Chapter 44: osmoregulation and excretion • Osmoregulation: regulation of solute concentrations and water balance by a cell or organism • Osmolarity=tonicity

• Isoosmotic= isotonic-same concentration of solute • Hyper osmotic = hypertonic • Hypoosmatic=hypotonic • Osmoconformer= an animal that is isoosmotic with its environment • Osmoregulator= an animal that controls its internal osmolarity independent of the external environment • Stenohaline: organisms that cannot tolerate substantial changes in external osmolarity • Euryhaline: organisms that tolerate substantial changes in external osmolarity • Most marine animals are osmoconformers • Most marine chordates are osmoregalators • Body tissues are hypo osmotic to sea water • Osmotic water loss through gills and other parts of body surface • Excretion of salt ions and small amounts of water on scanty urine from kidneys(they don't pee much because they don't want to lose water) • Gain of water and salt ions from food and by drinking seawater • Excretion of salt ions from gills (active transport) • Sharks are slightly hyper osmotic to sea water • High levels of urea (metabolic waste) in body fluids • Requires other chemicals to protect tissues form urea, which is toxic (trimelamine oxide) • All freshwater animals are osmoregalators • Body tissues are hyper osmotic to fresh water • Porifera have contractile vacuoles • Cnidaria use gastrovascular cavity • Fish: body tissues are hyper osmotic to fresh water • Osmotic water gain through gills and other parts of body surface • Uptake of water and some ions in food • Excretion of large amounts of water • All terrestrial animals are osmoregalators • Arthropoda: exoskeleton, excretory system to prevent water loss • Mollusca: shell, mucus, excretory system to reduce water loss • Chordata: skin to prevent water loss Metabolic water

water follows by osmosis • Reabsorption of water.11 drain fluid into the the environment.12 • Function as the same basis as protonephridia • Body fluid being pumped out.10 • Platyhelminthes have protonephridia. ions and valuable organic molecules in rectum • Osmoregulation and excretion . Flame bulb. constantly in motion. useful molecules are reclaimed along the way • Hypertonic • Important for excretion and osmoregulation • Arthropoda (insects) have malpighian tubules 44.13 • Wastes and other ions pumped out.main advantage Uric acid • Requires more energy to produce than urea does • Relatively insoluble in water • So it could be excreted as paste without water Sponges don't have an excretory system Excretory process: 44. claim useful molecules on the way Organs of osmoregulation • Annelida have metaniphridia fig 44. pushes water down to the protonephridia and out of the body. fig 44.• Excretion: the disposal of nitrogen containing metabolites (molecules generated by metabolism) and other waste products • Excretory system • Disposal of metabolic waste • Particularly nitrogen • Most aquatic animals convert amino groups remove ammonia • Mammals convert amino group to urea • Many replies convert amino group to uric acid Ammonia • Toxic at low concentrations • Flushed from body with copious water Urea • Requires energy to produce • less toxic • Therefore you could tolerate it at higher concentration • Therefore it requires less water to flush it out . Pump body fluid out.

by ingested liquid and derived from metabolism Kangaroo rats get their water from their metabolism and some of it from the food Humans lose water from mostly from urine. it is called a filtrate Humans get their water from food.14-44.• Chordates 44. evaporation. and feces Kangaroo rats lose water mostly from evaporation (dry environment) urine and feces .15 • Pelvis contains urinary bladder • Urine is excreted through urethra • Kidneys • Collecting ducts collect fluid from nephrons and take them to renal pelvis • As blood flows through Glomerulus it loses a lot of fluid • Bowman's capsule collects fluid around glomerulus • Fluid goes through proximal tubule down to the loop of henle • Fluid then goes back up the tubule to the distale tubule and drains into the collecting duct • The fluid that leaks out of glomerulus is mostly blood plasma.

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