under which water
waves were continuously passing, we would notice several things.
The waves pass under the pier at a constant rate (frequency) while
moving toward the beach (velocity), and the distance between the
high points of the waves (wave length) is constant.
The drawing above shows a set of water waves moving past a
fixed point. The wavelength (λ), or distance between waves, is
defined as the distance from any point on one wave to the same
point on a following or a preceding wave. The rate at which the
waves move past the point is their velocity (v), and the number of
waves occurring during a given time (number per sec) is the
frequency (f).
Peterson’s SAT II Success: Physics 116
Amplitude is a measure of the distance above or below the
equilibrium position of the wave.
wavelength ( ) has the units
meters
wave
frequency ( ) has t
λ
f hhe units
waves
meters
velocity ( has the units
meters
sec
v)
The velocity of a wave can be calculated when the frequency and
the wavelength are known.
v f
v
v
=
=








=
λ
meters
wave
waves
sec
meters
sec
The time required for one wave to pass a given point is called the
period of the wave (T). The period is the inverse of the frequency.
f
T
T
f
= =
1 1
Suppose a stone were dropped into the middle of a pond from a
height. The event would cause a set of waves to radiate out away
from the place where the stone entered the water.
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As we look at the event from above, the curvature of each wave
front changes with distance. As the wave front moves further from
the center it becomes less and less curved. The arrows are called
rays and represent the straight line direction in which a single
point on the wave front is moving. Rays are always perpendicular
to the wave front.
Two or more waves can pass through the same point (super-
position) at the same time, causing a situation called interference.
Interference is constructive when waves reinforce one another’s
amplitudes, and it is destructive when waves cancel one another’s
amplitudes.
Diagrams A through E show two identical waves, x and y, traveling
in opposite directions on a string.
• Diagram A shows the waves approaching one another.
• Diagram B shows that a very short time later the first part of wave
x reaches the same place as the first part of wave y (superposi-
tion). The negative amplitude of wave x has destructively interfered
with the positive amplitude of wave y.
• Diagram C shows both waves at the same place in time where
constructive interference occurs.
WAVE PROPERTIES
Peterson’s SAT II Success: Physics 118
• Diagram D is the same as Diagram B except that the trailing parts
of the two waves are superimposed on one another.
• Diagram E shows the two waves completely separated and moving
in opposite directions away from one another.
Mec Mec Mec Mec Mechanical hanical hanical hanical hanical W WW WWa aa aav vv vves es es es es
Waves that require a physical medium in which to travel are
mechanical waves. Examples are sound waves, water waves, and
the vibrating waves in string instruments.
Electr Electr Electr Electr Electroma oma oma oma omagnetic gnetic gnetic gnetic gnetic W WW WWa aa aav vv vves es es es es
Waves not needing a physical medium are called electromagnetic
waves. Light, X-rays, radio waves, and cosmic waves are examples
of electromagnetic waves.
Waves are sometimes classified by their method of generation.
There are longitudinal (compressional) waves and transverse
waves. The longitudinal wave (such as sound) is generated parallel
to the direction of movement (propagation) of the wave.

A Slinky held at both ends can be used to illustrate longitudinal
mechanical waves. Compressing the spring (c) and then releasing
it allows the compression to travel down the spring. Stretching
the spring and releasing it would cause a stretched area or rarefac-
tion (R) to travel through the spring in a similar way.
A transverse wave (light) is generated in a manner perpen-
dicular to the direction of movement (propagation) of the wave.
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The transverse wave shown above is produced by the oscillating
(vibrating) system. The amplitude of the oscillations becomes the
amplitude of the waves, and the rate at which oscillation occurs is
the frequency.
The Doppler Effect explains the change in pitch of a siren or
whistle as it approaches or recedes from the listener. It also
explains the color shifts of stars and galaxies that are moving in
the cosmos.
The frequency at which waves are generated from a siren, for
example, (stars, too) is constant. Should either the source of the
waves or the listener move, or both, the sound of the waves under-
goes an apparent change. If the source and the listener are moving
closer to one another, the waves are encountered at a higher rate,
causing the pitch to increase (increasing frequency). If the source
and listener are receding from one another, the waves are encoun-
tered at a lower rate, causing the pitch to decrease (decreasing
frequency). When stars are involved, the frequency shift exhibits a
color change. Stars approaching us shift the light waves toward
higher frequencies, the blue shift. Stars receding from us shift the
light rays toward lower frequencies, the red shift. The Doppler
Effect is the method astronomers use to determine the relative
motion of stars and galaxies in space.
REFLECTION
Waves that travel to and are incident upon (collide with) a barrier
are bounced back (reflected) and inverted.
The surface most often associated with the reflection light
rays is a mirror. Mirrors can be flat (a plane mirror) or curved
(most common). A mirror can be on the inside of the curve (con-
cave) or on the outside of the curve (convex). Light rays that
strike the surface of a mirror, or anything for that matter, are
incident rays. The rays that bounce off the surface are reflected
rays. A perpendicular line drawn to the surface of a mirror is
called the normal.
WAVE PROPERTIES
Peterson’s SAT II Success: Physics 120
The law of reflection can be stated as follows: The angle of
incidence equals the angle of reflection.
A spherical concave mirror reflects light toward a point on the
central radius called the focal point. The radius of curvature is the
distance from the mirror to its center if the mirror were a full
sphere. This is called the principal axis.
Concave spherical mirrors are important tools in science because
of their ability to focus incident light. The point where incident
rays are focused is called the focal point and is one half the radius
of curvature.
f
r
=
2
CHAPTER 3
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Two rules worth remembering about light rays that strike a con-
cave mirror are:
1. Any light ray that is moving parallel to the principal axis and is
incident to the mirror will be reflected though the focal point.
2. Any light ray that passes through the focal point and is incident
to the mirror will be reflected parallel to the principal axis.
Light rays from objects (O) placed in front of a concave
mirror produce images (I).
The images produced may be real (projectable onto a screen)
or virtual (appearing to be located on the other side of the mirror);
they may be enlarged (magnified) or shrunk (reduced); or they may
be right side up (erect) or upside down (inverted).
The following diagrams illustrate the position of the image
when the object is placed in various locations in front of the
mirror.
Object distance is considered infinite.
Light rays are parallel as they approach and strike the mirror.
Image is located at f. It is reduced, inverted, and real.
Object is located outside r, but not at infinity.
Image is located between f and r. It is reduced, inverted, and real.
WAVE PROPERTIES
Peterson’s SAT II Success: Physics 122
Object is located at r.
Image is located at r. It is the same size as the object, inverted, and
real.
Object is located between r and f.
Image is located beyond r. It is magnified, inverted, and real.
Object is located inside f.
Image is located behind the mirror. It is reduced, erect, and virtual.
CHAPTER 3
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The letters I and O are used to represent the height of the
image (I) and the height of the object (O). The distance from the
mirror to the image is labeled q and the distance from the mirror
to the object is labeled p.
Mirrors are used in a variety of ways throughout the world.
Shopkeepers use convex mirrors to keep an eye on the aisles of
their stores, and sharp corners on roadways have mirrors set out
so drivers can see the road ahead. The magnifying capability of
mirrors allows astronomers and laboratory researchers to perform
their work.
This capability of a mirror is based upon the set of ratios (of
the object and image heights) compared to the distance of the
object and the image from the mirror.
h
h
q
p
i
0
=
Convex spherical mirrors produce images that are always
virtual. The focal length for convex mirrors is always negative.
Object is located in front of the mirror.
Image is located behind the mirror and appears to be inside it. It is
reduced, erect, and virtual.
The equation that describes the location of an image in a
mirror is called the mirror equation.
1 1 1
f p q
= +
The focal length (f) is positive for concave mirrors and negative
for convex mirrors. If the image (q) or the object (p) are located in
front of the mirror, they are positive. If the image (q) and/or the
object is/are located behind the mirror, it is negative.
WAVE PROPERTIES
Peterson’s SAT II Success: Physics 124
Example
Let’s do a typical reflection problem.
Find the location of the image for an object that is placed 37
cm in front of a mirror having a focal length of 3.6 cm. Describe
the image.
Solution
1 1 1
1 1
1
3 6
1
37
1
277 027
f p q
f p q
q
= +
− =
− =

rearranges to
1
cm cm
cm cm
.
. .
1
cm 4cm
=
= =
q
q
1
025 .
The image is located 4 cm from the mirror. The object is outside
the radius of curvature (2f = 7.2 cm), and the image is located
between r and f. It is reduced, inverted, and real.
Now we’ll use the original information from the problem
above, but we’ll replace the concave mirror with a convex mirror.
1 1 1
1 1
1
3 6
1
37
1
277

= +

− =

− =
− −
f p q
f p q
q
rearranges to
1
cm cm
cm
.
. .0027
1
304 3 29
cm
1
cm cm
=
= − = −
q
q
. .
CHAPTER 3
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The image is located 3.29 cm behind the mirror (the negative sign
for q). It is reduced, erect, and virtual.
REFRACTION
Waves that move into a new medium bend as they enter the me-
dium. All waves can be refracted, but our discussion here will be
limited to light. The light beam shown below passes from air into
a cube of plastic.
At the air/plastic boundary, the light ray bends (refracts) toward
the normal when the light ray passes into the plastic. The ray
moves in a straight line while in the plastic until it reenters the air.
At the plastic/air boundary the light ray bends (refracts) away
from the normal.
When light enters an optically more dense material, it refracts
toward the normal. When it enters an optically less dense material,
it refracts away from the normal.
WAVE PROPERTIES
Peterson’s SAT II Success: Physics 126
The mathematical relationship between the velocity of light in
one material (usually air) compared to another material was
determined to be
n n
1 1 2 2
sin sin θ θ = (Snell’s Law) ,
where n is the index of refraction of the material through which
light is passing.
Example
A typical Snell’s Law problem is one where a scuba diver shines a
light upward into the air from under the water. The light beam
makes an angle of 30° from the vertical. What is the angle of the
light beam as it enters the air?
Solution
The index of refraction (n) for water is 1.33 and for air is 1.
Stating Snell’s Law
n n
n
n
1 1 2 2
2
1 1
2
2
2
1 33 5
1
655
sin sin
sin
sin
sin
( . )(. )
.
sin
θ θ
θ
θ
θ
θ
=
=
= =
= 440 5 . °
The light beam will enter the air at an angle of 40.5° from the
normal.
Occasionally, a light ray strikes the surface boundary between
two materials at an angle (called critical angle) that is too large
(from the normal) to pass through the interface between the
materials. The light ray is reflected from the surface where it
becomes “trapped” inside the material, a condition called total
internal reflection. The sparkle of a diamond and optic fiber lights
and cables are examples of total internal reflection.
Lenses are important because they can focus light. Convex
lenses converge light rays passing through them toward the focal
point f. This kind of lens is called convergent. Concave lenses
separate light rays passing through them as if the separated light
rays had originated at the focal point. This kind of lens is called
divergent. The two light rays of which to take note are:
• A light ray that is parallel to the principal axis and is incident upon
the lens will be refracted through the focal point (on the other side
of the lens).
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• A light ray that passes through the focal point and is incident upon
the lens will be refracted parallel to the principal axis (on the other
side).
Light rays from object (O) placed in front of a curved lens
produce images (I). The diagrams below illustrate the position of
the image when the object is placed in various positions.
Object distance is considered infinite.
Light rays are parallel.
Image is located at f. It is reduced, inverted, and real.
Object distance is outside 2f but not infinite.
Image is located between 2f and f. It is reduced, inverted, and real.
WAVE PROPERTIES
Peterson’s SAT II Success: Physics 128
Object is located at 2f.
Image is located at 2f. It is same size as object, inverted, and real.
Object is at f.
Image is at infinity.
Object inside f.
Image same side and outside object; magnified, erect, and virtual.
The lens equation
1 1 1
f p q
= + is the same as the equation used for
mirrors. Remember though, the image distance (q) is positive
when on the opposite side of the lens.
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Concave lenses produce virtual images.
As with the mirror equation, the lens equations can be used to
locate an image.
Example
An object is placed 20 cm from a convex lens of 8 cm focal length.
Locate and describe the image.
Solution
1 1 1
f p q
= +
Rearrange and substitute:
1 1 1
1
8
1 1
125 05
1
1
075
f p q
q
q
q
− =
− =
− =
= =
cm 20cm
cm cm
cm 13.25cm
. .
.
The image is located 13.25 cm from the lens on the side opposite
from the object. It is reduced, inverted, and real.
WAVE PROPERTIES
Peterson’s SAT II Success: Physics 130
POLARIZATION
Polarization is a phenomenon that applies only to transverse
waves. Light is a transverse wave and is commonly the object of
polarization. Let’s examine polarization by considering a rope tied
to a fixed end. Vibrating the rope up and down produces waves
that travel down the rope.
Should we stand beside the rope and hold a meter stick vertically
beside the rope, there is no problem.
The rope vibrates on the vertical axis, and the meter stick is ori-
ented on the vertical axis. If we change the orientation of the stick
to the horizontal axis, the vertical vibrations in the rope strike the
horizontal meter stick.
Transverse waves are almost completely stopped when they reach
the meter stick.
We can take these results a step further and apply them to
light. Light is considered a transverse wave that only differs from
our rope example in that light vibrates 360° around the line path
of the light ray.
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The polarized eyeglasses many people wear restrict the intensity
of the light that reaches their eyes by using a device (polarizer)
that only allows light vibrating on one plane to pass through to
the eye.
The result is similar to holding a meter stick over a rope that is
vibrating up and down, but with the plane polarizer, every plane
but one is polarized at the same time.
DIFFRACTION AND INTERFERENCE
Water waves approaching a fixed object in their path tend to move
around the object and continue on their way. The ability of waves
to bend around obstacles in their path is called diffraction. Like-
wise, waves that strike a barrier in which there are openings have
the ability to pass through the opening. The opening acts as a new
source of waves that radiate out from the source.
WAVE PROPERTIES
Peterson’s SAT II Success: Physics 132
Suppose the barrier has two holes. Then each hole acts as a new
source of waves.
The area of waves beyond the barrier is filled with a confusion of
waves crossing one another. A series of peaks and troughs exists
as waves both constructively and destructively interfere with one
another.
Thomas Young (1801) tested light in this manner using a
double slit. Since the confused waves were light waves, Young
decided he could project the results onto a screen. Young learned
that the light waves would interfere with one another in a way
that produced areas of constructive interference (light spots) and
destructive interference (dark spots).
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The light traveling from Slit 1 (S
1
) travels a number of whole
wavelengths (nλ) to reach the screen at P1. Additionally, the light
from Slit 2 (S
2
) would travel the same number of whole wave-
lengths plus one more, nλ + 1. Typically more than one bright spot
on the fringe is visible. The central (zeroth) fringe is the fringe
where the light path is exactly equal for both S
1
and S
2
. The first
fringe on either side of the zeroth fringe is called the first order
fringe, the second is the second order fringe, etc. The number of
the fringe is the number of extra wavelengths traveled by the light
ray on the longest path.
n d λ θ = sin
Example
Let’s find the wavelength of the green-yellow mercury spectral
line. The grating used has a spacing of 1 × 10
–6
m, and the angle
between the zeroth and first fringe is 33.l°. Write the equation and
remember n = 1 in this case.
n d n
d
λ θ
λ θ
λ
λ
= =
=
= ×
= ×


sin
)(. )
.
and
sin
( m
m or
1
1 10 541
5 46 10
6
7
546.1m
If the angle to the fourth order fringe of a blue light is known to
be 3.9°, and the distance between slits is .0025 cm, find the wave-
length of the light.
WAVE PROPERTIES
Peterson’s SAT II Success: Physics 134
Solution
Remember this is the 4th order fringe, thus n = 4.
The sine of 3.9º is 6.8 × 10
–1
.
n d n
d
λ θ
λ θ
λ
= =
∴ =
=




×

sin
sin
.
( . )
and
cm
100cm/m
4
4
0025
6 8 10
2
44
4 25 10 425
7
λ = ×

.

or nm
CHAPTER 3
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CHAPTER SUMMARY
• Waves are periodic vibrations that carry energy.
• Interference can be constructive or destructive.
• The velocity of a wave is a product of its frequency and
wavelength v = λ f.
• Sound is a longitudinal wave.
• Light is a transverse wave.
• Mirrors reflect light.
• The law of reflection is stated as ∠ i = ∠ r.
• A concave mirror reflects light toward the focal point.
• A convex mirror reflects light as if the rays had passed
through a focal point on the other side of the mirror.
• The mirror equation
1 1 1
f p q
= +
is the same for both concave
and convex mirrors: f is positive for concave mirrors, and f is
negative for convex mirrors.
• Light passing between two transparent materials is refracted
at the surface boundary of the materials.
• Snell’s Law is n
1
sinθ
1
= n
2
sinθ
2
where n is the index of refrac-
tion for the materials, and θ is the angle of refraction.
• A convex lens (converging) refracts light toward a focal point.
• A concave lens (diverging) refracts light as if it had passed
through a focal point and the other side of the lens.
• The lens equation
1 1 1
f p q
= +
is identical in form to the mirror
equation. However, q is positive when the image is located on
the opposite side of the lens from p the object.
• Light that has had all its vibrations eliminated except for those
on a single plane is plane polarized.
• Diffraction is the ability of waves to bend around barriers
placed in their way.
• Interference is the constructive or the destructive superposi-
tion of waves with one another.
CHAPTER SUMMARY
Chapter 4
HEA HEA HEA HEA HEAT T T T T AND AND AND AND AND THERMOD THERMOD THERMOD THERMOD THERMODYN YN YN YN YNAMICS AMICS AMICS AMICS AMICS
Peterson’s: www.petersons.com 139
CHAPTER 4
HEA HEA HEA HEA HEAT T T T T AND AND AND AND AND THERMOD THERMOD THERMOD THERMOD THERMODYN YN YN YN YNAMICS AMICS AMICS AMICS AMICS
TEMPERATURE
The atoms and molecules of which matter is made are constantly in
motion. The more energy they contain, the faster they move. The
kinetic energy the particles have is called internal energy. A hot body
has more internal energy than a cold body. The measure of the inter-
nal energy of a body is called temperature. The temperature of an
object is not dependent on the amount of the substance present and
can be measured with a thermometer.
• Temperature scales are the method by which the heat energy of
bodies can be compared. They are often based on an arbitrary
point.
• The Fahrenheit scale was devised to read 0°F as the coldest tem-
perature reached on earth and 100°F as the hottest material tem-
perature on the earth. The freezing point of water is 32°F and its
boiling point is 212°F.
• The Celsius scale was devised to measure between the freezing and
boiling points of water. The freezing point of water on the Celsius
scale is 0°C, and the boiling point of water is 100°C.
• The Kelvin or absolute scale places 0K at the point where there is
no heat, thus no lower temperature is possible. Zero on the Kelvin
scale is absolute, thus absolute zero means no heat energy is
present. Note the degree sign is not used on the Kelvin or abso-
lute scale.
• There are 180 degrees between the freezing and boiling points of
water on the Fahrenheit scale.
• There are 100

degrees between the freezing and boiling points of
water on the Celsius scale.
• The Kelvin scale places the freezing point of water at 273K and the
boiling point of water at 373K, which is also a 100-unit difference.
The Celsius and the Kelvin scales have a 1:1 relationship. Thus to
change °C to K, all that’s necessary is to add 273 to the Celsius
temperature.
Peterson’s SAT II Success: Physics 140
THERMAL PROPERTIES OF MATTER
Thermal energy is the energy substances possess when their tempera-
ture is greater than absolute zero. As energy is added, most sub-
stances expand. You have probably seen the open joints in concrete
or on bridges—they are there to allow room for the expansion of the
concrete as the seasons change. Continued addition of heat energy
can cause solids to change into liquids or liquids to change to gases.
These are called phase changes.
• Solids change to liquids by melting.
• Liquids change to solids by freezing.
• Liquids change to gases by evaporation.
• Gases change to liquids by condensation.
CHAPTER 4
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Above is a generalized heat and temperature graph for materials.
Note the increase in temperature in the substance until a phase
change begins to occur. During a phase change all the heat energy
added to the material is converting the substance from one phase to
another. The temperature remains constant. The temperature does
not begin to rise again until the phase change is complete. Reversing
the process means removing heat. Should we apply the graph to
water, we can say that during the freezing/melting phase, both liquid
water and ice are present. Likewise, during the condensation/evapo-
ration phase, both liquid water and steam are present. The graph is
flat during these processes, showing that no temperature change
occurs during a phase change.
The heat required to change a substance from a solid to a liquid
is called heat of fusion. The heat required to change a substance from
a liquid to a gas is called heat of vaporization. Typically the heat of
vaporization is greater than the heat of fusion for a given substance.
Expansion and Contraction Expansion and Contraction Expansion and Contraction Expansion and Contraction Expansion and Contraction
When the temperature of a substance is raised, the atoms and mol-
ecules of the substance have more energy. This causes the distance
between the atoms and molecules to increase. As a result, the material
expands. Lowering the temperature of a substance causes the dis-
tance between atoms and molecules to decrease or shrink.
Heat Heat Heat Heat Heat T TT TTr rr rransf ansf ansf ansf ansfer er er er er
Heat can be transferred between substances in several ways. Every
case of heat transfer involves the movement of heat from an area of
high heat content to an area of low heat content.
THERMAL PROPERTIES OF MATTER
Peterson’s SAT II Success: Physics 142
Conduction Conduction Conduction Conduction Conduction is the transfer of heat through an object such as a
fireplace poker. One end of the poker is cool to the touch while the
other end of the poker (in the fire) is very hot. Conduction can only
take place in a body when different parts of the body are at different
temperatures. The direction of heat flow is from the higher tempera-
ture end to the lower temperature end. The rate of conduction
depends on the material in question, the cross-section area of the
object, the difference in the temperatures between two points, and
inversely on the length of the object.
Convection Convection Convection Convection Convection is the term applied to heat transfer from one place
to another by the actual movement of the atoms and molecules of the
material. A radiant heater is a good example of this. When the heater
is in operation, air molecules are heated. The heated air expands,
becomes less dense, and rises away from the heater. Cooler unheated
air “falls” into the place vacated by the previously heated air, where it
too is heated and rises. The continuous rise and replacement of
heated air circulates warm air throughout an enclosed space.
Radiation Radiation Radiation Radiation Radiation is the only heating/cooling process where no physical
medium is necessary. The sun’s energy heats the atmosphere, the
oceans, and the land through the vacuum of space. Radiant energy
from the sun also provides the light necessary for photosynthesis in
plants.
A wall that was heated by the sun during the day radiates heat at
night, thus cooling itself. Radiant energy is emitted by all warm
bodies and is a form of electromagnetic energy. Thermos bottles keep
liquids hot or cold because they do not absorb heat, but rather reflect
it back into the substance within the vacuum bottle, which keeps heat
within the substance. Cold substances stay cold inside a Thermos
because the bottle is a poor heat emitter and does not allow heat to
easily pass into the cold substance within.
KINETIC THEORY
The following three statements compose the basis of the kinetic
theory:
1. All matter is made of very small particles called atoms and
molecules.
2. The particles of matter are in constant random motion.
3. The particles of matter experience perfectly elastic collisions
with one another and with the walls of their containers.
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The particles of a gas in a closed container move in a random manner.
However, there is a certainty that the enclosed gas molecules are
moving toward or away from one of the walls of the container.
Eventually, the gas particles strike one of the sides of the container.
The impact each particle exerts on the container wall is its momen-
tum, which is a product of the particle’s mass and its velocity.
The number of times the container wall is struck by the gas
particles within depends on the number of gas particles in the con-
tainer and the velocity at which the particles are moving. The faster
the particles move, the faster they travel the distance to the container
wall and the more often the particles strike the container wall. The
enclosed gas particles have constant mass, which means the momen-
tum of the gas only changes when the velocity of the particle changes.
If the particle moves more slowly, then its kinetic energy decreases; if
it moves faster, its kinetic energy increases. A higher number of
particles within the container will collide with the walls more often
than a lower number of particles.
The measure of the rate at which gas particles strike the con-
tainer walls and their momentum is called pressure. Pressure is
directly related to the number of particles and their kinetic energy.
We can use the temperature of gas as a measure of its kinetic energy.
Generally we can say:
As the temperature increases ↑ Pressure increases ↑
As the number of particles increases ↑ Pressure increases ↑
THERMAL PROPERTIES OF MATTER
Peterson’s SAT II Success: Physics 144
Example
So far the container in which the gas is held has been constant in its
volume. Let’s consider a gas in a cylinder with a movable piston.
The diagrams show a gas enclosed in a cylinder that has a movable
piston. Diagram A shows the gas under normal conditions. If we add
weight to the outside of the piston in Diagram B, the pressure exerted
on the enclosed gas is increased and its volume is reduced. In Dia-
gram C, we add even more weight to the piston and the pressure on
the gas increases again. The pressure and volume of the enclosed gas
are indirectly related.
Pressure increases ↑ Volume decreases ↓
CHAPTER 4
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Solution
We can sum these relationships with an equation called the Ideal Gas
Law.
PV nRt
P
m
Pa
V

pressure, expressed in
N
or
volume, expressed
2
in (or compatible units)
N number of moles and/or
mass
3
m
n
of gas
molecular mass
R gas law constant 8.314
mole)(

¸ J
K ( )
¸¸

_
,

T temperature in Kelvins
1 atmosphere of pressure = 1.01 × 10
5
Pa or 101KPa
Standard temperature and pressure are defined as 1 atmosphere of
pressure and a temperature of 273 K.
Any gas that obeys the Ideal Gas Law is called an ideal gas.
Example
A 500cm
3
(5 × 10
–4
m
3
) container is filled with chlorine gas. How
many moles of the gas are in the container at STP?
Solution
PV = nRt
State and rearrange the equation.
PV
RT
n
n
Pa m
J
mole K
K
n




( . )( )
( . )( )
.
1 01 10 5 10
8 314 273
2 2 10
5 4 3
−−

2
moles .022 moles
THERMAL PROPERTIES OF MATTER
Peterson’s SAT II Success: Physics 146
Bo Bo Bo Bo Boyle’s La yle’s La yle’s La yle’s La yle’s Law and Charles’ La w and Charles’ La w and Charles’ La w and Charles’ La w and Charles’ Law ww ww
The relationship between pressure and volume was studied by Robert
Boyle (1627–1691), who gave us the statement called Boyle’s Law.
Boyles’ Law states that when the temperature of a gas is kept
constant, the pressure will vary inversely with the volume.
A few years later, Jacques Charles (1746–1823) added his state-
ments about the relationships between pressure, temperature, and
volume, which are known as Charles’ Law.
1. If the pressure of a gas is held constant, the volume of a gas is
directly proportional to its absolute temperature.
2. At constant volume, the pressure of a gas is proportional to the
absolute temperature.
Boyle’s Law can be stated as an equation.
P
1
V
1
= P
2
V
2
Charles’ Law can also be stated in equation form.
V
T
V
T
P
T
P
T
1
1
2
2
1
1
2
2
or the variation
Combining the three equations above gives another useful equation
called the Combined Gas Law.
( )( ) ( )( ) P V
T
P V
T
1 1
1
2 2
2

Notice a difference in the Combined Gas Law compared to the
Ideal Gas Law (PV = nRt).
Pressure and volume units may be expressed in any units that are
compatible to one another. Temperature, though still relative to
absolute or Kelvin values, may be left in Celsius values because the
Celsius and Kelvin temperatures have a relationship of 1°C per 1K.
For this reason, Celsius degrees may be used provided both tempera-
tures are from the Celsius scale. Fahrenheit temperatures must
always be converted.
CHAPTER 4
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USING THE GAS LAWS
Example
A 40L (4 × 10
–3
m
3
) gas tank is filled with Helium gas at a temperature
of 20°C (293K) and a pressure of 2.5 × 10
5
Pa. Find the mass of
Helium gas in the container (the atomic mass of Helium
mole
4
g
).
Solution
This is an Ideal Gas Law problem.
PV nRT
n
PV
RT
n

rearrange
remember number of molees of the gas
mass
atomic mass
number of mol

( )( )( )
( )( )
P V
R T
ees
mass
atomic mass
mass
Pa m
g
mole
3

¸
¸

_
,

( . )( ) 2 5 10 4 10 4
5 3

¸
¸

_
,

8 314 293 . ( )
J
mole
K
mass 1.642g
Example
A gas occupies 4.5L at STP. What new volume will the gas occupy if
its temperature is raised to 325K and the pressure changes to
1.75 atm?
THERMAL PROPERTIES OF MATTER
Peterson’s SAT II Success: Physics 148
Solution
This problem is a combined gas law problem. Let the original condi-
tions be P
1
, V
1
, and T
1
and the new conditions be P
2
, V
2
, and T
2
. The
missing value in the problem is the volume (V
2
).
( )( ) ( )( )
:
( )( )(
P V
T
P V
T
V
V
P V T
1 1
1
2 2
2
2
1 1

Rearranging to find
2
22
2 1
2
1 4 5 325
1 75 273
3 06
)
( )( )
( )( . )( )
( . )( )
.
P T
V
atm L K
atm K
L
Notice in this example that the atmosphere (atm) for pressure units
works, as do the liters for volume.
CHAPTER 4
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THERMODYNAMICS
LAWS OF THERMODYNAMICS
We will begin our discussion of thermodynamics with what is called
an isolated system, or simply, a system. All the matter and energy in
the system is totally separated from everything else. By definition, the
internal energy (U) of a system is the sum of all the potential and
kinetic energy contained within that system. When heat (Q) is added
to a system, (∆U) is positive, and when heat (Q) is removed from a
system, (∆U) is negative.
The first law of thermodynamics is a restatement of the law of
conservation of energy. The special circumstance is that the first law
of thermodynamics only addresses heat energy. When a quantity of
heat (Q) is added to a closed system, the internal energy (U) of the
system will increase by the same amount, minus any work (W) done
by the system.
∆ ∆ ∆
∆ ∆ ∆
Q W U
Q U W


or
Since a thermodynamic system is concerned with the transfer of
heat, one of the ways such a system interacts with its surroundings
will always be heat transfer. Heat transfer can occur in many ways,
but the most common way in a thermodynamic system is through
work. Work is done by a system when some of the heat that is added
to that system is converted to mechanical energy. Work can be posi-
tive or negative.
(Remember, Work = F • s • cosθ ). This can be illustrated by
investigating a gas enclosed in a cylinder.
THERMODYNAMICS
Peterson’s SAT II Success: Physics 150
• Diagram 1 shows an enclosed gas.
• Diagram 2 shows that gas compressed. The gas has been reduced in
volume (work done on the gas), so the quantity ∆W from the first
law statement is negative. ∆L is the distance the piston moved
inward as the gas was compressed.
• Diagram 3 shows the gas after it has expanded. The volume has
increased as the gas inside the cylinder has done work on the
piston when it expanded, thus the work is positive.
The second law of thermodynamics can be stated two ways:
1. No heat engine can have an efficiency of 100%.
2. Any ordered system will tend to become disordered.
The first of these statements makes it clear that losses due to friction,
combustion, and heat transfer prevent any heat engine (such as cars)
from being 100% efficient. Most automobiles are around 40% effi-
cient.
The second statement predicts the movement of heat from hot
objects (ordered) to cold objects (disordered). This means that en-
tropy is a measure of disorder.
CHAPTER 4
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THERMODYNAMIC PROCESSES INVOLVING GASES
Gases, like all other matter, have a specific heat capacity. This means
they can absorb heat energy when they are in contact with a hotter
source and can pass heat energy to a colder source. They also un-
dergo several processes unique to gases, which are useful in the
operation of devices called heat engines.
These processes are:
Isobaric: A process that occurs at constant pressure.
Isochoric: A process that occurs at constant volume.
Isothermal: A process that occurs at constant temperature.
Adiabatic: A process in which no heat enters or leaves a system.
The work done by an enclosed gas is positive work.
Work done on an enclosed gas is negative work.
Diagram A shows an enclosed gas expanding at constant pressure.
The piston moves outward and the system does positive work. The
quantity of work done is equal to the pressure and the change in
volume (P∆V) and is the area under the P–V curve. To do additional
work, the piston must be able to repeat the process, but if the piston
THERMODYNAMICS
Peterson’s SAT II Success: Physics 152
moves back from B to A, all the work already done will be lost. The
solution to returning the piston to point A without losing the work
already done is to lose just some of the work. The gas is allowed to
contract adiabatically to point C. At that point, work is done on the
system and the volume is reduced to point D in an isothermal process.
The gas undergoes an adiabatic expansion during which the system
returns to its starting point at point A, and the cycle can begin again.
The positive work done by the system is enclosed under the curve
ABCDA. Under the A → B curve, the work done is positive. The gas
expands and does work on the system. Under the C → D curve, work
is done on the gas. Therefore, the result is negative work as the
system does work on the gas by reducing its volume.
The diagram above represents an idealized thermodynamic cycle.
CHAPTER 4
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The diagram below represents a Carnot cycle.
During processes AB and BC, positive work is done, but during
processes CD and DA, negative work is done. The net work done by
the system is the area enclosed by ABCDA.
The value of the work done can be calculated by subtracting the
value of Q
2
from Q
1
(Q
1
– Q
2
= Work).
The ratio of the output temperature compared to the input
temperature of the gas is used to calculate the efficiency of the heat
engine
1−
¸
¸

_
,

T
T
c
h
Efficiency
.
Another way to find the efficiency of a heat engine is to compare
the output heat (Q
out
) with the input heat (Q
in
) of the engine:
1−
Q
Q
c
h
.
THERMODYNAMICS
Peterson’s SAT II Success: Physics 154
The flow chart above shows a generalized diagram of a heat engine.
Heat from the hot reservoir (Q
h
) flows from a high temperature area
to a low temperature area. Between the two areas some of the heat
energy is used to do work. The remaining heat (Q
c
) becomes the
exhaust.
When a heat engine is run in the opposite direction from the
flow chart above, cooling occurs. Many devices, such as refrigerators,
air conditioners, and freezers, can perform cooling. Another example
is the heat pump. This device cools in the same way as the other
cooling devices: the reverse of the normal movement of heat from a
heat engine to produce a reversed flow chart.
CHAPTER 4
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CALORIMETRY
When a hot object and a cold object are brought into contact with
one another, heat flows from the hot object into the cold object until
both objects reach the same temperature. This flow, hot→cold, is a
characteristic of heat energy. When both objects reach the same
temperature by their contact with one another, thermal equilibrium
has been reached.
The heat that has been transferred from the hot object to the
cold object is called heat energy. Heat energy is not the same as
thermal energy. Thermal energy is the energy possessed by an object
that makes up the energy of the individual atoms and molecules of the
substance. The difference between the two is that heat energy flows
from one object to another because of a temperature difference
between the two objects.
The study of how heat transfers between objects that are in
contact with one another is called calorimetry.
All heat is a form of energy, and so the unit for measuring ther-
mal energy is the Joule. Several other units are also used to measure
heat energy. The BTU, or British Thermal Unit, is used in conjunction
with the Fahrenheit temperature scale. Another commonly used heat
unit is the calorie (cal).
The heat energy required to change the temperature of a sub-
stance by 1 degree is defined as the specific heat capacity (specific
heat) of the substance. It is represented by a lower case c. In addi-
tion, the heat required to raise the temperature of a substance by 1
degree is dependent on the amount of the substance present. If a
standard mass of 1 gram of the substance is used as a reference, the
relationship between mass, temperature, specific heat, and heat
content can be stated as:
Q = cm∆T
When two different substances are in contact with one another
and the specific heat of one substance is different from the specific
heat of the other substance, the heat that transfers between them (∆Q)
to reach equilibrium will always be the same for both substances.
THERMODYNAMICS
Peterson’s SAT II Success: Physics 156
Take, for example, a closed system with 1 gram of aluminum in
contact with 1 gram of lead. The heat that flows from the hot sub-
stance, in this case lead, must equal the heat flow into the cold sub-
stance, the aluminum.
Pb Al
Q cm T Q cm T

⇓ ⇓
∆ ∆
The heat flow Q is the same for both, giving the following equation:
( ) ( ) cm T cm T
Pb Al
∆ ∆
Notice that the heat flow into the aluminum and out of the lead is the
same, but the change in the temperature of each substance will not be
the same.
The specific heat for lead is .
( )( )
13
Joules
g C
, while the specific heat
for aluminum is .
( )( )
88
Joules
g C
.
Just looking at the difference in the specific heat of the two, we
can see that it takes almost seven times as much heat to change the
temperature of the aluminum by 1 degree Celsius as it does to change
the lead by the same amount.
Not only do substances require a specific amount of heat to be
added (or removed) to change their temperature, they require addi-
tional heat energy in order to change phase.
The specific heat capacity of ice is 2 1 .
( )( )
Joules
g C
. As long as ice is
at a temperature below 0°C, heat must be added to change the tem-
perature of the ice. The temperature of the ice will continue to rise
until it reaches 0°C. Once the ice reaches its melting point, all the
heat energy added to the ice is used to change the ice to water (heat
of fusion). After all the ice is melted, any heat added to the water
raises its temperature until the boiling point of the water is reached.
Note that the specific heat of ice is different from that of water,
which is 4 184 .
( )( )
Joules
g C
.
CHAPTER 4
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When the water reaches its boiling point, all the heat added to the
system is used to change the boiling water to steam (heat of vaporiza-
tion). Once again, when all the water has been changed to steam, the
temperature of the steam begins to rise. The specific heat of steam
1 92 .
( )( )
Joules
g C
¸
¸

_
,
is different from both that of ice and of water.
PROBLEM SOLVING IN CALORIMETRY
Students who are doing calorimetry problems should realize that they
are completing an energy ledger, just as in bookkeeping. All the heat
lost by an object(s) will always be gained by one or more other
objects. That’s a statement of the first law of thermodynamics.
Example
How much heat is required to change the temperature of 500g of
water from 10°C to 50°C? The specific heat for water is:
4 184 .
( )( )
Joules
g C
Solution
∆ ∆


Q cm T
Q
Joules
g C
g C C
Q

¸
¸

_
,

4 184 500 50 10
83 6
.
( )( )
( )( )
, 8 80J
Example
Now we’ll do the same problem using iron. The specific heat of iron
is:
.
( )( )
46
Joules
g C
THERMODYNAMICS
Peterson’s SAT II Success: Physics 158
Solution
∆ ∆


Q cm T
Q
Joules
g C
g C C
Q J

¸
¸

_
,

.
( )( )
( )( ) 46 500 50 10
9200
Notice that it takes more than nine times as much heat energy to heat
the water as it does to heat the iron. This is in keeping with what we
would expect by looking at the specific heats of the two materials.
Water has a specific heat nine times larger than the specific heat of
iron.
Example:
Here is another type of Calorimetry problem with which you should
be familiar.
The temperature of 300g of water is 20°C. If 12,500J of heat
energy is added to the water, what will the temperature of the water
change to?
Solution:
Start with the calorimetry equation:
∆ ∆

Q cm T
Q cm t t
J
Joules
g C
g t
f o
f


( )
, .
( )( )
( )( 12 500 4 184 300 20 CC
J
Joules
g C
t
f
)
, .
( )( )
( ) ( ,
¸
¸

_
,

¸
¸

_
,

− 12 500 1255 2 25 1004
12 500 25 104 1255 2
37
J
J J
Joules
g C
t
f
)
, , .
( )( )
( )

¸
¸

_
,

6604
1255 2
29 96
J
Joules
t
C t
f
f
.
.

Example:
The last problem to take a look at is similar to one you may have
already seen in your high school laboratory.
CHAPTER 4
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During a laboratory experiment a student places 50g of copper,
which is at a temperature of 100°C, into a Styrofoam cup (the cup
effectively can be ignored in this problem) that contains 200g of
water at a temperature of 25°C. The copper remains in the water
until thermal equilibrium is reached. Predict the final equilibrium
temperature of the system. The specific heat of the water is
4 182 .
( )( )
Joules
g C
, and the specific heat of copper is .
( )( )
39
Joules
g C
.
Solution
Before starting to solve the problem, we need to remember what is
happening in the system.
1. Copper loses heat. Heat loss is negative.
2. Water gains heat. Heat gain is positive.
Start by stating the heat change. Be sure to watch your signs.
Copper (Cu) Copper (Cu) Copper (Cu) Copper (Cu) Copper (Cu) W WW WWater (H ater (H ater (H ater (H ater (H
2 22 22
O) O) O) O) O)


− −


∆ ∆
∆ ∆
Q Q
cm T cm T
cm t t cm t t
Jo
f o f o
( ) ( )
( ) ( ( )
(.39
uules
g C
g t C
Joules
g C
f
( )( )
)( )( ) ( .
( )( )
(

50 100 4 184 2000 25
19 5 1950 836 8
g t C
J
C
t J
J
C
t
f
f
)( )
( . ) ( ) ( .

ff
f f
J
J
C
t J
J
C
t
) ( , . )
( . ) ( ) ( . )


26 131 25
19 5 1950 836 8 (( , . )
, . . .
,
26 131 25
26 131 25 1950 836 8 19 5
28 081
J
J J
J
C
t
J
C
t
J
f f

856 3
28 081
32 8
.
,
.
J
C
t
J
J
t
C t
f
f
f
It is important to keep the correct sign for heat loss and heat gain
throughout the entire problem. Do not multiply the sign through the
problem until you are ready to remove the brackets and parentheses.
THERMODYNAMICS
Peterson’s SAT II Success: Physics 160
CHAPTER SUMMARY
• There are no temperature changes during a phase change.
• Most substances expand when they are heated and contract
when they cool. Water is a notable exception.
• The Kinetic Theory explains the actions of gases.
• The ideal gas law is PV = nRT.
• The combined gas law is
( )( ) ( )( ) P V
T
P V
T
1 1
1
2 2
2

.
• Robert Boyle determined the relationship between the pres-
sure and the volume of an enclosed gas.
• Jacques Charles determined the relationship between the
pressure and temperature of a gas at constant volume.
• Jacques Charles determined the relationship between the
volume and temperature of a gas kept at constant pressure.
• The first law of thermodynamics is a restatement of the law of
conservation of heat energy. ∆ ∆ ∆ Q U W
• The second law of thermodynamics states that no heat engine
can have efficiency equal to 100%.
• An alternate statement of the second law is that an ordered
system tends to become disordered.
• The work done by a heat engine is the area under its P–V
curve.
• A heat engine operating in reverse produces cooling.
• Calorimetry is the study of heat transfer between objects.
• The specific heat capacity of a substance is the heat energy
required to change the mass of one gram of a substance by
one degree Celsius.
• A substance that loses heat has a negative change of heat
( ) −∆Q .
• A substance that gains heat has a positive change of heat
( ) ∆Q .
CHAPTER 4
Chapter 5
ELECTRICITY ELECTRICITY ELECTRICITY ELECTRICITY ELECTRICITY AND ELECTR AND ELECTR AND ELECTR AND ELECTR AND ELECTROMA OMA OMA OMA OMAGNETISM GNETISM GNETISM GNETISM GNETISM
Peterson’s: www.petersons.com 163
CHAPTER 5
ELECTRICITY ELECTRICITY ELECTRICITY ELECTRICITY ELECTRICITY AND ELECTR AND ELECTR AND ELECTR AND ELECTR AND ELECTROMA OMA OMA OMA OMAGNETISM GNETISM GNETISM GNETISM GNETISM
ELECTROSTATICS
Electrostatics is a study of charges that are not moving. The source of
all charge is the atoms from which all things are formed. If an atom
loses or gains electrons, the natural charge balance (equal numbers of
protons and electrons) is disturbed. This produces an ion, or charged
particle. The only part of an atom capable of moving to form an ion is
the electron, which carries a charge of –1.6 × 10
–19
C. The charge
carried by a proton is the same value as the charge on the electron,
but it is a positive charge. Hence, all charge is due either to an
excess of electrons (negatively charged bodies) or a deficiency of
electrons (positively charged bodies).
• Negatively charged objects are produced by moving electrons onto
an object. This happens when an object is touched by another
object that contains excess electrons.
• Positively charged objects are produced by allowing electrons to
drain away from an object being charged to an object deficient in
electrons.
• The forces between charged bodies are repulsion or attraction. Like
charges repel one another. Unlike charges attract one another.
• The first diagram shows a pair of pith balls. The balls are un-
charged and hang straight down.
• The second and third diagrams show pith balls charged with like
charges; the balls repel one another.
Peterson’s SAT II Success: Physics 164
• The last shows unlike charges on the pith balls, which attract one
another.
COULOMB’S LAW
The equation describing how charged particles affect one another is
called Coulomb’s Law.
F K
q q
r
F
k
m
C

( )( )
1 2
2
9
2
2
10
force
a constant whose value is 9 N
qq
r m

charges on the bodies
distance between bodies in
One coulomb of charge is a very large charge. It takes
6.25 × 10
18
excess electrons to produce a charge of 1C.
If two blocks of iron, each weighing 10 N and with a 1C charge,
were placed on a surface where the frictional force between the
blocks and the surface was 10 N, and the blocks did not move, they
would have to be located 30 km apart.
F K
q q
r
r K
q q
F
r
N
m
C
C C
N

¸
¸

_
,

¸
¸

_
( )( )
( )( )
( )( )
1 2
2
1 2
9
2
2
9 10
1 1
10 ,,

r 30,000 m or 30 km
CHAPTER 5
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Example
Here is an example of a commonly seen electrostatics problem. Two
electrons are located 10 mm apart. What happens to the force
between them if the distance between them is halved (to 5 mm)?
Solution
F K
q q
r
F
m
C
C C
m

− −
( )( )
( . )( . )
(. )
1 2
2
9
2
2
19 19
2
9 10
1 6 10 1 6 10
01
N







F
m
m
F
2 304 10
2 3 10
28 2
2
24
.
.
N
1 10
4
That’s the force operating on the particles at a distance of 10
mm. Now we’ll solve for the force at 5 mm so we can compare them.
We know everything remains exactly the same in the problem
except the separation, which halves, so all we do is use the
numerators in the first equation with a new distance inserted into the
denominator.
F K
q q
r
F
m
m
F







( )( )
.
( . )
.
1 2
2
28 2
5 2
24
2 3 10
2 5 10
9 2 10
N
N
Comparing the two forces:
Ratio of forces
N
N



9 2 10
2 3 10
4
1
24
24
.
.
The force on the electrons is four times greater at a distance of 5 mm
than it is at 10 mm.
ELECTROSTATICS
Peterson’s SAT II Success: Physics 166
Solution 2
Let’s use an intuitive approach to solving the same problem. We apply
a little thought to the situation and save some of the calculations we
need to perform.
Since everything in the problem remains the same except the
separation distance, which is halved, we can say the ratio of the two
distances also gives the ratio of the two forces as
1
2
2
¸
¸

_
,
. Clearly we
have a 1:4 ratio, which tells us that the force changes by 4 times as
much when the distance between the two electrons is halved.
ELECTRIC FIELDS
The forces that charged bodies exert on one another can be explained
with a concept called electric field. The electric field exists about cell-
charged bodies. Bodies that are positively charged have electric fields
that exit from them (positive electric fields). Bodies that are nega-
tively charged have electric fields that are directed into them (nega-
tive electric fields).
Electric fields are represented by field lines, which always enter
or leave a charged body perpendicular to the surface of the body. The
field lines are representative of the path that a hypothetical charge
(called a test charge) would follow near a charged body.
A test charge is not real, so its characteristics can be defined.
• The test charge can be affected by an electric field, but it does not
affect the electric field.
• The value of a test charge is +1C. The test charge is represented
by Q.
The positive test charge is repelled from the positive charged point,
and it is attracted to the negative point (called point charges).
CHAPTER 5
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Two things you should remember about point charges are:
1. Field lines originate in and leave positive charges, and they enter
and end in negative charges.
2. Field lines are closer together where the electric field is
strongest.
The strength of the electric field E is defined as the force exerted on a
positive test charge Q placed in the electric field.
F = EQ
When charged bodies are near one another their electric fields
interact with one another.
The field lines of the like charges do not cross one another, which
produces repulsive forces. The field lines of the unlike charges work
concurrently, producing an attractive force.
The electric field can be applied to a pair of charged parallel
plates. The electric field between parallel plates operates in the same
direction as point charges. The field lines leave the positive plate and
enter the negative plate perpendicular to the two surfaces. Between
the two plates the electric field lines are parallel to one another.
The only place the field lines are not parallel is at the edges of the
parallel plate.
ELECTRIC FIELDS
Peterson’s SAT II Success: Physics 168
The parallel plates can be charged by hooking a battery to each
side of the plates, producing a potential difference. A positively
charged particle can be moved from the negative plate to the positive
plate by exerting a force on it. The two plates are separated by a
distance d, so the particle has work done on it to move it from the
negative plate to the positive plate.
When charge is added to a body, work is required. The potential
that can build upon the body is dependent on the magnitude of the
charge deposited on the body, as well as the distance between the
charges on the body.
The ratio of the charge to the potential is called capacitance,
which is a constant. A device designed to accept charge while
building potential is called a capacitor. Capacitance is measured in
farads. The farad is defined as a charge of one coulomb per volt.
C
Q
V

Capacitors are important parts of electrical circuits and will be
addressed below when we discuss circuits.
The potential difference between one terminal of a battery and
the other terminal of the battery is called the volt (V). The volt is a
measure of the work that must be done to move a charged body
against an electric field or is the work that can be obtained by letting
a charged body move with an electric field.
The electron volt (eV) is a term used to describe the energy an
electron gains as it is moved through a potential difference of 1 volt.
Thus, an electron moved through a potential of 1 volt gains a
potential of 1eV, while the same electron moved through a potential
of 50V gains a potential of 50eV.
Electrical potential energy is used to perform mechanical work.
ELECTRIC CIRCUITS
An electric circuit is defined as a pathway for charge to flow from
high potential to low potential. When charge flows from high to low
potential, it is ordinarily caused to do work, such as running a fan
motor or lighting a light bulb.
Charge flow in an electric circuit is called current (I), and its unit
is the ampere (A). A flow of 6.25 × 10
18
electrons is required for a
charge flow of
1
C
s
, which is equal to 1 ampere of current.
CHAPTER 5
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As charge flows, frictional forces resist the movement of
electrons through the conducting wire. The resistance of an object
requires charge to do work in order to flow. Useful work is obtained
when the resistance is a light bulb, compressor motor, or a computer.
The source of charge can be a battery or other device that acts as a
source of charge. The higher the potential of the source, the greater
the current provided. Batteries and other like devices provide a
constant voltage, which is why they are called direct current (DC)
sources. The more resistance a DC circuit has in it, the lower the
current that can develop.
OHM’S LAW
The German scientist George Ohm (1787-1854) stated the relation-
ships described above and combined them into what is called Ohm’s
Law.
V = I R
The potential difference is in volts (V), the electric current I is in
amperes (A), and the resistance R is in ohms (Ω).
Example
Let’s try a problem using Ohm’s Law.
What current flows in a circuit that has an applied voltage of 6V
and a total resistance of 12Ω?
Solution
V IR
I
V
R
I
V
I A

6
12
5

.
In order to increase the current, let’s say double it to 1A, we
would either have to halve the resistance or double the applied
voltage, showing the inverse relationship between resistance and
current and the direct relationship between voltage and current.
ELECTRIC CIRCUITS
Peterson’s SAT II Success: Physics 170
SERIES AND SERIES PARALLEL CIRCUITS
A source of electrical potential sometimes has a single task, such as to
operate a flashlight bulb. But just as often the power source is used to
perform many tasks through several different pathways. The first
example we will discuss is the single task or series circuit; and the
second type is called a parallel circuit.
SERIES CIRCUITS
Series circuits have only one pathway in which current can flow.
Every unit of charge flowing in a series circuit must pass through
every position of the circuit.
When more than one resistor is in a series circuit, the value of each
resistor is added together to give the total resistance.
R R R R R
t
+ + +
1 2 3

The total resistance for the circuit shown is s 12Ω
Ω Ω Ω

.
R
R
t
t
+ +

2 4 6
12
CHAPTER 5
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PARALLEL CIRCUITS
Parallel circuits have two or more pathways through which current
can flow. The total value of the current depends on the parallel
resistance offered against the current flow. Since current and resis-
tance are indirectly related, the highest resistance will allow less
current to flow, and the lowest resistance will allow more current to
flow.
The total resistance of a set of parallel resistors is found in the
following manner:
1 1 1 1
1 2
3 R R R R
t
+ +
1 1
2
1
5
1
10
1
40
1
5 2 1 025
1
825
1 21
R
R
R
R
t
t
t
t
+ + +
+ + +

Ω Ω Ω Ω
Ω Ω Ω Ω

. . . .
.
.
The value of the final resistance shows another characteristic of
parallel resistances. The total resistance of a set of parallel resistors
is always equal to or less than the value of the smallest resistor in
the parallel set. When an extremely large resistor (500 meg-ohms) is
ELECTRIC CIRCUITS
Peterson’s SAT II Success: Physics 172
in parallel with an extremely small resistor, the total resistance is
equal to the smallest resistor. When a set of parallel resistors are all
of equal resistance, we can divide the resistance value of one of them
by the total number of resistors in parallel to find the resistance of
the parallel system.
Example
Let’s do a problem where elements of both the series circuit and the
parallel circuit are combined.
1. 1. 1. 1. 1. Find the total resistance for the circuit. Find the total resistance for the circuit. Find the total resistance for the circuit. Find the total resistance for the circuit. Find the total resistance for the circuit.
The first step to solve the problem is to find the equivalent resistance
for the R
2
– R
3
– R
4
parallel set of resistors:
1 1 1 1
1 1
10
1
8
1
4
1
25
4
1 2
3 R R R R
R
R
R
t
t
t
t
+ +
+ +

Ω Ω Ω


.
CHAPTER 5
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Next we find the equivalent resistance for the R
6
– R
7
pair.
1 1 1
1 1
10
1
15
1
1667
6
6 7
R R R
R
R
R
t
t
t
t
+
+

Ω Ω

.
Finally, we add the two parallel equivalent values to the values of R
1
,
R
5,
and R
8,
yielding:
R
R
t
t
+ + + +

2 4 3 6 9
24
Ω Ω Ω Ω Ω

2. 2. 2. 2. 2. Use Ohm’s La Use Ohm’s La Use Ohm’s La Use Ohm’s La Use Ohm’s Law to f w to f w to f w to f w to find the total cur ind the total cur ind the total cur ind the total cur ind the total curr rr rrent in the cir ent in the cir ent in the cir ent in the cir ent in the circuit. cuit. cuit. cuit. cuit.
V IR
I
V
R
I
V
I A

24
24
1

3. Find the voltage change between points B and C. 3. Find the voltage change between points B and C. 3. Find the voltage change between points B and C. 3. Find the voltage change between points B and C. 3. Find the voltage change between points B and C.
This may seem difficult at first, but remember Ohm’s Law. The current
passing through R
5
is 1A, and the resistance is 3Ω.
V = I R
V = (1A)(3Ω)
V = 3 V
ELECTRIC CIRCUITS
Peterson’s SAT II Success: Physics 174
4. 4. 4. 4. 4. F FF FFind the v ind the v ind the v ind the v ind the volta olta olta olta oltag gg gge c e c e c e c e chang hang hang hang hange betw e betw e betw e betw e between points een points een points een points een points A and B. A and B. A and B. A and B. A and B.
Again, the problem seems more difficult than it really is—it’s another
Ohm’s Law problem. The total current passing through the parallel
resistors is 1A, and the equivalent resistance is 4Ω.
V IR
V A
V V

( )( ) 1 4
4

POWER
Power in circuits is the rate at which electric energy is used. The
power capability of the circuit elements is the product of the voltage
and the current.
P = VI
Through substitution from Ohm’s Law, we see two other ways to
calculate power:
P I R P
V
R
( )( )
2
2
and
.
Power is an important quantity in circuits. The voltage source
must have enough power to operate the devices in the circuit.
Furthermore, the devices in the circuitry will burn out and open if
their power capacity is not large enough to perform work at the
required rate. Remember, power is the rate at which work is done.
The power requirement for a circuit or a circuit element can be
calculated if any two of the Ohm’s Law quantities are known.
Example
A typical power calculation could require you to find the power
requirement for a resistor in a circuit.
Find the power dissipated by a 4Ω resistor that has a .05A
current passing through it.
CHAPTER 5
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Solution
P I R
P A
P

2
05 4
01
(. )( )
.

Watt
Another type of power question you could be asked would require
you to find the total resistance in a circuit, then solve to find either
the total power requirement of the circuit or the power requirement
for a single element in the circuit.
Example
Find the power requirement for the series–parallel circuit shown
below:
ELECTRIC CIRCUITS
Peterson’s SAT II Success: Physics 176
Solution
To find the total power for the circuit you first must find the total
resistance. We find that the total resistance for the circuit is 9Ω. With
this information we can now solve for the power required to run the
circuit with
P
V
R

2
.
P
V
R
P
V
P

2
2
6
9
4
( )

Watts
Another question might involve one of the parallel resistors in the
diagram above. The current in the circuit would be required to solve
the problem.
Example
Find the power capacity for R
3
in the circuit above.
Solution
First we find the total current with Ohm’s law.
I
V
R
I
V
I A

6
9
66

.
The next step is to calculate the voltage change across the two
parallel resistors (R
2
and R
3
).
V I R
V A
V V

( )( )
(. )( )
.
66 5
3 3

CHAPTER 5
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With this information the actual current in R
3
can be found by using
Ohm’s Law.
I
V
R
I
V
I A

3 3
30
11
.
.

Next we calculate the power.
P = (V)(I)
P = (2.5V)(.11A)
P = .275 Watts
Note:
V
R
2
across the parallel resistors does not work because each
resistor has a different current through it.
CAPACITORS
Capacitors (previously mentioned) are parallel plate devices that are
capable of storing electric charge and releasing (discharging) it as
needed. Their effectiveness is enhanced by placing a non-conductive
material, called a dielectric, between the two plates. The energy (in
the form of the charge) stored by a capacitor is
E CV
1
2
2
.
Capacitors placed in an electric circuit do not allow a steady
current to flow. Instead, they build charge between their two plates
over a period of time until the potential of the capacitor is almost
equal to the applied voltage. When a capacitor is fully charged in a
DC circuit, current cannot flow until the capacitor is discharged,
because the capacitor acts like an open circuit element.
Capacitors used in an electric circuit can be in series or in
parallel. The total capacitance (C
t
) for capacitors in a parallel circuit is
found by adding the values of the capacitors in parallel with one
another. You should note that this technique is the opposite of the
technique we used to find the value of the resistance of parallel
resistors.
ELECTRIC CIRCUITS
Peterson’s SAT II Success: Physics 178
The six capacitors in the diagram have values of 2, 3, 4, 5, and 6 micro
farads, respectively. The total capacitance is found by adding them
together.
C C C C C C
C f f f f f
C f
t
t
t
+ + + +
+ + + +

1 2 3 4 5
2 3 4 5 6
20
µ µ µ µ µ
µ
The total capacitance for capacitors in series with one another is
found by the reciprocal method. (Again this is just the opposite of
resistors in series).
1 1 1 1 1 1
1 1
2
1
3
1
4
1
5
1
6
1
5
1 2 3 4 5
C C C C C C
C f f f f f
C
t
t
t
+ + + +
+ + + +

µ µ µ µ µ
µ . ff f f f f
C f
t
+ + + +

. . . .
.
33 25 2 1667
1 45
µ µ µ µ
µ
CHAPTER 5
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AMMETERS AND VOLTMETERS
Ammeters and voltmeters are used to monitor electric circuits.
Ammeter Ammeter Ammeter Ammeter Ammeters s s s s measure the current flowing in a circuit. They have a
low resistance, which keeps them from interfering with the circuit.
This is necessary because they are hooked in a series with a circuit
being measured, and a large resistance would decrease the current
being measured with the meter.
V VV VVoltmeter oltmeter oltmeter oltmeter oltmeters s s s s are used to measure voltage changes in a circuit.
They have a high resistance and are used in parallel with the circuit
being measured. The high resistance in the voltmeter causes all but
the tiniest fraction of current to pass through the circuit being
measured, which prevents the voltmeter from interfering with the
circuit.
MAGNETS AND MAGNETIC FIELDS
The properties of naturally occurring magnetic rocks have been
known for several thousand years. The Chinese knew that a piece of
iron could be magnetized by putting it near lodestone, and sailors
have been navigating with magnetic compasses for nearly a thousand
years.
Some characteristics of magnets that you should know and
remember are:
1. Magnets have poles. The north–seeking pole is the north pole of
the magnet. The south–seeking pole is the south pole of the
magnet.
2. Like poles of magnets repel one another and unlike poles of
magnets attract one another.
3. Magnets can induce demagnetized ferrous materials to become
magnetized.
4. Temporary magnets cease acting like magnets as soon as the
permanent magnet is removed.
5. Permanent magnets retain their magnetism for a long time.
MAGNETS AND MAGNETIC FIELDS
Peterson’s SAT II Success: Physics 180
A magnet field is said to exist in the region where a compass
experiences a force upon it. Magnetic fields form around magnets.
The magnetic field exits the north pole of a magnet and enters the
south pole of a magnet.
Magnetic field lines act much the same as electric field lines
when magnetic poles are brought near one another. That is, the
magnetic lines of force do not cross. You could say that the repulsive
force the north pole of a magnet exerts on another similar magnetic
pole is a manifestation of the lines of force not crossing one another.
The attraction between unlike poles also can be explained in a
manner similar to the electric field.
CHAPTER 5
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Some magnets exert large repulsive or attractive forces on other
magnets regardless of how physically close the two magnets are to
one another. The way these magnets repel or attract is an indication
of their magnetic field strength, but this does not give an accurate
measure of the actual strength of the magnetic field.
A more accurate method for determining the magnetic field
strength is to use a term called magnetic flux. The number of
magnetic field lines within a given area is called magnetic flux, and it
represents the strength of the magnetic field B. Magnetic fields exert
a force on current carrying wires. The force the wire experiences is
the product of the length of the wire in the field, the magnitude of the
current, and the strength of the magnetic field.
F B IL

Note the perpendicular sign behind the B. The maximum force is
exerted when a current carrying wire is perpendicular to the
magnetic field. The direction of the force exerted on the wire can be
found by using the right-hand rule.
Right-hand rule:
1. Point your right thumb in the direction of the current flow in the
wire.
2. Point the fingers of your right hand in the same direction as the
field lines (toward the south pole).
3. The force exerted on the wire by the magnetic field will be in
the same direction as your palm points.
The diagram above shows a current carrying a magnetic field.
According to the right-hand rule, the wire will experience a force in
the upward direction. When the force exerted on a wire in a
magnetic field is known, the magnetic field (B) can be determined.
MAGNETS AND MAGNETIC FIELDS
Peterson’s SAT II Success: Physics 182
Example
A .5m length of wire carries a 6A current within a magnetic field. The
wire is at right angles to the field and experiences a force of .45N.
What is the strength of the magnetic field?
Solution
F B IL
B
F
I L
B
A m
B
A M
tesla T










( )( )
.
)(. )
. . ( )
45
5
15 15
N
(6
N
A current-carrying wire is a source of a magnetic field too. This is the
reason the wire has a force exerted on it when it is in a magnetic
field.
Let’s place a compass beside a wire hooked to a battery with an
open switch.
CHAPTER 5
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Notice that with the switch open the compass points correctly
to the north. When the switch is closed the compass points in a
different direction.
A force must affect the compass to cause it to point in a different
direction. The current in the wire is the source of this force. The
direction of the magnetic field around the current-carrying wire can
be found by using a variation of the right-hand rule.
1. Point the thumb of your right hand in the direction of the cur-
rent.
2. Grasp the wire and wrap you fingers around the wire.
3. Your fingers point in the same direction as the orientation of the
magnetic field around the wire (see below).
MAGNETS AND MAGNETIC FIELDS
Peterson’s SAT II Success: Physics 184
When two current-carrying wires are side by side, their magnetic
fields interact, causing the wires to attract one another or to repel
one another.
Notice the arrows in diagram A. Think of this situation as
opposite magnetic fields, that attract one another. The arrows in
diagram B head in the opposite direction. Think of this situation as
like magnetic fields that repel one another.
Electric currents consist of moving charges. It is only natural to
expect a charged object to experience a force when it is moving
within a magnetic field. The right-hand rule can be applied to charged
particles within a magnetic field. Unlike the current in a wire that
followed its pathway in the wire, a charged particle can have its
pathway changed by the force applied to it.
Reviewing the right-hand rule:
1. Point the thumb of your right hand in the direction the particle
is moving.
2. Point your fingers in the direction of the field (toward the south
pole of the magnet).
3. Your palm faces in the direction the force is applied to the
particle. This is the direction the particle will move.
The charged particle has a charge q on it, and its velocity is v.
The definition of current is a number of moving charges. Thus, we
can say F B IL

for a current-carrying wire.
CHAPTER 5
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The current in a wire is made of a number of individual charges
that are moving at a high velocity. For a single charged particle, the
charge on the particle and the velocity with which it is moving can be
equated to the current and the length of the wire. This leads to the
following equation, which describes the force exerted on a moving
particle in a magnetic field.
F B qv

Unless the particle leaves the magnetic field, the direction of the
force on the particle keeps changing as the path of the particle
changes. The particle will move in a circular path as the force on it
remains constant in magnitude, and the direction continually changes.
Any time an object moves in a circular path, a centripetal force
(F
c
) is involved. In fact, the force applied to the charged particle by
the magnetic field is a centripetal force.
F Bqv F
mv
r
c
and
2
Clearly the (F) from the magnetic field is the same as the (F
c
)
from the centripetal force, leading to the following equation:
Bqv
mv
r

2
As you can see, the radius of the circular pathway taken by the
particle can be determined. Likewise, it is apparent that the strength
of the magnetic field can be changed, thus affecting the radius of the
circle. This is the principle which operates our television sets and
computer monitors.
MAGNETIC INDUCTION
More than 99% of the electrical power used in the United States is
generated by converting mechanical energy into electrical energy for
heating, lighting, cooking, etc. This process is called electromagnetic
induction and was discovered in 1831 by Michael Faraday and John
Henry.
A current can be induced in a wire in several ways. One is to
place a closed loop of wire in a magnetic field and move the wire.
Remember our discussion of the force applied to a current-carrying
wire? The movement of the wire within the magnetic field causes a
force to be generated in the wire, which in turn forces free electrons
in the wire to move, thus generating a current in the wire.
MAGNETS AND MAGNETIC FIELDS
Peterson’s SAT II Success: Physics 186
The direction of an electric current induced into a wire can be pre-
dicted by using the right-hand rule.
1. Point the thumb of the right hand in the direction of motion of
the wire.
2. Point the fingers of the right hand in the direction of the mag-
netic field.
3. Your palm will point in the direction of the force and the in-
duced current.
The magnitude of the induced current is dependent on several
different things.
1. The str The str The str The str The strength of the ma ength of the ma ength of the ma ength of the ma ength of the magnetic f gnetic f gnetic f gnetic f gnetic field. ield. ield. ield. ield. A stronger magnetic field
has more flux density, meaning more field lines to cross.
The induced current will be larger when the magnetic field is
stronger.
2. The rate at which the wire is moved in the magnetic field. The rate at which the wire is moved in the magnetic field. The rate at which the wire is moved in the magnetic field. The rate at which the wire is moved in the magnetic field. The rate at which the wire is moved in the magnetic field.
The faster the wire is moved through the magnetic field, the
more magnetic field lines will be cut, generating a larger current.
3. The length of the wir The length of the wir The length of the wir The length of the wir The length of the wire in the ma e in the ma e in the ma e in the ma e in the magnetic f gnetic f gnetic f gnetic f gnetic field. ield. ield. ield. ield. Again, the longer
the wire, the more magnetic field lines it will cut through,
generating more current flow.
The movement of a wire in a magnetic field causes the free
electrons to move because their electrical potential is raised. We
already know that current flows from high potential to lower
potential. This difference in potential is called the induced EMF, which
is in volts. We also know that the length of the wire (L), the strength
of the magnetic field (B), and the rate at which the wire is moved in
the magnetic field (V) affect the induced current as well.
CHAPTER 5
Peterson’s: www.petersons.com 187
The following represents the relationship between the induced
voltage and the moving magnetic field in which a wire is placed. (The
wire may be moved in a stationary magnetic field too.)
EMF = BLV
Power-generating plants induce current into lengths of wire on a
large scale. Electrical power is generated by using long loops of wire
that are wrapped in such a manner that they are in continuous
contact with magnetic field lines. The loops of wire are rotated
within the magnetic field at a constant rate to produce the type of
electricity called alternating current or AC.
A simplified drawing of an AC generator is shown below.
The current and voltage produced in the AC generators is not
steady as in DC systems. Both current and voltage increase and
decrease each time the loop of wire in the magnetic field turns a full
360°. The diagram below shows a comparison between AC and DC
voltages.
The AC peaks rise above the DC voltage because the effective
voltage is equal to .707 the value of the maximum voltage. This is
called the RMS value.
MAGNETS AND MAGNETIC FIELDS
Peterson’s SAT II Success: Physics 188
The process of moving the generated electricity from the power-
generating stations to the houses and businesses that use it is called
power transmission. This is accomplished by the use of wires that
lead from the power plants to the location where the power is used.
Sometimes the power plant is located hundreds of miles from the
user. It is easy to see that the total resistance of the wires increases
with the distance that the electricity is transmitted, and according to
Ohm’s Law, the increased resistance would cause the current to be
reduced. Just the act of overcoming the resistance from the wires
would cost the power companies a great deal of money, and, in fact,
the current would melt the wires because it would have to be
extremely large. Power companies therefore transform the electricity
they generate into high voltage, which reduces the current in the wire
to a mere fraction of what it would be at a low voltage (perhaps
240V). The transmission voltage is instead very high, approaching
18,000V or more.
The device used to increase or decrease voltage is called a
transformer. Transformers are made of two separate coils of wire
that are wound close to and around one another but that are
electrically insulated from one another. The side of the transformer
where the voltage is applied is called the input, or primary side. The
side of the transformer where the new voltage is removed is called
the output, or secondary side. When a current is passed through the
primary transformer wire, a magnetic field emanates from the wire.
The magnetic field from the primary side coils cuts through the coils
of the secondary side, inducing a current into the secondary side of
the transformer (see below).
CHAPTER 5
Peterson’s: www.petersons.com 189
Transformers that reduce the applied voltage are called step-
down transformers. Those that increase the applied voltage are called
step-up transformers. The ratio of the input voltage and the output
voltage is determined by the ratio of the number of turns of wire in
the primary and the secondary sides of the transformer.
Secondary Voltage
Primary Voltage
Number of Secondary Coils
Numbe

rr of Primary Coils
N
N
V
V
s
p
s
p

Here is a pair of transformer problems for you to try.
Example
Suppose you have a calculator that can use two 1.5V batteries in
series (3V) or can use a transformer attachment to save battery
power. We know the secondary side of the transformer has 30 turns.
How many turns of wire does the primary side of the transformer
have? The transformer uses household voltage when it is plugged into
the electrical outlet, so we know the input voltage is 120V.
Solution
V
V
V
V
V
V
s
p
s
p
p s
s
p
p
p

N
N
N
N
turns
N
turns N
( )( )
( )( ) 120 30
3
1200
Example
Another problem might require you to calculate the voltage produced
in a transformer.
A step-down transformer contains 900 turns of wire in its
secondary side. There are 30,000 turns of wire in the primary side,
which has an input voltage of 8000 volts. What is the output voltage
of the secondary side of the transformer?
MAGNETS AND MAGNETIC FIELDS
Peterson’s SAT II Success: Physics 190
Solution
V
V
V
V
V
V
V
s
p
s
p
s
p s
p
s
s

N
N
N
N
turns
turns
( )( )
( )( )
,
8000 900
30 000
2400V
CHAPTER 5
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CHAPTER SUMMARY
• Charged particles are called ions.
• Electrostatic charge is caused by the transfer of electrons
from one object to another object.
• Objects with a positive charge have a deficiency of electrons.
• Objects with a negative charge have an excess of electrons.
• Like charges repel, and unlike charges attract.
• The unit of charge is the coulomb.
• Electric fields exist around all charged objects.
• Electric field lines leave a positively charged object.
• Electric field lines enter a negatively charged object.
• Electric field lines are parallel between charged parallel
plates.
• The electric field between a pair of parallel plates is uniform.
• Capacitors store electric charge or energy.
• Batteries supply energy to electric circuits. The energy is
measured in volts (V).
• Current is the flow of charged particles and is measured in
amperes (A).
• Resistance is opposition to current flow, and it is measured in
ohms (Ω).
• The resistance of a series circuit is the sum of resistors in the
circuit.
• The resistance of a parallel branch of a circuit is equal to the
reciprocal of the sum of the reciprocals of the resistors in
parallel.
• Like magnetic poles repel, and unlike magnetic poles attract.
• Magnetic field lines leave north poles and enter south poles to
form closed loops.
• The intensity of a magnetic field called magnetic flux is
measured in
N
( )( ) A m
, or tesla.
CHAPTER SUMMARY
Peterson’s SAT II Success: Physics 192
• A current carrying wire within a magnetic field experiences a
force equal to to to to to F B L

. .. ..
• The direction of the force on a current-carrying wire within a
magnetic field can be determined by using the right-hand rule.
• A charged particle moving through a magnetic field experi-
ences a force equal to F = B q v.
• The direction of the force on a charged particle in a magnetic
field can be determined by using the right-hand rule.
• The right-hand rule states the following:
1. Point the thumb of the right hand in the direction of the
current or the motion of the particle.
2. Point the fingers of the right hand in the direction of the
magnetic field (toward the south pole).
3. The palm of the right hand points in the direction of the
applied force.
• The force applied to a moving particle in a magnetic field
provides the centripetal force to move the particle in its
circular path.
• Faraday and Henry simultaneously discovered magnetic
induction.
• The right-hand rule can be used to determine the direction of
a magnetically induced force and current.
• A generator converts mechanical energy into electrical energy.
• Alternating currents and voltages are generated by revolving a
wire coil in a magnetic field.
• Transformers change high voltage to low voltage by stepping
down the voltage.
• Transformers change low voltage to high voltage by stepping
up the voltage.
CHAPTER 5
Chapter 6
MODERN PHYSICS MODERN PHYSICS MODERN PHYSICS MODERN PHYSICS MODERN PHYSICS
Peterson’s: www.petersons.com 195
CHAPTER 6
MODERN PHYSICS MODERN PHYSICS MODERN PHYSICS MODERN PHYSICS MODERN PHYSICS
PARTICULATE THEORY OF LIGHT
Sir Isaac Newton studied the continuous spectrum early in the seven-
teenth century. He passed a beam of sunlight through narrow open-
ings into a darkened room. A white spot from the light beam ap-
peared on the wall, and when Newton placed a prism into the path of
the light beam, the white light disappeared and was replaced by what
is called a continuous spectrum. Newton noticed that the spectrum
was displaced slightly to the side of the light path. He also observed
that the colors of the spectrum always appeared in a continuous band
in the same order. The red light always appeared closest to the
original path of the light path, followed by orange, yellow, green, blue,
and violet, which was always deflected most from the original path of
the white light. Newton recognized the bending of light (refraction)
as the same process that occurred with water waves. Since the light
exhibited the same characteristics as water waves, the wave nature of
light was easy to visualize.
Max Planck spent the years from about 1890 to 1905 reviewing
the results of Heinrich Hertz’s experiments regarding the radiation of
hot objects. Planck noticed that the results of Hertz’s experiments
could not be explained in terms of wave theory, but could be ex-
plained if the energy in radiation was carried in bundles or packets of
light, which he called quanta. Planck theorized that the energy of the
light was proportionally related to the frequency, which meant that
the higher the frequency of the light, the higher the energy of the
light. Planck related his idea to the equation:
E = hf
where E is the energy, f is the frequency, and h is Planck’s constant.
It’s value is 6.6 × 10
–4
J•S.
Planck’s theory is useful because it relates the frequency of light
to the energy carried by the light. The light quanta suggested by
Planck also shows that the line spectra emitted by energized atoms
are a unique set of frequencies that can best be explained by the
particle theory (quanta) of light.
Peterson’s SAT II Success: Physics 196
Albert Einstein used the quantum theory expressed by Planck to
explain the photoelectric effect. Through the photoelectric effect,
electrons are energized by light that is shined onto the surface of a
photosensitive metal. Einstein concluded that when an electron is
struck by a quanta of light (he called them photons) the electron
gains enough energy to be ejected from the surface of the metal.
Einstein reached this conclusion through an experiment where a
negatively charged zinc plate emitted photoelectrons when struck by
an ultraviolet light, but not when visible light was used. Further, when
the plate was given a positive charge neither ultraviolet light nor
visible light produced electron emission.
Only light of the correct frequency could energize electrons from
the surface of the metal. Einstein stated that the electron absorbs or
releases energy one photon at a time. He concluded that the higher
the frequency of the light, the greater its energy. Thus, yellow light
carries less energy than green or blue light. In fact, the continuous
spectrum is arranged in order by the energy of the frequency of the
light. Einstein also showed that light possessing the largest amount of
energy (the highest frequencies) is refracted the most by a prism.
Thus, the more a beam of light is refracted by a prism, the more
energy it possesses.
We can compare the energy content of different photons by
using Planck’s equation to calculate the energy of photons of the
different colors. The relationship between different light colors and
their wavelengths is given in the chart below. We’ll use it to help us
perform the energy calculations for the different light colors.
Example
Light Color Wavelength Frequency
Red 7 7 7 7 10 3 9 10
7 14
. ( . ) . nm m H × ×

zz
nm Hz
nm Hz
nm
Orange
Yellow
Green
6 3 4 8 10
5 8 5 2 10
5 3 5 7
14
14
. .
. .
. .
×
×
×110
5 6 6 5 10
3 8 7 9 10
14
14
14
Hz
nm Hz
nm Hz
Blue
Violet
. .
. .
×
×
CHAPTER 6
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Solution
Now let’s calculate the energy of a photon of yellow light.
E hf
J s
Joules
=
= × • ×
= ×


( . )( . )
.
6 6 10 5 2 10
3 14 10
34 14
19
photon
Notice the units for energy in the answer. The seconds have
disappeared. That’s because the Hertz units used in the frequency
really are either vibrations/sec (wave nature) or photons/sec (particu-
late nature). The chart below is the same as the previous chart but
with a new column added to show the energy of the photon for a
particular light color.
Light Color Wavelength Frequency Photon Energy
Red 7 7 7 7 10 . ( . nm ×
− −
× ×
× ×
7 14 19
14
3 9 10 2 6 10
6 3 8 10 3 2 1
m Hz J
nm Hz
) . . /
. . .
photon
Orange 4 00
5 8 5 2 10 3 4 10
5
19
14 19


× ×
J
nm Hz J
/
. . . /
.
photon
Yellow photon
Green 3 3 5 7 10 3 8 10
5 6 6 5 10 4 3 10
14 19
14 1
nm Hz J
nm Hz
. . /
. . .
× ×
× ×


photon
Blue
99
14 19
3 8 7 9 10 5 2 10
J
nm Hz J
/
. . . /
photon
Violet photon ×

Look at the chart. The relationship between the wavelength, the
frequency, and energy of the photon of light is clear. The higher the
frequency of the light, the more energy the photon carries. The longer
the wavelength of the light, the lower the energy content of the
photon.
PARTICULATE THEORY OF LIGHT
Peterson’s SAT II Success: Physics 198
PHOTOELECTRIC EFFECT
When we apply the quantum theory to the photoelectric effect, we
must realize that the KE of the ejected electron is directly related to
the energy it receives from the incident photon, minus the energy (W)
required to remove the electron from the surface of the metal (work
function).
KE = hf –W
1/2 mv
2
= hf–W
We see from the equation above that no electrons can be emitted
from the surface of the metal unless the product of the frequency and
Planck’s constant is greater than the work function (W). In addition,
the kinetic energy of the ejected electron depends upon the frequency
of the photon and the work function of the metal. As we have seen
from the chart of the color, frequency, and photon energy, the energy
of the emitted photon is very small. A more convenient method to
measure the energy of the electron (whether it absorbs or emits the
photon) is to use an energy scale that is of the same magnitude as the
electron: the electron volt (eV). The electron volt is defined as the
quantity of work required to move an electron through a potential
difference of 1 volt. (Remember, 1 volt is equal to 1 Joule per
coulomb of charge.)
Work


=
=
×
) ( )
= × = ×


QV
ev
. C V
eV J
1
1 6 10 1
1 1 6 10 6 25 10
19
19
. .
118
eV
J
Using this relationship, we will go back and recalculate the
energy of a photon of yellow light in eV.
E hf
J s Hz
eV
J


=
=
× •
)
×
) ×



6 6 10 5 2 10
6 25 10
34 14
25
. .
.
CHAPTER 6
Peterson’s: www.petersons.com 199
The following problem illustrates the usefulness of the electron
volt when working with photo-voltaic materials.
Example
The work function of a metal is given as 2.46eV. What is the kinetic
energy of the photons ejected from the surface of the metal when a
light with a frequency of 8.2 × 10
14
Hz shines on the metal?
Solution
The work function is the minimum energy required to dislodge an
electron from the surface of the metal, and it must be subtracted from
the energy of the incident photons.
KE
KE
=
×









=
× •
)
×


hf
eV
J
eV
W
J s
1
1 6 10
6 6 10 8 2 10
19
34 1
.
. .
44
18
6 25 10 2 46
3 38 2 46
92
Hz
eV
J
eV
eV eV
e
( ) ×




= −
=
. .
. .
.
KE
KE VV
When the wavelength of the light is known, we can restate the
equation in the following manner:
E = ×



− h
c eV
J
W
λ
6 25 10
18
.
The threshold energy for any photovoltaic metal is simply the
work function of the metal. The work function is represented by the
symbol (Φ ), pronounced “phi.”
The work function of a metal is equal to the energy of the
photon that energizes the electron.
E = hf
The threshold frequency of the light can be calculated if the work
function is known.
PHOTOELECTRIC EFFECT
Peterson’s SAT II Success: Physics 200
Example
Find the threshold frequency for a metal that has a work function of
5.10 eV.
Solution
Φ
Φ
=
=
=
× •
= ×

hf
f
h
f
eV
J s
f Hz
5 1
6 6 10
7 73 10
34
33
.
.
.
The frequency obtained is very high, in the ultraviolet range.
Example
What is the threshold wavelength for a metal that has a work func-
tion of 4.28 eV?
Solution
For this problem we use the equation:
Φ
Φ
=
=
=
× • ×
= ×


h
c
hc
J s
eV
λ
λ
λ
λ
( . )( )
.
.
6 6 10 3 10
4 28
4 63 10
34 8
26
m/s
m/wavve
Again we obtain a value that places the light into the ultraviolet
range.
CHAPTER 6
Peterson’s: www.petersons.com 201
We’ll do one more problem. This time, try to find the work
function of a light that approaches the infrared range. The limit of
visible light in the red range is 3.9 × 10
14
Hz. Calculate the work
function:
Φ =
×




= × • × ×


hf
eV
J
J s Hz
1
1 6 10
6 6 10 3 9 10 6 25 10
19
34 14 1
.
( . )( . ) .
88
1 61
eV
J
eV




= .
Shortly after Einstein’s work with the photoelectric effect, Niels
Bohr made the suggestion that the normal laws of physics did not
apply to the micro-world of the atom and its parts. Bohr maintained
that electrons existed in an orbit about the nucleus where they would
stay indefinitely. Indefinitely, that is, unless the electron received
energy to cause it to move away from the nucleus. Bohr’s concept
was that the electron only left its usual position near the nucleus
(ground state) by absorbing quanta of light, which it gave up to
return to its ground state. Bohr used Planck’s energy equation to
support his theory about the electrons around the atomic nucleus.
E = hf
Bohr thought the electrons in their orbits would emit energy
based upon their distance from the nucleus. He stated the relation-
ship as:
∆E E E = −
2 1
RELATIVITY
When Einstein predicted that photons should have the character-
istics of a particle, he included momentum. He stated that the momen-
tum of the photon should be
Ρ =
hf
c
, which led to
Ρ =
h
λ
.
Proof for Einstein’s theory about the momentum of a proton was
accidentally found by the American scientist Arthur Compton.
Compton was studying the scattering of X-rays by passing them
through an easily penetrable solid. During his experiments using a
RELATIVITY
Peterson’s SAT II Success: Physics 202
block of carbon, Compton noticed that he kept obtaining a small
change in wavelength, which he decided to investigate. He considered
the wavelength to be approximately the size of a single atom, and
since the X-ray energy is so large, the energy needed to knock a single
atom of the carbon is negligible compared to the total energy of the
X-ray. The X-ray photon was deflected in the collision with the carbon
electron, while the electron had a velocity impressed on it. Applying
the laws of conservation of momentum and energy to the collisions
produced the conclusion that the X-ray photon does have momentum.
Louis de Broglie investigated one of Bohr’s theories while con-
templating the dual nature of the electron. He found that by assum-
ing the electron to be capable of having wave properties, he could
explain one of Bohr’s assumptions about electrons. de Broglie postu-
lated that moving particles could have wave properties, leading to the
following:
deBroglie wavelength =
λ =
h
mv
where mv = momentum of a photon
Should we attempt to calculate the wavelength of a large object
(not on atomic scale), we find the wavelength of the object to be very
small, which makes the waves undetectable.
Example
A 900 kg automobile is being driven down the road with a velocity of
30 m/s. What de Broglie wavelength would the car emit?
Solution
λ
λ
λ
=
=
× •
= ×


h
mv
J s
Kg
6 6 10
900 30
2 4 10
34
38
.
( )( )
.
m/s
m/wave
That is an incredibly small wavelength. A diffraction grating would be
unable to separate on it enough for an angle to be produced for
measurement.
CHAPTER 6
Peterson’s: www.petersons.com 203
REFERENCE FRAMES
One of the most difficult concepts to accept is that the length of a
meter stick, or the mass of an apple, or even the ticking of a clock can
change without any of the items being broken, damaged, or in disre-
pair. The relative length, mass, or rate of movement of these items is
expected to remain the same relative to other like items. The key
word is relative. You see, the comparison only remains the same for
the objects when they are in the same reference frame.
What is a reference frame? Just think of driving down the road at
a velocity of 70 km/hr. When you pass a telephone pole, the tele-
phone pole flashes by in an instant. Your reference frame is the inside
of the car. The windows, the dash, the seats, and yourself are not
moving in reference to one another. Outside, the rest of the world
flies by at 70 km/hr.
Now let’s suppose you are seated in the backseat of the moving
vehicle with all the windows closed. You toss a wad of paper from
your side of the car to the passenger on the other side of the car. That
person catches the paper wad and throws it right back to you. As far
as you’re concerned, the paper wad flew straight across the back of
the car in both instances.
RELATIVITY
Peterson’s SAT II Success: Physics 204
Let’s suppose the top of your car is transparent, and an observer
in a tall tower is looking down on the events as they take place in the
car. To that person, your game of catch looks like this:
You and the person in the tower see the events in the back of the
car in a very different way. For purposes of clarity, the numbers we
use in the following discussion will be exaggerated a little, but the
idea will still be relevant and may be easier to grasp. Your speed in
the car (70 km/hr) is about 20 m/s. Let’s say you and your friend both
toss the paper wads with a speed of 10 m/s. The car (remember the
exaggeration) is 10 m wide. From your perspective, the paper wad
takes 1 second to cross the width of the car. Everything inside the car
is just fine as far as you’re concerned. The car is 10 m wide, you
threw the paper at 10 m/s, and it takes 1 second for the paper to
cross the interior of the car.
The observer outside the car sees things differently.
During the 1 second time span, the paper wad flew from one
side of the car to the other, while the car itself moved a distance of
CHAPTER 6
Peterson’s: www.petersons.com 205
(20m)(1 sec) = 20m. The width of the car is 10m, so the path of the
paper wad as seen by the outside observer is the hypotenuse of the
triangle shown. To the outside observer it is 22.4 m long, and the
velocity with which you throw the paper wad is considerably faster
than 1 m/s. In fact, the observer measures the velocity of the paper
wad to be 22.4 m/s.
When discussing relativity, you must always be aware that
the reference frame is the key. One of the conclusions we can draw
about reference frames is that the laws of mechanics are the same in
all reference frames moving at constant velocity with respect to one
another. In addition, all motion is relative to some reference frame.
Now that we have discussed reference frames, let’s proceed to
Einstein’s theory. Einstein postulated that
1. all the laws of physics are the same for all observers moving at
constant velocity with respect to one another.
2. the speed of light in a vacuum is the same for all observers
regardless of the motion of the source of light or the motion of
the observer.
SIMULTANEITY
Let’s first look at the second postulate of Einstein’s theory. We will
return to the car, but instead of a wad of paper, we will use a beam of
light, and instead of a second passenger we will use a mirror to
reflect the light. In addition, the velocity of the car will be increased
to .75 the speed of light. Inside the car, however, nothing changes as
far as you are concerned. Things are just as they were when you
traveled at 70 km/hr.
Example
The light beam you send from your side of the car crosses the car,
strikes the mirror, and returns to your side of the car. The light travels
the ten meters to the mirror and the 10 meters from the mirror in
6.67 × 10
–8
s at a velocity of 3 × 10
8
m/s.
Solution
The question is, what does the outside observer see? The answer? The
outside observer sees the light beam complete the trip in the same
amount of time as you do. This means that the light traveled either a
longer distance in the same period of time, thereby breaking one of
the postulates of the theory of relativity, or, unlikely as it may seem,
the outside observer was in a frame of reference where time passed
more quickly.
RELATIVITY
Peterson’s SAT II Success: Physics 206
The reason for the conclusion is that the person in the car sees
the light travel from the origin, strike the mirror, and return to him,
which is expressed as:
∆t =
distance
speed
The distance d is the separation of the two sides of the car,
yielding
∆t
d
c
=
2
for the round trip.
The outside observer sees things differently.
CHAPTER 6
Peterson’s: www.petersons.com 207
The path length the outside observer sees is considerably longer
than the one seen by the person in the car. This means:


t
L L
c
L L
t
L
c
0
1 2
1 2
0
2
=
+
=
=
yielding
Since c must be the same for both parties, ∆ ∆ t t and
0
cannot be
the same.
Einstein related the difference in time for the two observers with
the relativistic equation:




t
t
v
c
t
t
0
2
1
=





is the time on the moving clock.
is
0
the time on the stationary clock.
Let’s take a look at what this means in terms of the two people.
Suppose the person in the car is moving at .75 the speed of light.
What time will pass on the rider’s clock if the observer in the tower
measures a 30-minute time span?


∆ ∆
∆ ∆
t
t
v
c
t t
v
c
t t
0
2
0
2
0
1
1
1 75
=





=













=

( )
( )
(. cc
t
)
.
2
19 8




= ∆ minutes
RELATIVITY
Peterson’s SAT II Success: Physics 208
The rider in the car moving at .75 c only measures a time of 19.8
minutes on a clock, while the outside observer measures a time of 30
minutes.
The relativistic equation shows that the clock in the moving car
moves more slowly. This fact leads to the following statement about
time dilation.
Clocks in a moving reference frame run more slowly.
1
2





v
c
The equation is called the relativistic factor.
Now that we have seen the time dilation part of Einstein’s theory
of relativity, the question arises about mass and other quantities.
According to Einstein’s relativistic equation, an object that has a
length of 1 meter will be shorter to an outside observer. Let’s take a
look at length.
LENGTH CONTRACTION
Example
A hypothetical traveler going to Alpha Centauri will be in a spaceship
that can travel at .85 the speed of light. How will the traveler experi-
ence the trip compared to an observer on earth?
Solution
We already know the clocks on the spaceship will move more slowly.
That means the time on the earth ticks away faster. Substituting the
distances into the relativistic factor instead of time yields the answer.
d d
v
c
t
=













( )
0
2
1
d
t
= distance according to the spaceship traveler
d
0
= distance traveled to and from the star according to the known
measurement
The distance to Alpha Centauri is approximately 4.5 light years,
so we multiply by 2 to find the round trip distance.
Substituting and solving, we have:
d
v
c
d
t
t
=













=
9 light years
4.74 light years
1
2
CHAPTER 6
Peterson’s: www.petersons.com 209
The traveler finds the distance to the star and back again to be
4.74 light years instead of the 9 light years measured by earthbound
observers.
RELATIVISTIC MASS—ENERGY RELATION
As stated earlier, the postulates of Einstein’s theory of relativity tell us
that no object can be accelerated beyond the speed of light. Accord-
ing to Newton’s laws of motion, any object could be accelerated to
the speed of light if given enough time. To be consistent with the
laws of momentum, Einstein determined that the mass of an object
must increase when its velocity increases. This led him to conclude:
m
m
v
c
=





0
2
1
This means an electron moving at nearly the speed of light gains
mass. Let’s use .98c, for example,
m
m
e
e
=
×

= ×


9 11 10
1 98
4 57 10
31
2
30
.
(. )
.
kg
kg
This shows us that the mass of an electron moving at .98 the
speed of light has a mass 5 times larger than its rest mass. Should we
use .999C, the mass of the electron increases to 2 × 10
–29
kg. This is a
mass 22 times larger than the rest mass of the electron.
The closer an object approaches to the speed of light, the larger
its mass becomes, meaning an increasingly large quantity of energy
must be input to accelerate the object as it nears the speed of light.
The kinetic energy equation becomes:
KE = (m–m
0
)(c
2
)
Notice the change in mass requires more and more energy to
increase the speed of the object. This finally leads to the equation:
E = mc
2
This is perhaps Einstein’s most famous equation, and it is the
equation that eventually lead to the development of nuclear weapons
and nuclear power.
RELATIVITY
Peterson’s SAT II Success: Physics 210
The equation showing the relationship between mass and energy
predicts that if any mass can be accelerated to the velocity of light
squared, an immense amount of energy will result.
What energy is required to accelerate a 10g mass of matter to the
speed of light?
E mc
E
E J
=
=










×
= ×
2
8 2
14
10
3 10
9 10
g
1000g
kg
m/s ( )
That is enough energy to heat 2151 m
3
of water from 0°C to
boiling. That is a cube of water approximately 13m × 13m × 13m.
That’s quite a lot of energy, and from just 10g of matter!
CHAPTER 6
Peterson’s: www.petersons.com 211
CHAPTER SUMMARY
• •• •• Max Planck theorized the particulate nature of light.
• •• •• Planck’s constant is 6 6 10
34
. × • J s .
• •• •• Albert Einstein used Planck’s particulate nature of light theory
to explore the photoelectric effect.
• •• •• Planck called light particles quanta.
• •• •• Einstein called light particles photons.
• •• •• The higher the frequency of the light, the more energy it
carries.
• •• •• Photons of light have the ability to energize electrons from
some metals.
• •• •• The ability of photons of light to knock electrons from the
surface of some metals is called the photoelectric effect.
• •• •• The work function of a metal is equal to Φ = hf .
• •• •• Louis de Broglie theorized the existence of matter waves.
• •• •• The two postulates of Einstein’s theory of relativity are:
1. The speed of light in a vacuum is the same for all
observers.
2. The laws of physics are the same for all observers moving
at a constant speed.
• •• •• Moving clocks tick out time more slowly than still clocks.
• •• •• The relativistic equation is
1
2





v
c
.
• •• •• The relativistic mass of an object is much greater than its rest
mass, leading to the equation E = mc
2
.
CHAPTER SUMMARY
Chapter 7
THE THE THE THE THE AT AT AT AT ATOM OM OM OM OM
Peterson’s: www.petersons.com 215
CHAPTER 7
THE THE THE THE THE AT AT AT AT ATOM OM OM OM OM
THE ATOM
The outer part of the atom is the realm of the electron. Similar to a
lead sinker on a string that is being swung around the fist that holds
it, the electron is a tiny particle that is usually found at the outer edge
of an atom’s radius, but always outside the nucleus. Another similarity
is the difference in mass of the sinker compared to the hand. The
electron has a mass
1
1836
that of the proton in the nucleus. Adding to
the mysterious nature of the electron is its ability to be located at
various distances from, but not in, the nucleus.
Electrons were first noted by Jean Perrin (1870–1942) as a
greenish beam in a cathode ray tube (so named because the beam
came from the cathode). A little later (1897) J.J. Thompson determined
the charge to mass ratio for an electron. Twelve years later (1909)
Robert Millikan found the charge on an electron in his famous “Oil
Drop Experiment.” Another calculation by Millikan gave him the mass
of the electron.
Charge per electron = 1.6 × 10
19
C
Mass per electron = 9.1 × 10
–31
kg
As we discussed in Chapter 6, Sir Isaac Newton studied the
continuous spectrum that was visible when sunlight was passed
through a glass prism. His observations led to another interesting
discovery. Scientists noticed that the spectrum caused by energized
gases in discharged tubes produced lines of color that were the same
color as portions of the continuous spectrum.
Peterson’s SAT II Success: Physics 216
Each different gas produces a different set of lines (called line
spectrum) that can be matched into the continuous spectrum. As we
saw in Chapter 3, V f
wave
= λ . We can show the velocity of light to be
the product of the wavelength and the frequency with this
calculation.
The known frequency of blue light is 6.5 × 10
–14
(Hz), and its
wavelength is 4.6 × 10
–5
cm. Multiplying the two yields:
V = (4.6 × 10
–5
cm/wave) (6.5 × 10
14
Hz)
V = (2.99 × 10
–10
cm/s)
V = 3 × 10
8
m/s
Clearly the velocity of light.
BOHR’S ATOM
The Danish physicist Niels Bohr suggested that electrons absorbed
energy when they were struck by photons of light, and when they
returned to their non-energized state, they emitted the absorbed
energy in the form of light. Thus, an electron either absorbs or re-
leases energy to change its state. Bohr stated his theory in the follow-
ing equation:
∆ E E E = −
2 1
Bohr next used Max Planck’s equation, which converts the
energy of a light wave into the energy of a photon.
∆ E f
E
f
Joule
=
=
=
= = ×

energy
frequency
Planck’s constant 6 6 10
34
. • sec
Since only line spectra occurred when an elemental gas tube was
energized, Bohr concluded that the line spectra showed that the
electrons occupied specific orbits around the nucleus of the atom. He
called the permitted orbits energy states. The orbit closest to the
nucleus was called the ground state of the electron. It represented
the orbit with the least amount of energy content for the electron.
When an electron absorbed energy it jumped to a new “higher” energy
CHAPTER 7
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state and was considered energized. An energized electron could only
occupy specific quantified orbitals, and each new orbital required a
different amount of energy for an “excited” electron to be able to
occupy the orbital. When an excited electron returned to a lower
energy state, it gave up the energy it had absorbed in the form of
light. Bohr’s equation predicted the result as:
f
E E
=

2 1

From the equation we see that if we are given the frequency of
the light we can calculate the wavelength. The reverse is also true for
calculating the frequency from the wavelength. Given the frequency
of the light, we can also calculate the energy of the emission.
Example
A blue-colored light from the line spectrum of hydrogen is found to
have a frequency of 6.17 × 10
14
Hz. How much energy is emitted by
the electron as it falls to a new orbital?
Solution
∆ E f
J s
=
× • ×

( . )( . 6 6 10 6 17 10
34 17
photons/s)
That is a tiny amount of energy, but if a mole of electrons is
considered, the energy is substantial.
E Joules
E
mole
= × ×
=

( . / 6 022 10 10
2
23 19
photons/mole)(4.07 photon)
.. / 45 10
5
× Joules mole



n
n
=
=
7
6



n
n
=
=
5
4



n
n
=
=
3
2
n =1
THE ATOM
Peterson’s SAT II Success: Physics 218
Bohr visualized the orbital energies around the nucleus as similar
to the steps of a ladder. Much as you gain potential energy as you
climb up the rungs of a ladder, electrons were required to absorb
energy in order to jump from a lower energy orbital to a higher
energy orbital. A “jump” by an electron meant the electron moved
from a low “n” number to a higher “n” number. A fall meant the
electron gave up energy (emitted energy) in order to fall from a high
“n” number to a lower “n” number.
The absorption of energy is considered a negative quantity, and
the emission of energy is considered a positive quantity. Unfortunately
the Bohr model could not account for the spectrum of atoms with
more than one electron and consequently was replaced with a new
one. The new atomic spectra model was derived from the field of
quantum mechanics. Quantum mechanics explains not just the
spectral lines for the hydrogen, but also the spectral lines of the
heavier elements too, because it approaches the location of an
electron as probable states, rather than a definite place, a concept that
in effect releases the electron from a rigid set of positions and allows
it to vary its location according to the conditions affecting it.
Quantum mechanics predicts where an electron is most likely to be
at a given time based on the energy of that electron. By using
probability instead of restricting the orbital placement, the energy
changes electrons exhibit when they are excited can be accurately
predicted.
Left alone, electrons fall to their lowest energy state, which in the
case of the hydrogen electron is –13.6eV, and is called the ground
state or n = 1 level. Note the negative sign. The negative sign
represents the energy required to raise the electron to an excitation
level high enough to remove it from the atom. That is the potential
where the electron has absorbed enough energy to escape from its
atom and is called E = 0. The values for the first five excitation states
are shown on the energy-level diagram below:
− =

.
.
54 5
85
eV n
eV




n
eV n
eV
=
− =

4
1 51 3
3 4
.
.

n
eV n
=
− =
2
13 6 1 .
CHAPTER 7
Peterson’s: www.petersons.com 219
It should be noted that each change in level, whether as
absorption or emission, is a discrete quantity of energy. Every
electron rising from n = 2 to n = 3 must absorb 1.89eV of energy.
Anything less and the electron cannot change its excitation state to
the next highest level. Energy in excess of the amount required to
move the electron from n = 2 to n = 3 has no effect unless the
additional energy is exactly enough to raise the electron to the next
highest (or more) excitation level. When the electron emits energy,
the energy is again quantized in discrete values that are the exact
energy differential between the higher and the lower energy levels.
The electron may fall two or more energy levels, but in that case the
energies given off are again quantized. Thus, the energy difference
between n = 4 and n = 3 would be emitted as one color of light, and
n = 3 and n = 2 energy would be emitted as another color of light.
Example
Let’s do a problem where an electron absorbs energy.
A hydrogen atom is at n = 2 energy level when it absorbs energy
and jumps to the n = 4 level. How much energy did the electron
absorb?
− =

.
.
54 5
85
eV n
eV




n
eV n
eV
=
− =

4
1 51 3
3 4
.
.

n
eV n
=
− =
2
13 6 1 .
Solution
Determining the energy required to raise the electron from n = 2,
where its energy is –3.4 eV, to n = 4, where its energy is –.85eV, is a
matter of finding the difference between the two energy levels.




E E E
E eV eV
E eV eV
E eV
= −
= − − −
= − +
= −
3 1
3 4 85
3 4 85
2 55
( . ) ( . )
( . ) (. )
.
THE ATOM
Peterson’s SAT II Success: Physics 220
Note the negative sign. The electron must absorb 2.55eV to rise
from the n = 2 potential to the n = 4 potential.
Example
The next problem is one where the electron emits energy and falls
from a higher potential to a lower potential (toward the ground
state).
An electron at n = 3 emits energy as it falls from n = 3 to n = 1.
How much energy did the electron lose?
− =

.
.
54 5
85
eV n
eV




n
eV n
eV
=
− =

4
1 51 3
3 4
.
.

n
eV n
=
− =
2
13 6 1 .
Solution
The energy emitted by the electron as it changes from n = 3 to n = 1
is:




E E E
E eV eV
E eV eV
E
= −
= − − −
= − +
= +
3 1
1 51 13 6
1 51 13 6
12
( . ) ( . )
( . ) ( . )
.009eV
Note the positive sign. When the electron falls to its ground
state, it emits all the energy it had absorbed to reach the excited state.
THE NUCLEUS
All matter is made of atoms. Except for hydrogen, atoms consist of
protons and neutrons in the nucleus and the electrons that are always
found outside the nucleus. (Hydrogen is made of electrons and
protons only.) Atoms are electrically neutral; when an atom has
gained or lost electrons, the result is an ion. The number of protons in
the nucleus of an atom is the atomic number, called the (Z) number.
Because all atoms are electrically neutral, this is the number of elec-
trons, too. All atoms of a particular element contain the same number
of protons; however, they may have different numbers of neutrons.
CHAPTER 7
Peterson’s: www.petersons.com 221
Notice that the hydrogen, deuterium, and tritium (above) each
have one proton and one electron. The difference between them is
the number of neutrons in the nucleus. The sum of the protons in a
nucleus plus the number of neutrons is called the mass number, or (A)
number. Elements with the same atomic number but a different mass
number are called isotopes.
The number of neutrons in the nucleus can be found by
subtracting the Z number from the A number (A–Z). Atoms and their
isotopes are expressed by writing the A number over the Z number,
followed by the symbol of the element.
15
8
O O is oxygen 15, and
16
8
is oxygen 16.
You may notice on the periodic table of the elements that for the
most part, the mass number of the elements is a decimal. That’s
because the number on the periodic table represents the atomic mass
number of all the isotopes of the element of the type in discussion
averaged together in their natural abundance. The isotope number or
mass number of an element has absolutely nothing to do with the
atomic number of the element. Isotopes of any given element with
the same mass number are the same element because they all have the
same number of protons in the nucleus. The mass of the atom listed
on the periodic table is actually the relative mass of each of the
elements compared to one another.
The actual mass of an atom should be the sum of the masses of
its individual parts. An atom of
12
6
C should have the mass of 6
protons plus 6 neutrons plus 6 electrons. We are about to see that this
is not necessarily the case.
Before proceeding with the calculation of the mass of the
12
6
C
atom, let’s take a look at relative mass. Since atoms are so tiny, their
mass is an extremely small number. A convenient way to consider the
small masses involved with atoms is the atomic mass unit or amu.
THE ATOM
Peterson’s SAT II Success: Physics 222
One amu (u) is equivalent to l.6606 × 10
–27
kg. The calculation of the
mass of a carbon atom is shown below by using both the actual mass,
and the amu simultaneously.
Mass of the proton (m
p+
) = 1.6726 × 10
–27
kg or 1.007276u
Mass of the neutron (m
n
) = 1.6749 × 10
–27
kg or 1.008665u
Mass of the electron (m
e–
) = 9.1094 × 10
–31
kg or 5.86 × 10
–4
u
The mass of the proton is approximately 1836 times as great as
the electron mass. The mass of the electron is so tiny in comparison
to the mass of the nucleus that it is not even considered in most
applications.
Continuing to find the mass of the carbon atom we have:
( )( . ) .
( )( . ) .
6 1 6726 10 1 0036 10
6 1 007276 6 0
27 26
p
p
u
+
− −
+
× = ×
=
kg kg
or 443656
6 1 6749 10 1 0049 10
6 1 008665
27 26
u
n
n
( )( . ) .
( )( .
× = ×
− −
kg kg
or uu u
e
e
) .
( )( . ) .
( )( .
=
× = ×

− −

6 05199
6 9 1094 10 5 4656 10
6 5
31 10
kg kg
or 4486 10 3 2916 10
4 3
× = ×
− −
u u ) .
The total mass of the carbon 12 atom is:
2.009 × 10
–26
kg or 12.098932 u
The mass of the carbon nucleus is found by subtracting the mass
of the electrons from the mass of the nucleus:
kg mass of atom 12.098932 2 009 10
5 4656 10
26
.
( ) .
×
− ×

u
−− −

− ×
×
30 3
26
3 2916 10
2 0085 10
kg mass of electrons
kg m
( ) .
.
u
aass of nucleus 12 095642 . u
All the parts of the nucleus, whether they are protons or
neutrons, are called nucleons.
Two noteworthy facts emerge from the calculations above. The
first is the ease with which we can use amu values, and the second is
the extremely small fraction of the mass of the carbon atom that is
electron mass.
CHAPTER 7
Peterson’s: www.petersons.com 223
3 2916 10
12 095642
0002721 2 7 10
3
6
.
.
. . %. = ×


u
u
or
As the atoms become larger, the electron mass percentage of the
atom decreases to a smaller and smaller percent.
The calculations show that the mass of the carbon–12 nucleus
should be 12.095642 u. The actual mass of the carbon nucleus has
been found to be 12.01115 u. What happened to the rest of the mass?
Remember, the protons carry a positive charge that produces a force
of repulsion on other protons. There are 6 protons in the carbon
nucleus, and energy is required to hold the protons together against
the forces they exert on one another. Einstein’s equation (E = mc
2
)
relates the changes in the mass of the nucleus with energy. The
missing mass (mass defect) converts into the energy required to hold
the positively charged protons together in the nucleus.
Mass defect is the difference between the calculated mass of all
the protons and neutrons in a given nucleus compared to the actual
mass of the nucleus.
The energy that holds protons together in the nucleus is called
binding energy. Binding energy results from converting the mass
resulting from the mass defect into energy. This energy is necessary
to overcome the force of repulsion the protons exert on one another.
When the binding energy is calculated using kilograms as the
mass units, the energy is given in joules. More often, the binding
energy is measured in units called the electron volt. The electron volt
is defined as the energy required to move one electron through a
potential of one volt.
Using Einstein’s equation E = mc
2
, we find:
1u = 931.5 MeV
This means 1amu of mass produces 931.5 MeV of energy. Going
back to the original oxygen atom, we will find the binding energy for
carbon-12.
(calculated mass of the carbon nucleus)
(
12 095642 . u
−−) 12.011150 (known mass of the carbon nucleus)

u
.084492 (mass defect of the carbon nucleus) u
The binding energy is calculated to be:
(931.5 MeV/amu)(.084492 u) = 78.7 MeV
Sometimes there is a need to know how much binding energy
applies to each nucleon. Calculating the binding energy per nucleon,
we have:
78 7
12
6 56 . . MeV MeV
nucleons nucleon
=
THE ATOM
Peterson’s SAT II Success: Physics 224
Binding energy usually holds the particles in the nucleus strongly
together. Elements that fit into this category are the “stable” elements.
Some elements that are not held together strongly enough by the
binding energy are called “unstable.” That is because the unstable
element occasionally emits parts or particles called radiation. The
emission of radiation by a nucleus always changes the nucleus in
a way that tends to make the nucleus more stable.
RADIOACTIVITY
Henri Becquerel was studying fluorescence and phosphorescence
when he accidentally discovered that photographic plates stored near
uranium compounds became fogged. Becquerel reasoned that the
photographic plates must have been exposed by something from the
uranium. Over the next decade several dozen new radioactive sub-
stances were found by scientists, most notably by Pierre and Marie
Curie.
Even though the newly discovered radioactive substances were
different, all were found to emit just three kinds of radiation:
alpha ( ), beta ( ), and gamma ( ). α β γ An experiment in which a sample
of radioactive uranium was placed in a lead container with a very
small opening showed that each type of radiation has different
characteristics.
The radiation from the sample could only escape from the lead
box by passing through a pinhole opening. As the radioactive
particles passed out of the lead box, they were subjected to an
electric field. Some of the particles were repelled by the positive and
attracted toward the negative plate. These were called alpha (α) rays.
Alpha rays were assigned a positive charge because they were
deflected away from the positively charged plate when they passed
through an electric field. Alpha radiation was found to be less
CHAPTER 7
Peterson’s: www.petersons.com 225
penetrating than the other radiations. Alpha particles are easily
stopped by a sheet of paper. The alpha particle is a helium nucleus
4
2
He
.
The second of the three radiations was repelled by the negative
plate and attracted toward the positive plate; these are beta (β) rays.
Beta radiation is somewhat more penetrating than alpha particles.
Beta particles are high-speed electrons
0
1 −






e
capable of penetrating
thin metal sheets, but they are stopped by a few millimeters of lead.
The third ray was found to be completely unaffected by the
electric field. These high-energy photons, called gamma (γ) rays, were
found to be a highly penetrating type of radiation, with the ability to
penetrate several centimeters (or more) of lead.
Gamma radiation occurs when a nucleus emits energy. No other
changes occur in the nucleus. Beta radiation occurs when a neutron
decays into a proton and an electron (combining a proton and an
electron yields a neutron.) When alpha particles are emitted, the
nucleus changes by the value of a helium nucleus.
Alpha Emission
Beta Emission
238
92
234
90
4
2
234
90
234
9
U Th He
Th
→ +

11
0
1
238
92
234
92
Pa e
U U
+

→ + Gamma Emission γ
Notice the examples above are not only radiations, but examples
of nuclear equations.
When doing nuclear equations, you should always check the
following:
1. The sum of the atomic numbers on both sides of the equation
must be equal.
2. The sum of the mass numbers on both sides of the equation must
be equal.
RADIOACTIVITY
Peterson’s SAT II Success: Physics 226
NEUTRON ADDITION
235
92
1
0
144
56
U n Ba + → +?
The missing substance on the right side of the equation must
contain enough protons and neutrons to balance the number of
protons and neutrons on the left side of the equation.
236
92
144
56
92
36
− =
When the correct number of protons and neutrons have been
determined, the appropriate symbol is added to the equation.
235
92
1
0
144
56
92
32
U n Ba Kr + → +
β emission
92
36
4
0
1
Kr Zr e → +

?
Remember that the electron emission changes a neutron into a
proton. There are 4 electrons (B particles) emitted, so 4 neutrons
change into protons.
92
36
92
40
4
0
1
Kr Zr → +

FISSION
The process by which an atomic nucleus splits into two or more parts
is called nuclear fission. Nuclear fission occurs when a neutron
collides with a nucleus, producing two new “daughter” nuclei that
usually have a ratio of (60:40) of the mass of the parent nucleus.
Nuclear power plants generate electricity through the fission of
235
92
U
.
235
92
1
0
140
56
92
36
4
1
0
U n Ba Kr n + → + + + energy
CHAPTER 7
Peterson’s: www.petersons.com 227
The diagram above illustrates the process through which the
uranium nucleus is split to produce the two daughter nuclei and four
neutrons. We can calculate the energy released in the reaction by
finding the change in mass between the reactant nucleus and neutron
and the products.
First we will restate the equation with the known mass of the
substances inserted into the equation.
The mass of is 235.0439231
The mass of is 139.9
235
140
U u
Ba 1105995
The mass of is 91.9261528
92
u
Kr u
1
0
235
92
140
56
92
36
4
1
0
1 008665 235 0439231 139 9
n U Ba Kr n
u u
+ → + +
+ → . . . 110599 91 9261528 4 03466
236 05259 235 8714
u u u
u u
+ +

. .
. .
The difference in the mass of the reactants on the left is greater
than the mass of the products on the right. The laws of conservation
of mass and energy require an accounting of the missing mass. That is
the mass converted to energy according to E = mc
2
.
Subtracting we have:
236 05259
235 87140
18119
.
( ) .
.
u
u
u

RADIOACTIVITY
Peterson’s SAT II Success: Physics 228
The difference between the two is the mass that is converted to
energy.
E
MeV
u
u
E MeV U
=






=
931 5 18119
168 7785
. (. )
. per atom
235
We can see that the larger the number of uranium atoms present
to fission, the more energy can be obtained from the process. The
energy from the reaction is produced when some of the binding
energy of the
235
92
U is released. The 4 neutrons represent a net gain
of 3 extra neutrons in the reaction. The neutrons continue to strike
and fission more uranium nuclei in a reaction called a chain reaction.
In a nuclear reactor the chain reaction is controlled through the use
of non-reactive boron rods.
The two daughter nuclei,
140
56
Ba Kr and
92
36
, are both radioactive,
as are many physical objects that come into contact with reactive
materials. One of the major drawbacks in fission reactions is the large
amount of radioactive nuclear waste that is produced.
RADIATION
Radioactive waste and other nuclear materials produce radiations that
are dangerous to living organisms, causing tissue and genetic damage.
The penetrating power of radiation particles depends on the mass of
the particle, its energy, and its charge. Alpha radiation damages tissue
less than beta radiation because it is less penetrating. Gamma radia-
tion is the most penetrating radiation of all.
The activity of a radioactive sample is the number of radioactive
disintegrations a sample undergoes in a unit of time.
Activity =


N
t
The unit for activity is the Bequerel (Bq). The activity of any
substance depends upon the number of radioactive nuclei that were
originally present (N
0
) and the decay constant (λ) of the substance.
The decay constant is equal to the ratio between the N
0
and the
activity of the substance.


N
t
N = λ
0
CHAPTER 7
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To find out how long it takes for one half of a radioactive
substance to decay away (T
1/2
), we use the following equation.
T
1
2
693
=
.
λ
The decay curve for a radioactive substance is an exponential
curve:
The graph above tells us that one half of a radioactive element
has decayed away after one half-life. After two half-lives, 25% of the
substance remains, after three it is 12.5%, and so on. After six half-lives,
the radioactive material decays to negligible amounts. The remaining
percentage of a radioactive substance after six half lives is calculated
as follows:
1
2
1
2
1
2
1
2
1
2
1
2








































or
1
2 

6
015625 1 5625 Yielding or . . %
RADIOACTIVITY
Peterson’s SAT II Success: Physics 230
The percentage of any radioactive substance is calculated in the
same way. Raise
1
2
to the power of the number of half-lives, and the
result is the amount of substance left
1
2






n
.
Example
Let’s try a problem.
A radioactive isotope of iodine used in medical procedures has a
half-life of 2.26 hours. How much of the radioactive iodine will be
left in a patient’s body 24 hours after 10 grams of the radioisotope of
iodine is ingested?
Solution
First we find the number of half-lives in the 24 hour period.
24 hours
hours
half-life
half-lives
2 26
10 6
.
. =
Next we find the decimal amount of the iodine left.
(1/2)
10.6
= .00064 or .064%
Since the patient ingested 10g, the amount of the isotope left is:
(10g) (.00064) = .0064g
There is almost no radioactive iodine left in the patient’s body.
FUSION
When the nucleus is split (through the process of fission), energy is
derived from the mass defect that was converted into the binding
energy to hold the nucleus together. This shows that the mass of a
stable nucleus is less than the mass of the individual parts of the
nucleus if they were divided and added together in that manner. The
missing mass, or mass defect, provides the necessary mass to provide
the binding energy to hold the protons within in the nucleus in spite
of their repulsion for one another.
CHAPTER 7
Peterson’s: www.petersons.com 231
The change in the masses of nuclear parts when they are within
a nucleus compared to their masses when they are not within a
nucleus is a source of energy in another type of nuclear reaction. The
process of combining small nuclei with other small nuclei to build
larger nuclei is called fusion. During the process of fusing nuclei
together, the energy of the reaction is obtained.
Fusion continuously occurs in the stars. These stellar “ovens”
eventually produce all the elements known to man by the fusion
process. The process also produces large amounts of energy. The
energy produced in the sun is the energy that heats the earth.
Fusion in the sun begins with the simplest of the elements,
hydrogen.
1
1
1
1
2
1
0
1
H H H e + → +
+
+ υ
Notice the emission of a
0
1
e





 particle (called a positron) in the
reaction, which means a proton has changed into a neutron. The
positron is an emission which converts a proton into a neutron. The
formation of deuterium
2
1
H





 is just the first of several steps
leading to the formation of helium in the sun. Next is:
2
1
1
1
3
2
3
2
3
2
4
2
2
1
1
H H He
He He He H
+ →
+ → +
followed by
Four protons (hydrogen) have combined to form helium. Now
we calculate the energy released in the fusion reaction by finding the
mass of the reactants and using the known mass of the products.
Reactants: (4p+)(1.007276 u) = 4.029104 u
Products: Known mass of helium = 4.001506 u
Subtract the known mass of the helium nucleus from the sum of
its parts:
4.029104 u – 4.001506 u = .027598 u
RADIOACTIVITY
Peterson’s SAT II Success: Physics 232
This provides an energy yield of:
931 5 027598 25 7 . (. ) .
MeV
u
u MeV






=
The energy obtained doesn’t seem very large, but remember this
is the energy yield from the formation of only one helium nucleus.
We can gain a better understanding of how much energy is
derived from fusion if we consider a larger number of the fused
helium atoms, say l mole of helium. There are 6.022 × 10
23
atoms of
helium in one mole. Multiply the energy from the formation of one
helium atom by the number of atoms in one mole of helium.
(6.022 × 10
23
) (25.7 MeV) = 1.55 × 10
25
MeV
That is the equivalent of 2.5 × 10
11
Joules, enough heat to raise
the temperature of 597m
3
of water by 100°C.
The fusion reaction produces a large amount of energy.
However, a sustainable fusion reaction has been extremely difficult to
achieve. Problems exist with sustaining the reaction and with
containing the reaction in a vessel capable of withstanding the
immense heat energy produced in the reaction.
Despite this, fusion power has its benefits, a major one of which
is the relative cleanliness of the reaction. Hydrogen is the simplest
and the smallest of all the elements. It is readily available in large
quantities on earth. There would be no fuel shortages for reactors
using hydrogen as their fuel. With the exception of some incidental
radiations, there is very little radiation produced in the reaction,
either as a by-product or a waste product.
PARTICLES
The search for new particles has been aided by the advent of newer
and bigger particle accelerators. Early particle accelerators used
small particles, protons and neutrons, as projectiles to smash into
target particles, or nuclei. As larger accelerators were constructed,
larger particles could be accelerated and more energetic collisions
could be designed. The most commonly used accelerators used today
are cyclotrons, synchrotrons, and linear accelerators. The cyclotron
uses magnetic fields to accelerate a particle (usually a proton) in a
circular pathway. The synchrotron also uses a circular pathway, but
its size is much larger than the cyclotron. The particles in the syn-
chrotron are subject to a constantly changing magnetic field to
CHAPTER 7
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accelerate the particles. The particle of choice for linear acceleration
is the β particle
0
1 −






e
. It is accelerated through a straight line to
nearly the speed of light. The advent of the new, more powerful
accelerators made possible the formation and discovery of new
particles (and antiparticles).
Experiments in high energy-physics have left researchers with a
classification problem. The particles that result from high energy
collisions do not always lend themselves to the normal mass and
charge classification, so scientists devised a way to classify particles
according to their interactions.
The interactions are based upon the strength of a particle’s
interaction with other particles. These interactions, arranged from
strongest to weakest, are
• Strong interactions
• Electromagnetic interactions
• Weak interactions
• Gravitational interactions
Particles exhibiting strong interactions are responsible for
nuclear force. There are several types of particles that fit into this
category, and they are collectively called hadrons. Protons and
neutrons are in this category.
Electrons have no strong interactions and are categorized as
leptons. Particles that exhibit electromagnetic interactions have
electric charge. Electromagnetic interactions between charged bodies
are not as strong as nuclear interactions at short distances (nuclear
radius), but they operate over longer distances. Neutral particles have
no magnetic interactions.
Radioactive decay and β-emission are examples of weak
interaction, which is the force involved in the decay of unstable
particles into more stable products.
The last of the interactions is the gravitational interaction. It
does not seem to have any significant effect upon the particle physics
world; its importance is in the macro-environment of large bodies.
PARTICLES
Peterson’s SAT II Success: Physics 234
CHAPTER SUMMARY
• •• •• The three basic parts of an atom are the electron, the proton,
and the neutron.
• •• •• Electrons are the negative part of the atom. They are found
outside the nucleus and they are only 1/1836 the mass of a
proton.
• •• •• Protons are the positive part of the atom. They are found in
the nucleus and their mass is 1836 times greater than that of
the electron.
• •• •• Neutrons are neutral. They have no charge, are found inside
the nucleus, and have a mass approximately equal to a proton.
• •• •• Electrons occupy discrete levels near their nucleus called
orbitals.
• •• •• The lowest energy orbital is called the ground state.
• •• •• Unexcited electrons normally occupy the ground state n = 1.
• •• •• Electrons absorb energy to change to a higher energy level.
• •• •• Electrons emit energy as they drop to a lower energy level.
• •• •• Except for hydrogen, all atoms have neutrons and protons in
the nucleus.
• •• •• An isotope is a form of an element that has the same atomic
number as the element but has a different atomic mass.
• •• •• The Z number of an atom is the number of protons in the
nucleus.
• •• •• The A number of an atom is the number of the protons plus
the neutrons in the nucleus.
• •• •• Atomic nuclei are held together by energy called binding
energy.
• •• •• The source of the binding energy is the mass defect.
• •• •• Balanced nuclear equations require that:
1. the sum of the atomic numbers on both sides of the
equation must be equal.
2. the sum of the mass numbers on both sides of the
equation must be equal.
• •• •• Nuclear fission is a process by which large atomic nuclei are
split to obtain energy.
CHAPTER 7
Peterson’s: www.petersons.com 235
• •• •• Nuclear fusion is a process by which small atomic nuclei are
joined to obtain energy.
• •• •• Unstable atomic nuclei become more stable by emission of
energy or particles in a process called radiation.
• •• •• The three types of natural radiation are:
1. Alpha particles α
2. Beta particles β
3. Gamma rays γ
• The length of time required for one half of a radioactive
substance to decay away is called its half-life, T
1/2
.
• •• •• The activity of a radioactive substance is defined as the num-
ber of radioactive disintegration per unit of time.
Activity =


N
t
• •• •• A variety of machines called particle accelerators are used in
the search for new particles.
• •• •• Many newly found particles are particle/anti-particle pairs.
• •• •• The four interactive forces are:
1. Strong interactions
2. Electromagnetic interactions
3. Weak interactions
4. Gravitational interactions
CHAPTER SUMMARY
Practice Test 1
PHYSICS PHYSICS PHYSICS PHYSICS PHYSICS TEST TEST TEST TEST TEST
Peterson’s: www.petersons.com 239
PRACTICE TEST 1
PHYSICS PHYSICS PHYSICS PHYSICS PHYSICS TEST TEST TEST TEST TEST
While you have taken many standardized tests and know to blacken completely the ovals on the
answer sheets and to erase completely any errors, the instructions for the SAT II Physics Test differ in
an important way from the directions for other standardized tests. You need to indicate on the answer
key which test you are taking. The instructions on the answer sheet will tell you to fill out the top
portion of the answer sheet exactly as shown.
1. Print PHYSICS on the line under the words Subject Test (print).
2. In the shaded box labeled Test Code fill in four ovals:
—Fill in oval 1 in the row labeled V.
—Fill in oval 6 in the row labeled W.
—Fill in oval 3 in the row labeled X.
—Fill in oval C in the row labeled Y.
—Leave the ovals in row Q blank.
V
W
X
Q
Test Code
Subject Test (print)
Physics
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
1 2 3 4 5 A B C D E
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
Y
There are two additional questions that you will be asked to answer. One is “How many semesters of
physics have you taken in high school?” The other question lists courses and asks you to mark those
that you have taken. You will be told which ovals to fill in for each question. The College Board is
collecting statistical information. If you choose to answer, you will use the key that is provided and
blacken the appropriate ovals in row Q. You may also choose not to answer, and that will not affect
your grade.
When everyone has completed filling in this portion of the answer sheet, the supervisor will tell you
to turn the page and begin. The answer sheet has 100 numbered ovals, but there are only approxi-
mately 75 multiple-choice questions on the test, so be sure to use only ovals 1 to 75 (or however many
questions there are) to record your answers.
Peterson’s SAT II Success: Physics 240
PHYSICS PHYSICS PHYSICS PHYSICS PHYSICS TEST TEST TEST TEST TEST
P PP PPar ar ar ar art t t t t A AA AA
Directions: Each of the sets of lettered choices below refers to the questions and/or statements
that follow. Select the lettered choice that is the best answer to each question and fill in the
corresponding oval on the answer sheet. In each set, each choice may be used once, more than
once, or not at all.
Questions 1–2 relate to the diagram below,
which shows a set of open-ended pipes with
waves vibrating inside them.
1. Which of the diagrams shows the pipe
containing waves with the longest wave-
length?
2. Which of the diagrams shows the pipe
containing the waves with the highest
frequency?
Questions 3–5 relate to the diagram below,
which shows atomic particles moving through a
magnetic field.
A beam of electrons is deflected in the magnetic
field shown. The electrons that have passed
through the field strike the screen at point P.
3. At which letter would a stream of neu-
trons strike the screen?
4. At which letter would a stream of protons
strike the screen?
5. At which letter would a stream of elec-
trons strike the screen if the poles of the
magnet were reversed?
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Questions 6–7 relate to the graph below, which
shows an object that is thrown almost straight
up from the top of a ten-story building.
6. At what point on the graph does the
potential energy of the object equal the
kinetic energy of the object?
7. At what point on the graph does the kinetic
energy of the object decrease while the
potential energy increases?
Questions 8–10 relate to the symbols used in
writing nuclear equations. Atomic nuclei are
typically written in the form
A
Z
X
.
Select the choice that provides the best match to
each of the questions below.
(A) The number of protons is Z.
(B) The number of neutrons is X.
(C) The symbol of the element is X.
(D) The number of electrons is A.
(E) The mass number is A.
8. Which letter represents the atomic num-
ber?
9. Which letter represents the protons plus
neutrons in the nucleus?
10. Which letter represents the name of the
nuclide?
PHYSICS TEST
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Questions 11–13 relate to the following situation.
A train engine that weighs 5000N stops at the
exact center of a bridge. The bridge weighs
75,000N and has two equally spaced pillars that
completely support the bridge.
(A) 75,000N
(B) 40,000N
(C) 37,500N
(D) 2500N
(E) 0N
Select the choice that provides the best match to
each of the statements below.
11. The sum of the torques
12. The force exerted on the ground by a single
pillar
13. The upward force exerted by each pillar
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P PP PPar ar ar ar art B t B t B t B t B
14. A carbon atom decays into a nitrogen atom
in the equation below. Which of the quanti-
ties correctly finishes the equation?
14
6
14
7
C → + N ?
(A) Alpha
(B) Beta
(C) Gamma
(D) Neutron
(E) Neutrino
15. A rocket is launched into the air during a
fireworks show. Which of the following
statements about the parts of the rocket is
appropriate immediately after the explo-
sion?
(A) They have less mass than they had
before the explosion.
(B) They have more momentum than they
had before the explosion.
(C) They have less momentum than they
had before the explosion.
(D) They have the same momentum as
they had before the explosion.
(E) They have less kinetic energy than
they had before the explosion.
16. Two 1 liter containers contain 1 mole each
of the same gas at the same temperature.
Container A is allowed to expand until the
temperature of gas A is reduced by half.
Container B is compressed until the tem-
perature of gas B doubles. Both gases are
then mixed together in a 2 liter container.
Which of the following statements about
the gases is correct?
(A) Both gases gain heat.
(B) Both gases lose heat.
(C) Gas A loses heat to gas B.
(D) Gas B loses heat to gas A.
(E) The equilibrium temperature of the
gases is exactly one half the original
starting temperature of the gases.
17. The energy obtained in a nuclear reaction is
derived from
(A) mass defect.
(B) binding energy.
(C) fission.
(D) fusion.
(E) all of these.
18. Constructive interference between two
light beams results in
(A) a loss of kinetic energy.
(B) the destruction of the waves.
(C) the reversal of the direction of the
waves.
(D) a larger wave.
(E) the refraction of the waves.
Directions: Each question or statement below is followed by five possible answers. In each case,
select the best possible answer and fill in the corresponding oval on the answer sheet.
PHYSICS TEST
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19. Two batteries are hooked together in an
electric circuit. Which of the following
statements is/are true?
I. Maximum voltage is obtained when
the batteries are wired in parallel.
II. Maximum voltage is obtained when
the batteries are wired in series.
III. Maximum current capacity is
obtained when the batteries are
wired in parallel.
(A) I only
(B) II only
(C) I and III only
(D) II and III only
(E) I, II, and III
20. A goldfish swims through an aquarium by
moving its fins and tail. What causes the
fish to move forward?
I. The force the water exerts on the
goldfish
II. The force the tail of the goldfish
exerts on the water
III. The force the fins of the goldfish
exert on the water
(A) I only
(B) II only
(C) I and III only
(D) II and III only
(E) I, II, and III
21. A hydrogen electron gains enough energy
to rise from the n=1 to the n=5 energy
level. How much energy does it gain?
− =

.
.
38 7
54
eV n
eV




n
eV n
eV
=
− =

6
85 5
1 52
.
.


n
eV n
eV
=
− =

4
3 39 3
13 6
.
. n =1
(A) +.88 eV
(B) +2.54 eV
(C) +10.21 eV
(D) +12.09 eV
(E) +12.75 eV
22. A 50 g cube of ice is added to 500 g of
boiling water. Which of the following is
most likely to occur?
(A) The ice cube vaporizes before it
strikes the bottom of the container.
(B) The water boils more vigorously
because the hot water draws cold
from the ice cube.
(C) The water in the container stops
boiling during the phase change of the
ice to water.
(D) The more dense ice cube sinks in the
less dense hot water.
(E) Steam bubbles form on the ice cube.
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23. An unmanned exploratory space vehicle is
accelerated to .85c as it leaves the solar
system. Years later a stationary extra-
terrestrial watches the vehicle pass and
measures the length of the vehicle to be
12.64 m. What was the length of the
vehicle on earth before it began its trip?
(A) 8.44 m
(B) 12.64 m
(C) 18.23 m
(D) 24.0 m
(E) 29.77 m
24. The diagrammatic representation of a heat
engine above shows which of the follow-
ing?
(A) Positive work
(B) An adiabatic process
(C) An isobaric process
(D) An isochoric process
(E) An isothermal process
25. A force is applied to an object that is free
to move. Which of the following statements
is correct?
(A) The frictional force is larger than the
applied force.
(B) The frictional force is smaller than the
applied force.
(C) The weight of the object is larger than
the applied force
(D) The weight of the object is smaller
than the applied force
(E) All of these statements could be
correct.
26. Two charged spheres are separated by 2
mm. Which of the following would yield
the greatest attractive force?
(A) +1q and +4q
(B) –1q and –4q
(C) +2q and +2q
(D) –2q and –2q
(E) +2q and –2q
27. An astronaut is standing on an asteroid
when he accidentally drops a wrench. He
observes that the gravitational acceleration
on the asteroid is 2.4 m/s
2
. If he had
thrown the wrench at an upward angle
instead, he would have found the gravita-
tional acceleration on the asteroid to be
(A) less than 2.4 m/s
2
.
(B) toward him at 2.4 m/s
2
.
(C) downward at 2.4 m/s
2
.
(D) greater than 2.4 m/s
2
.
(E) none of these.
PHYSICS TEST
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28. The two-dimensional cube in the diagram
above has charged objects placed at the
corners as shown. An electron that is free
to move is placed at the exact center of the
cube. In which direction will the electron
move?
(A) It will move toward A.
(B) It will move toward B.
(C) It will move toward C.
(D) It will move toward D.
(E) It will remain stationary.
29. A white disk and a black disk are placed on
top of a snow bank on a sunny day. The
black disk sinks deeper into the snow
because
(A) the black disk reflects light better.
(B) the white disk reflects light better.
(C) the black disk radiates heat better.
(D) the white disk radiates heat better.
(E) both of the disks reflect light and
radiate heat at the same rate.
30. Based on the diagram above, which of the
following statements describes the quanti-
ties induced into the iron core when SW
1
is
closed?
(A) Lines of force emanate from side y.
(B) Lines of force emanate from side x.
(C) Side y becomes a south magnetic pole.
(D) Side x becomes a north magnetic pole.
(E) The electric field cancels the magnetic
field.
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31. A wire within a magnetic field has a cur-
rent flowing in it as shown. Any force
exerted on the wire is in the direction of
(A) point A.
(B) point B.
(C) point C.
(D) point D.
(E) No forces are exerted on the wire.
32. A 24 V battery is connected to a 4 ohm
resistor, causing a current of 5 amperes.
What is the internal resistance of the
battery?
(A) 0 W
(B) .8 W
(C) .4 W
(D) 1.6 W
(E) 1.2 W
33. A pendulum is used on Earth and then
transported to the moon where it is re-
leased and allowed to swing freely. Which
of the following statements about the
pendulum is correct?
(A) The period of the pendulum on the
moon is greater than it was on Earth.
(B) The frequency of the pendulum on the
moon is greater than it was on Earth.
(C) The potential energy of the pendulum
on the moon is greater than it was on
Earth.
(D) The kinetic energy of the pendulum
on the moon is greater than it was on
Earth.
(E) The period, the frequency, the kinetic
energy, and the potential energy of the
pendulum on the moon are the same
as they were on Earth.
PHYSICS TEST
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34. A girl standing on a high bridge over a
creek throws a rock straight down at
leaves floating in the creek. Just as she
throws the rock she accidentally drops
another rock. Neglecting air resistance,
which statement best describes the situa-
tion just as the rocks reach the water?
(A) The acceleration of the thrown rock is
greater.
(B) The acceleration of the dropped rock
is greater.
(C) The acceleration of both rocks is the
same.
(D) The average velocity of both rocks is
the same.
(E) The final velocity of both rocks is the
same.
35. When does an artificial earth satellite that
is in an elliptical orbit experience its
greatest centripetal acceleration?
(A) When it first enters orbit
(B) When it is nearest the earth
(C) When it is farthest from the earth
(D) When it leaves orbit
(E) Its centripetal acceleration is always
the same
36. A sample of a radioactive substance has a
half-life of 20 minutes. If the sample’s
activity is 200 counts/second, what is the
number of counts/second after one hour
passes?
(A) 6.25 counts/sec
(B) 12.5 counts/sec
(C) 25 counts/sec
(D) 50 counts/sec
(E) 100 counts/sec
37. An object (O) is placed in front of a con-
cave mirror as shown in the diagram above.
Which of the following choices best de-
scribes the image formed?
(A) Virtual and magnified
(B) Real and erect
(C) Inverted and magnified
(D) Virtual and reduced
(E) Real and inverted
38. A very rich boy has an ice hockey practice
floor that is essentially frictionless installed
in a long refrigerated boxcar. As the train is
moving, the boy practices shooting at the
goal at the other end of the car. Just as he
releases his shot, the train goes around a
sharp curve to the left (looking forward in
the direction the boy is shooting). Which
statement most accurately describes the
boy’s shot?
(A) It curves to the right and misses to
the right side of the net.
(B) It curves to the left and misses to the
left side of the net.
(C) It travels straight and misses to the
right side of the net.
(D) It travels straight and misses to the
left side of the net.
(E) It travels straight into the goal.
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39. The three blocks in the diagram above are
identical and are pulled at a constant rate
across a surface that has a frictional coeffi-
cient of .22. Which of the following state-
ments about the tensions in the connecting
strings is correct?
(A) T
1
is equal to (T
3
– T
2
).
(B) T
1
is equal to (T
2
– T
3
).
(C) T
2
is equal to (T
3
– T
1
).
(D) T
3
is equal to (T
1
– T
2
).
(E) T
3
is equal to (T
2
– T
1
).
40. A boxcar rolls down an incline and strikes a
stationary boxcar at the bottom of the
incline. The two boxcars stick together and
roll a short distance before they come to a
stop.
Which of the graphs above shows the total
momentum of both boxcars throughout the
time they are moving?
(A) Time A
(B) Time B
(C) Time C
(D) Time D
(E) Time E
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41. At the third maxima on both sides of the
zeroth fringe in a Young’s double slit
experiment, the light
(A) travels the same distance.
(B) from the lower opening travels three
times farther than light from the
upper opening.
(C) from the upper opening travels three
times farther than light from the
lower opening.
(D) from either opening travels 2 wave-
lengths farther than light from the
other opening.
(E) from either opening travels 3 wave-
lengths farther than light from the
other opening.
42. A professional golfer strikes a golf ball
with his driver, imparting a momentum of 8
kg·

m/s on the ball. The golf ball strikes a
wall and maintains contact for .0025
seconds before it bounces straight back-
ward at the same velocity with which it
struck the wall. The momentum of the golf
ball is
(A) 6400 kg·m/s
(B) 3200 kg
.
·m/s
(C) 8 kg·m/s
(D) .02 kg·m/s
(E) .01 kg·m/s
43. Two disks of equal mass but different
diameter are connected with an axle system
that allows them to roll down an incline
together. Both disks start and finish at the
same time. Which of the following state-
ments best describes the disks?
(A) Their tangential velocity is the same.
(B) Their tangential acceleration is the
same.
(C) Their angular velocity is the same.
(D) Their angular displacement is the
same.
(E) Their angular acceleration is the same.
44. A motorcycle racer starts from rest and
accelerates on a straight track at 5 m/s
2
.
How far does the racer travel in 8 seconds?
(A) 40 m
(B) 60 m
(C) 80 m
(D) 120 m
(E) 160 m
45. A photon can eject an electron from the
surface of a photovoltaic metal if and only
if
(A) the frequency of the photon is above
the activation minimum.
(B) the wavelength of the photon is above
the activation minimum.
(C) the speed of the photon is above an
activation minimum.
(D) the momentum of the photon is below
the activation minimum.
(E) the momentum of the impacted
electron is above the activation mini-
mum.
PRACTICE TEST 1
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46. Which of the Polaroids in the diagram
above will produce the polarized light
shown?
(A) Polaroid A
(B) Polaroid B
(C) Polaroid C
(D) Polaroid D
(E) Polaroid E
47. Which of the following best describes the
condition of an enclosed gas during an
isothermal expansion?
(A) The gas remains at constant pressure.
(B) The gas remains at constant volume.
(C) The gas remains at constant tempera-
ture.
(D) The gas remains at constant density.
(E) The gas remains at constant molarity.
48. The velocity of a moving object is doubled.
Which of the following statements about
the object is correct?
(A) The kinetic energy of the object
increases by four.
(B) The displacement of the object in-
creases by four.
(C) The momentum of the object increases
by four.
(D) The frictional force increases by four.
(E) None of these quantities increase by
four.
49. Two concurrent forces act at right angles
to one another. The resultant force is 65N
and one of the component forces is 35N.
What is the force of the other component?
(A) 40N
(B) 45N
(C) 50N
(D) 55N
(E) 60N
50. Which of the following statements is/are
correct about an object that has no unbal-
anced forces applied to it?
I. The object has no velocity.
II. The object has no acceleration.
III. The object does not move.
(A) I only
(B) II only
(C) I and III only
(D) II and III only
(E) I, II, and III
51. When a gas undergoes an adiabatic expan-
sion, its
(A) energy increases.
(B) pressure increases.
(C) volume decreases.
(D) temperature increases.
(E) temperature decreases.
PHYSICS TEST
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52. Two moving electrons enter a strong
magnetic field at right angles to the field.
The velocity of one of the electrons is four
times greater then the velocity of the other
electron. Which of the following best
describes the ration of the circular radii the
two electrons follow?
(A) The faster electron has a radius two
times larger than the slower electron.
(B) The faster electron has a radius four
times larger than the slower electron.
(C) The faster electron has a radius eight
times larger than the slower electron.
(D) The faster electron has a radius
sixteen times larger than the slower
electron.
(E) The faster electron has a radius sixty-
four times larger than the slower
electron.
53. A pair of a particles (helium nuclei) ap-
proach one another head on. Compared to
the force they exert on one another at a
distance of .066 m, by how much will the
force the two particles exert on one an-
other at .033 mm increase?
(A) 2
(B) 3
(C) 4
(D) 6
(E) 8
54. According to Einstein’s theory of relativity,
which of the following would be a correct
assumption to make for a traveler in a
spaceship traveling at .95c?
(A) Clocks on the spaceship run more
slowly.
(B) The spaceship will appear shortened.
(C) The mass of the spaceship increases
while it is in motion.
(D) Light travels at the same velocity for
the traveler whether he is moving or
not moving.
(E) All of these assumptions would be
correct.
55. The engineer of a train blows the train
whistle as he approaches a crossing. A few
moments later he hears an echo from the
whistle. The engineer hears the echo of the
whistle because of
(A) reflection.
(B) refraction.
(C) constructive interference.
(D) destructive interference.
(E) Doppler effect.
PRACTICE TEST 1
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56. The diagram above shows a battery and a
variable resistor set at its midpoint resis-
tance in series with a parallel light circuit.
Switch l (SW1) is closed and the light bulbs
illuminate. When the variable resistor is
moved slightly to the left (L) the bulbs dim
a little. When the variable resistor is moved
slightly to the right (R) the bulbs brighten
slightly.
What happens in the circuit when the
variable resistor is set all the way to the
right?
(A) The lights brighten considerably.
(B) The total circuit resistance increases.
(C) The total circuit current decreases.
(D) The total applied voltage increases.
(E) The total power used in the circuit
increases.
57. The density of any substance from the most
dense phase to the least dense phase is
(A) gas, liquid, solid
(B) liquid, solid, gas
(C) liquid, gas, solid
(D) solid, gas, liquid
(E) solid, liquid, gas
58. An object that is placed on the edge of a
constant speed turntable has
(A) constant linear velocity.
(B) tangential acceleration.
(C) centripetal acceleration.
(D) centrifugal acceleration.
(E) no acceleration.
59. The diagram above shows a proton at point
B between two electrons at points A and C.
The distance from point B to point C is
twice the distance from point B to point A.
The force the proton experiences at point
B is
(A) two times stronger from the electron
at A.
(B) three times stronger from the electron
at A.
(C) four times stronger from the electron
at A.
(D) the same from both electrons.
(E) It is not possible to determine the
force the proton experiences from the
information provided.
60. A laser beam passes from the air into a
piece of plexiglass. All of the following are
false EXCEPT
(A) the velocity decreases.
(B) the wavelength increases.
(C) the frequency decreases.
(D) the period decreases.
(E) None of the above is true.
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61. A 30 kg child is standing in the back of a
stationary 10 kg wagon that is free to
move. The child jumps from the wagon into
his mother’s arms. Which of the following
statements is correct at the moment he
jumps from the wagon?
(A) The child’s velocity is greater than the
wagon’s velocity.
(B) The wagon’s velocity is greater than
the child’s velocity
(C) The impulse exerted by the child on
the wagon is the same as the momen-
tum gained by the wagon.
(D) The impulse exerted by the wagon on
the child is larger than the momentum
gained by the child.
(E) None of these statements is correct.
62. Ice, which has a temperature of 0°C, is
added to 500 g of water that has a tempera-
ture of 100°C. Ice is continually added to
the system until it has all melted and no
more ice will melt. What is the tempera-
ture of the water in the system?
(A) 50°C
(B) 25°C
(C) 4.184°C
(D) 1°C
(E) 0°C
63. Two similar pith balls are very near to one
another, and each is charged with 2 excess
electrons. The angle q between q
1
and q
2
is
5.5°. One electron is removed from q
1
and
placed on q
2,
so that q
1
has 1 electron and q
2
has 3 electrons. The angle between the pith
balls changes to 4°. Which of the following
statements is correct?
I. The amount of electrostatic charge
has decreased.
II. The electrostatic force between the
pith balls has decreased.
III. Both the electrostatic charge and
force have decreased.
(A) I only
(B) II only
(C) I and III only
(D) II and III only
(E) I, II, and III
64. Complete the nuclear reaction below by
selecting the answer choice that correctly
completes the reaction.
1
1
7
3
7
4
H Li Be + → +?
(A)
(B)
1
0
(C)
(D)
(E)
1
1
0
1
H
n
e

α
Υ
PRACTICE TEST 1
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65. A stuntman drives a brand new 800kg
sports car off a high cliff at 200 km/hour.
At the exact moment that the car is driven
off the cliff, an 800kg rock is dislodged and
falls straight down toward the ground.
Which of the following is a correct state-
ment about the event?
(A) The car hits the ground first.
(B) The rock hits the ground first.
(C) The car and the rock hit the ground at
the same time.
(D) The x velocities of the car and the
rock equalize over a period of time.
(E) The x accelerations of the car and the
rock are different
66. A person standing 1.5 m in front of a plane
flat mirror would see their image at a
distance of
(A) .75 m
(B) 1.5 m
(C) 2.25 m
(D) 3 m
(E) 6 m
67. A paperboy rides his bicycle down the
street and throws the papers to houses as
he rides by them. When a thrown paper
leaves his hand, which of the following
statements is NOT true about the paper?
(A) Its velocity changes.
(B) Its acceleration changes.
(C) Its displacement changes.
(D) Its position relative to the earth
changes.
(E) Its position relative to the paperboy
changes.
68. A tugboat pulls on an 84,000N barge with
a cable having a breaking strength of
15,000N. The maximum acceleration the
tugboat can apply to the barge without the
cable breaking is
(A) .75 m/s
2
(B) 1.0 m/s
2
(C) 1.25 m/s
2
(D) 1.5 m/s
2
(E) 1.75 m/s
2
69. Two equal vectors V and V’ are added
together. All of the following are possible
values for the magnitude of the resultant
vector EXCEPT
(A) 0
(B) 1/4 V
(C) 1/2 V
(D) 2 V
(E) 4 V
70. A 30N child can push open a 1000N door
because
(A) the torque the child exerts on the door
is greater than the torque the door
exerts on the child.
(B) the lever arm through which the
child’s force is exerted is less than the
lever arm through which the door’s
weight is exerted.
(C) the door’s center of gravity is located
at the bottom hinge.
(D) the door’s center of gravity is located
at the top hinge.
(E) the door’s center of gravity is located
at the doorknob.
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71. The kinetic energy a pendulum contains
when it passes through its zero displace-
ment may be decreased by
(A) increasing the mass of the bob.
(B) increasing the thickness of the string.
(C) decreasing the length of the string.
(D) increasing the length of the string.
(E) decreasing the displacement of the
bob.
72. An object (O) is placed in front of a convex
lens as shown. Which of the positions best
describes the location of the image?
(A) Position A
(B) Position B
(C) Position C
(D) Position D
(E) Position E
73. During a lacrosse game, an attacking player
shoots a low hard shot into the goal. The
ball leaves the lacrosse stick and travels
into the net very quickly. What happens as
the ball flies toward the goal?
(A) The horizontal acceleration of the ball
increases.
(B) The vertical acceleration of the ball
increases.
(C) The horizontal velocity of the ball is
constant.
(D) The vertical velocity of the ball is
constant.
(E) All the listed quantities are constant.
PRACTICE TEST 1
74. Einstein’s theory of relativity is based on
which of the following statements?
(A) Mass and energy are equivalent.
(B) The velocity of light is a constant.
(C) Space and time are anomalies.
(D) All particles have antiparticles.
(E) Energy is infinite.
75. While a child flies a kite on a breezy day, a
burst of wind causes the kite to fly in 1.6 m
diameter circles in the sky every second. If
the circular motion were converted to a
straight down speed, how fast would the
kite dive toward the ground?
(A) 3.14 m/s
(B) 5 m/s
(C) 6.28 m/s
(D) 9.8 m/s
(E) 15.7 m/s
STOP
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ONLY. YOU MAY NOT TURN TO ANY OTHER TEST IN THIS BOOK.
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ANSWER SHEET
Leave any unused
answer spaces blank.
Test Code
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PRACTICE TEST 1
ANSWERS ANSWERS ANSWERS ANSWERS ANSWERS AND EXPLAN AND EXPLAN AND EXPLAN AND EXPLAN AND EXPLANA AA AATIONS TIONS TIONS TIONS TIONS
QUICK-SCORE ANSWERS QUICK-SCORE ANSWERS QUICK-SCORE ANSWERS QUICK-SCORE ANSWERS QUICK-SCORE ANSWERS
1. B
2. E
3. B
4. D
5. E
6. C
7. A
8. A
9. E
10. C
11. E
12. B
13. B
14. B
15. D
16. D
17. E
18. D
19. B
20. E
21. E
22. C
23. D
24. A
25. E
26. E
27. C
28. D
29. C
30. B
31. C
32. B
33. A
34. C
35. B
36. C
37. E
38. C
39. D
40. E
41. E
42. C
43. A
44. E
45. A
46. B
47. C
48. A
49. D
50. B
51. E
52. B
53. C
54. E
55. A
56. A
57. E
58. C
59. C
60. C
61. B
62. E
63. B
64. B
65. C
66. D
67. B
68. E
69. E
70. A
71. E
72. D
73. C
74. B
75. B
Peterson’s SAT II Success: Physics 260
ANSWERS AND EXPLANATIONS
ANSWERS TO PART A, QUESTIONS 1–13
1. 1. 1. 1. 1. The cor The cor The cor The cor The corr rr rrect ans ect ans ect ans ect ans ect answ ww wwer is (B) er is (B) er is (B) er is (B) er is (B). There is only 1/2 of a wave shown
in the pipe. The wave is 4 times longer than the pipe in which it
is vibrating. The equation for finding the length of the pipe is
L n =
λ
4
.
2. 2. 2. 2. 2. The cor The cor The cor The cor The corr rr rrect ans ect ans ect ans ect ans ect answ ww wwer is (E) er is (E) er is (E) er is (E) er is (E). There are 4 waves in the pipe,
which means the wavelength is much shorter that it is in dia-
gram B. Frequency is the inverse of wavelength so as the
wavelength decreases the frequency increases.
3. 3. 3. 3. 3. The cor The cor The cor The cor The corr rr rrect ans ect ans ect ans ect ans ect answ ww wwer is (B). er is (B). er is (B). er is (B). er is (B). The neutrons are uncharged par-
ticles and are not affected by the electromagnetic field.
4. 4. 4. 4. 4. The cor The cor The cor The cor The corr rr rrect ans ect ans ect ans ect ans ect answ ww wwer is (D) er is (D) er is (D) er is (D) er is (D). The protons will deflect in a
different direction from the electrons. However, the proton is
more massive and therefore will not be deflected as much as the
electron is deflected in a field of equal magnitude.
5. 5. 5. 5. 5. The cor The cor The cor The cor The corr rr rrect ans ect ans ect ans ect ans ect answ ww wwer is (E) er is (E) er is (E) er is (E) er is (E). When the field is reversed, the
electron is deflected in the opposite direction with the same
magnitude.
6. 6. 6. 6. 6. The cor The cor The cor The cor The corr rr rrect ans ect ans ect ans ect ans ect answ ww wwer is (C) er is (C) er is (C) er is (C) er is (C). The object has lost exactly half the
potential energy it originally had. It has gained the lost poten-
tial energy as kinetic energy at the point where the two lines of
the graph coincide.
7. 7. 7. 7. 7. The cor The cor The cor The cor The corr rr rrect ans ect ans ect ans ect ans ect answ ww wwer is (A). er is (A). er is (A). er is (A). er is (A). The object is thrown upwards. The
kinetic energy the object possesses when it is first thrown is
lost in the conversion to potential energy as the object rises
away from the earth while slowing to a stop in the earth’s
gravitational field.
8. 8. 8. 8. 8. The cor The cor The cor The cor The corr rr rrect ans ect ans ect ans ect ans ect answ ww wwer is (A) er is (A) er is (A) er is (A) er is (A). The number of protons and the
atomic number are the same quantity. The Z number represents
the atomic number.
ANSWERS AND EXPLANATIONS
Peterson’s: www.petersons.com 261
9. 9. 9. 9. 9. The cor The cor The cor The cor The corr rr rrect ans ect ans ect ans ect ans ect answ ww wwer is (E). er is (E). er is (E). er is (E). er is (E). The number of protons added to
the number of neutrons is equal to the mass number of an atom.
The mass is represented by the letter A.
10. 10. 10. 10. 10. The cor The cor The cor The cor The corr rr rrect ans ect ans ect ans ect ans ect answ ww wwer is (C). er is (C). er is (C). er is (C). er is (C). The name of the nuclide is repre-
sented by the symbol of the element. The X represents the
elemental symbol for any one of the elements.
11. The cor The cor The cor The cor The corr rr rrect ans ect ans ect ans ect ans ect answ ww wwer is (E er is (E er is (E er is (E er is (E). The engine stops exactly at the
center of the bridge, which means the weight of the train passes
through the center of gravity of the bridge. The lever arm is
zero, which means there cannot be any torques, because a
torque is the product of an applied force and a lever arm.
12. The cor The cor The cor The cor The corr rr rrect ans ect ans ect ans ect ans ect answ ww wwer is (B) er is (B) er is (B) er is (B) er is (B). The two equally spaced pillars each
hold one half of the weight of the bridge. Each also supports
one half of the weight of the train engine, which is located at
the exact center of the bridge.
75 000 5 000
37 500
, ,
,
N
2
N
2
N 2,500N 40,000N + = + =
13. The cor The cor The cor The cor The corr rr rrect ans ect ans ect ans ect ans ect answ ww wwer is (B). er is (B). er is (B). er is (B). er is (B). Each pillar supports exactly one-
half of the weight of the train engine, which is 2,500N and is
one-half the weight of the bridge.
ANSWERS TO PART B, QUESTIONS 14–75
14. The cor The cor The cor The cor The corr rr rrect ans ect ans ect ans ect ans ect answ ww wwer is (B) er is (B) er is (B) er is (B) er is (B). The carbon atom changes into a
nitrogen atom. This conversion can only occur if a neutron
emits a beta particle as it changes into a proton.
15. 15. 15. 15. 15. The cor The cor The cor The cor The corr rr rrect ans ect ans ect ans ect ans ect answ ww wwer is (D). er is (D). er is (D). er is (D). er is (D). The momentum before the explo-
sion must equal the momentum after the explosion. Initially, the
momentum of the parts was zero; therefore, all the parts mov-
ing in all directions could be added together, and they would
equal the momentum before the explosion: zero!
16. 16. 16. 16. 16. The cor The cor The cor The cor The corr rr rrect ans ect ans ect ans ect ans ect answ ww wwer is (D) er is (D) er is (D) er is (D) er is (D). According to the first law of
thermodynamics, the internal heat of the system remains the
same unless work is done or heat is added to the system. Nei-
ther of those two things occurs, so the system of two objects,
PRACTICE TEST 1
Peterson’s SAT II Success: Physics 262
one hot and one cold, transfers heat between itself with the hot
object losing to the cold object until thermal equilibrium is
reached.
17. 17. 17. 17. 17. The cor The cor The cor The cor The corr rr rrect ans ect ans ect ans ect ans ect answ ww wwer is (E). er is (E). er is (E). er is (E). er is (E). The sum of the individual masses of
the parts of a nucleus is less than their mass when they are
bound into the nucleus-producing mass defect. The mass from
the mass defect is converted into the energy that holds the
nucleus together and is released in fission. Fusion also pro-
duces energy when individual nuclei are forced to combine
(fusion) and form new elements in a process that produces
energy.
18. 18. 18. 18. 18. The cor The cor The cor The cor The corr rr rrect ans ect ans ect ans ect ans ect answ ww wwer is (D) er is (D) er is (D) er is (D) er is (D). Constructive interference is the
condition in which two or more waves simultaneously occupy
the same point or place (superposition) in a medium. If one
wave is negative and the other is positive, the waves cancel.
This is destructive interference. If the both waves are positive
or negative, then they combine their magnitudes and produce a
larger wave at the point of superposition.
19. 19. 19. 19. 19. The cor The cor The cor The cor The corr rr rrect ans ect ans ect ans ect ans ect answ ww wwer is (B). er is (B). er is (B). er is (B). er is (B). The voltage of the two batteries in
series adds together, providing a voltage equivalent to their
sum.
20. 20. 20. 20. 20. The cor The cor The cor The cor The corr rr rrect ans ect ans ect ans ect ans ect answ ww wwer is (E). er is (E). er is (E). er is (E). er is (E). The goldfish is pushed along by the
water as a part of the action-reaction force pair as stated in
Newton’s Third Law.
21. 21. 21. 21. 21. The cor The cor The cor The cor The corr rr rrect ans ect ans ect ans ect ans ect answ ww wwer is (E) er is (E) er is (E) er is (E) er is (E). The hydrogen must gain 12.75eV of
energy to be raised to the n = 5 level, where its potential is
.85eV.
22. 22. 22. 22. 22. The cor The cor The cor The cor The corr rr rrect ans ect ans ect ans ect ans ect answ ww wwer is (C). er is (C). er is (C). er is (C). er is (C). When the ice cube enters the
boiling water, the heat in the water immediately begins to
change the phase of the ice to water. Consequently, the higher
energy phase change (boiling) stops until the lower energy
phase change (melting) is complete.
23. 23. 23. 23. 23. The cor The cor The cor The cor The corr rr rrect ans ect ans ect ans ect ans ect answ ww wwer is (D) er is (D) er is (D) er is (D) er is (D). The relativistic equation is
L L
0
2
1 85 = −(. )
. In the eyes of an outside observer, the ship
undergoes a contraction.
ANSWERS AND EXPLANATIONS
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24. 24. 24. 24. 24. The cor The cor The cor The cor The corr rr rrect ans ect ans ect ans ect ans ect answ ww wwer is (A). er is (A). er is (A). er is (A). er is (A). The representation of the heat
engine shows work being done by the system. The arrow from
the heat reservoir points to positive work done by the system.
This shows work output, which means the system does work.
25. 25. 25. 25. 25. The cor The cor The cor The cor The corr rr rrect ans ect ans ect ans ect ans ect answ ww wwer is (E). er is (E). er is (E). er is (E). er is (E). Without more information about
the applied force, all of the choices could be correct.
26. 26. 26. 26. 26. The cor The cor The cor The cor The corr rr rrect ans ect ans ect ans ect ans ect answ ww wwer is (E) er is (E) er is (E) er is (E) er is (E). The only pair of charged bodies
that would attract one another is the pair of unlike charged
spheres. The rest of the pairs are like charges, which repel one
another.
27. 27. 27. 27. 27. The correct answer is (C) The correct answer is (C) The correct answer is (C) The correct answer is (C) The correct answer is (C). Regardless of the direction of
motion for an object in free fall near a large body, the gravita-
tional acceleration exerted by the large body on the smaller
body does not change.
28. 28. 28. 28. 28. The ans The ans The ans The ans The answ ww wwer is (D). er is (D). er is (D). er is (D). er is (D). The electron will be repelled toward point D
by the β (beta) particle located at point B. The two alpha particles
located at points A and C exert equal attractive forces force on
the electron, which keep the electron on a straight line toward the
proton at D.
29. 29. 29. 29. 29. The ans The ans The ans The ans The answ ww wwer is (C) er is (C) er is (C) er is (C) er is (C). The black disk absorbs heat better than the
white disk, and it radiates heat away faster.
30. 30. 30. 30. 30. The cor The cor The cor The cor The corr rr rrect ans ect ans ect ans ect ans ect answ ww wwer is (B) er is (B) er is (B) er is (B) er is (B). To find the correct pole of the
electromagnet, use the right-hand rule. Wrap your fingers
around the core, pointing them in the direction of the positive
flow. Your thumb points to the north pole.
31. 31. 31. 31. 31. The correct answer is (C) The correct answer is (C) The correct answer is (C) The correct answer is (C) The correct answer is (C). Use the right-hand rule to find the
correct answer. Point your fingers in the direction of the
magnetic field lines (toward the south pole), and point your
thumb along the wave in the direction of the current flow. Your
palm points down toward letter C.
32. 32. 32. 32. 32. The cor The cor The cor The cor The corr rr rrect ans ect ans ect ans ect ans ect answ ww wwer is (B) er is (B) er is (B) er is (B) er is (B). A voltage of 24 V should yield a
current of 6A when it is hooked to a 4Ω resistor. The internal
resistance of the battery is found
I
V
R R
B
=
+
1
. The extra .8Ω of
resistance is the internal resistance of the battery.
PRACTICE TEST 1
Peterson’s SAT II Success: Physics 264
33. 33. 33. 33. 33. The cor The cor The cor The cor The corr rr rrect ans ect ans ect ans ect ans ect answ ww wwer is (A). er is (A). er is (A). er is (A). er is (A). Remember, the period of a pendu-
lum is
Τ = 2π

g
. Notice the g under the square root radical.
The period of the pendulum is directly related to the gravita-
tional acceleration. The moon’s gravity is 1/6 the earth’s gravity.
That means the period of the pendulum on the moon is longer.
34. 34. 34. 34. 34. The cor The cor The cor The cor The corr rr rrect ans ect ans ect ans ect ans ect answ ww wwer is (C) er is (C) er is (C) er is (C) er is (C). The starting velocity of the two
rocks is not the same, but once in free fall the acceleration of
the two rocks is equal.
35. 35. 35. 35. 35. The cor The cor The cor The cor The corr rr rrect ans ect ans ect ans ect ans ect answ ww wwer is (B) er is (B) er is (B) er is (B) er is (B). The satellite travels at essentially
the same velocity in its orbit, although its speed does increase at
its closest approach to the earth. The distance from the satellite
to the earth also changes while the satellite orbits the earth.
The closer approach to the earth decreases the radius of the
orbit, which in turn causes an increase in the centripetal accel-
eration.
36. 36. 36. 36. 36. The cor The cor The cor The cor The corr rr rrect ans ect ans ect ans ect ans ect answ ww wwer is (C) er is (C) er is (C) er is (C) er is (C). The sample has three half-lives
occurring in one hour.
60
20
3
1 2
min
min
/
= T
. Next, we have
1
2
0125
3
=. . The original counts are multiplied by the amount of
the sample remaining:
(. )( )
sec
0125 200 25
counts counts
sec
=
) .
37. 37. 37. 37. 37. The cor The cor The cor The cor The corr rr rrect ans ect ans ect ans ect ans ect answ ww wwer is (E) er is (E) er is (E) er is (E) er is (E). An object placed outside the radius
of the curvature of a concave mirror produces an image that is
real, inverted, and reduced.
38. 38. 38. 38. 38. The cor The cor The cor The cor The corr rr rrect ans ect ans ect ans ect ans ect answ ww wwer is (C) er is (C) er is (C) er is (C) er is (C). The two surfaces (hockey puck and
ice) are essentially frictionless. The movement of the train
around a curve has no effect on the puck, which continues to
move in a straight line. The goal does move around the curve
with the train. This moves the net to the left, while the puck
travels in a straight line.
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39. 39. 39. 39. 39. The cor The cor The cor The cor The corr rr rrect ans ect ans ect ans ect ans ect answ ww wwer is (D). er is (D). er is (D). er is (D). er is (D). There are no unbalanced forces
because none of the blocks is accelerating. The tension in T
1
is
equal to the combined tensions in T
2
and T
3
. To find T
3
, subtract
T
2
from T
1
.
40. 40. 40. 40. 40. The cor The cor The cor The cor The corr rr rrect ans ect ans ect ans ect ans ect answ ww wwer is (E) er is (E) er is (E) er is (E) er is (E). The momentum of the boxcars
increases and then decreases as the velocity does the same. The
velocity increases and decreases in a linear manner.
41. 41. 41. 41. 41. The correct answer is (E) The correct answer is (E) The correct answer is (E) The correct answer is (E) The correct answer is (E). Each bright spot is a point at which
waves constructively interfere. The waves combine at whole
number wavelength intervals. This means at 1, 2, 3, etc., wave-
lengths. The third maxima is where a three-wave difference in
the path length occurs.
42. 42. 42. 42. 42. The cor The cor The cor The cor The corr rr rrect ans ect ans ect ans ect ans ect answ ww wwer is (C). er is (C). er is (C). er is (C). er is (C). The collision described in the
problem is perfectly elastic because the golf ball had the same
velocity when it rebounded from the wall as when it struck the
wall. Momentum is conserved perfectly, so the golf ball must
have the same momentum after the collision with the wall as it
had when it approached the wall before the collision
43. 43. 43. 43. 43. The correct answer is (A). The correct answer is (A). The correct answer is (A). The correct answer is (A). The correct answer is (A). Both disks move the same linear
distance in the same time period. The smaller disk must make
more revolutions to have the same tangential velocity as the
large wheel. Since the number of revolutions for the small disk
is larger, it also has a large angular acceleration.
44. 44. 44. 44. 44. The cor The cor The cor The cor The corr rr rrect ans ect ans ect ans ect ans ect answ ww wwer is (E). er is (E). er is (E). er is (E). er is (E). The displacement of the motorcycle
rider is found with
s at =
1
2
2
s at =
=
=
1
2
1
2
5 8
160
2
( )( m/s s)
m
2 2
45. 45. 45. 45. 45. The correct answer is (A). The correct answer is (A). The correct answer is (A). The correct answer is (A). The correct answer is (A). Electrons in photovoltaic metals
are only energized by the photons that carry enough energy to
dislodge the electrons.
PRACTICE TEST 1
Peterson’s SAT II Success: Physics 266
46. 46. 46. 46. 46. The cor The cor The cor The cor The corr rr rrect ans ect ans ect ans ect ans ect answ ww wwer is (B) er is (B) er is (B) er is (B) er is (B). The incoherent light is blocked by
Polaroids that are not lined along the same axis as the light
vibrations. The only light that can pass Polaroid B is the light
shown.
47. 47. 47. 47. 47. The cor The cor The cor The cor The corr rr rrect ans ect ans ect ans ect ans ect answ ww wwer is (C) er is (C) er is (C) er is (C) er is (C). An isothermal process is a process
in which the temperature of the system remains constant.
48. 48. 48. 48. 48. The cor The cor The cor The cor The corr rr rrect ans ect ans ect ans ect ans ect answ ww wwer is (A) er is (A) er is (A) er is (A) er is (A). The kinetic energy equation is
KE = ½ mv
2
. Every time the velocity of an object doubles, its
energy increases by a factor of 4. The momentum is directly
related to the velocity, so a doubling of an object’s velocity
doubles the momentum of the object. The frictional force is a
constant force no matter what happens to the velocity.
49. 49. 49. 49. 49. The cor The cor The cor The cor The corr rr rrect ans ect ans ect ans ect ans ect answ ww wwer is (D). er is (D). er is (D). er is (D). er is (D). The missing vector component is
found by using the Pythagorean theorem.
y r x
y N N
y N
= −
= −
=
2 2
2 2
65 35
55
( ) ( )
50. 50. 50. 50. 50. The correct answer is (B) The correct answer is (B) The correct answer is (B) The correct answer is (B) The correct answer is (B). If there is no unbalanced force
applied to an object, the object is not accelerated. An unbal-
anced force always causes acceleration of the object to which it
is applied.
51. 51. 51. 51. 51. The cor The cor The cor The cor The corr rr rrect ans ect ans ect ans ect ans ect answ ww wwer is (E). er is (E). er is (E). er is (E). er is (E). An adiabatic expansion is a process
in which no heat flows into or out of the system. During an
adiabatic expansion the gas cools as it expands and does work.
52. 52. 52. 52. 52. The cor The cor The cor The cor The corr rr rrect ans ect ans ect ans ect ans ect answ ww wwer is (B) er is (B) er is (B) er is (B) er is (B). The radius of the curved path the
electron follows in the magnetic field is
r
mv
Bq
=
. Both particles
are electrons, which have the same mass, and the force exerted
by the magnetic field remains the same, so the only difference is
the velocity. The ratio of the velocity of the fast electron com-
pared to the slow electron is 4:1.The fast electron has a radius
4 times larger than the slow electron.
ANSWERS AND EXPLANATIONS
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53. 53. 53. 53. 53. The cor The cor The cor The cor The corr rr rrect ans ect ans ect ans ect ans ect answ ww wwer is (C) er is (C) er is (C) er is (C) er is (C). According to Coulomb’s law, the
force exerted by two charged bodies on one another is indi-
rectly related to the square of the distance between them.
When the distance is halved, they exert four times more force
on one another.
54. 54. 54. 54. 54. The cor The cor The cor The cor The corr rr rrect ans ect ans ect ans ect ans ect answ ww wwer is (E) er is (E) er is (E) er is (E) er is (E). All of the choices are correct.
Clocks on the spaceship move more slowly, the length of the
spaceship would be contracted, the relativistic mass of the
spaceship is greater than the rest mass, and the velocity of light
is constant for everyone.
55. 55. 55. 55. 55. The cor The cor The cor The cor The corr rr rrect ans ect ans ect ans ect ans ect answ ww wwer is (A) er is (A) er is (A) er is (A) er is (A). An echo is the repeat sound heard
when the original sound waves strike a fixed object and return
toward their origin. This is the process of reflection.
56. 56. 56. 56. 56. The cor The cor The cor The cor The corr rr rrect ans ect ans ect ans ect ans ect answ ww wwer is (A) er is (A) er is (A) er is (A) er is (A). When the variable resistor is
changed to the right, the total resistance in the circuit is de-
creased. More current flows, and the lights brighten.
57. 57. 57. 57. 57. The cor The cor The cor The cor The corr rr rrect ans ect ans ect ans ect ans ect answ ww wwer is (E) er is (E) er is (E) er is (E) er is (E). The atoms and molecules of a solid
are packed together more tightly than they are in a liquid.
Liquid particles are able to slide over one another, but they are
still in contact. Gaseous atoms and molecules have gained
enough energy to move away from one another.
58. 58. 58. 58. 58. The cor The cor The cor The cor The corr rr rrect ans ect ans ect ans ect ans ect answ ww wwer is (C) er is (C) er is (C) er is (C) er is (C). An object that is turning undergoes
a change in direction. The change in direction is a change in
velocity. A change in velocity through a period of time is
acceleration. Because the acceleration is directed inward
toward the center of rotation, this is a centripetal acceleration.
59. 59. 59. 59. 59. The cor The cor The cor The cor The corr rr rrect ans ect ans ect ans ect ans ect answ ww wwer is (C) er is (C) er is (C) er is (C) er is (C). The force exerted by a charged
particle on another charged particle increases as the inverse of
the square of the distance between them. Particle A, which has
the same magnitude of charge as particle C, is half the distance
from particle B as it is from particle C. Consequently, particle A
exerts four times the charge on particle B as particle C does.
60. 60. 60. 60. 60. The correct answer is (C) The correct answer is (C) The correct answer is (C) The correct answer is (C) The correct answer is (C). Light slows down in an optically
more dense material. Additionally, the wavelength shortens. The
frequency remains the same. Since the frequency remains
unchanged, the period also remains the same.
PRACTICE TEST 1
Peterson’s SAT II Success: Physics 268
61. 61. 61. 61. 61. The cor The cor The cor The cor The corr rr rrect ans ect ans ect ans ect ans ect answ ww wwer is (B) er is (B) er is (B) er is (B) er is (B). When the child jumps into his
mother’s arms, he pushes on the wagon as he jumps. The
momentum the child gains when he jumps is passed on to the
wagon, too. They both have the same momentum, but in oppo-
site directions. The wagon must have a greater velocity since it
has less mass.
62. 62. 62. 62. 62. The cor The cor The cor The cor The corr rr rrect ans ect ans ect ans ect ans ect answ ww wwer is (E) er is (E) er is (E) er is (E) er is (E). The phase change to melt the ice
drains all the heat from the water. At 0°C ice will no longer
melt because all the heat has been removed from the water.
63. 63. 63. 63. 63. The cor The cor The cor The cor The corr rr rrect ans ect ans ect ans ect ans ect answ ww wwer is (B) er is (B) er is (B) er is (B) er is (B). The same number of charged
bodies are still in the system, however, the redistribution of the
charge has reduced the force the pith balls exert on one
another.
64. 64. 64. 64. 64. The cor The cor The cor The cor The corr rr rrect ans ect ans ect ans ect ans ect answ ww wwer is (B) er is (B) er is (B) er is (B) er is (B). Add all the atomic numbers (Z
numbers) on both sides to balance the proton numbers. Then
add all the mass numbers (A numbers) on both sides to balance
the mass.
65. 65. 65. 65. 65. The cor The cor The cor The cor The corr rr rrect ans ect ans ect ans ect ans ect answ ww wwer is (C) er is (C) er is (C) er is (C) er is (C). All objects in free fall near the
earth are accelerated toward the earth at the same rate. Even
though the car is moving along the x-axis at a high rate of
speed, as soon as it clears the edge of the cliff it is in free fall.
Both the rock and the car start with a y velocity of zero and
reach the ground at the same time.
66. 66. 66. 66. 66. The cor The cor The cor The cor The corr rr rrect ans ect ans ect ans ect ans ect answ ww wwer is (D) er is (D) er is (D) er is (D) er is (D). The image in a plane mirror ap-
pears as far into the mirror as the object is in front of the
mirror. The image is 1.5 m into the mirror, and the object is
1.5 m in front of the mirror, which is a total of 3 m from the
object.
67. 67. 67. 67. 67. The correct answer is (B) The correct answer is (B) The correct answer is (B) The correct answer is (B) The correct answer is (B). Once the paperboy releases the
paper from his hand, the paper is in free fall. All objects in free
fall near the earth experience the same constant acceleration.
68. 68. 68. 68. 68. The cor The cor The cor The cor The corr rr rrect ans ect ans ect ans ect ans ect answ ww wwer is (E) er is (E) er is (E) er is (E) er is (E). The maximum tension the cable can
withstand is 15,000N. This is the limit to applied force. The
barge weighs 84,000N, which is a mass of 8571 kg. Use F = ma
to solve the problem.
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69. 69. 69. 69. 69. The cor The cor The cor The cor The corr rr rrect ans ect ans ect ans ect ans ect answ ww wwer is er is er is er is er is (E). (E). (E). (E). (E). For any value of the vector V and V
1
,
they are equal in magnitude to one another. Whether they act in
the same or opposite directions from one another, all the
choices are possible except the value of 4 times V.
70. 70. 70. 70. 70. The cor The cor The cor The cor The corr rr rrect ans ect ans ect ans ect ans ect answ ww wwer is (A) er is (A) er is (A) er is (A) er is (A). An unbalanced torque causes
motion to occur. The child can push the door open because she
applies the unbalanced torque.
71. 71. 71. 71. 71. The cor The cor The cor The cor The corr rr rrect ans ect ans ect ans ect ans ect answ ww wwer is (E) er is (E) er is (E) er is (E) er is (E). When the pendulum is displaced,
the potential energy the pendulum gains is equal to the height
above the zero point to which the pendulum is raised. When
the pendulum is released, all the potential energy at its dis-
placed position is converted into kinetic energy. Thus, a smaller
displacement gives the pendulum less potential energy, which
in turn yields less kinetic energy when the bob moves through
the zero point.
72. 72. 72. 72. 72. The cor The cor The cor The cor The corr rr rrect ans ect ans ect ans ect ans ect answ ww wwer is (D) er is (D) er is (D) er is (D) er is (D). The image formed by a convex lens
when the object is outside the radius of curvature is real,
inverted, and near the focal point on the other side of the lens.
73. 73. 73. 73. 73. The cor The cor The cor The cor The corr rr rrect ans ect ans ect ans ect ans ect answ ww wwer is (C) er is (C) er is (C) er is (C) er is (C). When the player shoots the ball,
there is no force affecting the ball except gravity. Nothing can
slow or speed the ball’s x velocity, which is the horizontal. It is
a constant velocity.
74. 74. 74. 74. 74. The correct answer is (B) The correct answer is (B) The correct answer is (B) The correct answer is (B) The correct answer is (B). One of the basic postulates in
Einstein’s Theory of Relativity is the speed of light, which is
constant for everyone.
75. 75. 75. 75. 75. The cor The cor The cor The cor The corr rr rrect ans ect ans ect ans ect ans ect answ ww wwer is (B) er is (B) er is (B) er is (B) er is (B). The kite rotates around a 5 m
circumference in 1 second (C = 2 πr). Although the path of the
kite is circular, it travels 5 m every second. The velocity is
v = =
5m
1s
5m
s
.
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PRACTICE TEST 2
PHYSICS PHYSICS PHYSICS PHYSICS PHYSICS TEST TEST TEST TEST TEST
While you have taken many standardized tests and know to blacken completely the ovals on the
answer sheets and to erase completely any errors, the instructions for the SAT II Physics Test differ in
an important way from the directions for other standardized tests. You need to indicate on the answer
key which test you are taking. The instructions on the answer sheet will tell you to fill out the top
portion of the answer sheet exactly as shown.
1. Print PHYSICS on the line under the words Subject Test (print).
2. In the shaded box labeled Test Code fill in four ovals:
—Fill in oval 1 in the row labeled V.
—Fill in oval 6 in the row labeled W.
—Fill in oval 3 in the row labeled X.
—Fill in oval C in the row labeled Y.
—Leave the ovals in row Q blank.
V
W
X
Q
Test Code
Subject Test (print)
Physics
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
1 2 3 4 5 A B C D E
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
Y
There are two additional questions that you will be asked to answer. One is “How many semesters of
physics have you taken in high school?” The other question lists courses and asks you to mark those
that you have taken. You will be told which ovals to fill in for each question. The College Board is
collecting statistical information. If you choose to answer, you will use the key that is provided and
blacken the appropriate ovals in row Q. You may also choose not to answer, and that will not affect
your grade.
When everyone has completed filling in this portion of the answer sheet, the supervisor will tell you
to turn the page and begin. The answer sheet has 100 numbered ovals, but there are only approxi-
mately 75 multiple-choice questions on the test, so be sure to use only ovals 1 to 75 (or however many
questions there are) to record your answers.
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PHYSICS PHYSICS PHYSICS PHYSICS PHYSICS TEST TEST TEST TEST TEST
P PP PPar ar ar ar art t t t t A AA AA
Directions: Each of the sets of lettered choices below refers to the questions and/or statements
that follow. Select the lettered choice that is the best answer to each question and fill in the
corresponding oval on the answer sheet. In each set, each choice may be used once, more than
once, or not at all.
Questions 1–3 relate to the diagram below.
An amusement park ride called DaVinci’s cradle
swings the riders around a complete circle
during the course of the ride.
(A) Point A
(B) Point B
(C) Point C
(D) Point D
(E) Point E
1. Where on the ride is the velocity the largest
value?
2. Where on the ride is the potential energy
the largest value?
3. Where on the ride are the PE and the KE
equal to each other?
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Questions 4–6 relate to the diagram below.
The electrical circuit shown has 1 ampere of
current flowing in it. Answer the questions
about the parts of the circuit listed between the
points below by choosing the letter that
correctly represents the quantity in question.
(A) Between points A→B
(B) Between points B→C
(C) Between points C→D
(D) Between points D→E
(E) Between points E→A
4. Between which two points is the voltage
change the largest?
5. Between which two points is the voltage
change the smallest?
6. Between which two points is the resistance
value the largest?
Questions 7–9
An object is placed in front of an optical device,
and an image is obtained. Select the device that
would produce the types of images described
below.
(A) Concave mirror
(B) Convex mirror
(C) Concave lens
(D) Convex lens
(E) Flat mirror
7. The image produced is erect, virtual, and
reversed from left to right.
8. The image produced is inverted, real, and
on the same side of the device.
9. The image produced is inverted, real, and
on the opposite side of the device.
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Questions 10–12 relate to the electric fields
shown in the diagrams below, which represent
two charged objects near each other in space.
(A) Drawing I
(B) Drawing II
(C) Drawing III
(D) Drawing IV
(E) Drawing V
10. Which drawing represents two like point
charges?
11. Which drawing represents the field from
parallel plates?
12. Which drawing represents two unlike
point charges?
Questions 13–14 relate to the P–V diagram of
the heat cycle below. For the gas shown in the
diagram, 70J of energy is added to the system.
(A) A B
(B) B C
(C) C D
(D) D A
(E) A B C D A




→ → → →
13. Where is the heat added to the system?
14. Where is the exhaust heat released from
the system?
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P PP PPar ar ar ar art B t B t B t B t B
15. Protons are found in the nucleus of the
atom. The nuclear protons with the greatest
mass are located
(A) in the hydrogen atom.
(B) in the carbon atom.
(C) in the iron atom.
(D) in the radon atom.
(E) in the uranium atom.
16. Four resistors are hooked together in
parallel. The resistors have values of 20Ω ,
40Ω , 60Ω , and 80Ω respectively. What is the
total resistance of the resistors?
(A) 4.4Ω
(B) 9.6Ω
(C) 14.8Ω
(D) 20Ω
(E) 25.2Ω
Questions 17–18 refer to the information below.
An Olympic weight lifter lifts a weight bar
weighing 2000N straight up to a height of
2.25 m in a time of .65 seconds. The weight
lifter stands holding the weight at that height
for the next 4 seconds before dropping the
weights to the floor.
17. How much work did the weight lifter do
while holding the weights overhead?
(A) 1300 Joules
(B) 3077 Joules
(C) 4500 Joules
(D) 8000 Joules
(E) No work was done
18. How much power did the weight lifter use
to lift the weights overhead?
(A) 2925 watts
(B) 3077 watts
(C) 4500 watts
(D) 6923 watts
(E) 9100 watts
Directions: Each question or statement below is followed by five possible answers. In each case,
select the best possible answer and fill in the corresponding oval on the answer sheet.
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19. A light ray strikes a photovoltaic metal as
shown above. Which of the following
statements is correct if a voltage is intro-
duced into the metal by the light ray?
I. The light ray is a blue light.
II. The beam is below threshold.
III. The beam does not contain any
photons.
(A) I only
(B) II only
(C) I and III only
(D) II and III only
(E) I, II, and III
20. A rescue plane flying at 162 km/hr drops a
survival package to a group of stranded
skiers from a height of 70 m. After drop-
ping the package the pilot of the plane
continues to fly in a straight line. When the
package strikes the ground it is
(A) 85 m behind the plane.
(B) 170 m behind the plane.
(C) 255 m behind the plane.
(D) 462 m behind the plane.
(E) directly beneath the plane.
21. In the diagram above, two wires are aligned
side by side. They are both hooked into
different circuits in which the current is
switched on to allow current to flow in
each circuit. Which of the following
statements is correct?
(A) The two currents destructively inter-
fere with each other.
(B) The two currents constructively
interfere with each other.
(C) The two wires attract and move
closer.
(D) The two wires repel and move away.
(E) The two wires remain still.
22. A species of hummingbird beats its wings
3,300 times per minute. What frequency of
sound will a nearby person hear when the
hummingbird flies by?
(A) .003 Hz
(B) .018 Hz
(C) 6 Hz
(D) 55 Hz
(E) 3300 Hz
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23. A student uses a magnetic compass to
perform a laboratory experiment in the
Northern Hemisphere. She then carries the
same magnetic compass with her to the
Southern Hemisphere, taking care not to
damage the compass in any way. When she
reaches her destination at the equivalent
latitude and longitude in the Southern
Hemisphere, she prepares to perform the
same laboratory experiment. The student
looks at the compass before performing
the experiment to see if the compass
needle has changed. How has the compass
changed?
(A) The compass needle points 90° to the
left of the expected direction.
(B) The compass needle points 90° to the
right of the expected direction.
(C) The compass needle slowly rotates in
a counter-clockwise direction.
(D) The compass needle slowly rotates in
a clockwise direction.
(E) There has been no change in the
compass.
24. An ideal gas is placed in a 4L container at a
temperature of 300K and a pressure of 6
atmospheres. The pressure is held constant
while the volume of the gas is halved. What
is the new temperature of the gas?
(A) 1200K
(B) 600K
(C) 300K
(D) 150K
(E) 75K
25. A photovoltaic metal absorbs a photon of
yellow light and immediately emits an
ultraviolet photon. This is called
(A) fluorescence.
(B) influorescence.
(C) phosphorescence.
(D) photoluminescence.
(E) This is not possible.
26. Two spheres are at rest on an inclined
ramp as shown above. Sphere A has a mass
ten times larger than sphere B. Both
spheres are released at the same time and
roll down the ramp. Which statement best
describes the situation by the time sphere B
reaches the bottom of the ramp?
(A) The velocity of sphere A equals the
velocity of sphere B.
(B) The kinetic energy of sphere A equals
the kinetic energy of sphere B.
(C) The potential energy of sphere A
equals the potential energy of sphere
B.
(D) Sphere A will catch up to sphere B.
(E) Sphere B accelerates away from
sphere A.
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Questions 27–28 relate to the following
information.
The frequency of a wave is 4 cycles per second,
and its speed is .08 meters per second.
27. What is the period of one of the waves?
(A) .25 seconds
(B) .55 seconds
(C) 3.125 seconds
(D) .02 seconds
(E) 12.55 seconds
28 What is the wavelength of one of the
waves?
(A) .25 seconds
(B) .55 seconds
(C) 3.125 seconds
(D) .02 seconds
(E) 12.55 seconds
29. An electric circuit is composed of a pair of
parallel 30 ohm resistors in series with a
9 ohm resistor. The current through the
9 ohm resistor is .25 A. What is the voltage
applied to the circuit?
(A) 1.5 V
(B) 3 V
(C) 6 V
(D) 12 V
(E) 24 V
30. Which of the following best describes the
condition of an enclosed gas during an
adiabatic compression?
(A) The internal energy of the gas in-
creases.
(B) Work is done by the gas.
(C) Work is done on the gas.
(D) The gas remains at a constant tem-
perature.
(E) The temperature of the gas decreases
31. A block resting on the surface shown above
has a force of 20N applied. Which state-
ment best describes the force between the
block and the surface upon which it rests?
(A) The normal force is less than 50N.
(B) The normal force is greater than 50N.
(C) The normal force is equal to 50N.
(D) The coefficient of friction increases as
the angle increases.
(E) The coefficient of friction decreases as
the angle increases.
226
88
222
86
Ra Rn → +?
32. A radium atom decays into a radon atom as
shown in the equation above. Which of the
quantities below correctly finishes the
equation?
(A) Alpha
(B) Beta
(C) Gamma
(D) Neutron
(E) Neutrino
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33. A large rimmed hoop with a bowling ball
inside it rolls down an incline. Which of the
following statements best describes the
relationship between the hoop and the
bowling ball?
(A) Their angular accelerations are the
same.
(B) Their angular displacements are the
same.
(C) Their angular velocities are the same.
(D) Their tangential displacements are the
same.
(E) Their centripetal accelerations are the
same.
34. When a net force acts upon an object, the
object is
(A) at rest.
(B) gaining mass.
(C) losing mass.
(D) accelerating.
(E) moving at constant velocity.
35. An object (O) is placed in front of a convex
lens as shown above. Where is the image
located?
(A) Point A
(B) Point B
(C) Point C
(D) Point D
(E) Point E
36. In the theory of relativity it is stated that all
laws of nature are the same in reference
frames that
(A) accelerate.
(B) vibrate.
(C) rotate.
(D) oscillate.
(E) move at a constant rate.
37. Which of the following is/are uses for
polarized light waves?
I. Sunglasses
II. Remove ultraviolet light
III. Reveal stress patterns
(A) I only
(B) II only
(C) I and III only
(D) II and III only
(E) I, II, and III
38. A .5 kg ball is swinging at the end of a 2 m
string that has a tension of 6.25 N in it.
Find the speed of the ball as it travels its
circular path.
(A) 3.8N
(B) 4.4N
(C) 5N
(D) 5.6N
(E) 6.2N
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39. A solid copper sphere has a charge of .2C
placed on it. Which of the following
statements best describes the charge
distribution for the sphere?
(A) The charge is equally distributed
throughout the entire sphere.
(B) The charge is concentrated inside the
sphere with some charge on the
outside.
(C) The charge is equally distributed on
the outside surface of the sphere.
(D) The charge is equally distributed
throughout the inside of the sphere
only.
(E) The charge is concentrated in the
center of the sphere.
40. A 30 g icicle that is at a temperature 0°C
falls 6 meters from the eaves of a house to
the ground below. If 5% of the kinetic
energy that the icicle possesses when it
strikes the ground converts into heat,
which of the following is plausible?
( ). Note: water .335 H
J
g
f
=
(A) The ice would become colder during
the fall; therefore, no ice would melt.
(B) This would not happen because it
would break the law of conservation
of mass.
(C) Less than .3g of the icicle would melt.
(D) The frictional work done to stop the
icicle’s fall would use up all the energy
and leave none for anything else.
(E) The icicle would shatter and the
energy would convert into momentum.
41. Any object that is accelerated to near the
speed of light experiences which of the
following?
(A) An increase in its length
(B) An increase in the rate of time passage
(C) Decrease in energy
(D) Decrease in momentum
(E) Increase in mass
42. A bicyclist travels at a constant 25 km/hr
for 30 minutes. He coasts for 15 minutes at
a constant 20 km/hr and then pedals at a
constant 40 km/hr for another 15 minutes.
What was the average speed of the cyclist
for the past hour?
(A) 22.5 km/hr
(B) 25 km/hr
(C) 27.5 km/hr
(D) 30 km/hr
(E) 32.5 km/hr
43. A flat plane is raised until a block resting
on its surface just slides down the plane at
a constant rate. Which statement(s) is/are
true?
I. The parallel force equals the
frictional force.
II. The weight of the object equals the
frictional force.
III. The perpendicular force equals the
normal force.
(A) I only
(B) II only
(C) I and III only
(D) II and III only
(E) I, II, and III
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44. Two gases are insulated from their sur-
roundings but are in contact with each
other so heat can flow between them. One
gas is hot at t = 0 and the other gas is cold
at t = 0. After time passes and the gases
equilibrate, which of the following will
have happened?
(A) The particles in the cold gas will have
slowed in their rate of movement.
(B) The particles in the hot gas will have
increased their rate of movement.
(C) The temperature of the cold gas will
have decreased.
(D) The temperature of the hot gas will
have increased.
(E) The temperature of the hot gas will
have decreased.
45. A driver in an automobile hears a siren
behind her and pulls over to let a fire
engine pass. The sound of the siren
changes as the fire truck approaches, is
beside her, and passes her. Which of the
following is/are true under these condi-
tions?
I. The pitch of the sound increases
as the fire truck approaches.
II. The wavelength of the sound
increases as the fire truck
approaches.
III. The wavelength of the sound
increases after the fire truck
passes.
(A) I only
(B) II only
(C) I and III only
(D) II and III only
(E) I, II, and III
46 A magician pulls a tablecloth from under a
table full of dishes without disturbing the
dishes. This act demonstrates that
(A) gravity holds the dishes still.
(B) the weight of the dishes is reduced.
(C) action-reaction forces are in opera-
tion.
(D) the dishes have inertia.
(E) the dishes have no acceleration.
47. In the diagram above the open pipe pro-
duces a standing wave as shown. What is
the frequency of the sound produced in
Hertz? (Velocity of sound = 360m/s)
(A) 900 Hz
(B) 1800 Hz
(C) 720 Hz
(D) 1440 Hz
(E) 2700 Hz
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48. Compare a bucket of boiling water to a
cup of boiling water. Which statement(s)
can be made about the two containers?
I. The heat content of the two is the
same.
II. The temperature of the two is the
same.
III. The bucket of water contains more
heat and is therefore hotter
(A) I only
(B) II only
(C) I and III only
(D) II and III only
(E) I, II, and III only
49. Find the total capacitance for three capaci-
tors in parallel with each other. The value
of the capacitors is 10 15µ µ f f f , , . and 35
(A) 60
(B) 50
(C) 20
(D) 10
E) 5
µ
µ
µ
µ
µ
f
f
f
f
f (
− =

.
.
38 6
54
eV n
eV




n
eV n
eV
=
− =

5
85 4
1 52
.
.


n
eV n
eV
=
− =

3
3 39 2
13 6
.
. n = 1
50. A hydrogen electron falls from the n = 3 to
the n = 1 energy level. Using the chart
above, determine how much energy it must
release.
(A) +.97eV
(B) +2.85eV
(C) +10.09eV
(D) +12.21eV
(E) +13.06eV
51. Four 6Ω resistors are available to form a
resistor network. Which of the following is
NOT a possible value for the total resis-
tance of the resistor combinations?
(A) 24Ω
(B) 12Ω
(C) 8Ω
(D) 6Ω
(E) 1.5Ω
52. A 7.25 kg bowling ball is rolled onto a
perfectly level surface at a velocity of 10
m/s. The co-efficient of friction between the
surface and the bowling ball is .0025. If the
surface is perfectly level and is long
enough, how far will the bowling ball roll
before it comes to a complete stop?
(A) 20 m
(B) 200 m
(C) 2 km
(D) 20 km
(E) 1/2 km
53. The binding energy of a nucleus is equal to
(A) the average energy of each nucleon.
(B) the energy needed to split the nucleus
into its parts.
(C) the mass-energy difference between
protons and neutrons.
(D) the energy necessary to overcome the
neutron-neutron repulsion.
(E) the energy required to remove a
proton from the nucleus.
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Questions 54–55 refer to the graph below,
which shows a typical heat and temperature
graph for a substance.
54. Which of the levels represents the solid
phase of the substance?
(A) Level A
(B) Level B
(C) Level C
(D) Level D
(E) Level E
55. During the phase on the graph represented
at Level D, the substance is
(A) evaporating.
(B) condensing.
(C) changing phase.
(D) gaining internal energy.
(E) All of the above could be correct.
56. When a photon strikes an electron and
energizes it, the electron will receive the
most energy from the photon if
(A) the electron does not spin when it is
struck.
(B) the photon has a high velocity.
(C) the photon has a low velocity.
(D) the photon has a long wavelength.
(E) the photon has a high frequency.
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Questions 57–58 refer to the scenario described
below.
A light ray passes from a material of low
refractive index to one of high refractive index.
Which of the pairs of quantities listed below
describes the light ray as it strikes and passes
through the interface between the two
materials? Match the descriptions below with
the statement that best describes the situation.
57. A part of the light ray remains inside the
low refractive index material.
(A) The angle of refraction is larger than
the angle of incidence.
(B) The angle of refraction is equal to the
angle of incidence.
(C) The angle of reflection is larger than
the angle of incidence.
(D) The angle of reflection is smaller than
the angle of incidence.
(E) The angle of incidence equals the
angle of reflection.
58. The light ray inside the material with the
higher index of refraction bends toward
the normal.
(A) The frequency of the wave increases.
(B) The frequency of the wave decreases.
(C) The velocity of the wave increases.
(D) The velocity of the wave decreases.
(E) Interference from reflected waves
causes the light ray to refract.
59. A woman dancing in high-heeled shoes
accidentally steps on her partner’s foot
with the heel of her shoe. Even though her
partner outweighs her by 400N and can
easily lift her off the floor, he feels pain
because
(A) her weight is concentrated into a
small area.
(B) her small foot has a large momentum.
(C) her foot has a large inertia.
(D) his foot has no inertia.
(E) his foot has no momentum.
60. If 50g of water at a temperature of 30°C is
added to 200g of water at a temperature of
100°C, what will the new temperature of
the water be?
(A) 68°C
(B) 80°C
(C) 74°C
(D) 86°C
(E) 92°C
61. A radioactive substance is observed to have
a count rate of 500 counts/sec. Two hours
later the count rate is 62.5 counts/sec.
What is the half life of the substance?
(A) 10 min
(B) 20 min
(C) 30 min
(D) 40 min
(E) 50 min
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PHYSICS PHYSICS PHYSICS PHYSICS PHYSICS TEST— TEST— TEST— TEST— TEST—Contin Contin Contin Contin Continued ued ued ued ued
62. A 2.5 kg ball is dropped onto a concrete
floor. It strikes the floor with a momentum
of 20 kg • m/s and bounces away from the
floor with a momentum of 16 kg • m/s.
What is the change of momentum of the
ball?
(A) 4 kg • m/s
(B) 8 kg • m/s
(C) 32 kg • m/s
(D) 36 kg • m/s
(E) 40 kg • m/s
63. Firefighters attempt to squirt water from a
hose into a third story window 15 m above
the ground. For safety purposes they stand
25 m from the burning building. The water
from the hose can only reach the window if
(A) t
y
> t
x
(B) t
x
> t
y
(C) t
y
< t
x
(D) t
x
< t
y
(E) Time has no effect in this case.
64. A 75 g ice cube is added to 450 g of boiling
water. The water stops boiling immediately
because:
I. Heat is melting the ice.
II. Condensation is occurring.
III. Phase change occurs.
(A) I only
(B) II only
(C) I and III only
(D) II and III only
(E) I, II, and III
65. A spring accelerates a 2 kg cart from rest
in a time of .8 seconds, giving it a momen-
tum of 4 kg • m/s. With what force did the
spring accelerate the cart?
(A) .5N
(B) 1.6N
(C) 3.2N
(D) 5N
(E) 8N
66. New thermos bottles have the ability to
keep hot substances hot for several days.
The thermos bottles have a highly polished
interior made of stainless steel, which
makes them almost unbreakable. These
thermos bottles keep substances hot by
reducing heat loss due to
(A) absorption
(B) conduction
(C) convection
(D) radiation
(E) evaporation
PHYSICS TEST
Peterson’s SAT II Success: Physics 288
PHYSICS PHYSICS PHYSICS PHYSICS PHYSICS TEST— TEST— TEST— TEST— TEST—Contin Contin Contin Contin Continued ued ued ued ued
Questions 67–68
C
1
is an uncharged capacitor (shown in the
circuit above). At t = 0 the switch (SW1) is
closed, and C
1
begins to charge.
67. Which of the graphs above best represents
the charge on the capacitor as time passes?
(A) Time A
(B) Time B
(C) Time C
(D) Time D
(E) Time E
68. What does graph D show?
(A) The value of the current in the circuit
as time passes.
(B) The value of the voltage across the
terminals as time passes.
(C) The total value of the resistance as
time passes.
(D) The total value of the capacitance as
time passes.
(E) None of the above.
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PHYSICS PHYSICS PHYSICS PHYSICS PHYSICS TEST— TEST— TEST— TEST— TEST—Contin Contin Contin Contin Continued ued ued ued ued
69. An object at rest is placed into free fall at a
height of 20 m. What is the velocity of the
object when the potential energy equals the
kinetic energy?
(A) 8 m/s
(B) 11 m/s
(C) 14 m/s
(D) 17 m/s
(E) There is not enough information to
determine the velocity.
70. A rocket sled rides on a frictionless track
while a 1000N force from the rockets
accelerates the sled. Suddenly the retro-
rockets accidentally fire, applying a 1000N
force in the opposite direction. The sled
will
(A) slow down gradually to a stop.
(B) continue to accelerate.
(C) move at a constant speed.
(D) reverse direction.
(E) not be affected at all.
71. An unknown particle is being studied in a
magnetic field of variable intensity and
direction. When the magnetic field is
turned off, the particle is observed to move
toward the earth. When the magnetic field
is turned on, the particle is observed to
continue to move toward the earth, no
matter the strength or the direction of the
magnetic field. Which of the particles listed
below is most likely the unknown particle?
(A) Beta particle
(B) Alpha particle
(C) Positron
(D) Neutron
(E) Gamma ray
72. Which of the following is an example of a
compressional wave?
(A) X-ray
(B) Cosmic ray
(C) Radio wave
(D) Light wave
(E) Sound wave
73. An object on a string is traveling in a
circular path as shown. If the string breaks
when the object is at point Z, which path-
way will the object follow?
(A) Pathway A
(B) Pathway B
(C) Pathway C
(D) Pathway D
(E) Pathway E
PHYSICS TEST
Peterson’s SAT II Success: Physics 290
PHYSICS PHYSICS PHYSICS PHYSICS PHYSICS TEST— TEST— TEST— TEST— TEST—Contin Contin Contin Contin Continued ued ued ued ued
74. Refrigeration is a process through which
(A) heat is removed from the inside of
the refrigerator.
(B) cold air is produced inside the
refrigerator.
(C) hot air is removed from the inside of
the refrigerator.
(D) hot air is changed to a cold conden-
sate inside the refrigerator.
(E) hot air inside the refrigerator is
expanded to remove its heat.
75. An object is thrown from a moving vehicle.
Which of the following statements is not
true?
I. The velocity of the object changes.
II. The acceleration of the object
changes.
III. The direction of motion of the
object changes.
(A) I only
(B) II only
(C) I and III only
(D) II and III only
(E) I, II, and III
STOP STOP STOP STOP STOP
IF YOU FINISH BEFORE THE TEST SESSION ENDS, YOU MAY REVIEW YOUR WORK ON THIS TEST
ONLY. YOU MAY NOT TURN TO ANY OTHER TEST IN THIS BOOK
PRACTICE TEST 2
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ANSWER SHEET
Leave any unused
answer spaces blank.
Test Code
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Subject Test (print)
FOR ETS
USE ONLY
R/C W/S1 FS/S2 CS/S3 WS
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A
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B
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PRACTICE TEST 2
ANSWERS ANSWERS ANSWERS ANSWERS ANSWERS AND EXPLAN AND EXPLAN AND EXPLAN AND EXPLAN AND EXPLANA AA AATIONS TIONS TIONS TIONS TIONS
QUICK-SCORE ANSWERS QUICK-SCORE ANSWERS QUICK-SCORE ANSWERS QUICK-SCORE ANSWERS QUICK-SCORE ANSWERS
1. A
2. E
3. C
4. E
5. A
6. C
7. E
8. A
9. B
10. B
11. D
12. E
13. A
14. C
15. A
16. B
17. E
18. D
19. A
20. E
21. C
22. D
23. E
24. D
25. E
26. A
27. A
28. D
29. C
30. C
31. A
32. A
33. D
34. D
35. D
36. E
37. C
38. C
39. C
40. C
41. E
42. C
43. A
44. E
45. C
46. D
47. B
48. B
49. A
50. D
51. B
52. C
53. B
54. A
55. A
56. E
57. E
58. D
59. A
60. D
61. D
62. A
63. C
64. C
65. D
66. D
67. A
68. A
69. C
70. C
71. D
72. E
73. D
74. A
75. B
Peterson’s SAT II Success: Physics 294
ANSWERS AND EXPLANATIONS
ANSWERS TO PART A, QUESTIONS 1–14
1. 1. 1. 1. 1. The cor The cor The cor The cor The corr rr rrect ans ect ans ect ans ect ans ect answ ww wwer is (A) er is (A) er is (A) er is (A) er is (A). The amusement ride is similar to a
pendulum. The point at which the potential energy is smallest is
the point at which the kinetic energy and the velocity of the
pendulum have the largest value.
2. 2. 2. 2. 2. The cor The cor The cor The cor The corr rr rrect ans ect ans ect ans ect ans ect answ ww wwer is (E). er is (E). er is (E). er is (E). er is (E). The potential energy of the ride is
the point at which the cradle is at the greatest height above its
resting point.
3. 3. 3. 3. 3. The cor The cor The cor The cor The corr rr rrect ans ect ans ect ans ect ans ect answ ww wwer is (C) er is (C) er is (C) er is (C) er is (C). The cradle is mid-way between its
highest potential energy at E and the lowest potential energy at
A. Likewise, the cradle is at the point midway between its largest
kinetic energy at point A and its least kinetic energy at point E.
4. 4. 4. 4. 4. The cor The cor The cor The cor The corr rr rrect ans ect ans ect ans ect ans ect answ ww wwer is (E). er is (E). er is (E). er is (E). er is (E). The largest voltage change occurs
between E to A because there is an increase of 12V in the circuit.
5. 5. 5. 5. 5. The cor The cor The cor The cor The corr rr rrect ans ect ans ect ans ect ans ect answ ww wwer is (A) er is (A) er is (A) er is (A) er is (A). The smallest resistance in the circuit
is 1 ohm. The smallest voltage drop in the circuit occurs across
the smallest resistance.
6. 6. 6. 6. 6. The cor The cor The cor The cor The corr rr rrect ans ect ans ect ans ect ans ect answ ww wwer is (C) er is (C) er is (C) er is (C) er is (C). The largest effective resistance in
the circuit comes from the 6 ohm resistor even through there is
a 12 ohm resistor in the circuit. The 12 ohm resistor is in paral-
lel with a 4 ohm resistor, which gives the parallel network
circuit resistance of only 3 ohms.
7. 7. 7. 7. 7. The cor The cor The cor The cor The corr rr rrect ans ect ans ect ans ect ans ect answ ww wwer is (E) er is (E) er is (E) er is (E) er is (E). A flat mirror reverses an image from
left to right while producing a virtual and erect image.
8. 8. 8. 8. 8. The cor The cor The cor The cor The corr rr rrect ans ect ans ect ans ect ans ect answ ww wwer is (A) er is (A) er is (A) er is (A) er is (A). A concave mirror produces an
inverted image that is real and on the same side of the mirror as
the object.
9. 9. 9. 9. 9. The cor The cor The cor The cor The corr rr rrect ans ect ans ect ans ect ans ect answ ww wwer is (B) er is (B) er is (B) er is (B) er is (B). A convex lens produces an inverted,
real image that is located on the opposite side of the lens.
10. 10. 10. 10. 10. The cor The cor The cor The cor The corr rr rrect ans ect ans ect ans ect ans ect answ ww wwer is (B) er is (B) er is (B) er is (B) er is (B). The field shown at A is a magnetic
field around a current-carrying device. The field at C is a point
charge near a charged plate. The field shown by the letter D is a
PRACTICE TEST 2
Peterson’s: www.petersons.com 295
parallel plate field. The field in E is that of attraction between
point changes. The field shown at B shows repulsion between
the field lines. The repulsive effect is due to a pair of like
charged particles.
11. 11. 11. 11. 11. The cor The cor The cor The cor The corr rr rrect ans ect ans ect ans ect ans ect answ ww wwer is (D) er is (D) er is (D) er is (D) er is (D). The parallel field lines shown in the
diagram are from a pair of parallel plates.
12. 12. 12. 12. 12. The cor The cor The cor The cor The corr rr rrect ans ect ans ect ans ect ans ect answ ww wwer is (E) er is (E) er is (E) er is (E) er is (E). The explanation is the same as the
explanation given in question number 10. Left with a choice
between B and E, we can see the point charges in diagram E
leave one point charge and enter the other point charge. That
type of electric field between two point charges is produced
when two unlike charges are near each other.
13. 13. 13. 13. 13. The correct answer is (A) The correct answer is (A) The correct answer is (A) The correct answer is (A) The correct answer is (A). In the Carnot cycle the heat is
added between A→B.
14. 14. 14. 14. 14. The cor The cor The cor The cor The corr rr rrect ans ect ans ect ans ect ans ect answ ww wwer is (C). er is (C). er is (C). er is (C). er is (C). The release gas or exhaust occurs
between C→D in the diagram.
ANSWERS TO PART B, QUESTIONS 15–75
15. 15. 15. 15. 15. The correct answer is (A) The correct answer is (A) The correct answer is (A) The correct answer is (A) The correct answer is (A). Due to the mass that is converted in
the nucleus (mass defect) to hold the protons together in the
nucleus, the proton does not have the same mass when it is
inside the nucleus as it has outside the nucleus. The hydrogen
proton is the proton that is least affected because it is the only
proton in the hydrogen atom.
16. The cor The cor The cor The cor The corr rr rrect ans ect ans ect ans ect ans ect answ ww wwer is (B). er is (B). er is (B). er is (B). er is (B). The total resistance for a set of
resistors in parallel is found by using the sum of the reciprocals.
That is to do the following
1 1 1 1 1
1 2 3 4
R R R R R
t
= + + +
yielding the
decimal solution
1
05 025 0167 0124
R
t
= + + + . . . . .
Which is
1
1042 9 6
R
t
= = . . Ω .
17. 17. 17. 17. 17. The cor The cor The cor The cor The corr rr rrect ans ect ans ect ans ect ans ect answ ww wwer is (E) er is (E) er is (E) er is (E) er is (E). Work is defined as a force applied
through a distance. The weight lifter did not move the weights
through any distance after he lifted them overhead. He just
stood holding the weights overhead, which does not meet the
meaning of work in a physics sense.
ANSWERS AND EXPLANATIONS
Peterson’s SAT II Success: Physics 296
18. 18. 18. 18. 18. The correct answer is (D). The correct answer is (D). The correct answer is (D). The correct answer is (D). The correct answer is (D). Power is the rate at which work is
done,
Power
work
time
. The weight lifter lifted the weights up from
the floor to a distance of 2.25 m above the floor in a time of .65
seconds. The work the weight lifter did to raise the weights can
be calculated either by (F·s·cosθ ) or by using the potential energy
(mgh). Divide the work by the time he took to raise the weights,
and the power he develops is 6923 watts.
19. 19. 19. 19. 19. The cor The cor The cor The cor The corr rr rrect ans ect ans ect ans ect ans ect answ ww wwer is (A). er is (A). er is (A). er is (A). er is (A). We are told in the statement of the
situation that a voltage is produced by photons striking the
metal. This means the minimum threshold to meet the work
function must have been met. This tells us the light is blue light,
because the other two statements imply no voltage is produced
in the metal.
20. 20. 20. 20. 20. The cor The cor The cor The cor The corr rr rrect ans ect ans ect ans ect ans ect answ ww wwer is (E). er is (E). er is (E). er is (E). er is (E). This is a curvilinear problem. The
package already has the x-axis (horizontal) velocity of the plane.
Even though the package accelerates toward the ground, its
horizontal velocity remains exactly the same as when it left the
plane, and that keeps the package moving along under the
airplane until it strikes the ground.
21. 21. 21. 21. 21. The cor The cor The cor The cor The corr rr rrect ans ect ans ect ans ect ans ect answ ww wwer is (C) er is (C) er is (C) er is (C) er is (C). The two wires have a magnetic field
around them caused by the current in the wires. The two fields
are in opposition, which weakens them on the sides closest to
each other. This allows the un-weakened field on the other
(outside) of the wires to push the two wires together
22. 22. 22. 22. 22. The cor The cor The cor The cor The corr rr rrect ans ect ans ect ans ect ans ect answ ww wwer is (D). er is (D). er is (D). er is (D). er is (D). The frequency at which the hum-
ming bird beats its wings is already given in beats per minute. To
find the number of wing beats per second (Hz), divide the num-
ber of wing beats per minute by 60 seconds.
23. 23. 23. 23. 23. The cor The cor The cor The cor The corr rr rrect ans ect ans ect ans ect ans ect answ ww wwer is (E). er is (E). er is (E). er is (E). er is (E). The compass is unaffected by the
change from the Northern Hemisphere to the Southern Hemi-
sphere. It will work in the same manner all over the world. The
magnetic needle points toward the Magnetic North Pole in the
Northern Hemisphere.
24. 24. 24. 24. 24. The cor The cor The cor The cor The corr rr rrect ans ect ans ect ans ect ans ect answ ww wwer is (D) er is (D) er is (D) er is (D) er is (D). The ideal gas law equation
PV
T
PV
T
T
V T
V
T
L K
L
1 1
1
2 2
2
2
2 1
1
2
2 300
4
15 = = = converts into .
( )( )
00K
.
PRACTICE TEST 2
Peterson’s: www.petersons.com 297
25. 25. 25. 25. 25. The cor The cor The cor The cor The corr rr rrect ans ect ans ect ans ect ans ect answ ww wwer is (E) er is (E) er is (E) er is (E) er is (E). The photon of yellow light does not
contain enough energy to cause the metal to emit an ultraviolet
photon. Remember the energy of a photon is directly related to
the frequency of the electromagnetic radiation. The higher the
frequency, the higher the energy of the photon of the radiation.
Ultraviolet light has a much higher frequency than yellow light,
thus its photon is more energetic.
26. 26. 26. 26. 26. The correct answer is (A) The correct answer is (A) The correct answer is (A) The correct answer is (A) The correct answer is (A). Both spheres accelerated at the
same rate down the same incline for the exact same amount of
time. This gives them both the same velocity at the time in
question
27. 27. 27. 27. 27. The cor The cor The cor The cor The corr rr rrect ans ect ans ect ans ect ans ect answ ww wwer is (A). er is (A). er is (A). er is (A). er is (A). The period of a wave is the inverse
of the frequency
f =
1
Τ
.
28. 28. 28. 28. 28. The cor The cor The cor The cor The corr rr rrect ans ect ans ect ans ect ans ect answ ww wwer is (D). er is (D). er is (D). er is (D). er is (D). The wavelength is found by dividing
the frequency of the waves into the velocity of the waves λ =
v
f
.
29. 29. 29. 29. 29. The cor The cor The cor The cor The corr rr rrect ans ect ans ect ans ect ans ect answ ww wwer is er is er is er is er is (C). C). C). C). C). To solve the problem you must first
find the equivalent resistance of the two parallel resistors. The
resistors are the same value; so divide 30 ohms by 2, which gives
a value of 15 ohms. Add 15 ohms to the 9 ohms in series with
the parallel resistors for a total resistance of 24 ohms. The
voltage is equal to the current multiplied by the resistance,
Ohm’s Law. (24Ω )(.25) = 6 V.
30. 30. 30. 30. 30. The cor The cor The cor The cor The corr rr rrect ans ect ans ect ans ect ans ect answ ww wwer is (C) er is (C) er is (C) er is (C) er is (C). An adiabatic process is one during
which no heat enters or leaves the system. Work is done on the
system (the compression of the gas) that keeps the heat content
of the system constant.
31. 31. 31. 31. 31. The correct answer is (A) The correct answer is (A) The correct answer is (A) The correct answer is (A) The correct answer is (A). Frictional forces always oppose
motion, and when the frictional force in the problem is calcu-
lated you must remember to add in the downward part of the
20N force to the normal force.
32. 32. 32. 32. 32. The cor The cor The cor The cor The corr rr rrect ans ect ans ect ans ect ans ect answ ww wwer is (A) er is (A) er is (A) er is (A) er is (A). The mass numbers of the reactants
and products must be the same, a mass value of 4 is missing on
the product side. Likewise the atomic number on both sides of
the equation must be the same. A value of 2 is missing on the
ANSWERS AND EXPLANATIONS
Peterson’s SAT II Success: Physics 298
product side, leaving
4
2
(a mass number of 4, and an atomic
number of 2 as the missing value). This is an alpha particle or
4
2
He
.
33. 33. 33. 33. 33. The cor The cor The cor The cor The corr rr rrect ans ect ans ect ans ect ans ect answ ww wwer is (D). er is (D). er is (D). er is (D). er is (D). The bowling ball has a smaller
radius than the hoop in which it is rolling. All the angular
quantities of the bowling ball are larger than those of the hoop.
They will both travel the same linear distance, which is the
tangential displacement.
34. 34. 34. 34. 34. The cor The cor The cor The cor The corr rr rrect ans ect ans ect ans ect ans ect answ ww wwer is (D) er is (D) er is (D) er is (D) er is (D). A net force applied to a body causes
the body to be accelerated. This is Sir Isaac Newton’s second law
of motion, F=ma.
35. 35. 35. 35. 35. The cor The cor The cor The cor The corr rr rrect ans ect ans ect ans ect ans ect answ ww wwer is (D) er is (D) er is (D) er is (D) er is (D). The image formed by a convex lens
when the object is outside the radius of curvature is real, in-
verted, and near the focal point on the other side of the lens.
36. 36. 36. 36. 36. The cor The cor The cor The cor The corr rr rrect ans ect ans ect ans ect ans ect answ ww wwer is (E) er is (E) er is (E) er is (E) er is (E). This is Einstein’s statement concern-
ing the relationship between the natural laws of physics and
frames of reference. All physical laws are the same for systems
that are moving at constant rate.
37. 37. 37. 37. 37. The cor The cor The cor The cor The corr rr rrect ans ect ans ect ans ect ans ect answ ww wwer is (C) er is (C) er is (C) er is (C) er is (C). Polarizers are used in industry to
reveal stress patterns in machinery and tools. Almost everyone
has used sunglasses that protect their eyes by polarizing the
light to reduce glare.
38. 38. 38. 38. 38. The cor The cor The cor The cor The corr rr rrect ans ect ans ect ans ect ans ect answ ww wwer is (C) er is (C) er is (C) er is (C) er is (C). The velocity of the ball in its path-
way is calculated with the centripetal force equation, F
mv
r
c
=
2
,
which is rearranged to v
F r
m
N m
kg
c
= = =
( )( ) ( . )( )
.
6 25 2
5
5N.
39. 39. 39. 39. 39. The cor The cor The cor The cor The corr rr rrect ans ect ans ect ans ect ans ect answ ww wwer is (C) er is (C) er is (C) er is (C) er is (C). The charge on a solid conducting
body is found on the outside of the object. The charges distrib-
ute themselves equally around the outside of the conducting
body because of the mutual repulsion the excess charges have
for themselves.
PRACTICE TEST 2
Peterson’s: www.petersons.com 299
40. 40. 40. 40. 40. The cor The cor The cor The cor The corr rr rrect ans ect ans ect ans ect ans ect answ ww wwer is (C). er is (C). er is (C). er is (C). er is (C). The icicle strikes the ground with a
velocity of 10.84 m/s, giving it a kinetic energy (1/2 mv
2
) of
1.76J. Only 5% of the energy is converted to heat, so the energy
converted to heat is .088J. It takes .335 J to convert one gram of
ice to water, so
.
. /
.
088
335
263
J
J g
g of ice is converted to water.
41. 41. 41. 41. 41. The cor The cor The cor The cor The corr rr rrect ans ect ans ect ans ect ans ect answ ww wwer is (E). er is (E). er is (E). er is (E). er is (E). All the answers are stated opposite
from their correct relativistic statement except for choice (E).
42. 42. 42. 42. 42. The correct answer is (C) The correct answer is (C) The correct answer is (C) The correct answer is (C) The correct answer is (C). During the first 30 minutes
(½ hour) the bicyclist travels 12.5 km. The next 15 minutes
(¼ hour) the bicyclist travels 5 km, and during the last 15 min-
utes the bicyclist travels another 10 km. The total distance the
bicyclist traveled during one hour is the sum of the three dis-
tances, which are 12.5 km + 5 km + 10 km = 27.5 km
43. 43. 43. 43. 43. The cor The cor The cor The cor The corr rr rrect ans ect ans ect ans ect ans ect answ ww wwer is (A) er is (A) er is (A) er is (A) er is (A). The force down the plane is a
component of the weight of the block, which is found by multi-
plying the weight of the object by the sine q of the angle to
which the plane is raised. This produces a force down the plane,
which will accelerate the object when the plane is raised high
enough. The frictional force between the block and the plane
always acts against the motion of the object—in this case,
friction operates up the plane. Since there is no acceleration, the
frictional force (F
f
) opposing the motion of the block exactly
equals the downward force (F
11
).
44. 44. 44. 44. 44. The cor The cor The cor The cor The corr rr rrect ans ect ans ect ans ect ans ect answ ww wwer is (E) er is (E) er is (E) er is (E) er is (E). The hot gas, which is in contact with
the cold gas, will lose heat to the cold gas. The transfer of heat is
always from the hot object to the cold object, unless work is
done on the system.
45. 45. 45. 45. 45. The cor The cor The cor The cor The corr rr rrect ans ect ans ect ans ect ans ect answ ww wwer is (C) er is (C) er is (C) er is (C) er is (C). The listener hears the sound waves
being bunched together as the siren approaches him, causing the
pitch of the sound he hears to increase. When the fire truck
passes the listener, the sound waves seem to be spread apart as
the pitch of the sound decreases due to the lengthening of the
sound waves.
46. 46. 46. 46. 46. The cor The cor The cor The cor The corr rr rrect ans ect ans ect ans ect ans ect answ ww wwer is (D). er is (D). er is (D). er is (D). er is (D). The inertia of the dishes (Newton’s
first law) causes them to remain at rest. The fast rate at which
the magician pulls the tablecloth from under the dishes keeps
the static friction from changing to kinetic friction.
ANSWERS AND EXPLANATIONS
Peterson’s SAT II Success: Physics 300
47. 47. 47. 47. 47. The correct answer is (B). The correct answer is (B). The correct answer is (B). The correct answer is (B). The correct answer is (B). Look at the pipe carefully and there
are two complete waves in the pipe. Since the pipe is 40 cm
long, the wavelength of the waves is .2 m. Solve for the fre-
quency of the wave with
f
v
=
λ
.
48. 48. 48. 48. 48. The cor The cor The cor The cor The corr rr rrect ans ect ans ect ans ect ans ect answ ww wwer is (B). er is (B). er is (B). er is (B). er is (B). The heat content of a substance is
dependent on three different things, the specific heat of the
substance, the mass of the substance, and the temperature of the
substance. The specific heat can be disregarded since the sub-
stance is the same for both containers. The mass of the water in
the cup is less than the mass of the water in the bucket, there-
fore the cup of water has less heat content than the bucket of
water even though they are at the same temperature.
49. 49. 49. 49. 49. The cor The cor The cor The cor The corr rr rrect ans ect ans ect ans ect ans ect answ ww wwer is (A) er is (A) er is (A) er is (A) er is (A). To find the capacitance for a group
of capacitors in parallel with each other you add their capaci-
tances together to find their sum. 10 15 35 60 µ µ µ f f f f + + = .
50. 50. 50. 50. 50. The cor The cor The cor The cor The corr rr rrect ans ect ans ect ans ect ans ect answ ww wwer is (D). er is (D). er is (D). er is (D). er is (D). The electron releases energy when
it falls to the n=1 level from the n=3 level. ∆ E E E −
3 1
, yielding
a positive +12.21 eV.
51. 51. 51. 51. 51. The cor The cor The cor The cor The corr rr rrect ans ect ans ect ans ect ans ect answ ww wwer is (B) er is (B) er is (B) er is (B) er is (B). The resistors can be combined in the
following ways:
4 resistors in series = 24Ω
4 resistors in parallel = 15Ω
3 resistors in parallel together with one resistor in series with the
parallel resistors = 8Ω
2 resistors in parallel together that are in series with 2 more resis-
tors that are in parallel together = 6Ω
2 resistors in parallel together that are in series with 2 resistors in
series together = 15Ω
PRACTICE TEST 2
Peterson’s: www.petersons.com 301
52. 52. 52. 52. 52. The cor The cor The cor The cor The corr rr rrect ans ect ans ect ans ect ans ect answ ww wwer is (C) er is (C) er is (C) er is (C) er is (C). The problem can be solved as a
combination work-energy theorem problem. KE = Work is
restated as 1/2 mv
2
= (F
f
)(s)(cosθ ). The F
f
is found by using the
equation for frictional force, F
f
= µ N. Put it all together and solve
in this manner
s
m v
s
=
=
( )( )
( )( )
( . )( )
(. )( . )( .
2
2
2
7 25 10
2 0025 7 25 9 8
µ N
kg m/s
kg m/ss
2040m 2km
2
)

53. 53. 53. 53. 53. The cor The cor The cor The cor The corr rr rrect ans ect ans ect ans ect ans ect answ ww wwer is (B) er is (B) er is (B) er is (B) er is (B). The binding energy is the result of
the conversion of the mass defect into the energy that holds the
protons in the nucleus in spite of their repulsion for each other.
54. 54. 54. 54. 54. The correct answer is (A) The correct answer is (A) The correct answer is (A) The correct answer is (A) The correct answer is (A). During the time when the substance
is at the part of the graph, it can either evaporate or condense.
This entails a phase change, which is accomplished by the
substance gaining energy.
55. 55. 55. 55. 55. The cor The cor The cor The cor The corr rr rrect ans ect ans ect ans ect ans ect answ ww wwer is (A) er is (A) er is (A) er is (A) er is (A). The temperature can only increase
when no phase change occurs. The first rise on the graph is
where the solid phase exists and its temperature changes.
56. 56. 56. 56. 56. The cor The cor The cor The cor The corr rr rrect ans ect ans ect ans ect ans ect answ ww wwer is (E) er is (E) er is (E) er is (E) er is (E). The higher the frequency of a
photon, the more energy it has, therefore the more energy it can
impart to the electron.
57. 57. 57. 57. 57. The cor The cor The cor The cor The corr rr rrect ans ect ans ect ans ect ans ect answ ww wwer is (E) er is (E) er is (E) er is (E) er is (E). When the light is incident to the
surface of the second material, a small amount of reflection
occurs even though most of the light passes through the surface
interface and into the second substance. This means the law of
reflection is in effect for the reflected part of the light ray, the
angle of reflection equals the angle of incidence.
58. 58. 58. 58. 58. The cor The cor The cor The cor The corr rr rrect ans ect ans ect ans ect ans ect answ ww wwer is (D). er is (D). er is (D). er is (D). er is (D). The material with the higher index
of refraction has a greater optical density to the light. The ray
bends toward the normal when it slows down in the optically
more dense material
59. 59. 59. 59. 59. The cor The cor The cor The cor The corr rr rrect ans ect ans ect ans ect ans ect answ ww wwer is (A) er is (A) er is (A) er is (A) er is (A). The pressure he feels is equal to
force per unit area. His partner’s heel is a tiny area, which bears
most of her weight. This gives a large local force at the small
end of her heel.
ANSWERS AND EXPLANATIONS
Peterson’s SAT II Success: Physics 302
60. 60. 60. 60. 60. The cor The cor The cor The cor The corr rr rrect ans ect ans ect ans ect ans ect answ ww wwer is (D) er is (D) er is (D) er is (D) er is (D). This is a calorimetry problem
(cm∆ T)
cold
= (cm∆ T)
hot
. The specific heats are the same for both
hot and cold water, which may be factored out of the problem,
leaving (m∆ T)
cold
= (m∆ T)
hot
. The answer is 86°C.
61. 61. 61. 61. 61. The cor The cor The cor The cor The corr rr rrect ans ect ans ect ans ect ans ect answ ww wwer is (D) er is (D) er is (D) er is (D) er is (D). Take the count rate of 62.5 counts/
sec and divide by 500 counts/sec. The result is the decimal
number of .125, which is (1/2)
3
. The 3 half-lives occur during the
two-hour period. We have 120 min ÷ 3 = 40 min per half-life.
62. 62. 62. 62. 62. The correct answer is (A) The correct answer is (A) The correct answer is (A) The correct answer is (A) The correct answer is (A). Subtract the momentum of the ball
from its original momentum to find the momentum of the ball as
it bounces away from the floor.
63. 63. 63. 63. 63. The cor The cor The cor The cor The corr rr rrect ans ect ans ect ans ect ans ect answ ww wwer is (C) er is (C) er is (C) er is (C) er is (C). The time an object moves along the
x-axis while it is also moving in free fall on the y-axis is re-
stricted to the time the object is in free fall. The water from the
fireman’s hose must be in free fall at least long enough to reach
the height at which the window is located above ground and
cross the distance from the hose to the burning building, too.
This means that at the very least, the time the water rises (t
y
)
must equal the time the water takes to move from the hose and
cross the street on the x-axis (t
x
).
64. 64. 64. 64. 64. The cor The cor The cor The cor The corr rr rrect ans ect ans ect ans ect ans ect answ ww wwer is (C) er is (C) er is (C) er is (C) er is (C). The heat in the water and any heat
added to the water is used by the system to melt the ice. This
constitutes a phase change, too.
65. 65. 65. 65. 65. The cor The cor The cor The cor The corr rr rrect ans ect ans ect ans ect ans ect answ ww wwer is (D). er is (D). er is (D). er is (D). er is (D). The impulse impressed onto the
cart is the same as the momentum the cart achieves. The
momentum is given as P = mv, which was given to the cart in a
time of .8 sec. The impulse an object receives in a given time is
Ft = ∆ P. The solution is found by replacing the P (momentum),
yielding the equation Ft = mv, which is rearranged to find the
force.
F
m v
t
( )( )
.
66. 66. 66. 66. 66. The cor The cor The cor The cor The corr rr rrect ans ect ans ect ans ect ans ect answ ww wwer is (D) er is (D) er is (D) er is (D) er is (D). The highly polished interior surface
of the thermos bottle reflects radiated heat from the substance
back into the substance it is keeping hot.
67. 67. 67. 67. 67. The correct answer is (A). The correct answer is (A). The correct answer is (A). The correct answer is (A). The correct answer is (A). Charge builds across a capacitor at
a high rate when voltage is initially applied. The rate of charge
on the capacitor decreases with time as the capacitor builds
charge.
PRACTICE TEST 2
Peterson’s: www.petersons.com 303
68. 68. 68. 68. 68. The cor The cor The cor The cor The corr rr rrect ans ect ans ect ans ect ans ect answ ww wwer is (A) er is (A) er is (A) er is (A) er is (A). Current flows in the circuit when
the switch is first closed. As time passes and the charge builds
on the capacitor, the current flow decreases inversely in relation
to the charge on the capacitor. When the capacitor is fully
charged, the capacitor blocks the circuit as if it was an open and
no current is able to flow.
69. 69. 69. 69. 69. The cor The cor The cor The cor The corr rr rrect ans ect ans ect ans ect ans ect answ ww wwer is (C) er is (C) er is (C) er is (C) er is (C). The problem may be solved in
several ways. Perhaps the best solution is a little thought. E.g.,
the potential energy and the kinetic energy are equal to each
other when the object has fallen half the distance to the ground,
or 10 m. We now treat it as a free fall problem by restating the
situation a little. What is the velocity of an object that starts from
rest and free falls a distance of 10 m? The solution is found by
V a s
f
=
=
2
2 9 8 10
( )( )
( . )( ) m/s m 14 m/s
70. 70. 70. 70. 70. The cor The cor The cor The cor The corr rr rrect ans ect ans ect ans ect ans ect answ ww wwer is (C) er is (C) er is (C) er is (C) er is (C). The rocket sled is already moving.
The two rocket engines apply two (different pairs) of forces of
equal magnitude to the same object but in different directions.
There is therefore no unbalanced force and the sled continues in
its state of motion.
71. The cor The cor The cor The cor The corr rr rrect ans ect ans ect ans ect ans ect answ ww wwer is (D) er is (D) er is (D) er is (D) er is (D). The particle is completely unaf-
fected by the field, which eliminates the charge-carrying par-
ticles. Thus the electron, the positron (a positive electron), and
the proton are not the correct choice. The gamma ray is also
unaffected by a magnetic field, but it is not a particle and would
not be seen, so it, too, is eliminated from consideration. The only
particle that is unaffected by the magnetic field is the neutron.
72. 72. 72. 72. 72. The correct answer is (E). The correct answer is (E). The correct answer is (E). The correct answer is (E). The correct answer is (E). Sound waves are propagated in a
manner that is parallel to their direction of movement. They are
composed of a series of compressions and rarefactions.
73. 73. 73. 73. 73. The cor The cor The cor The cor The corr rr rrect ans ect ans ect ans ect ans ect answ ww wwer is (D) er is (D) er is (D) er is (D) er is (D). When the string breaks, the object
travels in a straight-line tangent to the circular pathway it had
followed.
ANSWERS AND EXPLANATIONS
Peterson’s SAT II Success: Physics 304
74. 74. 74. 74. 74. The cor The cor The cor The cor The corr rr rrect ans ect ans ect ans ect ans ect answ ww wwer is (A). er is (A). er is (A). er is (A). er is (A). The refrigerator is essentially a heat
engine that is being run in reverse. The refrigerator “heats” the
room outside by removing heat energy from the enclosed and
insulated refrigerator box. The process produces the cooling
effect.
75. 75. 75. 75. 75. The cor The cor The cor The cor The corr rr rrect ans ect ans ect ans ect ans ect answ ww wwer is (B) er is (B) er is (B) er is (B) er is (B). When the object leaves the hand of
the person who throws it out of the vehicle, the object is in free
fall. The acceleration of any object in free fall is a constant
9.8 m/s
2
, therefore the acceleration does not change. Since there
is acceleration, however, the velocity will change.
PRACTICE TEST 2
Practice Test 3
PHYSICS PHYSICS PHYSICS PHYSICS PHYSICS TEST TEST TEST TEST TEST
Peterson’s: www.petersons.com 307
PRACTICE TEST 3
PHYSICS PHYSICS PHYSICS PHYSICS PHYSICS TEST TEST TEST TEST TEST
While you have taken many standardized tests and know to blacken completely the ovals on the
answer sheets and to erase completely any errors, the instructions for the SAT II Physics Test differ in
an important way from the directions for other standardized tests. You need to indicate on the answer
key which test you are taking. The instructions on the answer sheet will tell you to fill out the top
portion of the answer sheet exactly as shown.
1. Print PHYSICS on the line under the words Subject Test (print).
2. In the shaded box labeled Test Code fill in four ovals:
—Fill in oval 1 in the row labeled V.
—Fill in oval 6 in the row labeled W.
—Fill in oval 3 in the row labeled X.
—Fill in oval C in the row labeled Y.
—Leave the ovals in row Q blank.
V
W
X
Q
Test Code
Subject Test (print)
Physics
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
1 2 3 4 5 A B C D E
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
Y
There are two additional questions that you will be asked to answer. One is “How many semesters of
physics have you taken in high school?” The other question lists courses and asks you to mark those
that you have taken. You will be told which ovals to fill in for each question. The College Board is
collecting statistical information. If you choose to answer, you will use the key that is provided and
blacken the appropriate ovals in row Q. You may also choose not to answer, and that will not affect
your grade.
When everyone has completed filling in this portion of the answer sheet, the supervisor will tell you
to turn the page and begin. The answer sheet has 100 numbered ovals, but there are only approxi-
mately 75 multiple-choice questions on the test, so be sure to use only ovals 1 to 75 (or however many
questions there are) to record your answers.
Peterson’s SAT II Success: Physics 308
PHYSICS PHYSICS PHYSICS PHYSICS PHYSICS TEST TEST TEST TEST TEST
P PP PPar ar ar ar art t t t t A AA AA
Directions: Each of the sets of lettered choices below refers to the questions and/or statements
that follow. Select the lettered choice that is the best answer to each question and fill in the
corresponding oval on the answer sheet. In each set, each choice may be used once, more than
once, or not at all.
Questions 1–3 relate to the velocity time graph
shown below. Select the answer that is most
representative of the physical quantity named.
1. At which point on the graph is no net force
applied?
2. At which point on the graph is the accelera-
tion greatest?
3. At which point on the graph does the
object move the greatest distance?
PHYSICS TEST
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PHYSICS PHYSICS PHYSICS PHYSICS PHYSICS TEST— TEST— TEST— TEST— TEST—Contin Contin Contin Contin Continued ued ued ued ued
Questions 4–6 relate to the DC circuit shown
below.
The values for current, voltage, and resistance in
the circuit are graphed from point A through
point G in the graphs directly below.
4. Which of the graphs shows the current
from point A to point G?
5. Which of the graphs shows the resistance
from point A to point G?
6. Which of the graphs shows the voltage
from point A to point G?
Questions 7–9
The idealized P–V diagram above shows a
complete cycle through compression and
expansion of a gas. The questions below relate to
the processes within the cycle.
7. Which letter shows isothermal compres-
sion?
8. Which letter shows work done?
9. Which letter shows an adiabatic expansion?
PRACTICE TEST 3
Peterson’s SAT II Success: Physics 310
PHYSICS PHYSICS PHYSICS PHYSICS PHYSICS TEST— TEST— TEST— TEST— TEST—Contin Contin Contin Contin Continued ued ued ued ued
Questions 10–12 relate to the diagram below.
A 50 kg object slides to a stop over a period of
time. Which of the graphs represents each of
the described factors?
10. The frictional force on the object
11. Velocity of the object
12. Displacement of the object
Questions 13–15 relate to the nuclear equation
shown below.
(A) (B) (C) (D) (E)
235
92
4
2
234
90
0
1
234
91
U He Th e Pa → + →

+
13. Identify the parent nucleus.
14. Identify the alpha particle.
15. Identify the beta particle.
PHYSICS TEST
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PHYSICS PHYSICS PHYSICS PHYSICS PHYSICS TEST— TEST— TEST— TEST— TEST—Contin Contin Contin Contin Continued ued ued ued ued
P PP PPar ar ar ar art B t B t B t B t B
16. The processes of constructive interference
and destructive interference occur in
(A) cosmic rays.
(B) light rays.
(C) sound waves.
(D) water waves.
(E) all of these.
17. A positively charged rod is brought near an
uncharged pith ball that is being touched
by a copper wire. Both the rod and the
copper wire are simultaneously removed,
and the pith ball is tested to find if any
electrostatic charge is present. What is the
result?
(A) The pith ball has been positively
charged by conduction.
(B) The pith ball has been positively
charged by induction.
(C) The pith ball has been negatively
charged by conduction.
(D) The pith ball has been negatively
charged by induction.
(E) The pith ball has not been charged in
any way.
18. Two point charges are separated by a small
distance. When the distance between the
two particles is halved, which of the follow-
ing descriptions is true?
(A) The particles attract one another.
(B) The particles repel one another.
(C) The particles exert the same force on
one another.
(D) The particles exert twice as much
force on one another.
(E) The particles exert four times as much
force on one another.
19. A photon of light from which of the follow-
ing electromagnetic radiations carries the
greater amount of energy?
(A) Blue
(B) Green
(C) Orange
(D) Red
(E) Yellow
PRACTICE TEST 3
Directions: Each question or statement below is followed by five possible answers. In each case,
select the best possible answer and fill in the corresponding oval on the answer sheet.
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20. A person standing in an elevator watches a
spider hanging from a thread attached to
the ceiling. Suddenly the elevator acceler-
ates downward. The person watching the
spider on the thread will see
(A) the spider thread snap and the spider
slowly fall.
(B) the spider thread and spider float
upward.
(C) the spider thread snap and the spider
slowly float upward.
(D) the spider thread and the spider
remain as they were before the accel-
eration began.
(E) the spider thread begin to swing back
and forth like a pendulum.
21. Three ice cubes are placed into three equal
beakers filled with water. One ice cube has
a mass of 50 g, the second ice cube has a
mass of 75 g, and the third ice cube has a
mass of 100 g. After the ice cubes are
added, each beaker is filled to the brim with
water at a temperature of 1°C. After a
period of time passes and all three ice
cubes melt, which of the following situa-
tions is most likely?
(A) All three beakers have overflowed.
(B) None of the beakers have overflowed.
(C) The beaker with the 100 g ice cube
has overflowed.
(D) The beakers with the 100 g and the 75
g ice cube in them have overflowed.
(E) The beaker with the 50 g ice cube has
overflowed.
22. One mole of helium gas and one mole of
neon gas are both at STP. Which of the
following statements about the gases is
correct?
(A) Their pressure is the same.
(B) Their temperature is the same.
(C) Their volume is the same.
(D) Their number of particles is the same.
(E) The pressure, temperature, volume,
and number of particles is the same.
23. A step down transformer changes the high
input voltage used in our houses (120V)
into the low voltage used to charge an
electric razor (24V). What must be the
ratio of the turns of wire from the primary
side of the transformer to the secondary
side?
(A) 1:5
(B) 2:7
(C) 1:8
(D) 2:9
(E) 1:10
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24. The equilibrant vector of a resultant vector
is shown above. Which of the choices below
represents the y component of the
equilibrant vector?
(A) Line A
(B) Line B
(C) Line C
(D) Line D
(E) Line E
25. Object A (which is cold) is placed on top of
object B (which is hot) in a closed system.
Which of the following is the best descrip-
tion of what occurs in the system?
I. Both A and B eventually reach the
same temperature.
II. Gravity stops heat from moving up
into A.
III. Heat flows from A to B.
(A) I only
(B) II only
(C) I and III only
(D) II and III only
(E) I, II, and III
26. Look at the image above produced by the
convex mirror shown and choose the
correct description of the image.
(A) Erect and real
(B) Real and enlarged
(C) Enlarged and virtual
(D) Virtual and reduced
(E) Reduced and real
PRACTICE TEST 3
Peterson’s SAT II Success: Physics 314
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27. An object is moving in a circular path with
a constant velocity (v). If the radius of the
circle in which the object is moving is
decreased by one half and the velocity
remains the same, what will happen to the
centripetal force?
(A) It will be 4F.
(B) It will be 2F.
(C) It will be F.
(D) It will be F/2.
(E) It will be F/4.
28. For the gas shown below, 70 Joules of
energy is added between AB. The gas does
35 Joules of work. How much heat is
exhausted between CD?
(A) .5J
(B) 2J
(C) 35J
(D) 105J
(E) 2,450J
29. Which wave characteristic describes the
number of wave crests passing a given
point per unit time?
(A) Frequency
(B) Amplitude
(C) Wavelength
(D) Velocity
(E) Period
30. What is the centripetal acceleration on the
rim of a wagon wheel of 44 cm diameter if
the wagon is being pulled at a constant 2.5
m/s?
(A) 10.8 m/s
(B) 18.6 m/s
(C) 28.4 m/s
(D) 32.7 m/s
(E) 36.3 m/s
31. The specific heat for substance A is twice
the specific heat of substance B. The same
mass of each substance is allowed to gain
50 Joules of heat energy. As a result of the
heating process
(A) the temperature of A rises twice as
much as B.
(B) the temperature of A rises four times
as much as B.
(C) the temperature of B rises twice as
much as A.
(D) the temperature of B rises four times
as much as A.
(E) the temperature of both B and A rise
the same amount.
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32. A golf ball is placed inside an unmounted
tire, which is then rolled down a long hill.
Identify the statement(s) that best describe
the situation while the tire and golf ball are
rolling down the hill.
I. The centripetal force on the tire
operates in the same direction as
the centripetal force on the golf
ball.
II. The centripetal force acting on the
tire is opposite the centripetal force
acting on the golf ball.
III. The centripetal force acting on the
golf ball is equal to the centripetal
force on the tire.
(A) I only
(B) II only
(C) I and III only
(D) II and III only
(E) I, II, and III
33. A 50 kg block slides down a plane that has
been raised to an angle of 30° above the
horizontal at a constant rate. After the
block slides completely to the bottom of
the plane, a rope is attached to the block.
The rope pulls parallel to the surface of the
plane as the block is pulled up the plane at
a constant rate. Which statement about the
tension in the rope is correct?
(A) The tension in the rope is greater than
the frictional force but less than the
weight of the block.
(B) The tension in the rope is greater than
the frictional force plus the weight of
the block.
(C) The tension in the rope is equal to the
weight of the block minus the fric-
tional force.
(D) The tension in the rope is equal to the
weight of the block.
(E) The tension in the rope is equal to the
frictional force.
34. The length of time a satellite takes to orbit
the earth depends on its
(A) launch speed.
(B) mass.
(C) distance from the earth.
(D) weight.
(E) orbital direction.
35. An object falls with constant acceleration
near the earth. Which statement best
describes the velocity of the object?
(A) The velocity is constant.
(B) The velocity is decreasing.
(C) The velocity constantly changes in
proportion to its weight.
(D) The velocity is not related to its
acceleration.
(E) The velocity changes by the same
amount each second.
36. The normal force between two surfaces is
increased by four times. The coefficient of
static friction will
(A) be cut in half.
(B) be doubled.
(C) remain the same.
(D) be quadrupled.
(E) be undetermined.
37. Which of the following methods can be
used to induce a voltage into a coil of wire?
(A) Rotating a magnet around the coils of
wire
(B) Passing a magnet through the center
of the coils of wire
(C) Rotating the coil of wire in a magnetic
field
(D) Changing the strength of the magnetic
field applied to the wire
(E) All of the methods listed can be used
to induce current into a coil of wire.
PRACTICE TEST 3
Peterson’s SAT II Success: Physics 316
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38. Scientists identify the elements that are
burning in the stars by using which of the
following devices?
(A) Refractive telescopes
(B) Reflective telescopes
(C) Spectroscopes
(D) Polarimeters
(E) Photoelectric microscopes
39. The discrete spectral lines of line spectra
occur when excitation of electrons takes
place in
(A) solids.
(B) liquids.
(C) gases.
(D) plastics.
(E) all of these.
40. A proton and an electron are each placed in
an electric field between a pair of parallel
plates. The electron is placed exactly
halfway between the two plates, and the
proton is placed midway between the
electron and the negative plate. Which of
the following statements is correct about
the forces the particles experience?
(A) The force on the electron is larger
because it has less mass.
(B) The force on the proton is larger
because it has greater mass
(C) The force on the electron is larger
because it is in the strongest part of
the electric field.
(D) The force on the proton is larger
because it is closer to the negative
plate.
(E) They both experience the same force.
41. A light ray that enters a glass block from
the air is refracted because
(A) the light travels faster in the glass than
in the air.
(B) the light travels slower in the glass
than in the air.
(C) the light waves invert as they enter the
glass.
(D) the light waves increase their ampli-
tudes in the glass.
(E) the light intensity is greater in the
glass than in the air.
42. Each and every person on earth is made of
atoms that originated in
(A) the food we eat.
(B) the ancient stars.
(C) our mother’s body.
(D) the oceans.
(E) the earth.
43. A toy rocket is launched straight up. At the
exact top of its flight path, which of the
following is true?
(A) Its velocity and acceleration are zero.
(B) Its velocity is zero and acceleration is
9.8 m/s
2
.
(C) Its velocity is 9.8 m/s and acceleration
is 9.8 m/s
2
.
(D) Its velocity is 9.8 m/s and acceleration
is zero.
(E) Its velocity is 9.8 m/s and displace-
ment is 9.8 m.
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44. Sir Isaac Newton’s third law of motion is
called the action-reaction law. Which of the
following statements appropriately de-
scribes the action-reaction forces?
(A) They act on different objects.
(B) They act on the same object.
(C) They are unequal in magnitude.
(D) They act at right angles to one an-
other.
(E) They act in the same direction.
45. When a gas undergoes an adiabatic com-
pression its
(A) temperature decreases.
(B) temperature increases.
(C) volume increases.
(D) pressure decreases.
(E) energy decreases.
46. A clothesline is strung between two posts,
and wet clothing weighing 200 N is hung
on the line, which sags under the weight of
the clothes. If one end of the line is pulled
to straighten the line, which of the follow-
ing would be true?
I. The tension in the rope undergoes a
large increase.
II. The tension in the rope undergoes a
large decrease.
III. The weight in the rope undergoes a
large increase.
(A) I only
(B) II only
(C) I and III only
(D) II and III only
(E) I, II, and III
47. The current through a 20Ω resistor con-
nected to a 12V battery is
(A) .3 amperes.
(B) .6 amperes.
(C) .9 amperes.
(D) 1.6 amperes.
(E) 1.9 amperes.
48. When U-235 is fissioned in a nuclear
reactor, the nuclear reaction is maintained
by
(A) heat produced in the reactor.
(B) the moderator rods.
(C) radioactive decay products.
(D) vibrations induced in the U-235.
(E) neutrons produced in the reaction.
49. The force a magnetic field exerts on an
electron is largest when the path of the
electron is oriented
(A) in the opposite direction from the
magnetic field’s direction.
(B) in the same direction as the magnetic
field’s direction.
(C) up through the magnetic field at a 45°
angle.
(D) down through the magnetic field at a
45° angle.
(E) at a right angle to the magnetic field.
50. When a light ray strikes a perfectly reflec-
tive mirror at an angle, which of the follow-
ing happens?
(A) The frequency of the light ray
changes.
(B) The wavelength of the light ray
changes.
(C) The velocity of the light ray changes.
(D) The period of the light ray changes.
(E) The direction of motion of the light
ray changes.
PRACTICE TEST 3
Peterson’s SAT II Success: Physics 318
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51. An electron, a proton, and a neutron are
located at point (A) above in an electric
field. A short period of time passes. At
which position as indicated by the letter on
the diagram will the proton be located?
(A) Point A
(B) Point B
(C) Point C
(D) Point D
(E) Point E
52. If the pressure acting on an ideal gas that is
kept at constant temperature is multiplied
by four, its volume
(A) triples.
(B) reduces to 1/3.
(C) increases by four.
(D) reduces to 1/4.
(E) There is not enough information to
tell.
53. The electron-volt (eV) is a unit of
(A) power.
(B) voltage.
(C) current.
(D) potential.
(E) energy.
54. A pile driver is raised to a height of 25 m in
10 seconds. It is released and allowed to fall
onto a piling. Although guided by a set of
rails, the pile driver essentially is in free fall
after its release. Which of the following is/
are correct?
I. The power input equals the power
output.
II. The PE in equals the KE out.
III. The KE in equals the work out.
(A) I only
(B) II only
(C) I and III only
(D) II and III only
(E) I, II, and III only
55. A dog walks 120 m due east, then turns and
runs 60 m west. An interesting smell
attracts the dog, and it trots 40 m due
north. At this point the dog is 85 m north-
east of his home. The dog hears his master
call him and he runs directly home. Which
part of the trip is the largest vector?
(A) The eastward leg
(B) The westward leg
(C) The northward leg
(D) The distance from home
(E) The distance to home
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56. Which letter above represents a 3λ differ-
ence in path length?
(A) Position A
(B) Position B
(C) Position C
(D) Position D
(E) Position E
57. A 1,000 kg car rolls without friction down
a hill that is 20 m long and inclined at 15°C
from the horizontal. What is the velocity of
the car at the bottom of the hill?
(A) 2 m/s
(B) 5 m/s
(C) 10 m/s
(D) 20 m/s
(E) 30 m/s
58. Sound waves cannot travel in
(A) air.
(B) metal.
(C) vacuum.
(D) water.
(E) wood.
Questions 59–60 refer to the situation described
below.
Consider a light wave that passes from air into a
very thick clear glass block that has its opposite
internal side mirrored (facing into the glass).
The light ray passes into the glass block at an
angle greater than 0° and less than 90°, strikes
the mirrored surface and reflects back through
the glass into the air.
59. What happens while the light ray is in the
glass block but before it strikes the mir-
rored surface?
(A) The frequency of the waves increases.
(B) The frequency of the waves decreases.
(C) The wavelength of the waves de-
creases.
(D) The velocity of the waves decreases.
(E) The period of the waves increases.
60. What happens when the light ray leaves the
glass block after it has struck the mirrored
surface?
(A) The waves reflect back on the glass.
(B) The waves increase velocity.
(C) The waves leave the glass at the same
angle at which they entered the glass.
(D) The angle of refraction is greater than
the angle of incidence.
(E) The angle of reflection from the
mirror is equal to the incident angle at
which the light struck the glass block.
PRACTICE TEST 3
Peterson’s SAT II Success: Physics 320
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61. The most notable difference between a
radio wave and a light wave is
(A) speed.
(B) refractive index.
(C) reflectivity.
(D) amplitude.
(E) frequency.
62. Which of the graphs above shows two
electrons as they separate from one an-
other?
(A) Graph A
(B) Graph B
(C) Graph C
(D) Graph D
(E) Graph E
63. During a pool game the cue ball is shot at
the red ball. When the cue ball strikes the
red ball, the cue ball stops dead, and the red
ball moves away at the same velocity the
cue ball had before the collision. The type
of collision represented in this example is
(A) an elastic collision.
(B) a perfectly inelastic collision.
(C) an inelastic collision.
(D) all of the above.
(E) none of the above.
64. The images formed by convex mirrors
(A) are always real.
(B) are always virtual.
(C) are only real when the object is placed
outside the radius of curvature.
(D) are only virtual when the object is
placed inside the focal point.
(E) None of the above describes the
images formed by convex mirrors.
65. Two different light bulbs are in a DC
circuit powered by an 18 V battery as its
power source. The two bulbs are rated at
4.5 watts (B
1
) and 6.75 watts (B
2
) each.
What are the resistances of the two light
bulbs (B
1
) and (B
2
)?
(A) B
1
is 48 Ω, and B
2
is 72 Ω.
(B) B
1
is 72 Ω, and B
2
is 48 Ω.
(C) B
1
is 2.67 Ω, and B
2
is 4 Ω.
(D) B
1
is 4 Ω, and B
2
is 2.67 Ω.
(E) B
1
is 20.25 Ω, and B
2
is 45.56 Ω.
66. Scientists can determine whether a star is
approaching the earth by looking at its
(A) red shift.
(B) blue shift.
(C) rate of shimmer.
(D) brightness.
(E) absolute magnitude.
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67. The volt is a measure of electrical potential
and may be defined as
(A) opposition to electrical motion.
(B) number of particles in motion.
(C) work per unit charge.
(D) field strength per unit of force.
(E) electrostatic discharge.
68. A laboratory centrifuge starts from rest and
reaches a rotational speed of 8,000 radi-
ans/sec in a time of 25 seconds. What is the
angular acceleration of the centrifuge?
(A) 160 radians/sec
2
(B) 320 radians/sec
2
(C) 640 radians/sec
2
(D) 10,000 radians/sec
2
(E) 20,000 radians/sec
2
69. An object at rest is placed into free fall at a
height of 20 m. What is the velocity of the
object when the PE equals the KE?
(A) 8 m/s
(B) 11 m/s
(C) 14 m/s
(D) 17 m/s
(E) Velocity cannot be determined.
70. A battery and a variable resistor are in
series with a small fan. A switch is closed,
and the fan runs. When the variable resis-
tor is moved slightly to the left, the fan
slows down a little. When the variable
resistor is moved slightly to the right, the
fan speeds up a little. The following ques-
tion is about the operation of the circuit
described. If the variable resistor in the
circuit is set all the way to the right, what
happens in the circuit?
I. The fan runs faster.
II. The voltage decreases.
III. The current increases.
(A) I only
(B) II only
(C) I and III only
(D) II and III only
(E) I, II, and III
PRACTICE TEST 3
Peterson’s SAT II Success: Physics 322
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71. A pulse on a string moves toward and
strikes a fixed end as shown. The pulse is
(A) reflected and transmitted.
(B) reflected and refracted.
(C) reflected and reduced.
(D) reflected and magnified.
(E) reflected and inverted.
72. A thrown baseball hits and breaks a glass
window and ends up inside the house.
Which of the following is correct about the
ball?
(A) The force the ball exerted on the
window was larger than the force the
window exerted on the ball.
(B) The force the ball exerted on the
window was smaller than the force
the window exerted on the ball.
(C) The force the ball exerted on the
window was the same as the force the
window exerted on the ball.
(D) Since the ball broke the window, it
didn’t lose any momentum.
(E) The kinetic energy the ball had before
it broke the window equaled the
kinetic energy the ball had after it
broke the window.
PHYSICS TEST
73. When a voltage source that is inducing
voltage into a large number of coils is
disconnected, and a switch that is in series
with the coils of wire is also opened, a
spark is observed to jump across the
switch terminals as the switch begins to
open up. What is the cause of this spark?
(A) Free electrons from the voltage source
(B) Free electrons from the coils of wire
(C) Collapse of the magnetic field in the
coils of wire
(D) Secondary electron flow from the
source
(E) Stored voltage in the coils of wire
74. Electrical energy is changed into mechani-
cal energy in a device called a/an
(A) electromagnet.
(B) generator.
(C) magnetron.
(D) motor.
(E) transformer.
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75. Two wires are aligned side by side as
shown above. They are both hooked into
different circuits in which the current is off.
A switch is closed, allowing current to flow
into each circuit. Which of the following
statements is correct?
(A) The two currents destructively inter-
fere with one another.
(B) The two currents constructively
interfere with one another.
(C) The two wires attract and move
closer.
(D) The two wires repel and move away.
(E) The two wires remain still.
STOP STOP STOP STOP STOP
IF YOU FINISH BEFORE THE TEST SESSION ENDS, YOU MAY REVIEW YOUR WORK ON THIS TEST
ONLY. YOU MAY NOT TURN TO ANY OTHER TEST IN THIS BOOK.
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ANSWER SHEET
Leave any unused
answer spaces blank.
Test Code
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Subject Test (print)
FOR ETS
USE ONLY
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B
OC O
D
O
E
17 O
A
O
B
OC O
D
O
E
18 O
A
O
B
OC O
D
O
E
19 O
A
O
B
OC O
D
O
E
20 O
A
O
B
OC O
D
O
E
21 O
A
O
B
OC O
D
O
E
22 O
A
O
B
OC O
D
O
E
23 O
A
O
B
OC O
D
O
E
24 O
A
O
B
OC O
D
O
E
25 O
A
O
B
OC O
D
O
E
26 O
A
O
B
OC O
D
O
E
27 O
A
O
B
OC O
D
O
E
28 O
A
O
B
OC O
D
O
E
29 O
A
O
B
OC O
D
O
E
30 O
A
O
B
OC O
D
O
E
31 O
A
O
B
OC O
D
O
E
32 O
A
O
B
OC O
D
O
E
33 O
A
O
B
OC O
D
O
E
34 O
A
O
B
OC O
D
O
E
35 O
A
O
B
OC O
D
O
E
36 O
A
O
B
OC O
D
O
E
37 O
A
O
B
OC O
D
O
E
38 O
A
O
B
OC O
D
O
E
39 O
A
O
B
OC O
D
O
E
40 O
A
O
B
OC O
D
O
E
41 O
A
O
B
OC O
D
O
E
42 O
A
O
B
OC O
D
O
E
43 O
A
O
B
OC O
D
O
E
44 O
A
O
B
OC O
D
O
E
45 O
A
O
B
OC O
D
O
E
46 O
A
O
B
OC O
D
O
E
47 O
A
O
B
OC O
D
O
E
48 O
A
O
B
OC O
D
O
E
49 O
A
O
B
OC O
D
O
E
50 O
A
O
B
OC O
D
O
E
51 O
A
O
B
OC O
D
O
E
52 O
A
O
B
OC O
D
O
E
53 O
A
O
B
OC O
D
O
E
54 O
A
O
B
OC O
D
O
E
55 O
A
O
B
OC O
D
O
E
56 O
A
O
B
OC O
D
O
E
57 O
A
O
B
OC O
D
O
E
58 O
A
O
B
OC O
D
O
E
59 O
A
O
B
OC O
D
O
E
60 O
A
O
B
OC O
D
O
E
61 O
A
O
B
OC O
D
O
E
62 O
A
O
B
OC O
D
O
E
63 O
A
O
B
OC O
D
O
E
64 O
A
O
B
OC O
D
O
E
65 O
A
O
B
OC O
D
O
E
66 O
A
O
B
OC O
D
O
E
67 O
A
O
B
OC O
D
O
E
68 O
A
O
B
OC O
D
O
E
69 O
A
O
B
OC O
D
O
E
70 O
A
O
B
OC O
D
O
E
71 O
A
O
B
OC O
D
O
E
72 O
A
O
B
OC O
D
O
E
73 O
A
O
B
OC O
D
O
E
74 O
A
O
B
OC O
D
O
E
75 O
A
O
B
OC O
D
O
E
76 O
A
O
B
OC O
D
O
E
77 O
A
O
B
OC O
D
O
E
78 O
A
O
B
OC O
D
O
E
79 O
A
O
B
OC O
D
O
E
80 O
A
O
B
OC O
D
O
E
81 O
A
O
B
OC O
D
O
E
82 O
A
O
B
OC O
D
O
E
83 O
A
O
B
OC O
D
O
E
84 O
A
O
B
OC O
D
O
E
85 O
A
O
B
OC O
D
O
E
86 O
A
O
B
OC O
D
O
E
87 O
A
O
B
OC O
D
O
E
88 O
A
O
B
OC O
D
O
E
89 O
A
O
B
OC O
D
O
E
90 O
A
O
B
OC O
D
O
E
91 O
A
O
B
OC O
D
O
E
92 O
A
O
B
OC O
D
O
E
93 O
A
O
B
OC O
D
O
E
94 O
A
O
B
OC O
D
O
E
95 O
A
O
B
OC O
D
O
E
96 O
A
O
B
OC O
D
O
E
97 O
A
O
B
OC O
D
O
E
98 O
A
O
B
OC O
D
O
E
99 O
A
O
B
OC O
D
O
E
100 O
A
O
B
OC O
D
O
E
Peterson’s SAT II Success: Physics 326
Peterson’s: www.petersons.com 327
PRACTICE TEST 3
ANSWERS ANSWERS ANSWERS ANSWERS ANSWERS AND EXPLAN AND EXPLAN AND EXPLAN AND EXPLAN AND EXPLANA AA AATIONS TIONS TIONS TIONS TIONS
QUICK-SCORE ANSWERS QUICK-SCORE ANSWERS QUICK-SCORE ANSWERS QUICK-SCORE ANSWERS QUICK-SCORE ANSWERS
1. B
2. E
3. D
4. D
5. B
6. A
7. C
8. E
9. A
10. D
11. C
12. A
13. A
14. B
15. D
16. E
17. D
18. E
19. A
20. D
21. B
22. E
23. A
24. B
25. A
26. D
27. B
28. C
29. A
30. C
31. C
32. A
33. D
34. C
35. E
36. C
37. E
38. C
39. C
40. E
41. B
42. B
43. B
44. A
45. B
46. A
47. B
48. E
49. E
50. E
51. C
52. D
53. E
54. D
55. A
56. E
57. C
58. C
59. D
60. C
61. E
62. A
63. A
64. B
65. B
66. B
67. C
68. B
69. C
70. C
71. E
72. C
73. C
74. D
75. C
Peterson’s SAT II Success: Physics 328
ANSWERS AND EXPLANATIONS
ANSWERS TO PART A, QUESTIONS 1–14
1. 1. 1. 1. 1. The cor The cor The cor The cor The corr rr rrect ans ect ans ect ans ect ans ect answ ww wwer is (B) er is (B) er is (B) er is (B) er is (B). The velocity of the object is constant
between the 3rd and 4th seconds. An acceleration is defined as
the time rate change in velocity,
a
v
t


. If there is no change in
velocity, there is no acceleration.
2. 2. 2. 2. 2. The cor The cor The cor The cor The corr rr rrect ans ect ans ect ans ect ans ect answ ww wwer is (E). er is (E). er is (E). er is (E). er is (E). The magnitude of the acceleration is
greatest between t = 10s and t = 11s. The slope of the graph is
steeper between these two times than anywhere else on the
graph.
3. 3. 3. 3. 3. The cor The cor The cor The cor The corr rr rrect ans ect ans ect ans ect ans ect answ ww wwer is (D) er is (D) er is (D) er is (D) er is (D). The distance the object travels is the
product of the average velocity multiplied by the time.
4. 4. 4. 4. 4. The cor The cor The cor The cor The corr rr rrect ans ect ans ect ans ect ans ect answ ww wwer is (D) er is (D) er is (D) er is (D) er is (D). The current in a series circuit
remains the same throughout the entire circuit. Graph D shows
a constant value of current from point A through point G.
5. 5. 5. 5. 5. The cor The cor The cor The cor The corr rr rrect ans ect ans ect ans ect ans ect answ ww wwer is (B) er is (B) er is (B) er is (B) er is (B). The resistance through the circuit is
cumulative. At each point the resistance has increased by the
same amount. Remember that the resistors are all the same value.
Graph B shows the resistance increase by the same value from
point to point.
6. 6. 6. 6. 6. The cor The cor The cor The cor The corr rr rrect ans ect ans ect ans ect ans ect answ ww wwer is (A) er is (A) er is (A) er is (A) er is (A). The voltage measurement through-
out the circuit decreases as the distance from point A increases
and the number of resistors the current has passed through
increases. Each increase in the resistance produces a corre-
sponding decrease in voltage.
7. 7. 7. 7. 7. The cor The cor The cor The cor The corr rr rrect ans ect ans ect ans ect ans ect answ ww wwer is (C) er is (C) er is (C) er is (C) er is (C). The part of the cycle represented by
the letter C is compression. During compression, the system
heat is kept constant by allowing heat to escape from the sys-
tem.
8. 8. 8. 8. 8. The cor The cor The cor The cor The corr rr rrect ans ect ans ect ans ect ans ect answ ww wwer is (E) er is (E) er is (E) er is (E) er is (E). The work done by a heat engine is
the area under the pressure-volume curve. The work done under
the A part of the diagram is positive work, but the negative work
done under the C part of the diagram must be subtracted, leav-
ing the work as E.
9. 9. 9. 9. 9. The cor The cor The cor The cor The corr rr rrect ans ect ans ect ans ect ans ect answ ww wwer is (A) er is (A) er is (A) er is (A) er is (A). The volume of the enclosed gas
increases during phase A.
PRACTICE TEST 3
Peterson’s: www.petersons.com 329
10. 10. 10. 10. 10. The cor The cor The cor The cor The corr rr rrect ans ect ans ect ans ect ans ect answ ww wwer is (D) er is (D) er is (D) er is (D) er is (D). As long as the object is moving, the
frictional force is a constant force that opposes motion. This is
shown in graph D.
11. 11. 11. 11. 11. The cor The cor The cor The cor The corr rr rrect ans ect ans ect ans ect ans ect answ ww wwer is (C) er is (C) er is (C) er is (C) er is (C). The object is subjected to a constant
negative acceleration (it is slowing down). The velocity time
graph for an object that is subjected to a constant acceleration is
a linear curve, as in the graph shown in C.
12. 12. 12. 12. 12. The cor The cor The cor The cor The corr rr rrect ans ect ans ect ans ect ans ect answ ww wwer is (A) er is (A) er is (A) er is (A) er is (A). The object increases its displace-
ment from the origin until it stops moving. Then the object
remains in its position where its motion ceased.
13. 13. 13. 13. 13. The cor The cor The cor The cor The corr rr rrect ans ect ans ect ans ect ans ect answ ww wwer is (A) er is (A) er is (A) er is (A) er is (A). The parent nucleus is the nucleus
with which the nuclear reaction begins. In this case
235
92
U
is the
parent nucleus.
14. 14. 14. 14. 14. The cor The cor The cor The cor The corr rr rrect ans ect ans ect ans ect ans ect answ ww wwer is (B) er is (B) er is (B) er is (B) er is (B). An alpha particle is a helium
nucleus. That is, it is
4
2
He
.
15. 15. 15. 15. 15. The cor The cor The cor The cor The corr rr rrect ans ect ans ect ans ect ans ect answ ww wwer is (D) er is (D) er is (D) er is (D) er is (D). The beta particle is a high-energy
electron. It has the symbol
0
1 −
e, or .
.
ANSWERS AND EXPLANATIONS
ANSWERS TO PART B, QUESTIONS 16–75
16. 16. 16. 16. 16. The cor The cor The cor The cor The corr rr rrect ans ect ans ect ans ect ans ect answ ww wwer is (E) er is (E) er is (E) er is (E) er is (E). All of the choices
exhibit a wave nature at some time. All waves can
interfere with one another, either constructively or
destructively.
17. 17. 17. 17. 17. The correct answer is (D) The correct answer is (D) The correct answer is (D) The correct answer is (D) The correct answer is (D). Objects that are
touched by the charging body are charged by
conduction. Objects that are not touched by the
charging body are charged by induction. The
negative charge is placed on the pith ball when a
positively charged rod is brought near the pith ball.
The pith ball is touched by a body other than the
charging rod, which provides a path for electrons to
flow onto the pith ball and charges the pith ball
oppositely from the charge on the rod.
Peterson’s SAT II Success: Physics 330
18. 18. 18. 18. 18. The cor The cor The cor The cor The corr rr rrect ans ect ans ect ans ect ans ect answ ww wwer is (E). er is (E). er is (E). er is (E). er is (E). The force the particles exert on one
another increases as the inverse of the square of the distance
between the two particles.
19. 19. 19. 19. 19. The cor The cor The cor The cor The corr rr rrect ans ect ans ect ans ect ans ect answ ww wwer is (A) er is (A) er is (A) er is (A) er is (A). The higher the frequency of the light
waves, the higher the energy of the photons. Of the choices
presented, blue light has the highest frequency.
20. 20. 20. 20. 20. The cor The cor The cor The cor The corr rr rrect ans ect ans ect ans ect ans ect answ ww wwer is (D) er is (D) er is (D) er is (D) er is (D). The acceleration affects the spider
in the same way that it affects the observer. If the elevator were
in free fall, everything in the elevator would free fall together,
including the spider. If the elevator accelerates upward, the
spider experiences an apparent gain in weight, just as a person
riding in the elevator does.
21. 21. 21. 21. 21. The cor The cor The cor The cor The corr rr rrect ans ect ans ect ans ect ans ect answ ww wwer is (B) er is (B) er is (B) er is (B) er is (B). When water freezes, it becomes less
dense. Therefore, when ice cubes are placed into liquid water,
they displace a volume of water equal to their weight. When the
ice melts no further, volume is added to the container.
22. 22. 22. 22. 22. The cor The cor The cor The cor The corr rr rrect ans ect ans ect ans ect ans ect answ ww wwer is (E) er is (E) er is (E) er is (E) er is (E). At STP the molar volume of any gas is
22.4 L. Standard pressure and volume are also the same for all
gases, and of course a mole of any substance is the same number
of particles.
23. 23. 23. 23. 23. The cor The cor The cor The cor The corr rr rrect ans ect ans ect ans ect ans ect answ ww wwer is (A). er is (A). er is (A). er is (A). er is (A). The ratio between the number of
turns in the primary and the number of turns in the secondary is
equal to the ratio of the secondary voltage and the primary
voltage
24
120
2
V
V
= . , or 1:5.
24. 24. 24. 24. 24. The cor The cor The cor The cor The corr rr rrect ans ect ans ect ans ect ans ect answ ww wwer is (B) er is (B) er is (B) er is (B) er is (B). The equilibrant vector is pointed
into the third quadrant. The y component for a vector in the
third quadrant also points into the third quadrant.
25. 25. 25. 25. 25. The correct answer is (A) The correct answer is (A) The correct answer is (A) The correct answer is (A) The correct answer is (A). Gravity has nothing to do with heat
transfer. Both objects will reach the same temperature when
they have reached equilibrium.
26. 26. 26. 26. 26. The cor The cor The cor The cor The corr rr rrect ans ect ans ect ans ect ans ect answ ww wwer is (D) er is (D) er is (D) er is (D) er is (D). The image produced when the
object is placed inside the focal distance of a convex mirror is
virtual and reduced.
PRACTICE TEST 3
Peterson’s: www.petersons.com 331
27. 27. 27. 27. 27. The correct answer is (B) The correct answer is (B) The correct answer is (B) The correct answer is (B) The correct answer is (B). Since the centripetal force is found
with the equation
F
m v
r
c
=
( )( )
2
we can change the r value to .5r
and substitute it into the equation and solve to find the relative
force.
F
m v
r
c
=
( )( )
.
2
5
. Clearly the force will be double when the
radius is halved and the velocity remains the same.
28. 28. 28. 28. 28. The cor The cor The cor The cor The corr rr rrect ans ect ans ect ans ect ans ect answ ww wwer is (C) er is (C) er is (C) er is (C) er is (C). The heat added to the system minus
the work done by the system yields the heat that is exhausted
between points CD.
29. 29. 29. 29. 29. The cor The cor The cor The cor The corr rr rrect ans ect ans ect ans ect ans ect answ ww wwer is (A) er is (A) er is (A) er is (A) er is (A). The definition of the frequency of a
wave system is the number of waves per unit time, which is the
same as saying the number of crests that pass a given point over
a given time.
30. 30. 30. 30. 30. The cor The cor The cor The cor The corr rr rrect ans ect ans ect ans ect ans ect answ ww wwer is (C) er is (C) er is (C) er is (C) er is (C). The centripetal acceleration is found
with the following equation:
v
r
2
= =
(2.5m/s)
.22m
28.4m/s .
2
2
31. 31. 31. 31. 31. The cor The cor The cor The cor The corr rr rrect ans ect ans ect ans ect ans ect answ ww wwer is (C) er is (C) er is (C) er is (C) er is (C). The specific heat capacity of a
substance is defined as the amount of heat required to raise l g of
the substance by 1°C. If substance A has a specific heat capacity
that is twice the specific heat capacity of substance B, that means
twice as much heat is required to raise the temperature of
substance A as is required for substance B. The converse is also
true—the heat required to raise the temperature of substance A
by 1°C will raise the temperature of substance B by 2°C.
32. 32. 32. 32. 32. The correct answer is (A) The correct answer is (A) The correct answer is (A) The correct answer is (A) The correct answer is (A). Centripetal force is also called the
center-seeking force. Both the tire and the golf ball roll about
their centers of mass, which are located in the center of the
objects. The centripetal force for the two cannot be equal
because the radii of the two objects are different, yet they roll
with the same tangential velocity.
33. 33. 33. 33. 33. The cor The cor The cor The cor The corr rr rrect ans ect ans ect ans ect ans ect answ ww wwer is (D) er is (D) er is (D) er is (D) er is (D). The block slides down the incline at
a constant rate. This tells us that the frictional force (F
f
) is equal
to the force down the plane (F
11
). When the block is pulled up
the plane at a constant rate, the force down the plane and the
frictional force add together. The tension in the rope therefore
equals the two of them. The inclined plane is at an angle of 30°,
and the sine of 30°

is .5, which when multiplied times the weight
is equal to one half the weight of the block. The frictional force
ANSWERS AND EXPLANATIONS
Peterson’s SAT II Success: Physics 332
is also equal to half the weight of the block (F
f
= F
11
), so the
tension in the rope is equal to the sum of the two forces, which
is equal to the weight of the block.
34. 34. 34. 34. 34. The cor The cor The cor The cor The corr rr rrect ans ect ans ect ans ect ans ect answ ww wwer is (C) er is (C) er is (C) er is (C) er is (C). The closer a satellite orbits the
earth, the faster its period of rotation. The farther a satellite
orbits from the earth, the longer its period of rotation.
35. 35. 35. 35. 35. The cor The cor The cor The cor The corr rr rrect ans ect ans ect ans ect ans ect answ ww wwer is (E). er is (E). er is (E). er is (E). er is (E). Look at the graph of velocity. It is a
straight line. The velocity increases by the same amount each
second, additional proof that V = at.
Time Acceleration Velocity Increase
1 sec 9.8 m/s 9.8 m/s +9.8m/
2
ss
2 sec 9.8 m/s 19.6 m/s +9.8m/s
3 sec 9.8 m/s 29.4 m/s +9.8m/s
2
2
44 sec 9.8 m/s 39.2 m/s +9.8m/s
2
36. 36. 36. 36. 36. The cor The cor The cor The cor The corr rr rrect ans ect ans ect ans ect ans ect answ ww wwer is (C) er is (C) er is (C) er is (C) er is (C). The frictional force between two
surfaces will increase when the normal force increases, but the
coefficient of friction between two surfaces is constant.
37. 37. 37. 37. 37. The cor The cor The cor The cor The corr rr rrect ans ect ans ect ans ect ans ect answ ww wwer is (E) er is (E) er is (E) er is (E) er is (E). All of the methods listed cause the
wire to move through the magnetic field or lines of force, which
induces a voltage into the wire.
.
38. 38. 38. 38. 38. The correct answer is (C) The correct answer is (C) The correct answer is (C) The correct answer is (C) The correct answer is (C). Scientists look at the light from a
star by passing the light through a spectometer, which separates
the starlight into the individual line spectra of the elements that
are burning in the star.
39. 39. 39. 39. 39. The correct answer is (C) The correct answer is (C) The correct answer is (C) The correct answer is (C) The correct answer is (C). Gases provide electron sources that
can be excited by the photons of light that strike them.
40. 40. 40. 40. 40. The cor The cor The cor The cor The corr rr rrect ans ect ans ect ans ect ans ect answ ww wwer is (E) er is (E) er is (E) er is (E) er is (E). The electric field between a pair of
parallel plates is uniform in nature. Therefore any charged
particle within the field experiences the same force no matter
where it is located in the field.
41. 41. 41. 41. 41. The cor The cor The cor The cor The corr rr rrect ans ect ans ect ans ect ans ect answ ww wwer is (B) er is (B) er is (B) er is (B) er is (B). When a light ray enters an optically
denser material, it bends toward the normal because the light
slows down in the material.
42. 42. 42. 42. 42. The cor The cor The cor The cor The corr rr rrect ans ect ans ect ans ect ans ect answ ww wwer is (B) er is (B) er is (B) er is (B) er is (B). All the elements on the periodic
table were combined in the fusion furnace of some past star. In
PRACTICE TEST 3
Peterson’s: www.petersons.com 333
fact all substances in existence were formed from elements
which were formed in stars.
43. 43. 43. 43. 43. The cor The cor The cor The cor The corr rr rrect ans ect ans ect ans ect ans ect answ ww wwer is (B) er is (B) er is (B) er is (B) er is (B). The toy rocket achieves zero veloc-
ity at the exact top of its flight when it is not moving upward
nor is it moving downward. It is constantly accelerated toward
the earth while it is in free fall.
44. 44. 44. 44. 44. The cor The cor The cor The cor The corr rr rrect ans ect ans ect ans ect ans ect answ ww wwer is (A) er is (A) er is (A) er is (A) er is (A). The force pairs discussed in the
third law are equal in magnitude, oppositely directed, and
operate on differing bodies.
45. 45. 45. 45. 45. The cor The cor The cor The cor The corr rr rrect ans ect ans ect ans ect ans ect answ ww wwer is (B) er is (B) er is (B) er is (B) er is (B). As the gas undergoes air adiabatic
compression, its temperature increases.
46. 46. 46. 46. 46. The cor The cor The cor The cor The corr rr rrect ans ect ans ect ans ect ans ect answ ww wwer is (A) er is (A) er is (A) er is (A) er is (A). The tension in the rope increases as
the angle decreases because the sum of the four forces leads to
the following:
∑ = = F T 2
Wt
sinθ
. Note that as the angle becomes
smaller, its sine also becomes smaller. This causes the tension in
the line to increase drastically.
47. 47. 47. 47. 47. The cor The cor The cor The cor The corr rr rrect ans ect ans ect ans ect ans ect answ ww wwer is (B) er is (B) er is (B) er is (B) er is (B). According to Ohm’s Law, the current
is equal to
I
V
r
. Solving for the current, we have
12
20
V

= .6 ampere.
48. 48. 48. 48. 48. The cor The cor The cor The cor The corr rr rrect ans ect ans ect ans ect ans ect answ ww wwer is (E) er is (E) er is (E) er is (E) er is (E). A chain reaction (industrial fission is
a chain reaction) continues because of the neutrons that are
emitted in the fissioning of each U-235 atom.
49. 49. 49. 49. 49. The cor The cor The cor The cor The corr rr rrect ans ect ans ect ans ect ans ect answ ww wwer is (E) er is (E) er is (E) er is (E) er is (E). The largest force a magnetic field
exerts on a moving charged particle occurs when the particle
crosses the most lines of force. This occurs when the particle
enters a magnetic field at right angles to the field.
50. 50. 50. 50. 50. The cor The cor The cor The cor The corr rr rrect ans ect ans ect ans ect ans ect answ ww wwer is (E) er is (E) er is (E) er is (E) er is (E). The process of reflection occurs
when the direction of a wave is changed because the wave
strikes a barrier (which in this occasion is a mirror).
51. 51. 51. 51. 51. The cor The cor The cor The cor The corr rr rrect ans ect ans ect ans ect ans ect answ ww wwer is (C) er is (C) er is (C) er is (C) er is (C). The proton carries a positive charge,
and it will be repelled by the positive plate and attracted to the
negative plate.
ANSWERS AND EXPLANATIONS
Peterson’s SAT II Success: Physics 334
52. 52. 52. 52. 52. The cor The cor The cor The cor The corr rr rrect ans ect ans ect ans ect ans ect answ ww wwer is (D) er is (D) er is (D) er is (D) er is (D). An ideal gas follows Boyle’s law. If
the pressure increases by a factor of four, the volume decreases
by a factor of four. Whatever the change in one, the other is
indirectly related by the same factor.
53. 53. 53. 53. 53. The cor The cor The cor The cor The corr rr rrect ans ect ans ect ans ect ans ect answ ww wwer is (E) er is (E) er is (E) er is (E) er is (E). The electron carries a negative
charge of 1.6 × 10
–19
C, which is a tiny amount of energy. The
electron volt is the energy required to move 1 electron through
an electric potential of 1 volt.
54. 54. 54. 54. 54. The cor The cor The cor The cor The corr rr rrect ans ect ans ect ans ect ans ect answ ww wwer is (D) er is (D) er is (D) er is (D) er is (D). The potential energy transforms
into kinetic energy, or the pile driver falls. At the end of the fall,
all the kinetic energy the pile driver has is converted into fric-
tional work to drive the post into the ground.
55. 55. 55. 55. 55. The cor The cor The cor The cor The corr rr rrect ans ect ans ect ans ect ans ect answ ww wwer is (A) er is (A) er is (A) er is (A) er is (A). The longest leg the dog walked is
the eastward vector. The fact that some of the length of the
vector was later cancelled when the dog walked in the opposite
direction does not change the length of the individual vector.
56. 56. 56. 56. 56. The cor The cor The cor The cor The corr rr rrect ans ect ans ect ans ect ans ect answ ww wwer is (E) er is (E) er is (E) er is (E) er is (E). After the zeroth fringe, each bright
spot represents a position of convergence for the two light
beams. The bright spots represent the number of whole wave-
lengths difference in the path length taken by one of the light
beams compared to the other light beam.
57. 57. 57. 57. 57. The cor The cor The cor The cor The corr rr rrect ans ect ans ect ans ect ans ect answ ww wwer is (C) er is (C) er is (C) er is (C) er is (C). The car rolls down a 20 m long
incline that is raised at 15° from the horizontal. Using trigonom-
etry (sin 15°)(20 m) we find the car “falls” 5.125 m. Using the PE
= KE relationship, we have
mgh mv
1
2
2
.
The masses factor out,
leaving
gh v
1
2
2
,
leading to v gh 2 . The answer is 10 m/s.
58. 58. 58. 58. 58. The correct answer is (C) The correct answer is (C) The correct answer is (C) The correct answer is (C) The correct answer is (C). Sound waves are compressional
waves; thus they need a medium through which they can move.
A vacuum does not provide a way for the compressions to move
along.
59. 59. 59. 59. 59. The cor The cor The cor The cor The corr rr rrect ans ect ans ect ans ect ans ect answ ww wwer is (D) er is (D) er is (D) er is (D) er is (D). While the light ray is moving
through an optically denser material, its velocity decreases.
60. 60. 60. 60. 60. The cor The cor The cor The cor The corr rr rrect ans ect ans ect ans ect ans ect answ ww wwer is (C) er is (C) er is (C) er is (C) er is (C). The light ray is refracted toward the
normal passes through the glass and is incident on the mirrored
surface. The angle of incidence equals the angle of reflection,
and the light ray reflects toward the same surface it entered. At
PRACTICE TEST 3
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the surface the light ray refracts away from the normal, produc-
ing a larger angle than the approach (incident) angle. The angle
at which the ray leaves the glass block is the same angle at
which it originally approached the glass block.
61. 61. 61. 61. 61. The correct answer is (E) The correct answer is (E) The correct answer is (E) The correct answer is (E) The correct answer is (E). Both light and radio waves are
electromagnetic radiation. The difference between the two is
their frequency.
62. 62. 62. 62. 62. The cor The cor The cor The cor The corr rr rrect ans ect ans ect ans ect ans ect answ ww wwer is (A) er is (A) er is (A) er is (A) er is (A). The force the two electrons exert on
each other decreases when the distance between the two par-
ticles increases. A variation of a parabolic curve that is shown is
graph A.
63. 63. 63. 63. 63. The cor The cor The cor The cor The corr rr rrect ans ect ans ect ans ect ans ect answ ww wwer is (A) er is (A) er is (A) er is (A) er is (A). This is an example of an elastic
collision. The momentum of the cue ball transfers to the red ball.
64. 64. 64. 64. 64. The correct answer is (B) The correct answer is (B) The correct answer is (B) The correct answer is (B) The correct answer is (B). Convex mirrors only produce
virtual images. That is because the light rays are diverged when
they are incident to the surface of the mirror
65. 65. 65. 65. 65. The cor The cor The cor The cor The corr rr rrect ans ect ans ect ans ect ans ect answ ww wwer is (B) er is (B) er is (B) er is (B) er is (B). The resistance is calculated by using
the power equation,
R
V
P
2
. The solutions are:
18
4 5
72
18
6 75
48
2 2
V V
. . Watts
and
Watts
= Ω Ω
.
66. 66. 66. 66. 66. The cor The cor The cor The cor The corr rr rrect ans ect ans ect ans ect ans ect answ ww wwer is (B) er is (B) er is (B) er is (B) er is (B). The Doppler Shift is useful for all
kinds of waves, including light. When a star or any object that is
producing waves approaches, the individual wave fronts are
contacted at a higher rate. In the case of stars, the higher rate at
which the wave fronts are contacted causes the starlight to move
toward the blue range.
67. 67. 67. 67. 67. The cor The cor The cor The cor The corr rr rrect ans ect ans ect ans ect ans ect answ ww wwer is (C) er is (C) er is (C) er is (C) er is (C). The volt is defined as the force
required to move a unit charge through a distance, or the work
done per unit charge.
68. 68. 68. 68. 68. The cor The cor The cor The cor The corr rr rrect ans ect ans ect ans ect ans ect answ ww wwer is (B) er is (B) er is (B) er is (B) er is (B). The angular acceleration is found by
dividing the change in angular velocity by the change in time:
8000
rad
s
25s
rad
s
2
320
.
ANSWERS AND EXPLANATIONS
Peterson’s SAT II Success: Physics 336
69. 69. 69. 69. 69. The cor The cor The cor The cor The corr rr rrect ans ect ans ect ans ect ans ect answ ww wwer is (C) er is (C) er is (C) er is (C) er is (C). The problem may be solved in
several ways. Perhaps the best solution is a little thought. The
potential energy and the kinetic energy are equal to one another
when the object has fallen half the distance to the ground, or 10
m. All we have to do now is treat the problem as a free fall
problem by restating the situation a little. The velocity of an
object that starts from rest and free falls 10 m? The solution is
found by v gs
f
= 2 .
70. 70. 70. 70. 70. The cor The cor The cor The cor The corr rr rrect ans ect ans ect ans ect ans ect answ ww wwer is (C) er is (C) er is (C) er is (C) er is (C). When the variable resistor is moved
toward the right, more of the resistance value of the variable
resistor is bypassed which means there is less resistance in the
circuit. A decrease in the resistance of a circuit allows more
current to flow (Ohm’s Law). Since there is more current flow-
ing in the circuit the fan has more current flowing through it
too, and the fan runs faster.
71. 71. 71. 71. 71. The cor The cor The cor The cor The corr rr rrect ans ect ans ect ans ect ans ect answ ww wwer is (E) er is (E) er is (E) er is (E) er is (E). The pulse shown strikes a fixed
barrier. The wave is reflected and inverted.
72. 72. 72. 72. 72. The cor The cor The cor The cor The corr rr rrect ans ect ans ect ans ect ans ect answ ww wwer is (C) er is (C) er is (C) er is (C) er is (C). All forces occur in pairs, are equal in
magnitude and oppositely directed. The pairs of forces are the
ball on the window, and the window on the ball, which are equal
and opposite.
73. 73. 73. 73. 73. The cor The cor The cor The cor The corr rr rrect ans ect ans ect ans ect ans ect answ ww wwer is (C) er is (C) er is (C) er is (C) er is (C). When the voltage is disconnected
there is a small lag time between the disconnection of the
current and the ceasing of the flow because the magnetic field,
which is induced into the wires, collapses. This produces a
current flow that causes the spark.
74. 74. 74. 74. 74. The cor The cor The cor The cor The corr rr rrect ans ect ans ect ans ect ans ect answ ww wwer is (D) er is (D) er is (D) er is (D) er is (D). An electric current is passed
through an electromagnet or rotor, which causes it to spin
within an applied magnetic field. The spinning rotor is the
source of mechanical energy that is derived from electrical
energy.
75. 75. 75. 75. 75. The cor The cor The cor The cor The corr rr rrect ans ect ans ect ans ect ans ect answ ww wwer is (C) er is (C) er is (C) er is (C) er is (C). The two wires have a magnetic field
around them that is caused by the current in the wires. The two
fields are in opposition, which weakens them on the sides closest
to one another. This allows the unweakened field on the other
(outside) of the wires to push the two wires together.
PRACTICE TEST 3
Practice Test 4
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PRACTICE TEST 4
PHYSICS PHYSICS PHYSICS PHYSICS PHYSICS TEST TEST TEST TEST TEST
While you have taken many standardized tests and know to blacken completely the ovals on the
answer sheets and to erase completely any errors, the instructions for the SAT II Physics Test differ in
an important way from the directions for other standardized tests. You need to indicate on the answer
key which test you are taking. The instructions on the answer sheet will tell you to fill out the top
portion of the answer sheet exactly as shown.
1. Print PHYSICS on the line under the words Subject Test (print).
2. In the shaded box labeled Test Code fill in four ovals:
—Fill in oval 1 in the row labeled V.
—Fill in oval 6 in the row labeled W.
—Fill in oval 3 in the row labeled X.
—Fill in oval C in the row labeled Y.
—Leave the ovals in row Q blank.
V
W
X
Q
Test Code
Subject Test (print)
Physics
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
1 2 3 4 5 A B C D E
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
Y
There are two additional questions that you will be asked to answer. One is “How many semesters of
physics have you taken in high school?” The other question lists courses and asks you to mark those
that you have taken. You will be told which ovals to fill in for each question. The College Board is
collecting statistical information. If you choose to answer, you will use the key that is provided and
blacken the appropriate ovals in row Q. You may also choose not to answer, and that will not affect
your grade.
When everyone has completed filling in this portion of the answer sheet, the supervisor will tell you
to turn the page and begin. The answer sheet has 100 numbered ovals, but there are only approxi-
mately 75 multiple-choice questions on the test, so be sure to use only ovals 1 to 75 (or however many
questions there are) to record your answers.
Peterson’s SAT II Success: Physics 340
PHYSICS PHYSICS PHYSICS PHYSICS PHYSICS TEST TEST TEST TEST TEST
P PP PPar ar ar ar art t t t t A AA AA
Directions: Each of the sets of lettered choices below refers to the questions and/or statements
that follow. Select the lettered choice that is the best answer to each question and fill in the
corresponding oval on the answer sheet. In each set, each choice may be used once, more than
once, or not at all.
Questions 1–3 relate to the diagram shown
below.
1. Which line shows the path of alpha radia-
tion in a magnetic field?
2. Which line shows the path of beta radiation
in a magnetic field?
3. Which line shows the path of gamma
radiation in a magnetic field?
Questions 4–6 relate to the information shown
below.
An object free falls 15m from the top of a ladder.
Select the graph that best describes the
following quantities during the fall.
4. The potential energy of the object
5. The kinetic energy of the object
6. The momentum of the object
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Questions 7–9 relate to particles placed in the
electric field shown below.
A particle is placed into the electric field (E),
which has a magnetic field superimposed on it
as shown. Where in the electric field will the
three particles named below be located after a
short period of time if they start at Point E?
7. The particle is a proton.
8. The particle is a neutron.
9. The particle is an electron.
Questions 10–13 relate to the electron energy
level diagram below. The questions are about a
hydrogen electron located at E
3
.
− =

.
.
38 6
54
eV n
ev n
eV n
eV
=
− =

5
85 4
1 52
.
. n
eV n
eV
=
− =

3
3 39 2
13 6
.
. n =1
(A) +66eV
(B) +.98eV
(C) –1.87eV
(D) –10.2eV
(E) +12.08eV
10. What is the emission energy when it moves
to E
2
?
11. What is the absorbed energy when it moves
to E
5
?
12. What is the emission energy when it moves
to E
1
?
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Questions 13–15 relate to the electric circuit
below.
13. Through which point does half the total
current pass?
14. At which point is all the voltage in the
circuit dropped to zero?
15. At which point is the voltage halved?
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P PP PPar ar ar ar art B t B t B t B t B
16. An electron is allowed to freely move between a
pair of parallel plates that have a 1.5 volt
potential difference. The electron starts at the
negative plate. The velocity of the electron as it
strikes the positive plate is most nearly
(A) 7.3 × 10
–8
m/s
(B) 7.3 × 10
–5
m/s
(C) 7.3 × 10
5
m/s
(D) 7.3 × 10
8
m/s
(E) 7.3 × 10
11
m/s
17. The half-life of a radioisotope is one week.
How much of the substance is left after a
28-day period?
(A)
1
2
(B)
1
4
(C)
1
8
(D)
1
16
(E)
1
32
18. All of the following are examples of elec-
tromagnetic waves EXCEPT
(A) X-rays.
(B) gamma rays.
(C) sound waves.
(D) radio waves.
(E) light waves.
19. A batter hits a long fly ball. Neglecting air
resistance, the baseball’s horizontal compo-
nent of speed is constant because it
(A) is not acted upon by any forces.
(B) is not acted upon by gravitational
sources.
(C) is not acted upon by any vertical
forces.
(D) is not acted upon by any horizontal
forces.
(E) the net forces acting on the baseball
are zero.
20. Two spheres are placed into free fall from
rest. Sphere B has a mass three times
larger than sphere A. Which statement(s)
correctly explains the situation?
I. Sphere B falls faster.
II. Sphere B has more momentum
when the two reach the ground.
III. Both spheres reach the ground with
the same kinetic energy.
(A) I only
(B) II only
(C) I and III only
(D) II and II only
(E) I, II, and III
PRACTICE TEST 4
Directions: Each question or statement below is followed by five possible answers. In each case,
select the best possible answer and fill in the corresponding oval on the answer sheet.
Peterson’s SAT II Success: Physics 344
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21. When Johannes Kepler developed his laws
for the movement of planetary bodies, one
of the laws stated that the orbits of the
planets about the sun are
(A) circular.
(B) elliptical.
(C) parabolic.
(D) sinusoidal.
(E) straight lines.
22. The purpose of a transformer is to do
which of the following?
(A) Change voltage
(B) Reduce resistance
(C) Decrease heat transfer
(D) Increase magnetic fields
(E) Reverse current flow
23. Astronomers can tell whether a star is
approaching or receding from the earth by
the
(A) absorption spectra of the star.
(B) Doppler shift of the starlight.
(C) temperature of the star.
(D) brightness of the starlight.
(E) thermal signature of the star.
24. A batter hits a long fly ball. Neglecting
friction, which of the following statements
is/are true?
I. The time the ball is in free fall
determines the horizontal distance
it travels.
II. The ball reaches its maximum
velocity at the highest point of its
flight.
III. The upward velocity can never be
greater than the horizontal velocity.
(A) I only
(B) II only
(C) I and III only
(D) II and III only
(E) I, II, and III
25. Electromagnetic induction occurs in a wire
when a change occurs in the
(A) current in the wire.
(B) intensity of the electric field of the
wire.
(C) voltage applied to the wire.
(D) magnetic field intensity applied to the
wire.
(E) resistance is added to the wire.
26. Whether a substance is a solid, liquid or gas
is determined by
(A) conductivity.
(B) number of protons.
(C) temperature.
(D) number of neutrons.
(E) resistively.
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27. A pile of 11 books weighing 2 N each is
sitting on a table. With what total force
does the table push back on the books?
(A) 2N
(B) 11N
(C) 22N
(D) 33N
(E) 44N
28. Which of the following statements best
describes the relationship between two
objects that are in thermal equilibrium?
(A) Their masses are equal.
(B) Their volumes are equal.
(C) Their density is equal.
(D) Their heat content is equal.
(E) Their temperatures are equal.
29. Two vectors X and Y are added together.
Which of the following statements could be
true?
I. The resultant magnitude is smaller
than X.
II. The resultant magnitude is larger
than Y.
III. The resultant direction is the same
as either X or Y.
(A) I only
(B) II only
(C) I and III only
(D) II and III only
(E) I, II, and III
30. Five blocks having equal mass but made of
different substances, as shown above, are
heated to 100°C and placed on separate 10
kg blocks of ice that are at a temperature
of 0°C. Which substance melts the greatest
amount of ice?
(A) The substance with the lowest specific
heat.
(B) The substance with the highest spe-
cific heat.
(C) The substance with the greatest
surface area.
(D) The substance with the smallest
surface area.
(E) The substance that started with the
highest temperature.
PRACTICE TEST 4
Peterson’s SAT II Success: Physics 346
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31. When can the instantaneous velocity of an
object be equal to the average velocity of
an object?
(A) It can never equal the average velocity.
(B) It can only equal the average velocity
during acceleration.
(C) It can only equal the average velocity
when the velocity is constant.
(D) It is always equal at the end of a
displacement.
(E) They are equal at the end of a dis-
placement
32. How does one use the right hand rule to
determine the direction of the force ap-
plied to a current carrying wire?
(A) Point the fingers of the right hand in
the same direction as the magnetic
lines of force.
(B) Point the thumb at right angles to the
lines of force.
(C) Point the fingers of the right hand
along the wire in the direction of the
current.
(D) Point the thumb in the direction of the
magnetic lines of force.
(E) Point the fingers of the right hand
against the direction of the magnetic
lines of force.
33. When blue light is shined onto a certain
metal, no electrons are ejected. Which of
the following lights might eject electrons
from the metal?
(A) Red
(B) Yellow
(C) Green
(D) Infrared
(E) Ultraviolet
34. An astronaut visits the planet Mars, which
has less of a gravitational acceleration than
the earth. While on Mars, the astronaut will
notice that his
(A) weight is less and his mass is greater.
(B) weight is the same and his mass is the
same.
(C) weight is less and his mass is the
same.
(D) weight is the same and his mass is
less.
(E) weight is less and his mass is less.
35. A negative ion is an object that has
(A) more electrons than neutrons.
(B) more electrons than protons.
(C) more protons that neutrons.
(D) more protons than electrons.
(E) more neutrons than electrons or
protons.
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36. When it is known that a net force is operat-
ing on an object, it is known that the object
is
(A) moving with constant velocity.
(B) losing mass.
(C) at rest.
(D) being accelerated.
(E) gaining weight.
37. Which wave characteristic describes the
product of the frequency and the wave-
length?
(A) Frequency
(B) Amplitude
(C) Wavelength
(D) Velocity
(E) Period
38. Einstein’s theory of relativity states that all
the laws of nature are the same in
(A) accelerating reference frames.
(B) constant velocity reference frames.
(C) oscillating reference frames.
(D) vibrating reference frames.
(E) circling reference frames.
39. A 24 V battery supplies a total current of
.75 amperes to a circuit. How much power
does the battery supply to the circuit?
(A) .04 watts
(B) 13.5 watts
(C) 18 watts
(D) 32 watts
(E) 32 watts
40. Two children are riding a merry-go-round.
Child (P) rides on a pony on the outside rim
of the merry-go-round, while Child (L) rides
a lion on the inside rim of the merry-go-
round. At the end of the ride, which of the
following statements is true?
(A) Child (P) had the largest angular
displacement.
(B) Child (L) had the largest tangential
displacement.
(C) Child (P) had the largest tangential
velocity.
(D) Child (L) had the largest angular
velocity.
(E) Child (L) had the largest linear accel-
eration.
PRACTICE TEST 4
Peterson’s SAT II Success: Physics 348
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41. Two high school students attempt to push
a car uphill. The car rolls downhill against
them for a distance of 10 m before they can
bring it to a stop. If both students pushed
on the car with a force of 1000N while it
rolled downhill, how much work did they
do?
(A) 0
(B) 1000 J
(C) –1000 J
(D) 10,000 J
(E) –10,000 J
42. During a collision between two objects, the
kinetic energy is conserved. Which state-
ment best describes the momentum after
the collision?
(A) The momentum equals the kinetic
energy.
(B) The momentum may be conserved.
(C) The momentum must be conserved.
(D) The momentum decreases by half.
(E) The momentum increases to double
the original value.
43. The hanging spring shown above has a
mass attached to it. The spring is set in
motion by displacing the mass downward
and releasing it. At which point is the
kinetic energy of the mass the greatest
value? (Point A is the maximum compres-
sion of the spring, and Point E is the maxi-
mum expansion of the spring.)
(A) Point A
(B) Point B
(C) Point C
(D) Point D
(E) Point E
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44. A gamma ray is emitted from the nucleus of
an unstable atom. What is the result?
(A) The number of electrons decreases.
(B) The number of electrons increases.
(C) The mass of the nucleus increases.
(D) The mass of the nucleus decreases.
(E) The mass of the nucleus remains the
same.
45. Which of the following statements is true
about an ideal gas contained at a fixed
volume when its temperature is raised?
(A) The density of the gas decreases.
(B) The average velocity of the gas par-
ticles increases.
(C) The density of the gas increases.
(D) The pressure remains constant.
(E) The pressure decreases.
46. Two objects have the same mass and are
located near each other at a distance (r). If
the mass of one of the objects is doubled
and the mass of the other object is tripled,
what would be the change in gravitational
attraction between them?
(A) Decrease by 1/6
(B) Decrease by 2/3
(C) Increase by 3/2
(D) Increase by 5
(E) Increase by 6
47. The critical angle for a beam of light
passing from a diamond into the air is
24.4°. This means that any light rays that
strike the surface interface between the
diamond and the air with an angle less than
24.4° are
(A) completely reflected.
(B) partially reflected and partially re-
fracted.
(C) completely absorbed.
(D) partially absorbed and partially
transmitted.
(E) completely transmitted.
48. A pendulum has a 1 second period of
vibration. At what period in time would the
string have to break for the pendulum bob
to fly away the maximum possible distance
from, but not below, the rest position of the
pendulum bob? (The zero point for the
pendulum at t = 0 is at the maximum
displacement)
(A) t = .125 sec
(B) t = .25 sec
(C) t = .375 sec
(D) t = .5 sec
(E) t = .625 sec
PRACTICE TEST 4
Peterson’s SAT II Success: Physics 350
PHYSICS PHYSICS PHYSICS PHYSICS PHYSICS TEST— TEST— TEST— TEST— TEST—Contin Contin Contin Contin Continued ued ued ued ued
49. A 400N box is suspended motionless from
a steel frame by two ropes, A and B, which
hang straight up and down. Which of the
following statements about the tension in
the two ropes is correct?
(A) The tension in rope A is larger than in
rope B.
(B) The tension in rope B is larger than in
rope A.
(C) The tension in the two ropes is greater
than 400N.
(D) The tension in the two ropes is less
than 400N.
(E) The tension in the two ropes is equal
to 400N.
50. When a skydiver jumps from an airplane,
he eventually reaches terminal velocity. At
that time the force of the air resistance is
(A) equal to his mass.
(B) equal to twice his mass.
(C) equal to his weight.
(D) equal to twice his weight.
(E) equal to 1/2 his weight.
51. During an electrostatics experiment a
student touches an electroscope with a
negatively charged rod, and the leaves of
the electroscope separate. What will be the
result when a second positively charged
rod is brought near, but does not touch, the
electroscope?
(A) The leaves will begin to flutter.
(B) The leaves will separate further.
(C) The leaves will move closer together.
(D) The leaves will be unaffected.
(E) None of the above will happen.
52. An object is placed inside the focal point of
a concave mirror. Which of the following
describes the image?
(A) Virtual, erect, and reduced
(B) Virtual, erect, and magnified
(C) Virtual, inverted, and reduced
(D) Real, erect, and reduced
(E) Real, inverted, and magnified
53. Two separate 10L containers each contain a
different gas. One gas is at a temperature of
400K; the other gas is at a temperature of
200K. When both gases are added to the
same 10L container, which statement is
correct?
I. The hotter gas loses heat to the
cooler gas.
II. The hotter gas increases in
temperature when the two are
squeezed together.
III. The cooler gas decreases in
temperature when placed into the
second container.
(A) I only
(B) II only
(C) I and III only
(D) II and III only
(E) I, II, and III
PHYSICS TEST
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PHYSICS PHYSICS PHYSICS PHYSICS PHYSICS TEST— TEST— TEST— TEST— TEST—Contin Contin Contin Contin Continued ued ued ued ued
54. Select the graph shown above that most
correctly represents the relationship
between the energy of the photon and its
wavelength.
(A) Graph A
(B) Graph B
(C) Graph C
(D) Graph D
(E) Graph E
55. Water drips from a leaky rainspout that is
located at the top of a high building. The
droplets of water fall at an interval of 1/2
second. As time passes, the distance be-
tween two consecutive drops of water
(A) decreases in a linear manner.
(B) increases in a linear manner.
(C) remains the same.
(D) decreases in a parabolic manner.
(E) increases in a parabolic manner.
56. A pendulum swings at a rate of .75 vibra-
tion/sec. Which of the following changes
could be made to the pendulum to cause
the period of the pendulum to increase?
(A) Mass of the bob was increased
(B) Length of the pendulum was increased
(C) Mass of the bob was decreased
(D) Length of the pendulum was de-
creased
(E) The material from which the pendu-
lum bob was made
57. A constant voltage power source is in a
circuit where the resistance is increased by
four. The voltage in the circuit
(A) increases by two.
(B) increases by four.
(C) decreases by two.
(D) decreases by four.
(E) remains the same.
PRACTICE TEST 4
Peterson’s SAT II Success: Physics 352
PHYSICS PHYSICS PHYSICS PHYSICS PHYSICS TEST— TEST— TEST— TEST— TEST—Contin Contin Contin Contin Continued ued ued ued ued
58. Materials called dielectrics are placed
between the plates of capacitors to
(A) speed the current flow.
(B) slow the current flow.
(C) reduce change leakage from the
capacitor.
(D) increase capacitance of the capacitor.
(E) decrease capacitance of the capacitor.
59. Water waves strike a solid barrier in which
there is a single small opening. Waves that
pass through the opening
(A) converge.
(B) fan out.
(C) invert.
(D) interfere.
(E) polarize.
60. A mass is suspended by a rubber band. The
rubber band is stretched by the weight of
the mass, but it is not moving. The action
force that causes the rubber band to stretch
comes from the earth. What is the reaction
force of the force pair?
(A) The rubber band pulling on the mass
(B) The rubber band pulling on the earth
(C) The mass pulling on the rubber band
(D) The mass pulling on the earth
(E) The earth pulling on the rubber band
61. What is the one factor that distinguishes
each element from every other element?
(A) The number of protons in the nucleus
(B) The number of neutrons in the nucleus
(C) The number of electrons about the
nucleus
(D) The total mass of the nucleus (protons
plus neutrons)
(E) Its position on the periodic table
62. When a switch is closed to operate a DC
circuit, the electrons that cause the current
(A) travel from the negative plate of the
battery to the positive plate.
(B) travel from the positive plate of the
battery to the negative plate.
(C) travel from one resistance to the next
resistance.
(D) travel from the negative plate of the
battery to the positive plate inside the
battery.
(E) travel from one atom in the circuit to
the next atom.
63. A car skids a distance of 54 m on a dry
road. What was the velocity of the car when
the skid began if the coefficient of friction
between the tires and the road is .46?
(A) 16 m/s
(B) 22 m/s
(C) 28 m/s
(D) 34 m/s
(E) Velocity cannot be determined with
the information given.
PHYSICS TEST
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64. A force of 53N is applied to a 176.4N
object that is at rest. A frictional force of
8N must be overcome to move the object.
What is the acceleration of the object?
(A) .3 m/s
2
(B) 2.5 m/s
2
(C) 2.9 m/s
2
(D) 4.24 m/s
2
(E) 6.625 m/s
2
65. Two objects A and B are placed into free
fall 14.7 m above the ground at exactly the
same time. Object A reaches the ground in
exactly 1 second, and object B reaches the
ground in exactly 3 seconds. Which of the
following is/are true?
I. Object B was thrown horizontally.
II. Both objects were thrown.
III. Neither object was thrown.
(A) I only
(B) II only
(C) I and III only
(D) II and III only
(E) I, II, and III
PRACTICE TEST 4
66. A 50 gram bead slides on a frictionless wire
as shown above. At what point on the wire
will the bead come to a complete stop?
(A) Point A
(B) Point B
(C) Point C
(D) Point D
(E) Point E
67. A container holds 1 mole of an ideal gas. If
the temperature of the gas is held constant
and the volume of the gas is halved, the
pressure of the gas will double. This hap-
pens because
(A) the gas particles have gained energy.
(B) the gas particles collide with one
another more often.
(C) the gas particles move more slowly.
(D) the gas particles collide with the
container walls less often.
(E) the gas particles collide with the
container walls more often.
Peterson’s SAT II Success: Physics 354
PHYSICS PHYSICS PHYSICS PHYSICS PHYSICS TEST— TEST— TEST— TEST— TEST—Contin Contin Contin Contin Continued ued ued ued ued
68. A step-down transformer has a coil ratio of
1.5 to 17. The voltage applied at the
primary side of the transformer is 136 V.
What is the output voltage of the trans-
former?
(A) 1.2 V
(B) 1.5 V
(C) 5.25 V
(D) 12 V
(E) 18.75 V
69. A car is driving along a level road at a
constant 60 km/hr. The force acting on the
car from the tires of the car is
(A) equal to the power of the engine.
(B) the normal force times the coefficient
of friction.
(C) larger than the normal force times the
coefficient of friction.
(D) less than the normal force times the
coefficient of friction.
(E) zero.
70. The mass of the atom is
(A) equally dispersed throughout the
entire atom cloud.
(B) equally divided between all its parts:
the electrons, neutrons, and protons.
(C) concentrated in the orbital cloud.
(D) concentrated in the nucleus.
(E) determined by spectroscopic analysis.
71. The reason an observer cannot detect the
wave nature of a fast moving truck is
(A) the momentum of the truck is too
large.
(B) the velocity of the wave is too large.
(C) there are no waves to be detected.
(D) the frequency is too low.
(E) the wavelengths are too small.
72. A large object is placed at exactly 55% of
the distance to the moon from the earth.
Eventually the object will
(A) fall to the sun.
(B) fall to the moon.
(C) fall to the earth.
(D) remain in the same place.
(E) drift out of the solar system.
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PHYSICS PHYSICS PHYSICS PHYSICS PHYSICS TEST— TEST— TEST— TEST— TEST—Contin Contin Contin Contin Continued ued ued ued ued
73. The diagrammatic representation of the
cooling process above shows which of the
following?
I. Negative work
II. An isothermal process
III. Increasing energy
(A) I only
(B) II only
(C) I and III only
(D) II and III only
(E) I, II, and III
74. A heat engine receives 150 Joules of heat
energy and performs 70 Joules of work. If
heat cannot be removed from the heat
engine in any other way, by what value does
the internal energy of the system change?
(A) 0 J
(B) 40 J
(C) 80 J
(D) 120 J
(E) 150 J
75. What information is learned from looking
at the curve of an acceleration time graph?
(A) The position of the object
(B) The displacement of the object
(C) The velocity of the object
(D) The acceleration of the object
(E) None of the above
STOP STOP STOP STOP STOP
IF YOU FINISH BEFORE THE TEST SESSION ENDS, YOU MAY REVIEW YOUR WORK ON THIS TEST
ONLY. YOU MAY NOT TURN TO ANY OTHER TEST IN THIS BOOK.
Peterson’s: www.petersons.com 357
ANSWER SHEET
Leave any unused
answer spaces blank.
Test Code
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Peterson’s SAT II Success: Physics 358
Peterson’s: www.petersons.com 359
PRACTICE TEST 4
ANSWERS ANSWERS ANSWERS ANSWERS ANSWERS AND EXPLAN AND EXPLAN AND EXPLAN AND EXPLAN AND EXPLANA AA AATIONS TIONS TIONS TIONS TIONS
QUICK-SCORE ANSWERS QUICK-SCORE ANSWERS QUICK-SCORE ANSWERS QUICK-SCORE ANSWERS QUICK-SCORE ANSWERS
1. E
2. D
3. A
4. A
5. D
6. C
7. C
8. E
9. A
10. C
11. B
12. E
13. C
14. E
15. D
16. C
17. D
18. C
19. D
20. B
21. B
22. A
23. B
24. A
25. D
26. C
27. C
28. E
29. E
30. B
31. C
32. A
33. E
34. C
35. B
36. D
37. D
38. B
39. C
40. C
41. E
42. C
43. C
44. E
45. D
46. E
47. A
48. C
49. E
50. C
51. C
52. A
53. A
54. A
55. E
56. B
57. E
58. D
59. B
60. D
61. A
62. E
63. B
64. B
65. B
66. A
67. E
68. D
69. E
70. D
71. D
72. C
73. A
74. C
75. C
Peterson’s SAT II Success: Physics 360
ANSWERS AND EXPLANATIONS
ANSWERS TO PART A, QUESTIONS 1–14
1. 1. 1. 1. 1. The correct answer is (E) The correct answer is (E) The correct answer is (E) The correct answer is (E) The correct answer is (E). Use the right-hand rule to find the
direction of the force applied to the alpha particle. The field is
oriented out of the page, meaning you point your fingers at
yourself and your thumb in the direction of the motion of the
particle. Your palm points down toward the letter C, but remem-
ber the force exerted on the particle is constant. The pathway
will not straighten. The particle continues in a circular path until
it exits the magnetic field at E.
2. 2. 2. 2. 2. The cor The cor The cor The cor The corr rr rrect ans ect ans ect ans ect ans ect answ ww wwer is (D) er is (D) er is (D) er is (D) er is (D). Again, we use the right-hand rule as
we did in the previous question. Point your finger toward your-
self and your thumb in the direction of motion of the particle.
Now is the time you must remember the right-hand rule is used
for positive particles. Your palm points down but the electron is
negative. It moves in the opposite direction from the proton. This
means the electron curves toward Point B, but to reach Point B it
must travel in a partially straight pathway. The correct pathway
is one where the electron (particle B) curves continuously until it
leaves the magnetic field.
3. 3. 3. 3. 3. The cor The cor The cor The cor The corr rr rrect ans ect ans ect ans ect ans ect answ ww wwer is (A) er is (A) er is (A) er is (A) er is (A). The gamma ray is completely unaf-
fected by the magnetic field. It travels in a straight line through
the magnetic field.
4. 4. 4. 4. 4. The cor The cor The cor The cor The corr rr rrect ans ect ans ect ans ect ans ect answ ww wwer is (A) er is (A) er is (A) er is (A) er is (A). The gravitational potential energy of
an object located above the earth’s surface decreases as it nears
the earth’s surface
5. 5. 5. 5. 5. The cor The cor The cor The cor The corr rr rrect ans ect ans ect ans ect ans ect answ ww wwer is (D) er is (D) er is (D) er is (D) er is (D). The kinetic energy rises as the
square of the velocity, which is a parabolic curve.
6. 6. 6. 6. 6. The cor The cor The cor The cor The corr rr rrect ans ect ans ect ans ect ans ect answ ww wwer is (C) er is (C) er is (C) er is (C) er is (C). The momentum of an object is the
product of the mass of the object and its velocity. In this situa-
tion, the velocity is increasing in a linear manner, as shown in
Graph C.
7. 7. 7. 7. 7. The cor The cor The cor The cor The corr rr rrect ans ect ans ect ans ect ans ect answ ww wwer is (C) er is (C) er is (C) er is (C) er is (C). The proton moves toward the
negative plate of the electric field. When it enters the magnetic
field, it is deflected (right-hand rule) toward C.
PRACTICE TEST 4
Peterson’s: www.petersons.com 361
8. 8. 8. 8. 8. The cor The cor The cor The cor The corr rr rrect ans ect ans ect ans ect ans ect answ ww wwer is (E) er is (E) er is (E) er is (E) er is (E). A neutron is completely unaffected
by the electric field into which it is placed. Consequently, it will
not move.
9. 9. 9. 9. 9. The cor The cor The cor The cor The corr rr rrect ans ect ans ect ans ect ans ect answ ww wwer is (A) er is (A) er is (A) er is (A) er is (A). The electron moves toward the
positive plate in the electric field. It does not enter the magnetic
field, so the magnetic field has no affect on it.
10. 10. 10. 10. 10. The cor The cor The cor The cor The corr rr rrect ans ect ans ect ans ect ans ect answ ww wwer is (C) er is (C) er is (C) er is (C) er is (C). The electron emits +1.87 eV of
energy, which is equal to the difference between E
3
– E
2
. The
energy is positive because it is emitted as the electron falls closer
to the nucleus.
11. 11. 11. 11. 11. The cor The cor The cor The cor The corr rr rrect ans ect ans ect ans ect ans ect answ ww wwer is (B) er is (B) er is (B) er is (B) er is (B). The electron absorbs –.98 eV of
energy to jump from level 3 to level 5 (E
3
– E
5
)
.
The energy is
negative because it is absorbed by the electron as it rises closer
to zero potential and a possible escape from the nucleus.
12. 12. 12. 12. 12. The cor The cor The cor The cor The corr rr rrect ans ect ans ect ans ect ans ect answ ww wwer is (E) er is (E) er is (E) er is (E) er is (E). The electron emits +12.08 eV of
energy, which is equal to the difference between E
3
– E
1
. The
energy is positive because it is emitted as the electron falls closer
to the nucleus
13. 13. 13. 13. 13. The correct answer is (C) The correct answer is (C) The correct answer is (C) The correct answer is (C) The correct answer is (C). Point C is located in a parallel
circuit, which contains two pathways. Both of the parallel legs
offer the same resistance to the current, therefore the two equal
legs receive half of the current each.
14. 14. 14. 14. 14. The cor The cor The cor The cor The corr rr rrect ans ect ans ect ans ect ans ect answ ww wwer is (E) er is (E) er is (E) er is (E) er is (E). At point E, all of the electromotive
force has been used to push the current through the circuit
elements.
15. 15. 15. 15. 15. The cor The cor The cor The cor The corr rr rrect ans ect ans ect ans ect ans ect answ ww wwer is (D) er is (D) er is (D) er is (D) er is (D). At point D, exactly one-half the
resistance in the circuit has been passed by the current.
ANSWERS AND EXPLANATIONS
ANSWERS TO PART B, QUESTIONS 16–75
16. 16. 16. 16. 16. The cor The cor The cor The cor The corr rr rrect ans ect ans ect ans ect ans ect answ ww wwer is (C). er is (C). er is (C). er is (C). er is (C). The voltage of the battery is equal
to electrical potential energy, and the kinetic energy is
1/2 mv
2
. Setting the two equal to each other, 1/2 mv
2
=
(1.5 V)(q). Solving the equation yields 7.3 × 10
5
m/s, which is the
velocity of the electron just as it reaches the positive plate of the
battery.
Peterson’s SAT II Success: Physics 362
17. 17. 17. 17. 17. The correct answer is (D) The correct answer is (D) The correct answer is (D) The correct answer is (D) The correct answer is (D). During a period of 28 days, the
sample has 4 half-lives. This means (1/2)
4
= .0625, or 1/16 of the
substance is left.
18. 18. 18. 18. 18. The cor The cor The cor The cor The corr rr rrect ans ect ans ect ans ect ans ect answ ww wwer is (C) er is (C) er is (C) er is (C) er is (C). All of the waves are electromagnetic
waves except for sound waves.
19. 19. 19. 19. 19. The cor The cor The cor The cor The corr rr rrect ans ect ans ect ans ect ans ect answ ww wwer is (D) er is (D) er is (D) er is (D) er is (D). According to Newton’s first law, an
object in motion remains in motion and an object at rest remains
at rest unless a net force acts on the object. The ball is in free
fall. Even though it is accelerating on the y axis (up and down),
nothing is affecting the ball on the x axis (horizontal)
20. 20. 20. 20. 20. The correct answer is (B) The correct answer is (B) The correct answer is (B) The correct answer is (B) The correct answer is (B). Both spheres fall from the same
height. This means the objects are in free fall, so their accelera-
tions are the same. Sphere B has more mass than sphere A,
which gives sphere B more momentum and more kinetic energy
when the two spheres reach the ground.
21. 21. 21. 21. 21. The cor The cor The cor The cor The corr rr rrect ans ect ans ect ans ect ans ect answ ww wwer is (B) er is (B) er is (B) er is (B) er is (B). One of Kepler’s observations in his
laws of planetary motion was that the planets orbit the sun in
elliptical orbits.
22. 22. 22. 22. 22. The cor The cor The cor The cor The corr rr rrect ans ect ans ect ans ect ans ect answ ww wwer is (A) er is (A) er is (A) er is (A) er is (A). Transformers are used to change
voltages to a form that is usable for specific applications. For
example, an electrical line voltage of 1800 V is reduced by a
transformer to the voltage we use in our homes.
23. 23. 23. 23. 23. The cor The cor The cor The cor The corr rr rrect ans ect ans ect ans ect ans ect answ ww wwer is (B) er is (B) er is (B) er is (B) er is (B). Stars are a source of light waves. As
such, the waves approach the earth as fronts. When a star is
approaching the earth the wave fronts reach us at an increasing
rate. When a star is receding from us, the wave fronts reach us
at a lower rate. In both cases a frequency change (Doppler shift)
can be detected.
24. 24. 24. 24. 24. The correct answer is (A) The correct answer is (A) The correct answer is (A) The correct answer is (A) The correct answer is (A). In this problem the object has both
horizontal and vertical motion. The original velocity of the
object can be of large magnitude on either the x axis or the y
axis. It is absolutely true, however, that the object can only travel
along the x (horizontal) axis as long as it is in free fall.
25. 25. 25. 25. 25. The correct answer is (D) The correct answer is (D) The correct answer is (D) The correct answer is (D) The correct answer is (D). Current is induced into a wire when
the wire is placed in a changing magnetic field because of the
moving line of flux crossing the wire. This is one of the ways a
current is magnetically induced into a wire.
PRACTICE TEST 4
Peterson’s: www.petersons.com 363
26. 26. 26. 26. 26. The cor The cor The cor The cor The corr rr rrect ans ect ans ect ans ect ans ect answ ww wwer is (C) er is (C) er is (C) er is (C) er is (C). The physical characteristics of
melting and boiling are directly related to how much thermal
energy a substance contains. The measure of the thermal energy
is temperature.
27. 27. 27. 27. 27. The cor The cor The cor The cor The corr rr rrect ans ect ans ect ans ect ans ect answ ww wwer is (C) er is (C) er is (C) er is (C) er is (C). This is an example of the first condi-
tion of equilibrium.
Σ
Σ
F
F F
F
y table
table
=
= = ×
]
=
0
2 11
22
N books
N
28. 28. 28. 28. 28. The cor The cor The cor The cor The corr rr rrect ans ect ans ect ans ect ans ect answ ww wwer is (E) er is (E) er is (E) er is (E) er is (E). Two different objects that are in
thermal equilibrium must be at the same temperature.
29. 29. 29. 29. 29. The correct answer is (E) The correct answer is (E) The correct answer is (E) The correct answer is (E) The correct answer is (E). If the two vectors are exactly 180°
apart, in each case all of the choices are a possibility.
30. 30. 30. 30. 30. The cor The cor The cor The cor The corr rr rrect ans ect ans ect ans ect ans ect answ ww wwer is (B) er is (B) er is (B) er is (B) er is (B). The substance that has the largest
specific heat contains the most heat at a given temperature for
an equal mass of the substance. Since the substance with the
largest specific heat contains the most heat, it will have the most
heat content to transfer to the melting of the ice.
31. 31. 31. 31. 31. The cor The cor The cor The cor The corr rr rrect ans ect ans ect ans ect ans ect answ ww wwer is (C) er is (C) er is (C) er is (C) er is (C). The only time the instantaneous
velocity of an object equals the average velocity of an object is
when the object moves with constant velocity.
32. The cor The cor The cor The cor The corr rr rrect ans ect ans ect ans ect ans ect answ ww wwer is (A) er is (A) er is (A) er is (A) er is (A). The second step of the right-hand
rule is appropriate to answer the question. The entire right-hand
rule is restated below
i. Point the thumb of the right hand in the direction of the
current or the motion of the particle.
ii. Point the fingers of the right hand in the direction of the
magnetic field (toward the south pole).
iii. The palm of the right hand points in the direction of the
applied force.
33. 33. 33. 33. 33. The correct answer is (E) The correct answer is (E) The correct answer is (E) The correct answer is (E) The correct answer is (E). Of the choices listed, the only
electromagnetic radiation that carries more energy than the blue
light is ultraviolet.
34. 34. 34. 34. 34. The cor The cor The cor The cor The corr rr rrect ans ect ans ect ans ect ans ect answ ww wwer is (C) er is (C) er is (C) er is (C) er is (C). The weight of the astronaut is
dependent upon the gravitational attraction of the planetary
body. Mars has a lower gravitational attraction than the earth, so
ANSWERS AND EXPLANATIONS
Peterson’s SAT II Success: Physics 364
the astronaut weighs less on Mars. The mass of an object, or a
person, is an intrinsic quality of a body that does not change.
35. 35. 35. 35. 35. The cor The cor The cor The cor The corr rr rrect ans ect ans ect ans ect ans ect answ ww wwer is (B) er is (B) er is (B) er is (B) er is (B). A negative ion is an object that has
an excess of electrons. Electrons are the negatively charged part
of the atom, therefore they give an object that carries excess of
electrons a negative charge.
36. 36. 36. 36. 36. The cor The cor The cor The cor The corr rr rrect ans ect ans ect ans ect ans ect answ ww wwer is (D) er is (D) er is (D) er is (D) er is (D). Any time a net or unbalanced force
is applied to an object, the object is accelerated.
37. 37. 37. 37. 37. The cor The cor The cor The cor The corr rr rrect ans ect ans ect ans ect ans ect answ ww wwer is (D) er is (D) er is (D) er is (D) er is (D). Wavelength has the units
meters
wave
and frequency has the units
waves
second
. The product of the two
produces a velocity unit
meters
wave
waves
second
meters
second








=




.
38. 38. 38. 38. 38. The cor The cor The cor The cor The corr rr rrect ans ect ans ect ans ect ans ect answ ww wwer is (B) er is (B) er is (B) er is (B) er is (B). This statement is one of Einstein’s
postulates to the theory of relativity.
39. 39. 39. 39. 39. The cor The cor The cor The cor The corr rr rrect ans ect ans ect ans ect ans ect answ ww wwer is (C) er is (C) er is (C) er is (C) er is (C). The power developed in a circuit
element is equal to (V)(I). Solve by substituting the correct values
into the equation: (24V)(.75A) = 18 watts.
40. 40. 40. 40. 40. The cor The cor The cor The cor The corr rr rrect ans ect ans ect ans ect ans ect answ ww wwer is (C) er is (C) er is (C) er is (C) er is (C). The tangential velocity is the prod-
uct of the angular velocity and the radius of the object or the
person from the center of the rotating device. Both children
have the same angular velocity, but the child on the pony is
farther from the center of the merry-go-round.
41. 41. 41. 41. 41. The cor The cor The cor The cor The corr rr rrect ans ect ans ect ans ect ans ect answ ww wwer is (E) er is (E) er is (E) er is (E) er is (E). Work can be either a positive quan-
tity or a negative quantity. When a force is applied in one direc-
tion and the displacement is in the opposite direction, the work
equation becomes F•s•cosine 180°. The cosine of 180°

is –1,
therefore any work done under those conditions is negative
work. W = –F•S = –(1000N)(10 m) = –10,000 J
42. 42. 42. 42. 42. The cor The cor The cor The cor The corr rr rrect ans ect ans ect ans ect ans ect answ ww wwer is (C) er is (C) er is (C) er is (C) er is (C). This answer is a statement of the
law of conservation of momentum. Momentum before an event
equals the momentum after an event.
43. 43. 43. 43. 43. The cor The cor The cor The cor The corr rr rrect ans ect ans ect ans ect ans ect answ ww wwer is (C) er is (C) er is (C) er is (C) er is (C). The vibrating spring stores energy
when it is compressed or stretched. The potential energy stored
in the spring is converted into kinetic energy in between the two
PRACTICE TEST 4
Peterson’s: www.petersons.com 365
end points. The maximum kinetic energy of the mass is directly
between the two high potential energy points.
44. 44. 44. 44. 44. The correct answer is (E) The correct answer is (E) The correct answer is (E) The correct answer is (E) The correct answer is (E). Gamma radiation has no mass. It is
emitted from an unstable nucleus, which changes to a lower
energy state. There is no mass change involved, so the nucleus
remains essentially the same minus the emitted energy.
45. 45. 45. 45. 45. The cor The cor The cor The cor The corr rr rrect ans ect ans ect ans ect ans ect answ ww wwer is (D) er is (D) er is (D) er is (D) er is (D). The temperature of a gas is directly
related to the rate at which gas particles strike the sides of the
container in which the gas is contained. The measure of the
number of times gas particles strike the sides of the container is
pressure. Charles Law shows the direct relationship between the
two. When the temperature increases, the pressure increases.
This means the velocity of the gas particles increases, too.
46. 46. 46. 46. 46. The cor The cor The cor The cor The corr rr rrect ans ect ans ect ans ect ans ect answ ww wwer is (E) er is (E) er is (E) er is (E) er is (E). The radius between the two masses
does not change. That means in the gravitational equation
F G
m m
r
=
1 2
2
the only thing that changes is the mass of the two
bodies. Multiply them together to find the magnitude of the
change in force they exert on each other.
47. 47. 47. 47. 47. The correct answer is (A) The correct answer is (A) The correct answer is (A) The correct answer is (A) The correct answer is (A). Light rays leaving an optically more
dense material and striking the surface interface between the
two substances are totally reflected back into the material when
the angle of incidence is equal to or less than the critical angle.
48. 48. 48. 48. 48. The cor The cor The cor The cor The corr rr rrect ans ect ans ect ans ect ans ect answ ww wwer is (C) er is (C) er is (C) er is (C) er is (C). When the time equals .375 seconds,
the pendulum is 3/4 of the way through the first half of its
period. At that time, if the pendulum string breaks, the pendulum
will fly off at a 45° angle, which is the angle that gives the
pendulum bob maximum time of flight.
49. 49. 49. 49. 49. The cor The cor The cor The cor The corr rr rrect ans ect ans ect ans ect ans ect answ ww wwer is (E) er is (E) er is (E) er is (E) er is (E). According to the first condition of
equilibrium, the sum of all the applied forces must equal zero if
an object is not to move.
50. 50. 50. 50. 50. The cor The cor The cor The cor The corr rr rrect ans ect ans ect ans ect ans ect answ ww wwer is (C) er is (C) er is (C) er is (C) er is (C). The skydiver accelerates after he
jumps until the friction from the air is equal to his downward
force, which is his weight.
51. 51. 51. 51. 51. The cor The cor The cor The cor The corr rr rrect ans ect ans ect ans ect ans ect answ ww wwer is (C) er is (C) er is (C) er is (C) er is (C). The positively charged rod attracts
the excess electrons that were deposited by the negatively
charged rod. The movement of the electrons toward the positive
rod reduces the repulsive force applied to the leaves, and the
leaves are able to move closer to one another.
ANSWERS AND EXPLANATIONS
Peterson’s SAT II Success: Physics 366
52. 52. 52. 52. 52. The cor The cor The cor The cor The corr rr rrect ans ect ans ect ans ect ans ect answ ww wwer is (A) er is (A) er is (A) er is (A) er is (A). An object that is placed inside the
focal point of a concave mirror produces a virtual image, which
is erect and reduced.
53. 53. 53. 53. 53. The cor The cor The cor The cor The corr rr rrect ans ect ans ect ans ect ans ect answ ww wwer is (A) er is (A) er is (A) er is (A) er is (A). The first law of thermodynamics
makes it clear that a hot object loses heat to a cold object. If no
heat is added or subtracted from a system, the heat in the system
remains constant in the system.
54. 54. 54. 54. 54. The cor The cor The cor The cor The corr rr rrect ans ect ans ect ans ect ans ect answ ww wwer is (A) er is (A) er is (A) er is (A) er is (A). The energy of a photon is indirectly
related to the wavelength of the light. Consequently, as the
wavelength of the light increases, the energy of the photon
decreases
55. 55. 55. 55. 55. The correct answer is (E) The correct answer is (E) The correct answer is (E) The correct answer is (E) The correct answer is (E). Each droplet of water falls at an
increasing velocity with the passage of time. The distance
between the droplets increases as the square of the time in-
creases.
s at =
1
2
2
56. 56. 56. 56. 56. The cor The cor The cor The cor The corr rr rrect ans ect ans ect ans ect ans ect answ ww wwer is (B) er is (B) er is (B) er is (B) er is (B). An increase in the length of the
pendulum causes the period of the pendulum to increase too.
Τ = 2π

g
. Notice the in the period equation.
57. 57. 57. 57. 57. The cor The cor The cor The cor The corr rr rrect ans ect ans ect ans ect ans ect answ ww wwer is (E). er is (E). er is (E). er is (E). er is (E). A constant voltage source does not
change, regardless of the value of the resistance added to the
circuit.
58. 58. 58. 58. 58. The cor The cor The cor The cor The corr rr rrect ans ect ans ect ans ect ans ect answ ww wwer is (D) er is (D) er is (D) er is (D) er is (D). A dielectric is used in a capacitor to
increase the capacitance of the capacitor.
59. 59. 59. 59. 59. The cor The cor The cor The cor The corr rr rrect ans ect ans ect ans ect ans ect answ ww wwer is (B) er is (B) er is (B) er is (B) er is (B). This is an example of Hyugen’s
principle, which states that a point on a wave front can act as a
source of waves. The waves fan out from the point at the barrier
as new waves are formed.
60. 60. 60. 60. 60. The cor The cor The cor The cor The corr rr rrect ans ect ans ect ans ect ans ect answ ww wwer is (D) er is (D) er is (D) er is (D) er is (D). According to Newton’s Third Law,
the action-reaction force pair must be equal in magnitude and
oppositely directed. The earth pulls on the mass, and the mass
pulls on the earth (the pair) with the same force.
61. 61. 61. 61. 61. The cor The cor The cor The cor The corr rr rrect ans ect ans ect ans ect ans ect answ ww wwer is (A) er is (A) er is (A) er is (A) er is (A). The only single factor that makes
each element unique is the number of protons the element has in
its nucleus.
PRACTICE TEST 4
Peterson’s: www.petersons.com 367
62. 62. 62. 62. 62. The cor The cor The cor The cor The corr rr rrect ans ect ans ect ans ect ans ect answ ww wwer is (E) er is (E) er is (E) er is (E) er is (E). The battery that provides the force
to push electrons through the circuit causes the electrons to
jump from atom to atom, a process that causes the current to
flow. The process is similar to water flowing in a hose. Water
enters one end of the hose and leaves the other end, but they are
not the same water molecules.
63. 63. 63. 63. 63. The cor The cor The cor The cor The corr rr rrect ans ect ans ect ans ect ans ect answ ww wwer is (B) er is (B) er is (B) er is (B) er is (B). The problem is a work energy
conversion. Set the kinetic energy of the car equal to the fric-
tional work to be done by the tires. 1/2 mv
2
= Fs. The mass of
the car is not given, but if we expand the equation a little more
we find it is not necessary. 1/2 mv
2
= µ Ns, which leads to
1/2 mv
2
= µ mgs. At this point the mass cancels out on both
sides, which leaves 1/2 v
2
= µ gs. The working equation becomes
v g s = 2( )( )( ) . The solution to the problem is
v = = 2 46 9 8 54 22 (. )( . )( ) m/s m m/s
.
64. 64. 64. 64. 64. The correct answer is (B) The correct answer is (B) The correct answer is (B) The correct answer is (B) The correct answer is (B). Use F=ma to solve the problem.
Don’t forget to subtract the frictional force from the applied
force. Also don’t forget to convert the weight of the object into
mass. Set the problem up in this manner:
F m a
a
a
= ∗
− = ∗
=
53 8
2 5
N N
176.4N
9.8m/s
m/s
2
.
65. 65. 65. 65. 65. The correct answer is (B) The correct answer is (B) The correct answer is (B) The correct answer is (B) The correct answer is (B). Neither object could reach the
ground in 1 second unless it was thrown downward. Therefore
one of the objects, A, was thrown downward. The other object, B
could not have been placed into free fall from rest and taken 3
seconds to reach the ground from a height of 14.7 m because it
only takes 1.73 seconds to reach the ground for an object
starting from rest. The object that takes 3 seconds to reach the
ground must therefore have been thrown upward. This means
both objects were thrown.
66. 66. 66. 66. 66. The cor The cor The cor The cor The corr rr rrect ans ect ans ect ans ect ans ect answ ww wwer is (A) er is (A) er is (A) er is (A) er is (A). The bead slides on a frictionless
wire to the other side, where it stops and slides back to A, where
it again stops to repeat the process over again.
ANSWERS AND EXPLANATIONS
Peterson’s SAT II Success: Physics 368
67. 67. 67. 67. 67. The correct answer is (E) The correct answer is (E) The correct answer is (E) The correct answer is (E) The correct answer is (E). Pressure is the measure of the rate at
which the gas particles collide with the sides of the containers.
The more often the gas particles collide with the container walls,
the higher the pressure.
68. 68. 68. 68. 68. The cor The cor The cor The cor The corr rr rrect ans ect ans ect ans ect ans ect answ ww wwer is (D) er is (D) er is (D) er is (D) er is (D). The transformer reduces the voltage
when the number of coils of wire on the secondary side is less
than the number of coils of wire on the secondary side. The
voltage output is found:
1 5
17 136
12
.
. = =
x
V
V
69. 69. 69. 69. 69. The cor The cor The cor The cor The corr rr rrect ans ect ans ect ans ect ans ect answ ww wwer is (E) er is (E) er is (E) er is (E) er is (E). An object that is not being acceler-
ated cannot have any unbalanced forces acting upon it. The car
is moving at a constant velocity, which means there are no forces
exerted on the car anywhere.
70. 70. 70. 70. 70. The correct answer is (D) The correct answer is (D) The correct answer is (D) The correct answer is (D) The correct answer is (D). Rutherford found that most of the
mass of an atom is concentrated in the nucleus of the atom.
71. 71. 71. 71. 71. The cor The cor The cor The cor The corr rr rrect ans ect ans ect ans ect ans ect answ ww wwer is (D) er is (D) er is (D) er is (D) er is (D). The de Broglia wavelength cannot
be detected because the objects in question have velocities that
are too small for the waves they create to be detectable.
72. 72. 72. 72. 72. The cor The cor The cor The cor The corr rr rrect ans ect ans ect ans ect ans ect answ ww wwer is (C) er is (C) er is (C) er is (C) er is (C). The moon is only 1/6 the size of the
earth, so at a distance 55% of the way to the moon, the object is
still under the influence of the earth’s gravitational field. That
means the object will eventually fall back to the earth.
73. 73. 73. 73. 73. The cor The cor The cor The cor The corr rr rrect ans ect ans ect ans ect ans ect answ ww wwer is (A) er is (A) er is (A) er is (A) er is (A). The diagram shows a heat diagram
operating in reverse. The system shown is a cooling system, such
as a refrigerator.
74. 74. 74. 74. 74. The cor The cor The cor The cor The corr rr rrect ans ect ans ect ans ect ans ect answ ww wwer is (C) er is (C) er is (C) er is (C) er is (C). The first law of thermodynamics is
the answer here. ∆ Q = ∆ U + ∆ W. The work done by the system
is 70 Joules, but 150 Joules of heat was added. Rearrange the
first law equation and subtract the work from the input heat to
find the increase in internal energy. ∆ Q – ∆ W = ∆ U leads us
to 150J – 70 J = 80 J.
75. 75. 75. 75. 75. The cor The cor The cor The cor The corr rr rrect ans ect ans ect ans ect ans ect answ ww wwer is (C) er is (C) er is (C) er is (C) er is (C). The acceleration-time graph shows a
time rate change in velocity. This is the definition of accelera-
tion.
PRACTICE TEST 4
Answer Sheets
Peterson’s: www.petersons.com 371
ANSWER SHEET
Leave any unused
answer spaces blank.
Test Code
V Þ O1 Þ O
2
Þ O
3
Þ O
4
Þ O5 Þ O
6
Þ O
7
Þ O
8
Þ O
9
W Þ O1 Þ O
2
Þ O
3
Þ O
4
Þ O5 Þ O
6
Þ O
7
Þ O
8
Þ O
9
X Þ O1 Þ O
2
Þ O
3
Þ O
4
Þ O5 Y Þ O
A
Þ O
B
Þ OC Þ O
D
Þ O
E
Q Þ O1 Þ O
2
Þ O
3
Þ O
4
Þ O5 Þ O
6
Þ O
7
Þ O
8
Þ O
9
Subject Test (print)
FOR ETS
USE ONLY
R/C W/S1 FS/S2 CS/S3 WS
1 O
A
OB OC OD OE
2 O
A
OB OC OD OE
3 O
A
OB OC OD OE
4 O
A
OB OC OD OE
5 O
A
OB OC OD OE
6 O
A
OB OC OD OE
7 O
A
OB OC OD OE
8 O
A
OB OC OD OE
9 O
A
OB OC OD OE
10 O
A
OB OC OD OE
11 O
A
OB OC OD OE
12 O
A
OB OC OD OE
13 O
A
OB OC OD OE
14 O
A
OB OC OD OE
15 O
A
OB OC OD OE
16 O
A
OB OC OD OE
17 O
A
OB OC OD OE
18 O
A
OB OC OD OE
19 O
A
OB OC OD OE
20 O
A
OB OC OD OE
21 O
A
OB OC OD OE
22 O
A
OB OC OD OE
23 O
A
OB OC OD OE
24 O
A
OB OC OD OE
25 O
A
OB OC OD OE
26 O
A
OB OC OD OE
27 O
A
OB OC OD OE
28 O
A
OB OC OD OE
29 O
A
OB OC OD OE
30 O
A
OB OC OD OE
31 O
A
OB OC OD OE
32 O
A
OB OC OD OE
33 O
A
OB OC OD OE
34 O
A
OB OC OD OE
35 O
A
OB OC OD OE
36 O
A
OB OC OD OE
37 O
A
OB OC OD OE
38 O
A
OB OC OD OE
39 O
A
OB OC OD OE
40 O
A
OB OC OD OE
41 O
A
OB OC OD OE
42 O
A
OB OC OD OE
43 O
A
OB OC OD OE
44 O
A
OB OC OD OE
45 O
A
OB OC OD OE
46 O
A
OB OC OD OE
47 O
A
OB OC OD OE
48 O
A
OB OC OD OE
49 O
A
OB OC OD OE
50 O
A
OB OC OD OE
51 O
A
OB OC OD OE
52 O
A
OB OC OD OE
53 O
A
OB OC OD OE
54 O
A
OB OC OD OE
55 O
A
OB OC OD OE
56 O
A
OB OC OD OE
57 O
A
OB OC OD OE
58 O
A
OB OC OD OE
59 O
A
OB OC OD OE
60 O
A
OB OC OD OE
61 O
A
OB OC OD OE
62 O
A
OB OC OD OE
63 O
A
OB OC OD OE
64 O
A
OB OC OD OE
65 O
A
OB OC OD OE
66 O
A
OB OC OD OE
67 O
A
OB OC OD OE
68 O
A
OB OC OD OE
69 O
A
OB OC OD OE
70 O
A
OB OC OD OE
71 O
A
OB OC OD OE
72 O
A
OB OC OD OE
73 O
A
OB OC OD OE
74 O
A
OB OC OD OE
75 O
A
OB OC OD OE
76 O
A
OB OC OD OE
77 O
A
OB OC OD OE
78 O
A
OB OC OD OE
79 O
A
OB OC OD OE
80 O
A
OB OC OD OE
81 O
A
OB OC OD OE
82 O
A
OB OC OD OE
83 O
A
OB OC OD OE
84 O
A
OB OC OD OE
85 O
A
OB OC OD OE
86 O
A
OB OC OD OE
87 O
A
OB OC OD OE
88 O
A
OB OC OD OE
89 O
A
OB OC OD OE
90 O
A
OB OC OD OE
91 O
A
OB OC OD OE
92 O
A
OB OC OD OE
93 O
A
OB OC OD OE
94 O
A
OB OC OD OE
95 O
A
OB OC OD OE
96 O
A
OB OC OD OE
97 O
A
OB OC OD OE
98 O
A
OB OC OD OE
99 O
A
OB OC OD OE
100 O
A
OB OC OD OE
Peterson’s SAT II Success: Physics 372
Leave any unused
answer spaces blank.
Test Code
V Þ O1 Þ O
2
Þ O
3
Þ O
4
Þ O5 Þ O
6
Þ O
7
Þ O
8
Þ O
9
W Þ O1 Þ O
2
Þ O
3
Þ O
4
Þ O5 Þ O
6
Þ O
7
Þ O
8
Þ O
9
X Þ O1 Þ O
2
Þ O
3
Þ O
4
Þ O5 Y Þ O
A
Þ O
B
Þ OC Þ O
D
Þ O
E
Q Þ O1 Þ O
2
Þ O
3
Þ O
4
Þ O5 Þ O
6
Þ O
7
Þ O
8
Þ O
9
Subject Test (print)
FOR ETS
USE ONLY
R/C W/S1 FS/S2 CS/S3 WS
1 O
A
OB OC OD OE
2 O
A
OB OC OD OE
3 O
A
OB OC OD OE
4 O
A
OB OC OD OE
5 O
A
OB OC OD OE
6 O
A
OB OC OD OE
7 O
A
OB OC OD OE
8 O
A
OB OC OD OE
9 O
A
OB OC OD OE
10 O
A
OB OC OD OE
11 O
A
OB OC OD OE
12 O
A
OB OC OD OE
13 O
A
OB OC OD OE
14 O
A
OB OC OD OE
15 O
A
OB OC OD OE
16 O
A
OB OC OD OE
17 O
A
OB OC OD OE
18 O
A
OB OC OD OE
19 O
A
OB OC OD OE
20 O
A
OB OC OD OE
21 O
A
OB OC OD OE
22 O
A
OB OC OD OE
23 O
A
OB OC OD OE
24 O
A
OB OC OD OE
25 O
A
OB OC OD OE
26 O
A
OB OC OD OE
27 O
A
OB OC OD OE
28 O
A
OB OC OD OE
29 O
A
OB OC OD OE
30 O
A
OB OC OD OE
31 O
A
OB OC OD OE
32 O
A
OB OC OD OE
33 O
A
OB OC OD OE
34 O
A
OB OC OD OE
35 O
A
OB OC OD OE
36 O
A
OB OC OD OE
37 O
A
OB OC OD OE
38 O
A
OB OC OD OE
39 O
A
OB OC OD OE
40 O
A
OB OC OD OE
41 O
A
OB OC OD OE
42 O
A
OB OC OD OE
43 O
A
OB OC OD OE
44 O
A
OB OC OD OE
45 O
A
OB OC OD OE
46 O
A
OB OC OD OE
47 O
A
OB OC OD OE
48 O
A
OB OC OD OE
49 O
A
OB OC OD OE
50 O
A
OB OC OD OE
51 O
A
OB OC OD OE
52 O
A
OB OC OD OE
53 O
A
OB OC OD OE
54 O
A
OB OC OD OE
55 O
A
OB OC OD OE
56 O
A
OB OC OD OE
57 O
A
OB OC OD OE
58 O
A
OB OC OD OE
59 O
A
OB OC OD OE
60 O
A
OB OC OD OE
61 O
A
OB OC OD OE
62 O
A
OB OC OD OE
63 O
A
OB OC OD OE
64 O
A
OB OC OD OE
65 O
A
OB OC OD OE
66 O
A
OB OC OD OE
67 O
A
OB OC OD OE
68 O
A
OB OC OD OE
69 O
A
OB OC OD OE
70 O
A
OB OC OD OE
71 O
A
OB OC OD OE
72 O
A
OB OC OD OE
73 O
A
OB OC OD OE
74 O
A
OB OC OD OE
75 O
A
OB OC OD OE
76 O
A
OB OC OD OE
77 O
A
OB OC OD OE
78 O
A
OB OC OD OE
79 O
A
OB OC OD OE
80 O
A
OB OC OD OE
81 O
A
OB OC OD OE
82 O
A
OB OC OD OE
83 O
A
OB OC OD OE
84 O
A
OB OC OD OE
85 O
A
OB OC OD OE
86 O
A
OB OC OD OE
87 O
A
OB OC OD OE
88 O
A
OB OC OD OE
89 O
A
OB OC OD OE
90 O
A
OB OC OD OE
91 O
A
OB OC OD OE
92 O
A
OB OC OD OE
93 O
A
OB OC OD OE
94 O
A
OB OC OD OE
95 O
A
OB OC OD OE
96 O
A
OB OC OD OE
97 O
A
OB OC OD OE
98 O
A
OB OC OD OE
99 O
A
OB OC OD OE
100 O
A
OB OC OD OE
Leave any unused
answer spaces blank.
Test Code
V Þ O1 Þ O
2
Þ O
3
Þ O
4
Þ O5 Þ O
6
Þ O
7
Þ O
8
Þ O
9
W Þ O1 Þ O
2
Þ O
3
Þ O
4
Þ O5 Þ O
6
Þ O
7
Þ O
8
Þ O
9
X Þ O1 Þ O
2
Þ O
3
Þ O
4
Þ O5 Y Þ O
A
Þ O
B
Þ OC Þ O
D
Þ O
E
Q Þ O1 Þ O
2
Þ O
3
Þ O
4
Þ O5 Þ O
6
Þ O
7
Þ O
8
Þ O
9
Subject Test (print)
FOR ETS
USE ONLY
R/C W/S1 FS/S2 CS/S3 WS
1 O
A
OB OC OD OE
2 O
A
OB OC OD OE
3 O
A
OB OC OD OE
4 O
A
OB OC OD OE
5 O
A
OB OC OD OE
6 O
A
OB OC OD OE
7 O
A
OB OC OD OE
8 O
A
OB OC OD OE
9 O
A
OB OC OD OE
10 O
A
OB OC OD OE
11 O
A
OB OC OD OE
12 O
A
OB OC OD OE
13 O
A
OB OC OD OE
14 O
A
OB OC OD OE
15 O
A
OB OC OD OE
16 O
A
OB OC OD OE
17 O
A
OB OC OD OE
18 O
A
OB OC OD OE
19 O
A
OB OC OD OE
20 O
A
OB OC OD OE
21 O
A
OB OC OD OE
22 O
A
OB OC OD OE
23 O
A
OB OC OD OE
24 O
A
OB OC OD OE
25 O
A
OB OC OD OE
26 O
A
OB OC OD OE
27 O
A
OB OC OD OE
28 O
A
OB OC OD OE
29 O
A
OB OC OD OE
30 O
A
OB OC OD OE
31 O
A
OB OC OD OE
32 O
A
OB OC OD OE
33 O
A
OB OC OD OE
34 O
A
OB OC OD OE
35 O
A
OB OC OD OE
36 O
A
OB OC OD OE
37 O
A
OB OC OD OE
38 O
A
OB OC OD OE
39 O
A
OB OC OD OE
40 O
A
OB OC OD OE
41 O
A
OB OC OD OE
42 O
A
OB OC OD OE
43 O
A
OB OC OD OE
44 O
A
OB OC OD OE
45 O
A
OB OC OD OE
46 O
A
OB OC OD OE
47 O
A
OB OC OD OE
48 O
A
OB OC OD OE
49 O
A
OB OC OD OE
50 O
A
OB OC OD OE
51 O
A
OB OC OD OE
52 O
A
OB OC OD OE
53 O
A
OB OC OD OE
54 O
A
OB OC OD OE
55 O
A
OB OC OD OE
56 O
A
OB OC OD OE
57 O
A
OB OC OD OE
58 O
A
OB OC OD OE
59 O
A
OB OC OD OE
60 O
A
OB OC OD OE
61 O
A
OB OC OD OE
62 O
A
OB OC OD OE
63 O
A
OB OC OD OE
64 O
A
OB OC OD OE
65 O
A
OB OC OD OE
66 O
A
OB OC OD OE
67 O
A
OB OC OD OE
68 O
A
OB OC OD OE
69 O
A
OB OC OD OE
70 O
A
OB OC OD OE
71 O
A
OB OC OD OE
72 O
A
OB OC OD OE
73 O
A
OB OC OD OE
74 O
A
OB OC OD OE
75 O
A
OB OC OD OE
76 O
A
OB OC OD OE
77 O
A
OB OC OD OE
78 O
A
OB OC OD OE
79 O
A
OB OC OD OE
80 O
A
OB OC OD OE
81 O
A
OB OC OD OE
82 O
A
OB OC OD OE
83 O
A
OB OC OD OE
84 O
A
OB OC OD OE
85 O
A
OB OC OD OE
86 O
A
OB OC OD OE
87 O
A
OB OC OD OE
88 O
A
OB OC OD OE
89 O
A
OB OC OD OE
90 O
A
OB OC OD OE
91 O
A
OB OC OD OE
92 O
A
OB OC OD OE
93 O
A
OB OC OD OE
94 O
A
OB OC OD OE
95 O
A
OB OC OD OE
96 O
A
OB OC OD OE
97 O
A
OB OC OD OE
98 O
A
OB OC OD OE
99 O
A
OB OC OD OE
100 O
A
OB OC OD OE
Peterson’s: www.petersons.com 373
Leave any unused
answer spaces blank.
Test Code
V Þ O1 Þ O
2
Þ O
3
Þ O
4
Þ O5 Þ O
6
Þ O
7
Þ O
8
Þ O
9
W Þ O1 Þ O
2
Þ O
3
Þ O
4
Þ O5 Þ O
6
Þ O
7
Þ O
8
Þ O
9
X Þ O1 Þ O
2
Þ O
3
Þ O
4
Þ O5 Y Þ O
A
Þ O
B
Þ OC Þ O
D
Þ O
E
Q Þ O1 Þ O
2
Þ O
3
Þ O
4
Þ O5 Þ O
6
Þ O
7
Þ O
8
Þ O
9
Subject Test (print)
FOR ETS
USE ONLY
R/C W/S1 FS/S2 CS/S3 WS
1 O
A
OB OC OD OE
2 O
A
OB OC OD OE
3 O
A
OB OC OD OE
4 O
A
OB OC OD OE
5 O
A
OB OC OD OE
6 O
A
OB OC OD OE
7 O
A
OB OC OD OE
8 O
A
OB OC OD OE
9 O
A
OB OC OD OE
10 O
A
OB OC OD OE
11 O
A
OB OC OD OE
12 O
A
OB OC OD OE
13 O
A
OB OC OD OE
14 O
A
OB OC OD OE
15 O
A
OB OC OD OE
16 O
A
OB OC OD OE
17 O
A
OB OC OD OE
18 O
A
OB OC OD OE
19 O
A
OB OC OD OE
20 O
A
OB OC OD OE
21 O
A
OB OC OD OE
22 O
A
OB OC OD OE
23 O
A
OB OC OD OE
24 O
A
OB OC OD OE
25 O
A
OB OC OD OE
26 O
A
OB OC OD OE
27 O
A
OB OC OD OE
28 O
A
OB OC OD OE
29 O
A
OB OC OD OE
30 O
A
OB OC OD OE
31 O
A
OB OC OD OE
32 O
A
OB OC OD OE
33 O
A
OB OC OD OE
34 O
A
OB OC OD OE
35 O
A
OB OC OD OE
36 O
A
OB OC OD OE
37 O
A
OB OC OD OE
38 O
A
OB OC OD OE
39 O
A
OB OC OD OE
40 O
A
OB OC OD OE
41 O
A
OB OC OD OE
42 O
A
OB OC OD OE
43 O
A
OB OC OD OE
44 O
A
OB OC OD OE
45 O
A
OB OC OD OE
46 O
A
OB OC OD OE
47 O
A
OB OC OD OE
48 O
A
OB OC OD OE
49 O
A
OB OC OD OE
50 O
A
OB OC OD OE
51 O
A
OB OC OD OE
52 O
A
OB OC OD OE
53 O
A
OB OC OD OE
54 O
A
OB OC OD OE
55 O
A
OB OC OD OE
56 O
A
OB OC OD OE
57 O
A
OB OC OD OE
58 O
A
OB OC OD OE
59 O
A
OB OC OD OE
60 O
A
OB OC OD OE
61 O
A
OB OC OD OE
62 O
A
OB OC OD OE
63 O
A
OB OC OD OE
64 O
A
OB OC OD OE
65 O
A
OB OC OD OE
66 O
A
OB OC OD OE
67 O
A
OB OC OD OE
68 O
A
OB OC OD OE
69 O
A
OB OC OD OE
70 O
A
OB OC OD OE
71 O
A
OB OC OD OE
72 O
A
OB OC OD OE
73 O
A
OB OC OD OE
74 O
A
OB OC OD OE
75 O
A
OB OC OD OE
76 O
A
OB OC OD OE
77 O
A
OB OC OD OE
78 O
A
OB OC OD OE
79 O
A
OB OC OD OE
80 O
A
OB OC OD OE
81 O
A
OB OC OD OE
82 O
A
OB OC OD OE
83 O
A
OB OC OD OE
84 O
A
OB OC OD OE
85 O
A
OB OC OD OE
86 O
A
OB OC OD OE
87 O
A
OB OC OD OE
88 O
A
OB OC OD OE
89 O
A
OB OC OD OE
90 O
A
OB OC OD OE
91 O
A
OB OC OD OE
92 O
A
OB OC OD OE
93 O
A
OB OC OD OE
94 O
A
OB OC OD OE
95 O
A
OB OC OD OE
96 O
A
OB OC OD OE
97 O
A
OB OC OD OE
98 O
A
OB OC OD OE
99 O
A
OB OC OD OE
100 O
A
OB OC OD OE
Leave any unused
answer spaces blank.
Test Code
V Þ O1 Þ O
2
Þ O
3
Þ O
4
Þ O5 Þ O
6
Þ O
7
Þ O
8
Þ O
9
W Þ O1 Þ O
2
Þ O
3
Þ O
4
Þ O5 Þ O
6
Þ O
7
Þ O
8
Þ O
9
X Þ O1 Þ O
2
Þ O
3
Þ O
4
Þ O5 Y Þ O
A
Þ O
B
Þ OC Þ O
D
Þ O
E
Q Þ O1 Þ O
2
Þ O
3
Þ O
4
Þ O5 Þ O
6
Þ O
7
Þ O
8
Þ O
9
Subject Test (print)
FOR ETS
USE ONLY
R/C W/S1 FS/S2 CS/S3 WS
1 O
A
OB OC OD OE
2 O
A
OB OC OD OE
3 O
A
OB OC OD OE
4 O
A
OB OC OD OE
5 O
A
OB OC OD OE
6 O
A
OB OC OD OE
7 O
A
OB OC OD OE
8 O
A
OB OC OD OE
9 O
A
OB OC OD OE
10 O
A
OB OC OD OE
11 O
A
OB OC OD OE
12 O
A
OB OC OD OE
13 O
A
OB OC OD OE
14 O
A
OB OC OD OE
15 O
A
OB OC OD OE
16 O
A
OB OC OD OE
17 O
A
OB OC OD OE
18 O
A
OB OC OD OE
19 O
A
OB OC OD OE
20 O
A
OB OC OD OE
21 O
A
OB OC OD OE
22 O
A
OB OC OD OE
23 O
A
OB OC OD OE
24 O
A
OB OC OD OE
25 O
A
OB OC OD OE
26 O
A
OB OC OD OE
27 O
A
OB OC OD OE
28 O
A
OB OC OD OE
29 O
A
OB OC OD OE
30 O
A
OB OC OD OE
31 O
A
OB OC OD OE
32 O
A
OB OC OD OE
33 O
A
OB OC OD OE
34 O
A
OB OC OD OE
35 O
A
OB OC OD OE
36 O
A
OB OC OD OE
37 O
A
OB OC OD OE
38 O
A
OB OC OD OE
39 O
A
OB OC OD OE
40 O
A
OB OC OD OE
41 O
A
OB OC OD OE
42 O
A
OB OC OD OE
43 O
A
OB OC OD OE
44 O
A
OB OC OD OE
45 O
A
OB OC OD OE
46 O
A
OB OC OD OE
47 O
A
OB OC OD OE
48 O
A
OB OC OD OE
49 O
A
OB OC OD OE
50 O
A
OB OC OD OE
51 O
A
OB OC OD OE
52 O
A
OB OC OD OE
53 O
A
OB OC OD OE
54 O
A
OB OC OD OE
55 O
A
OB OC OD OE
56 O
A
OB OC OD OE
57 O
A
OB OC OD OE
58 O
A
OB OC OD OE
59 O
A
OB OC OD OE
60 O
A
OB OC OD OE
61 O
A
OB OC OD OE
62 O
A
OB OC OD OE
63 O
A
OB OC OD OE
64 O
A
OB OC OD OE
65 O
A
OB OC OD OE
66 O
A
OB OC OD OE
67 O
A
OB OC OD OE
68 O
A
OB OC OD OE
69 O
A
OB OC OD OE
70 O
A
OB OC OD OE
71 O
A
OB OC OD OE
72 O
A
OB OC OD OE
73 O
A
OB OC OD OE
74 O
A
OB OC OD OE
75 O
A
OB OC OD OE
76 O
A
OB OC OD OE
77 O
A
OB OC OD OE
78 O
A
OB OC OD OE
79 O
A
OB OC OD OE
80 O
A
OB OC OD OE
81 O
A
OB OC OD OE
82 O
A
OB OC OD OE
83 O
A
OB OC OD OE
84 O
A
OB OC OD OE
85 O
A
OB OC OD OE
86 O
A
OB OC OD OE
87 O
A
OB OC OD OE
88 O
A
OB OC OD OE
89 O
A
OB OC OD OE
90 O
A
OB OC OD OE
91 O
A
OB OC OD OE
92 O
A
OB OC OD OE
93 O
A
OB OC OD OE
94 O
A
OB OC OD OE
95 O
A
OB OC OD OE
96 O
A
OB OC OD OE
97 O
A
OB OC OD OE
98 O
A
OB OC OD OE
99 O
A
OB OC OD OE
100 O
A
OB OC OD OE
Leave any unused
answer spaces blank.
Test Code
V Þ O1 Þ O
2
Þ O
3
Þ O
4
Þ O5 Þ O
6
Þ O
7
Þ O
8
Þ O
9
W Þ O1 Þ O
2
Þ O
3
Þ O
4
Þ O5 Þ O
6
Þ O
7
Þ O
8
Þ O
9
X Þ O1 Þ O
2
Þ O
3
Þ O
4
Þ O5 Y Þ O
A
Þ O
B
Þ OC Þ O
D
Þ O
E
Q Þ O1 Þ O
2
Þ O
3
Þ O
4
Þ O5 Þ O
6
Þ O
7
Þ O
8
Þ O
9
Subject Test (print)
FOR ETS
USE ONLY
R/C W/S1 FS/S2 CS/S3 WS
1 O
A
OB OC OD OE
2 O
A
OB OC OD OE
3 O
A
OB OC OD OE
4 O
A
OB OC OD OE
5 O
A
OB OC OD OE
6 O
A
OB OC OD OE
7 O
A
OB OC OD OE
8 O
A
OB OC OD OE
9 O
A
OB OC OD OE
10 O
A
OB OC OD OE
11 O
A
OB OC OD OE
12 O
A
OB OC OD OE
13 O
A
OB OC OD OE
14 O
A
OB OC OD OE
15 O
A
OB OC OD OE
16 O
A
OB OC OD OE
17 O
A
OB OC OD OE
18 O
A
OB OC OD OE
19 O
A
OB OC OD OE
20 O
A
OB OC OD OE
21 O
A
OB OC OD OE
22 O
A
OB OC OD OE
23 O
A
OB OC OD OE
24 O
A
OB OC OD OE
25 O
A
OB OC OD OE
26 O
A
OB OC OD OE
27 O
A
OB OC OD OE
28 O
A
OB OC OD OE
29 O
A
OB OC OD OE
30 O
A
OB OC OD OE
31 O
A
OB OC OD OE
32 O
A
OB OC OD OE
33 O
A
OB OC OD OE
34 O
A
OB OC OD OE
35 O
A
OB OC OD OE
36 O
A
OB OC OD OE
37 O
A
OB OC OD OE
38 O
A
OB OC OD OE
39 O
A
OB OC OD OE
40 O
A
OB OC OD OE
41 O
A
OB OC OD OE
42 O
A
OB OC OD OE
43 O
A
OB OC OD OE
44 O
A
OB OC OD OE
45 O
A
OB OC OD OE
46 O
A
OB OC OD OE
47 O
A
OB OC OD OE
48 O
A
OB OC OD OE
49 O
A
OB OC OD OE
50 O
A
OB OC OD OE
51 O
A
OB OC OD OE
52 O
A
OB OC OD OE
53 O
A
OB OC OD OE
54 O
A
OB OC OD OE
55 O
A
OB OC OD OE
56 O
A
OB OC OD OE
57 O
A
OB OC OD OE
58 O
A
OB OC OD OE
59 O
A
OB OC OD OE
60 O
A
OB OC OD OE
61 O
A
OB OC OD OE
62 O
A
OB OC OD OE
63 O
A
OB OC OD OE
64 O
A
OB OC OD OE
65 O
A
OB OC OD OE
66 O
A
OB OC OD OE
67 O
A
OB OC OD OE
68 O
A
OB OC OD OE
69 O
A
OB OC OD OE
70 O
A
OB OC OD OE
71 O
A
OB OC OD OE
72 O
A
OB OC OD OE
73 O
A
OB OC OD OE
74 O
A
OB OC OD OE
75 O
A
OB OC OD OE
76 O
A
OB OC OD OE
77 O
A
OB OC OD OE
78 O
A
OB OC OD OE
79 O
A
OB OC OD OE
80 O
A
OB OC OD OE
81 O
A
OB OC OD OE
82 O
A
OB OC OD OE
83 O
A
OB OC OD OE
84 O
A
OB OC OD OE
85 O
A
OB OC OD OE
86 O
A
OB OC OD OE
87 O
A
OB OC OD OE
88 O
A
OB OC OD OE
89 O
A
OB OC OD OE
90 O
A
OB OC OD OE
91 O
A
OB OC OD OE
92 O
A
OB OC OD OE
93 O
A
OB OC OD OE
94 O
A
OB OC OD OE
95 O
A
OB OC OD OE
96 O
A
OB OC OD OE
97 O
A
OB OC OD OE
98 O
A
OB OC OD OE
99 O
A
OB OC OD OE
100 O
A
OB OC OD OE
Leave any unused
answer spaces blank.
Test Code
V Þ O1 Þ O
2
Þ O
3
Þ O
4
Þ O5 Þ O
6
Þ O
7
Þ O
8
Þ O
9
W Þ O1 Þ O
2
Þ O
3
Þ O
4
Þ O5 Þ O
6
Þ O
7
Þ O
8
Þ O
9
X Þ O1 Þ O
2
Þ O
3
Þ O
4
Þ O5 Y Þ O
A
Þ O
B
Þ OC Þ O
D
Þ O
E
Q Þ O1 Þ O
2
Þ O
3
Þ O
4
Þ O5 Þ O
6
Þ O
7
Þ O
8
Þ O
9
Subject Test (print)
FOR ETS
USE ONLY
R/C W/S1 FS/S2 CS/S3 WS
1 O
A
OB OC OD OE
2 O
A
OB OC OD OE
3 O
A
OB OC OD OE
4 O
A
OB OC OD OE
5 O
A
OB OC OD OE
6 O
A
OB OC OD OE
7 O
A
OB OC OD OE
8 O
A
OB OC OD OE
9 O
A
OB OC OD OE
10 O
A
OB OC OD OE
11 O
A
OB OC OD OE
12 O
A
OB OC OD OE
13 O
A
OB OC OD OE
14 O
A
OB OC OD OE
15 O
A
OB OC OD OE
16 O
A
OB OC OD OE
17 O
A
OB OC OD OE
18 O
A
OB OC OD OE
19 O
A
OB OC OD OE
20 O
A
OB OC OD OE
21 O
A
OB OC OD OE
22 O
A
OB OC OD OE
23 O
A
OB OC OD OE
24 O
A
OB OC OD OE
25 O
A
OB OC OD OE
26 O
A
OB OC OD OE
27 O
A
OB OC OD OE
28 O
A
OB OC OD OE
29 O
A
OB OC OD OE
30 O
A
OB OC OD OE
31 O
A
OB OC OD OE
32 O
A
OB OC OD OE
33 O
A
OB OC OD OE
34 O
A
OB OC OD OE
35 O
A
OB OC OD OE
36 O
A
OB OC OD OE
37 O
A
OB OC OD OE
38 O
A
OB OC OD OE
39 O
A
OB OC OD OE
40 O
A
OB OC OD OE
41 O
A
OB OC OD OE
42 O
A
OB OC OD OE
43 O
A
OB OC OD OE
44 O
A
OB OC OD OE
45 O
A
OB OC OD OE
46 O
A
OB OC OD OE
47 O
A
OB OC OD OE
48 O
A
OB OC OD OE
49 O
A
OB OC OD OE
50 O
A
OB OC OD OE
51 O
A
OB OC OD OE
52 O
A
OB OC OD OE
53 O
A
OB OC OD OE
54 O
A
OB OC OD OE
55 O
A
OB OC OD OE
56 O
A
OB OC OD OE
57 O
A
OB OC OD OE
58 O
A
OB OC OD OE
59 O
A
OB OC OD OE
60 O
A
OB OC OD OE
61 O
A
OB OC OD OE
62 O
A
OB OC OD OE
63 O
A
OB OC OD OE
64 O
A
OB OC OD OE
65 O
A
OB OC OD OE
66 O
A
OB OC OD OE
67 O
A
OB OC OD OE
68 O
A
OB OC OD OE
69 O
A
OB OC OD OE
70 O
A
OB OC OD OE
71 O
A
OB OC OD OE
72 O
A
OB OC OD OE
73 O
A
OB OC OD OE
74 O
A
OB OC OD OE
75 O
A
OB OC OD OE
76 O
A
OB OC OD OE
77 O
A
OB OC OD OE
78 O
A
OB OC OD OE
79 O
A
OB OC OD OE
80 O
A
OB OC OD OE
81 O
A
OB OC OD OE
82 O
A
OB OC OD OE
83 O
A
OB OC OD OE
84 O
A
OB OC OD OE
85 O
A
OB OC OD OE
86 O
A
OB OC OD OE
87 O
A
OB OC OD OE
88 O
A
OB OC OD OE
89 O
A
OB OC OD OE
90 O
A
OB OC OD OE
91 O
A
OB OC OD OE
92 O
A
OB OC OD OE
93 O
A
OB OC OD OE
94 O
A
OB OC OD OE
95 O
A
OB OC OD OE
96 O
A
OB OC OD OE
97 O
A
OB OC OD OE
98 O
A
OB OC OD OE
99 O
A
OB OC OD OE
100 O
A
OB OC OD OE
Leave any unused
answer spaces blank.
Test Code
V Þ O1 Þ O
2
Þ O
3
Þ O
4
Þ O5 Þ O
6
Þ O
7
Þ O
8
Þ O
9
W Þ O1 Þ O
2
Þ O
3
Þ O
4
Þ O5 Þ O
6
Þ O
7
Þ O
8
Þ O
9
X Þ O1 Þ O
2
Þ O
3
Þ O
4
Þ O5 Y Þ O
A
Þ O
B
Þ OC Þ O
D
Þ O
E
Q Þ O1 Þ O
2
Þ O
3
Þ O
4
Þ O5 Þ O
6
Þ O
7
Þ O
8
Þ O
9
Subject Test (print)
FOR ETS
USE ONLY
R/C W/S1 FS/S2 CS/S3 WS
1 O
A
OB OC OD OE
2 O
A
OB OC OD OE
3 O
A
OB OC OD OE
4 O
A
OB OC OD OE
5 O
A
OB OC OD OE
6 O
A
OB OC OD OE
7 O
A
OB OC OD OE
8 O
A
OB OC OD OE
9 O
A
OB OC OD OE
10 O
A
OB OC OD OE
11 O
A
OB OC OD OE
12 O
A
OB OC OD OE
13 O
A
OB OC OD OE
14 O
A
OB OC OD OE
15 O
A
OB OC OD OE
16 O
A
OB OC OD OE
17 O
A
OB OC OD OE
18 O
A
OB OC OD OE
19 O
A
OB OC OD OE
20 O
A
OB OC OD OE
21 O
A
OB OC OD OE
22 O
A
OB OC OD OE
23 O
A
OB OC OD OE
24 O
A
OB OC OD OE
25 O
A
OB OC OD OE
26 O
A
OB OC OD OE
27 O
A
OB OC OD OE
28 O
A
OB OC OD OE
29 O
A
OB OC OD OE
30 O
A
OB OC OD OE
31 O
A
OB OC OD OE
32 O
A
OB OC OD OE
33 O
A
OB OC OD OE
34 O
A
OB OC OD OE
35 O
A
OB OC OD OE
36 O
A
OB OC OD OE
37 O
A
OB OC OD OE
38 O
A
OB OC OD OE
39 O
A
OB OC OD OE
40 O
A
OB OC OD OE
41 O
A
OB OC OD OE
42 O
A
OB OC OD OE
43 O
A
OB OC OD OE
44 O
A
OB OC OD OE
45 O
A
OB OC OD OE
46 O
A
OB OC OD OE
47 O
A
OB OC OD OE
48 O
A
OB OC OD OE
49 O
A
OB OC OD OE
50 O
A
OB OC OD OE
51 O
A
OB OC OD OE
52 O
A
OB OC OD OE
53 O
A
OB OC OD OE
54 O
A
OB OC OD OE
55 O
A
OB OC OD OE
56 O
A
OB OC OD OE
57 O
A
OB OC OD OE
58 O
A
OB OC OD OE
59 O
A
OB OC OD OE
60 O
A
OB OC OD OE
61 O
A
OB OC OD OE
62 O
A
OB OC OD OE
63 O
A
OB OC OD OE
64 O
A
OB OC OD OE
65 O
A
OB OC OD OE
66 O
A
OB OC OD OE
67 O
A
OB OC OD OE
68 O
A
OB OC OD OE
69 O
A
OB OC OD OE
70 O
A
OB OC OD OE
71 O
A
OB OC OD OE
72 O
A
OB OC OD OE
73 O
A
OB OC OD OE
74 O
A
OB OC OD OE
75 O
A
OB OC OD OE
76 O
A
OB OC OD OE
77 O
A
OB OC OD OE
78 O
A
OB OC OD OE
79 O
A
OB OC OD OE
80 O
A
OB OC OD OE
81 O
A
OB OC OD OE
82 O
A
OB OC OD OE
83 O
A
OB OC OD OE
84 O
A
OB OC OD OE
85 O
A
OB OC OD OE
86 O
A
OB OC OD OE
87 O
A
OB OC OD OE
88 O
A
OB OC OD OE
89 O
A
OB OC OD OE
90 O
A
OB OC OD OE
91 O
A
OB OC OD OE
92 O
A
OB OC OD OE
93 O
A
OB OC OD OE
94 O
A
OB OC OD OE
95 O
A
OB OC OD OE
96 O
A
OB OC OD OE
97 O
A
OB OC OD OE
98 O
A
OB OC OD OE
99 O
A
OB OC OD OE
100 O
A
OB OC OD OE
Leave any unused
answer spaces blank.
Test Code
V Þ O1 Þ O
2
Þ O
3
Þ O
4
Þ O5 Þ O
6
Þ O
7
Þ O
8
Þ O
9
W Þ O1 Þ O
2
Þ O
3
Þ O
4
Þ O5 Þ O
6
Þ O
7
Þ O
8
Þ O
9
X Þ O1 Þ O
2
Þ O
3
Þ O
4
Þ O5 Y Þ O
A
Þ O
B
Þ OC Þ O
D
Þ O
E
Q Þ O1 Þ O
2
Þ O
3
Þ O
4
Þ O5 Þ O
6
Þ O
7
Þ O
8
Þ O
9
Subject Test (print)
FOR ETS
USE ONLY
R/C W/S1 FS/S2 CS/S3 WS
1 O
A
OB OC OD OE
2 O
A
OB OC OD OE
3 O
A
OB OC OD OE
4 O
A
OB OC OD OE
5 O
A
OB OC OD OE
6 O
A
OB OC OD OE
7 O
A
OB OC OD OE
8 O
A
OB OC OD OE
9 O
A
OB OC OD OE
10 O
A
OB OC OD OE
11 O
A
OB OC OD OE
12 O
A
OB OC OD OE
13 O
A
OB OC OD OE
14 O
A
OB OC OD OE
15 O
A
OB OC OD OE
16 O
A
OB OC OD OE
17 O
A
OB OC OD OE
18 O
A
OB OC OD OE
19 O
A
OB OC OD OE
20 O
A
OB OC OD OE
21 O
A
OB OC OD OE
22 O
A
OB OC OD OE
23 O
A
OB OC OD OE
24 O
A
OB OC OD OE
25 O
A
OB OC OD OE
26 O
A
OB OC OD OE
27 O
A
OB OC OD OE
28 O
A
OB OC OD OE
29 O
A
OB OC OD OE
30 O
A
OB OC OD OE
31 O
A
OB OC OD OE
32 O
A
OB OC OD OE
33 O
A
OB OC OD OE
34 O
A
OB OC OD OE
35 O
A
OB OC OD OE
36 O
A
OB OC OD OE
37 O
A
OB OC OD OE
38 O
A
OB OC OD OE
39 O
A
OB OC OD OE
40 O
A
OB OC OD OE
41 O
A
OB OC OD OE
42 O
A
OB OC OD OE
43 O
A
OB OC OD OE
44 O
A
OB OC OD OE
45 O
A
OB OC OD OE
46 O
A
OB OC OD OE
47 O
A
OB OC OD OE
48 O
A
OB OC OD OE
49 O
A
OB OC OD OE
50 O
A
OB OC OD OE
51 O
A
OB OC OD OE
52 O
A
OB OC OD OE
53 O
A
OB OC OD OE
54 O
A
OB OC OD OE
55 O
A
OB OC OD OE
56 O
A
OB OC OD OE
57 O
A
OB OC OD OE
58 O
A
OB OC OD OE
59 O
A
OB OC OD OE
60 O
A
OB OC OD OE
61 O
A
OB OC OD OE
62 O
A
OB OC OD OE
63 O
A
OB OC OD OE
64 O
A
OB OC OD OE
65 O
A
OB OC OD OE
66 O
A
OB OC OD OE
67 O
A
OB OC OD OE
68 O
A
OB OC OD OE
69 O
A
OB OC OD OE
70 O
A
OB OC OD OE
71 O
A
OB OC OD OE
72 O
A
OB OC OD OE
73 O
A
OB OC OD OE
74 O
A
OB OC OD OE
75 O
A
OB OC OD OE
76 O
A
OB OC OD OE
77 O
A
OB OC OD OE
78 O
A
OB OC OD OE
79 O
A
OB OC OD OE
80 O
A
OB OC OD OE
81 O
A
OB OC OD OE
82 O
A
OB OC OD OE
83 O
A
OB OC OD OE
84 O
A
OB OC OD OE
85 O
A
OB OC OD OE
86 O
A
OB OC OD OE
87 O
A
OB OC OD OE
88 O
A
OB OC OD OE
89 O
A
OB OC OD OE
90 O
A
OB OC OD OE
91 O
A
OB OC OD OE
92 O
A
OB OC OD OE
93 O
A
OB OC OD OE
94 O
A
OB OC OD OE
95 O
A
OB OC OD OE
96 O
A
OB OC OD OE
97 O
A
OB OC OD OE
98 O
A
OB OC OD OE
99 O
A
OB OC OD OE
100 O
A
OB OC OD OE
Leave any unused
answer spaces blank.
Test Code
V Þ O1 Þ O
2
Þ O
3
Þ O
4
Þ O5 Þ O
6
Þ O
7
Þ O
8
Þ O
9
W Þ O1 Þ O
2
Þ O
3
Þ O
4
Þ O5 Þ O
6
Þ O
7
Þ O
8
Þ O
9
X Þ O1 Þ O
2
Þ O
3
Þ O
4
Þ O5 Y Þ O
A
Þ O
B
Þ OC Þ O
D
Þ O
E
Q Þ O1 Þ O
2
Þ O
3
Þ O
4
Þ O5 Þ O
6
Þ O
7
Þ O
8
Þ O
9
Subject Test (print)
FOR ETS
USE ONLY
R/C W/S1 FS/S2 CS/S3 WS
1 O
A
OB OC OD OE
2 O
A
OB OC OD OE
3 O
A
OB OC OD OE
4 O
A
OB OC OD OE
5 O
A
OB OC OD OE
6 O
A
OB OC OD OE
7 O
A
OB OC OD OE
8 O
A
OB OC OD OE
9 O
A
OB OC OD OE
10 O
A
OB OC OD OE
11 O
A
OB OC OD OE
12 O
A
OB OC OD OE
13 O
A
OB OC OD OE
14 O
A
OB OC OD OE
15 O
A
OB OC OD OE
16 O
A
OB OC OD OE
17 O
A
OB OC OD OE
18 O
A
OB OC OD OE
19 O
A
OB OC OD OE
20 O
A
OB OC OD OE
21 O
A
OB OC OD OE
22 O
A
OB OC OD OE
23 O
A
OB OC OD OE
24 O
A
OB OC OD OE
25 O
A
OB OC OD OE
26 O
A
OB OC OD OE
27 O
A
OB OC OD OE
28 O
A
OB OC OD OE
29 O
A
OB OC OD OE
30 O
A
OB OC OD OE
31 O
A
OB OC OD OE
32 O
A
OB OC OD OE
33 O
A
OB OC OD OE
34 O
A
OB OC OD OE
35 O
A
OB OC OD OE
36 O
A
OB OC OD OE
37 O
A
OB OC OD OE
38 O
A
OB OC OD OE
39 O
A
OB OC OD OE
40 O
A
OB OC OD OE
41 O
A
OB OC OD OE
42 O
A
OB OC OD OE
43 O
A
OB OC OD OE
44 O
A
OB OC OD OE
45 O
A
OB OC OD OE
46 O
A
OB OC OD OE
47 O
A
OB OC OD OE
48 O
A
OB OC OD OE
49 O
A
OB OC OD OE
50 O
A
OB OC OD OE
51 O
A
OB OC OD OE
52 O
A
OB OC OD OE
53 O
A
OB OC OD OE
54 O
A
OB OC OD OE
55 O
A
OB OC OD OE
56 O
A
OB OC OD OE
57 O
A
OB OC OD OE
58 O
A
OB OC OD OE
59 O
A
OB OC OD OE
60 O
A
OB OC OD OE
61 O
A
OB OC OD OE
62 O
A
OB OC OD OE
63 O
A
OB OC OD OE
64 O
A
OB OC OD OE
65 O
A
OB OC OD OE
66 O
A
OB OC OD OE
67 O
A
OB OC OD OE
68 O
A
OB OC OD OE
69 O
A
OB OC OD OE
70 O
A
OB OC OD OE
71 O
A
OB OC OD OE
72 O
A
OB OC OD OE
73 O
A
OB OC OD OE
74 O
A
OB OC OD OE
75 O
A
OB OC OD OE
76 O
A
OB OC OD OE
77 O
A
OB OC OD OE
78 O
A
OB OC OD OE
79 O
A
OB OC OD OE
80 O
A
OB OC OD OE
81 O
A
OB OC OD OE
82 O
A
OB OC OD OE
83 O
A
OB OC OD OE
84 O
A
OB OC OD OE
85 O
A
OB OC OD OE
86 O
A
OB OC OD OE
87 O
A
OB OC OD OE
88 O
A
OB OC OD OE
89 O
A
OB OC OD OE
90 O
A
OB OC OD OE
91 O
A
OB OC OD OE
92 O
A
OB OC OD OE
93 O
A
OB OC OD OE
94 O
A
OB OC OD OE
95 O
A
OB OC OD OE
96 O
A
OB OC OD OE
97 O
A
OB OC OD OE
98 O
A
OB OC OD OE
99 O
A
OB OC OD OE
100 O
A
OB OC OD OE
Leave any unused
answer spaces blank.
Test Code
V Þ O1 Þ O
2
Þ O
3
Þ O
4
Þ O5 Þ O
6
Þ O
7
Þ O
8
Þ O
9
W Þ O1 Þ O
2
Þ O
3
Þ O
4
Þ O5 Þ O
6
Þ O
7
Þ O
8
Þ O
9
X Þ O1 Þ O
2
Þ O
3
Þ O
4
Þ O5 Y Þ O
A
Þ O
B
Þ OC Þ O
D
Þ O
E
Q Þ O1 Þ O
2
Þ O
3
Þ O
4
Þ O5 Þ O
6
Þ O
7
Þ O
8
Þ O
9
Subject Test (print)
FOR ETS
USE ONLY
R/C W/S1 FS/S2 CS/S3 WS
1 O
A
OB OC OD OE
2 O
A
OB OC OD OE
3 O
A
OB OC OD OE
4 O
A
OB OC OD OE
5 O
A
OB OC OD OE
6 O
A
OB OC OD OE
7 O
A
OB OC OD OE
8 O
A
OB OC OD OE
9 O
A
OB OC OD OE
10 O
A
OB OC OD OE
11 O
A
OB OC OD OE
12 O
A
OB OC OD OE
13 O
A
OB OC OD OE
14 O
A
OB OC OD OE
15 O
A
OB OC OD OE
16 O
A
OB OC OD OE
17 O
A
OB OC OD OE
18 O
A
OB OC OD OE
19 O
A
OB OC OD OE
20 O
A
OB OC OD OE
21 O
A
OB OC OD OE
22 O
A
OB OC OD OE
23 O
A
OB OC OD OE
24 O
A
OB OC OD OE
25 O
A
OB OC OD OE
26 O
A
OB OC OD OE
27 O
A
OB OC OD OE
28 O
A
OB OC OD OE
29 O
A
OB OC OD OE
30 O
A
OB OC OD OE
31 O
A
OB OC OD OE
32 O
A
OB OC OD OE
33 O
A
OB OC OD OE
34 O
A
OB OC OD OE
35 O
A
OB OC OD OE
36 O
A
OB OC OD OE
37 O
A
OB OC OD OE
38 O
A
OB OC OD OE
39 O
A
OB OC OD OE
40 O
A
OB OC OD OE
41 O
A
OB OC OD OE
42 O
A
OB OC OD OE
43 O
A
OB OC OD OE
44 O
A
OB OC OD OE
45 O
A
OB OC OD OE
46 O
A
OB OC OD OE
47 O
A
OB OC OD OE
48 O
A
OB OC OD OE
49 O
A
OB OC OD OE
50 O
A
OB OC OD OE
51 O
A
OB OC OD OE
52 O
A
OB OC OD OE
53 O
A
OB OC OD OE
54 O
A
OB OC OD OE
55 O
A
OB OC OD OE
56 O
A
OB OC OD OE
57 O
A
OB OC OD OE
58 O
A
OB OC OD OE
59 O
A
OB OC OD OE
60 O
A
OB OC OD OE
61 O
A
OB OC OD OE
62 O
A
OB OC OD OE
63 O
A
OB OC OD OE
64 O
A
OB OC OD OE
65 O
A
OB OC OD OE
66 O
A
OB OC OD OE
67 O
A
OB OC OD OE
68 O
A
OB OC OD OE
69 O
A
OB OC OD OE
70 O
A
OB OC OD OE
71 O
A
OB OC OD OE
72 O
A
OB OC OD OE
73 O
A
OB OC OD OE
74 O
A
OB OC OD OE
75 O
A
OB OC OD OE
76 O
A
OB OC OD OE
77 O
A
OB OC OD OE
78 O
A
OB OC OD OE
79 O
A
OB OC OD OE
80 O
A
OB OC OD OE
81 O
A
OB OC OD OE
82 O
A
OB OC OD OE
83 O
A
OB OC OD OE
84 O
A
OB OC OD OE
85 O
A
OB OC OD OE
86 O
A
OB OC OD OE
87 O
A
OB OC OD OE
88 O
A
OB OC OD OE
89 O
A
OB OC OD OE
90 O
A
OB OC OD OE
91 O
A
OB OC OD OE
92 O
A
OB OC OD OE
93 O
A
OB OC OD OE
94 O
A
OB OC OD OE
95 O
A
OB OC OD OE
96 O
A
OB OC OD OE
97 O
A
OB OC OD OE
98 O
A
OB OC OD OE
99 O
A
OB OC OD OE
100 O
A
OB OC OD OE

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