REVISION LOG SHEET NOTE NO. 1 PAGE 4 DESCRIPTION / REMARKS Deleted: 1. (Substitution) “IPPCN (Industria Petrolera, Petroquímica y Carbonífera Nacional)” to “RDP” in the 2nd paragraph. Substituted: “10045D-000-CS-AD-A251(RDP-IB-000-CS-AD-A251 Overall Drainage System” to “10045D-000-PR-DB-004(RDP-IB-000PR-DB-004 Design Basis for Overall Drainage System” Section 6.1 Changed: “(AOC)” to “(COC)” Added: “6.1.3 (Deletion) Entire Section“ Added: “7.4.3 (Modification) …” Section 7.9.5 Changed Paragraph Section 7.10 Changed Paragraph

N/A

4, 5

1 1 N/A 1 1

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REFINERIA DEL PACIFICO SK ENGINEERING & CONSTRUCTION

RDP-IB-000-CS-AD-HE-251PRT 10045D-000-CS-AD-HE-251PRT

Rev. Date

0 17-Aug2011

Pag e 2 of 8

TABLE OF CONTENTS 1. SCOPE ................................................................................................................................... 4 2. MODIFICATION ..................................................................................................................... 4 3. ATTACHMENT ....................................................................................................................... 8

REFINERIA DEL PACIFICO SK ENGINEERING & CONSTRUCTION

RDP-IB-000-CS-AD-HE-251PRT 10045D-000-CS-AD-HE-251PRT

Rev. Date

0 17-Aug2011

Pag e 3 of 8

1.

SCOPE PDVSA Specification HE-251-PRT Rev. 2, dated Sep. 1995, Drainage Systems, is adopted for the Refinery and Petrochemical Complex of the Ecuadorian Pacific Project owned by Refinería del Pacífico (hereinafter “RDP”) and used with the revisions noted in this addendum.

2.

MODIFICATION Paragraphs shall be revised as shown below to indicate the type of change: (Addition) New paragraph or supplemental requirements/clarifications to an existing paragraph. Paragraph deleted. A decision has been made as required. Paragraph superseded in its entirety Shall indicate specific revisions as noted in this specification

(Deletion) (Decision) (Substitution) (Modification)

(Substitution) “PDVSA ” shall be changed to” RDP” throughout the specification. (Substitution) “IPPCN ” shall be changed to” RDP” throughout the specification. The following requirements are defined as new, addition, deletion, and revisions to Specification PDVSA HE-251-PRT Rev. 2, dated Sept. 1995.

3.

(Deletion) IR-S-00 IR-G-01 IR-P-01 0602.1.472 AG-211-PRT AG-212-PT (Addition)

Delete as follow “Definitions” “Design Criteria for Offshore Facilities” “Emergency Stop, Block, Depressurization and Plant & Equipment Systems” “Dike for Storage Tanks” “Dike for Storage Tanks” “Concrete Curbed Walls for Storage Tanks” Add as follow

10045D-000-PR-DB-004 (RDP-IB-000-PR-DB-004)
REFINERIA DEL PACIFICO SK ENGINEERING & CONSTRUCTION RDP-IB-000-CS-AD-HE-251PRT 10045D-000-CS-AD-HE-251PRT Rev. Date 0 17-Aug2011 Pag e 4 of 8

1. urinals. bathroom sinkholes. Code of practice for the design of running water supply systems.1.4.” to “This system collects domestic wastewater from toilets. (Substitution) . launderers.“Design Basis for Overall Drainage System” CPE INEN 005-Parte 9-2:97. washrooms.1. Date 0 17-Aug2011 Pag e 5 of 8 6. sewers. showers. canteens and other domestic sources from REFINERIA DEL PACIFICO SK ENGINEERING & CONSTRUCTION RDP-IB-000-CS-AD-HE-251PRT 10045D-000-CS-AD-HE-251PRT Rev. urinals. Ecuadorian Building Code. Definitions” Substitution as follow “Drain systems for water not contaminated by hydrocarbons” to “Drain systems for Non-contaminated water by hydrocarbons (NCW)” “Drain systems for waters contaminated by hydrocarbons” to “ Drain systems for accidently oil contaminated water (AOC)” (Addition) Add as follow Continuously Oil Contaminated Wastewater (COC) Sanitary Sewage Wastewater (SSW) 6. floor sinks in kitchens. dressing rooms. 6.1.1. sanitary and dining rooms. (Substitution) 6.2.3. (Substitution) “Drain systems for waters not contaminated by hydrocarbons” to “Drain systems for Non-Contaminated water by hydrocarbons (NCW)” “Drain systems for waters contaminated by hydrocarbons” to “Drain systems for accidentally oil contaminated wastewater (AOC)” “PDVSA QA-201-POT “Hydrostatic Test for Pipes” to “10045D-000-PI-AD-PI020801 (RDP-IB-000-PI-AD-PI020801) Addendum to Inspection Procedure PDVSA PI-02-08-01 Hydrostatic and Pneumatic Test for Piping Systems” 6. excreta and liquid residues disposal in rural areas 4. Drain systems for waters contaminated by chemical products” Substitution as follow “Sewage Water Systems” to “Sanitary Sewage Wastewater (SSW)” “These systems carry waste coming from toilets. Plumbing Design.1.3. (Deletion) (Substitution) Entire section “4.1. (Deletion) Entire section “6.

Plumbing Design. excreta and liquid residues disposal in rural areas”” “e. (Substitution) 7.5. The slope of open channel shall be calculated based on 10045D-000-CS-DB-001 (RDPIB-000-CS-DB-001) Section 8.8 (Substitution) . The Sanitary Sewage Wastewater shall be collected in sumps and transferred to the biological treater in the Effluent Treatment Plants (ETP).6. they must be located at a safe place based on a dispertion and radiation analysis result.buildings.90” “Minimum and maximum flow velocities must comply with this Guide as well as the norms of the “Instituto Nacional de Obras Sanitarias”.” “d. Ventilation pipes will be placed in compliance with the norms of PDVSA IR-P-01 “Emergency Stop. to discharge at least 3 meters above any working platform and a separation distance of at least 30 meters from other working platforms. “Gaceta Oficial Nro. the most restrictive norms will be used. (Substitution) 7. Sewers must be sized in compliance with CPE INEN 005-Parte 9-2:97. Ecuadorian Building Code. Sewers must be sized in compliance with the norms of the “Instituto Nacional de Obras Sanitarias. Date 0 17-Aug-2011 6 Page of 8 7. (Deletion) 7.” 7.” “e.” “For process units.2.8.”” to “ e. The venting system design must meet the following requirements: „ Discharges to atmosphere must be located at least 30 meters from continuos ignition.3 item 5.8. (Deletion) “the norms of the “Instituto Nacional de Obras Sanitarias” (National Institute of Sanotary Works). Block. catch basin must exist every 280 m …” “Paved areas by asphalt or concrete 1.1. „ Gases and vapors discharged from vent pipes must not present injury risk to personnel or risk of equipment REFINERIA DEL PACIFICO SK ENGINEERING & CONSTRUCTION RDP-IB-000-CS-AD-HE-251-PRT 10045D-000-CS-AD-HE-251-PRT Rev. Depressurization Systems and Plan & Equipment Ventilation.4. „ Vent pipes must be installed on all atmospheric vessel relief valves.2. catch basin must exist every 233 m2…” to 2 “For process units.9. 752 Extraordinaria” of 26-02-62.9.00” to “Paved areas by asphalt or concrete 0.9.1. The floor of an open channel must have a minimum slope of 1% towards the catch basin” to “ d. warehouses and shelters on site.1. (Substitution) 7. Nevertheless.”” to “e.3 (Modification) 7. Code of practice for the design of running water supply systems.

„ Residual light ends in vessels with volumes less than or equal to 0.1. „ Relief device discharge piping must be supported and anchored to withstand the resulting reaction forces. can discharge to closed drain systems with valves.10.Vent headers designed to receive liquids or condensibles must beself–draining to avoid liquid accumulation in the piping. except relief valves installed to release liquid thermal expansion. or to a flare or vent stack.472 “Earth dikes for storage Tanks” and PDVSA AG-212-PT “Concrete Walls for Storage Tanks” to “Design of dikes or containment walls around storage tanks will have to comply with the requirements indicated in 10045D000-CS-DB-001 (RDP-IB-000-CS-DB-001) Section 8. (Deletion) REFINERIA DEL PACIFICO SK ENGINEERING & CONSTRUCTION . „ Flammable liquids and/or combustible liquids with operating temperatures below their flash point. „ Discharges of vapor or condensate must be through steam traps. Date 0 17-Aug2011 Pag e 7 of 8 8. „ All vertical vent piping must have a drain or weep hole at its base to eliminate water that could accumulate within the piping.2” “Drain systems of offshore platforms must be designed RDP-IB-000-CS-AD-HE-251PRT 10045D-000-CS-AD-HE-251PRT Rev. „ All relief valves venting liquid or two–phase fluid must discharge through a separator. „ Hydrocarbons lighter than 68 API that is with relative density of 0.1.709 at 15°C (59 °F) and 1.03 kg/cm2 (14.damage. „ In locations where vapor and gas atmospheric discharge pipes can be affected by electrical discharges (static and lightning). Neither discharge must go to pathways or areas visited by personnel or close to equipment working at temperatures above 315 °C (600 °F). the vent pipe must have a coupled connection to discharge steam or any other inert gas in the vertical piping of the venting system so a fire in the discharge can be suffocated. 7.1.1 m3 (26 gallons) can be vented to atmosphere when equipment is out of service or for major maintenance. (Substitution) “Design of dikes or containment walls around storage tanks will have to comply with the requirements indicated in Guide PDVSA 0602.1.7 psi) must be vented to a safe location.

Reparacion y Reforma de Edificios” (Sanitary Guide for Projects. Construccion. 752 “Guias Sanitarias para Proyectos. Date 0 17-Aug2011 Pag e 8 of 8 . ATTACHMENT PDVSA HE-251-PRT Drainage Systems REFINERIA DEL PACIFICO SK ENGINEERING & CONSTRUCTION RDP-IB-000-CS-AD-HE-251PRT 10045D-000-CS-AD-HE-251PRT Rev.1. (Deletion) 3. 9. Reparation and Reform of Buildings).” 8.” Entire section 9.1.5.2. (Deletion) “The drain system must be designed in compliance to what is established by the Gaceta Oficial de la Republica de Venezuela No.according to what is established in document PDVSA-IR-G-01 “Design Criteria for Offshore Installations”. Construction.

A. Carlos Corrie © PDVSA. Luis Hernandez APPROV.T. APPROV DATE May 93 REV APPROV APPROV. 85 DATE GENERAL REVISION GENERAL REVISION APPROVED DESCRIPTION DATE May 93 31 29 29 PAG L.R. J. 1983 SPECIALISTS .95 MAY 93 DIC.R. TITLE HE-251-PRT DRAINAGE SYSTEMS 2 1 0 REV SEP. J.ENGINEERING DESIGN MANUAL VOLUME 18-I ENGINEERING SPECIFICATION PDVSA No. E.N.J.

..................4......................8.......................5. Determination of Design Flows ................... 26 8.. INSTALLATION .... 12 7........1........... Docks ...PVDSA HE-251-PRT ENGINEERING SPECIFICATION DRAINAGE SYSTEMS REVISION 0 DATE NOV................6............................... 3................................... 3 BASIC DESIGN CONCEPT .................. Heater Drainage................ Types of Drainage Systems .... 25 8............ 2 DEFINITIONS.............. 31 ..................7......... 12 7. 9 7.............11.................................... 2 REFERENCES ......................... 8 6................................... Pump Drainage ................ 5................. SCOPE .............................2................................ 12 7..... 3 GENERAL ASPECTS .................... Sanitary Drainage........................ 14 7............... Basic Components of Drainage Systems .... 12 7.................... 11 7..................................... 11 7.................................... SPECIFIC APPLICATIONS ....................................... Main Industrial Drainage Outside Process Areas ............... Production Areas ..3.......... 13 7........ 97 PAGE 1 INDEX 1... 4................................................................................................ Basic Components of the Drain System .....................................................................................1..........................10.....................................1.................... Buildings .......... Equipment Drainage .............4....... 25 8......................................................... 3 6.......................... 24 8............. DESIGN REQUIREMENTS .....................2............... Calculation Procedure ............................................... 26 8............... 2 APPLICATIONS......... Drainage Area Delimitation .......................... 2....................... Truck Loading shelters .................... Design Considerations ......2............................ 6 6.............................9............. 3 6.................. 6............................... 21 7.......................................4.......3...............................5.... Water Control and Containment Methods ........................ Furnace and Boilers ........ 12 7................................. 11 7.....................3..... 24 8.............. 27 9.................. Dikes or Containment Walls ................ Storm Drainage .....

This Guide must be applied in new IPPCN’s new installations and for expansions or modifications to be done on existing facilities. Petroquímica y Carbonífera Nacional) in order to avoid propagation of fires originated as a consequence of inflammable or combustible liquid spills. regulations.1. SCOPE This guide defines the minimum design requirements of drain systems in facilities of the IPPCN (Industria Petrolera. REFERENCES PDVSA – Petróleos de Venezuela. “Definitions” “Criteria for Quantitative Risk Analysis” “Location of Equipment and Facilities in Relation to Third Parties” “Firewater Systems” “Design Criteria for Offshore Facilities” “Emergency Stop. Requirements established by laws. storing or handling inflammable or combustible liquids. Block. whose current risk level (determined based on criteria indicated in Section 5) for risk tolerance established in document IR-S-02 “Criteria for Quantitative Risk Analysis”.PVDSA HE-251-PRT ENGINEERING SPECIFICATION DRAINAGE SYSTEMS REVISION 0 DATE NOV. decrees or official norms in force will prevail over what is referred to in this Guide. Depressurization and Plant & Equipment Systems” 0602. By and large. This guide will have retroactive application to existing installations. requirements of this Guide are not applicable to offshore and lake facilities unless specified. S. this Guide is based on the application of the latest techniques and practices of fire prevention established by organizations nationally and internationally recognized as well as IPPCN’s own experience. except when the latter is more demanding. In general. 2. 3. 97 PAGE 2 1.A.472 “Dike for Storage Tanks” AG-211-PRT “Dike for Storage Tanks” AG-212-PT “Concrete Curbed Walls for Storage Tanks” IR-S-00 IR-S-02 IR-M-02 IR-M-03 IR-G-01 IR-P-01 NFPA – National Fire Protection Association NFPA 15 “Water Spray Fixed Systems for Fire Protection” NFPA 30 “Flammable and Combustible Liquids Code” . APPLICATION This Guide applies to IPPCN installations processing.

Risk Analysis will be performed in accordance to the establishments in document IR-S-02 “Criteria for Quantitative Risk Analysis” 6. This Guide assumes that the facilities to be protected have been projected and erected complying with basic engineering principles and the best experienced practices accumulated to this date at IPPCN. For that purpose. minimum requirements will be scaled up in relation to the ones established by this Guide. liquid streams will have to be separated by different drain systems in accordance to the following classification: ⎯ ⎯ ⎯ ⎯ Drain systems for waters not contaminated by hydrocarbons Drain systems for waters contaminated by hydrocarbons Drain systems for waters contaminated with chemical products Sewage water systems A brief description of these systems is presented below: .PVDSA HE-251-PRT ENGINEERING SPECIFICATION DRAINAGE SYSTEMS REVISION 0 DATE NOV.1. DEFINITIONS See document IR-S-00 “Definitions” 5. BASIC DESIGN CONCEPT This Guide establishes the minimum design requirements for drain systems in order to achieve a quick discharge of liquid spills which might occur in facilities. GENERAL ASPECTS 6. On those particular cases where installations to be protected are detected to incur in deviations related to the application of engineering best practices. This same premise must be applied for existing facilities in which a risk analysis justifies the need to increase coverage level of such installations. mainly when it involves damage to people or third parties’ properties. 97 PAGE 3 API – American Petroleum Institute API RP 2001 “Fire Protection in Refineries” 4. Types of Drain Systems Treatment process of effluent liquids of a facility requires their segregation from the source.

This system cannot be interconnected with the wastewater drain system. Drain systems for waters contaminated by hydrocarbons Rain water and firewater from areas normally contaminated by hydrocarbons will go into this system as well as spills originated in areas where these types of products are handled. minding the wind’s predominant direction for the location of the . A wastewater drain system will be designed in relation to equipment’s location. 6. In this case.PVDSA HE-251-PRT ENGINEERING SPECIFICATION DRAINAGE SYSTEMS REVISION 0 DATE NOV.1. enough catch basins must exist in order to discharge fire and rain water. undeveloped areas ⎯ Perimeter roads ⎯ Vehicle parking ⎯ Building roofs ⎯ Areas outside containment walls in tank farms ⎯ Areas where the presence of hydrocarbon spills cannot be predicted Drainage of waters not contaminated by hydrocarbons will be discharged by means of open channels into catch basins.2. the separator will discharge into the main system.1. In each area serviced by this system.1. The main pipe of a specific area must not pass through other areas and must connect to a separator. Effluent discharges with temperatures above 45°C must be avoided in order to prevent inflammable vapor emissions. 97 PAGE 4 6. Drain systems for waters not contaminated by hydrocarbons Rain water belongs into this classification as well as rainwater applied to areas such as: ⎯ Uncultivated. avoiding fire propagation and floods. This network consists of a main drain pipe joining into catch basins located in the areas being serviced through lateral and sub-lateral piping. Some of them are: ⎯ Service stations ⎯ Process areas ⎯ Truck loading shelters ⎯ Docks ⎯ Spaces inside containment walls and storage tanks ⎯ Other areas where hydrocarbons are handled Discharge of this drainage will be performed through underground pipes in a network designed to flow by gravity.

Drain systems for waters contaminated by chemical products Storm water and fire water are considered contaminated with chemical products. 6.6 meters. launderers. Usually.5) times maximum operating pressure. COD or BOD. urinals. especially on the downstream side of long straight sections of pipes placed at low inclinations. ⎯ High concentrations of acid or alkaline materials. The minimum ground layer which should exist on top of any main. caustics and others not allowed discharging to the sanitary sewer or any other sewer in the plant. pipe joints and manholes which allow filtration represent a load increase in effluent treatment installations since they allow for the seeping of underground water. bathroom catch basins. Sewage water systems These systems carry waste coming from toilets.3. ⎯ Chemical laboratory waste ⎯ Sulfurous waste waters from separators 6. floor sinks in kitchens. Moreover. Before being covered.1.1.4. Impermeability of drain systems is essential to avoid leaks that could cause release of hydrocarbons or other contaminants which would eventually reach the water table level after seeping into the ground. lateral or sub-lateral pipe will be 0. drain. dressing rooms. . sanitary and dining rooms. showers. all underground drain pipes must be hydrostatically tested at a pressure equal to one and a half (1. as well as water spill or runoff from areas where products such as acids.PVDSA HE-251-PRT ENGINEERING SPECIFICATION DRAINAGE SYSTEMS REVISION 0 DATE NOV. The way in which this test is performed as well as its duration and acceptable tolerances will be based on the accepted engineering practices as per document PDVSA-QA-201-POT “Hydrostatic Test for Pipes”. 97 PAGE 5 separator. the main pipe and its interconnection manholes are installed in the perimeter of the area to be drained.

2. Sub-lateral Drain Piping Pipes connected to catch basins. they discharge into lateral drain pipes. They can also trap sediments avoiding clogging of the drainage system. . 6. 6.5.2.6. Discharges to the main drain piping. 6.4. Open Channel A continuous open duct discharging into a catch basin or directly into a separator or an effluent-treatment plant.PVDSA HE-251-PRT ENGINEERING SPECIFICATION DRAINAGE SYSTEMS REVISION 0 DATE NOV. Main Drain Piping Collects runoff from the lateral drains and discharge them to a separator or effluent-treatment plant.2. Manhole A concrete structure used as a joint point between underground pipes and as a sediment trap.2.1.2.2. 6. 6.2. Lateral Drain Piping Piping collecting effluents coming from two or more sub-lateral drain pipe systems. Basic Components of Drain Systems They are: ⎯ Catch Basins ⎯ Sub-lateral drain pipes ⎯ Lateral drain pipes ⎯ Main drain pipes ⎯ Open channels ⎯ Manholes ⎯ Hydraulic seals ⎯ Ventilation pipes ⎯ Oil traps ⎯ Separators Figure 1 shows an example of the typical arrangement of a process area’s drainage system.2. Catch Basins They collect liquids which could exist above the terrain’s surface and from process equipment’s effluents.3. Also serves to provide access for inspection work and maintenance to pipes discharging into it. 97 PAGE 6 6. 6.

PROCESS AREA – TYPICAL DRAIN SYSTEM TYPICAL CATCH BASIN ARRANAGEMENT S = Catch Basin . 97 PAGE 7 FIG 1.PVDSA HE-251-PRT ENGINEERING SPECIFICATION DRAINAGE SYSTEMS REVISION 0 DATE NOV.

firewater and hydrocarbon spills to flow to a safe place. This separation is generally done by gravity.3.2.9. it is not designed for the segregation of emulsion oil. Separator A device designed to eliminate small oil particles found in suspension.2. which represents .8.2 from document PDVSA IR-M-03 “Firewater Systems” plus maximum effluent stream. among others. Hydraulic Seal A device designed to isolate the different parts of a hydrocarboncontaminated water drain system with the objective of avoiding inflammable vapor motion and the eventual propagation of a fire and/or explosion 6. In these cases. 97 PAGE 8 6.10. Design Considerations In the design of a full drain system for a facility. Ventilation Pipes It is a device over the top of manhole cover to maintain atmospheric pressure inside and prevent it from lifting due to increase of the pipe pressure. At first. the following factors. 6. limiting flow speed and overflow rate. 6. 6. Oil trap A device designed to contain floating oil only.PVDSA HE-251-PRT ENGINEERING SPECIFICATION DRAINAGE SYSTEMS REVISION 0 DATE NOV.7.2.2. pumping the effluents to the separator is necessary. Facilities built over low areas usually require filling in order for rain water. must be considered: ⎯ Equipment placement ⎯ Terrain topography ⎯ Predominant direction of the wind ⎯ Drainage requirements during facility’s construction ⎯ Requirements to ease effluent segregation ⎯ Future expansion of installations and/or changes in process technology or effluent treatment requirements ⎯ Facility’s operability and safety ⎯ Environmental control regulations ⎯ Over load effects during emergency situations ⎯ Sufficient conduction capacity to handle firewater draining in accordance to section 6.

rain water and firewater. 97 PAGE 9 additional costs. within possibility.2. Water Control and Containment Methods Five (5) methods or basic systems exist for the water control and/or containment of spills. Curbs Curbs can be installed where necessary to contain or direct the flow of spilled liquids. Floor Slope Main method to runoff of effluents to safe places minimizing the risk to equipment and structures.3. 6. floor slope must be such that it guarantees quick outflow of spills.1.4. in order to control the exiting of effluents.4. . They must. Maximum height will depend on design conditions. On both cases an ascending stem valve (OS & Y) must be installed at the downstream end of the drain pipe.PVDSA HE-251-PRT ENGINEERING SPECIFICATION DRAINAGE SYSTEMS REVISION 0 DATE NOV. Figure 2 shows typical details of their configuration. Dikes or Containment Walls Dikes or containment walls are used in storage tank areas to contain spills that could originate in the tanks or related equipment. 6. 6.4.4. 6. outside the wall. Frequently. natural floor slope can be effectively used in the design of drain systems as a mechanism for fire prevention. The area enclosed by containment walls can drain to pipes going through the wall and discharge to open channels or through a closed drainage system. have a concave shape in order to return sudden liquid spills back to the surrounded area. as described below.

9.3 and 7.5. CURB – CONFIGURATION On those cases in which space limitations exist or where there is an advantage to be taken from terrain topography. These pipes must be protected against possible action by flames by means of a concrete slab or bridge. nor where its use allows for a fire to affect other equipment as in the case presented by battery limits inside process areas. Underground Pipe Network Sub-lateral.4. Crossing will only be allowed for pipes with welded joints. These channels shall not be used neither as part of a hydrocarboncontaminated waste water system except on the cases mentioned in section 6. threaded or flanged accessories. Underground pipes are amply described in sections 7.4. 97 PAGE 10 FIG 2. In case no other option exists and pipelines must cross these channels. Therefore. location in relation to facility equipment and piping must be carefully studied.2. they shall not have joints. the discharge will have to be through the grating.PVDSA HE-251-PRT ENGINEERING SPECIFICATION DRAINAGE SYSTEMS REVISION 0 DATE NOV.4 in this Guide. lateral and main pipe networks form one of the top methods for effluent direction. 6.4. . 7.2. or fireproof coating. Pipelines carrying hydrocarbons must not be laid down over adjacent sleepers and / or open drain channel with fire water or service water lines.9. Open Channels This effluent disposal method is basically used to remove and conduct rain and fire water in a quick and effective way.5. 6. a remote dam system can be used to contain and conduct hydrocarbon spills.9. In cases where it’s necessary for the equipment drain system to discharge into an open channel.

Sanitary Drainage 7. “Gaceta Oficial Nro. DESIGN REQUIREMENTS Process areas must be designed and operated preventing combustible and inflammable liquid discharges into public waters.PVDSA HE-251-PRT ENGINEERING SPECIFICATION DRAINAGE SYSTEMS REVISION 0 DATE NOV. will have to be elevated above the highest point of the tallest plant floor. A process plant’s floor must have a slope such that it guarantees quick outflow of spills into catch basins. . The highest floor level must go below the longitudinal axis of the process pipelines in order to avoid leaks and inflammable or combustible liquid spills to collect below them. Sizing of sanitary drains will be determined by drain loads in compliance to the applicable code. pump groups. at a height such that it forbids flooding from either rain or product waters.2.1. 97 PAGE 11 7. towers and the sort must flow to catch basins in order to prevent fire propagation to an adjacent area. The design and installation of sanitary drains must comply with the norms of the “Instituto Nacional de Obras Sanitarias” (National Institute of Sanitary Works).1. 7. municipal drainage and/or third parties’ properties. The public areas surrounding a plant or process unit. 752 Extraordinaria” of 26-02-62.1. 7. traps and catch basins cannot be placed at a distance less than 9 meters from access paths. whichever is the largest. Storm Drainage Storm drainage will be sized for cases of rain or fire. Each one of these areas will have a maximum surface of 280m2 in paved zones. control rooms. Oil interceptors. Drainage from ovens. and the Engineering Specification of PDVSA PA-204-PT “Sewage Disposal Systems” 7. each individual drain area will have to occupy a maximum surface of 465m2. exchanger banks.2. Figure 6 shows the typical arrangement within an individual drain area. hydrogen compressors and hydrotreaters. Units in the process area must be subdivided in individual drain areas. In the case of non-paved zones.1.

3. etc. piping supports and sleepers. Loads in sub-paragraphs 7. 7. 97 PAGE 12 7. 7. Such tolerance will be the largest quantity of fire water which can be supplied in a single step and which can be discharged in the main drainage from any service or process unit.3. catch basins must exist every 233 m2 of an area. Heater Drainage Arrangement of drain areas around heaters must be done in such a way that dry catch basins are installed adjacent to the heater but not under it. 7.3.2. Waste water of the whole process plus estimated rainfall (both must be cumulative along the system) 7. pavement or surface must have a slope for water to run far from process equipment. Equipment Drainage Drains coming from equipment must discharge at an open drain joint.6.1.PVDSA HE-251-PRT ENGINEERING SPECIFICATION DRAINAGE SYSTEMS REVISION 0 DATE NOV.1 and 7. 7.3. Drainage of areas must flow to catch basins or fireproof sealed manholes. Slope of pavement must be 150mm at its maximum and end in a catch basin. sewer or circulation trap at no less than 10 meters away from the heater. 7. Pump Drainage Each pump must be installed with an open drain. 7.1. they will not be included in case separate waste treatment is required. Lines starting at dry sumps must be sealed at the catch basin. heaters.7. Waste water of the whole process plus a simple tolerance value for firewater. Main Industrial Drainage Outside Process Areas Main industrial drains outside of process units receiving the combined flow of tank farms. Also.3. .5. Whenever practical. For process units.4. Connect not more than four pump drains at a manhole with a cleanout circulation trap used as a seal against fire. containers. 7.3. street drainage.2 must not include loads from chemical drainage until after some means of neutralization.4.4.566lt/min (454m3/h). process units. must be sized to satisfy the most demanding requirements from the ones mentioned below. Drainage Area Delimitation 7.3. 7.2. Arrangements of drain areas must be the most convenient to prevent fire propagation from an area into another.3.4. but can never be less than 7.

for the selected frequency and duration. Setting of the drain system will derive from the terrain’s topography and full arrangement of the facilities.50 Loose rocks and lawns 0. Calculation Procedure 7.40 Rainfall Intensity in mm/h. Firewater flow will be determined according to the requirements established in Guide PDVSA IR-M-03 “Firewater Systems”. Flow rate through channels and pipes will have to be established for the most unfavorable conditions.1. tributary to the point being designed. 97 PAGE 13 7.4 of Specification PDVSA-SD-251 “Site Data” Peak precipitation must be converted to velocity or peak discharge using the equation: Q = 0.8. the individual drainage areas and the characteristics of their surfaces. and will develop considering the individual placement of equipment on the different areas. General Basic parameters for the design of an underground or open drain system are: the location of equipment inside facilities and flow rate.PVDSA HE-251-PRT ENGINEERING SPECIFICATION DRAINAGE SYSTEMS REVISION 0 DATE NOV.00 Joined Paths 0. Rain water flow rate is a function of its maximum intensity. L/min. Runoff coefficient measured as follows: Paved areas by asphalt or concrete 1. in square meters.0166 (Cia) Where: Q = C = Flow Quantity. i = Tc = Tc = a = . Equal to: Concentration Time A minimum of 10 minutes must be used Drain area. This flow rate will be obtained in the following way: Design rain flow rate will be based on paragraph 1.70 Clay or other non-paved surfaces 0.8. Process water flow rate will be strictly determined based on process considerations.

Each catch basin will have to be placed in the lowest point of its individual drain area.2.1.30m as a minimum. These dimensions must allow for efficient flow of the design flow rates established in section 7. Catch Basins Design of a catch basin will comply with the following requisites: a. Catch basin covers will be a honeycomb shape in all non-paved areas or where sediment or considerable debris can exist. Drainage pipes whose flow depends on gravity do not run full at normal conditions. under the discharge pipe. Basic Components of the Drainage System 7. the most restrictive norms will be used.11 b. .60m on each side. with minimum and maximum flow rates within the expected range. Individual or multiple drainage pipes discharging into a catch basin will do so by submerging the outlet by a minimum of 0. flow rate will be the maximum estimate.60m x 0. Minimum velocity will be 0.1m/s.9.3m/s are recommended. Flow velocities between 1 and 1. Internal minimum dimensions will be 0. Design will specify for a full cross-section.PVDSA HE-251-PRT ENGINEERING SPECIFICATION DRAINAGE SYSTEMS REVISION 0 DATE NOV.61m/s while maximum will be 2. Straight slot and grill type covers will be used for streets and avenues. Bottom of the catch basin will need to be at 0. Determination of Flow Rate and Velocity Drain systems are considered to operate at atmospheric pressures. 7. pipes are designed to be free flowing by gravity and sized so that velocities lie within admissible range by the materials in use. Minimum and maximum flow velocities must comply with this Guide as well as the norms of the “Instituto Nacional de Obras Sanitarias”. stairs or under pipelines. Drainage joints discharging into catch basin must be sealed joints. e. including future requirements for additional capacity. No catch basin can be directly connected to another catch basin. 97 PAGE 14 7. Therefore.15 meters under its water level c. their hydraulic design is made considering partially full pipes. c. Requirements for their placement will be the following: a. b. The catch basin must be fitted with a seal at discharge d.9. equivalent to seventy percent (70%) of the pipes’s diameter. Cannot be placed under equipment.8.

2 a & b. rainwater) and waters contaminated by hydrocarbons when the presence of inflammable vapors and.9. by consequence.9. Main Drain Piping Main drain pipes must comply with the design requirements mentioned in section 7. which will need to be 200mm.9. Open channels can also be used on those areas. Sub-laterals must be sized based on 1900L/min starting from each catch basin. Such conditions occur in areas handling Class III-A and III-B hydrocarbons and wherever spill temperature is less than 60°C. 7. except for sanitary lines outside specification. Catch Basins must be installed inside each individual unit’s area for the efficient drainage of storm. corrosion in soils and physicochemical characteristics of the effluents. e.3. 7. process and fire waters. Pipes will be preferably installed in a straight line.9. Sub-lateral Drain Piping Sub-lateral drain pipes must comply with the following requirements: a. . Open Channels Open channels can be used to drain waters not contaminated by hydrocarbons (firewater. 97 PAGE 15 d. When changes are made to the direction of the pipe layout. Lateral Drain Piping Design for lateral drain pipes must be done in compliance with requirements indicated in section 7. where the volume of liquids to drain are large enough where use of pipe may not be possible.9.4. In process areas the maximum distance of a liquid in open air will need to be the minimum possible and in no case longer than 15 meters. use elbows with a maximum angle of 45° or manholes.5. a risk of fire are very improbable.2 7.PVDSA HE-251-PRT ENGINEERING SPECIFICATION DRAINAGE SYSTEMS REVISION 0 DATE NOV. especially production areas. Its intersection with other drain systems will be done through “Y” joints or manholes. as a minimum. cast iron or concrete. 7. Construction material can be carbon steel. Internal nominal diameter cannot be smaller than 150mm.2.9. For its selection different factors will be considered such as: static and dynamic loads. b. c.

Their top slab will be designed in such a way that allows for its removal in order to permit maintenance works. Channels will be covered only where required by personnel protection. Discharge of water vapor or condensate will not be allowed into open channel systems for hydrocarbon-contaminated waters. b. Open channels must be monolithically poured together with the catch basin in which it discharges. They will be built from reinforced concrete c. b. Manhole Design must comply with the following aspects: a. Open channels will need to comply with the following requirements a.6. 97 PAGE 16 In the same way. The floor of an open channel must have a minimum slope of 1% towards the catch basin. 7. depth will be more than width. d. d. they will need to be impermeable.PVDSA HE-251-PRT ENGINEERING SPECIFICATION DRAINAGE SYSTEMS REVISION 0 DATE NOV. c. The slab must be placed at ground level in paved areas and at a minimum height of 5cm. Sealed firewalls will be placed on open channels in order to prevent fire propagation among areas. e. in non-paved areas. Open channels must be built from reinforced concrete. Whenever possible. Discharge point into the manhole must be placed at a lower level than the lowest pipe conducting effluents into it.9. Sizing must allow for the entrance of personnel for maintenance work. Firewalls must be designed in such a way that their maintenance and debris/sediment cleanout can be easily performed. In the case of fill joints at the base of a tank with an open channel. Dimensions of the channels will be determined in accordance to the corresponding hydraulic calculations. Sewers must be sized in compliance with the norms of the “Instituto Nacional de Obras Sanitarias” . these channels can be used when the products to be drained are so viscous they can cause obstructions in the pipes (paraffin plants).

Hydraulic seal The preferred method to seal drain lines is to seal the inlet of the catch basin or manhole placed downstream.7. On main pipes where changes of direction angles larger than 45° exist e. On integrated plants. which will be subdivided in individual areas of surfaces no larger than 5000m2. separating the systems through manholes fitted with a seal. for main drain pipes with a diameter equal or larger than 600mm.9. f. Where alignment “in elevation” undergoes changes larger than 10°. or at intervals no longer than 150m. At the blind end of a main drain pipe. In Figures 3 and 4. 97 PAGE 17 Manholes will be placed according to the following criteria: a. The seal must be installed by submerging it no less than 150mm under liquid level. At the joint of the main pipe of an area with other main pipes from different areas. At intervals no longer than 90m. 7. d. g. This method allows for the travel of accumulated oil inside the drain system. . c.PVDSA HE-251-PRT ENGINEERING SPECIFICATION DRAINAGE SYSTEMS REVISION 0 DATE NOV. for main drain pipes with a diameter less than 600mm. b. drainage systems of each process will necessarily be joined on to the main drain pipe through hydraulicallysealed manholes. details for manholes fitted with hydraulic seals are shown. In order to drain large process units.

MANHOLE FITTED WITH HYDRAULIC SEAL – DETAILS . 97 PAGE 18 FIG 3.PVDSA HE-251-PRT ENGINEERING SPECIFICATION DRAINAGE SYSTEMS REVISION 0 DATE NOV.

PVDSA HE-251-PRT ENGINEERING SPECIFICATION DRAINAGE SYSTEMS REVISION 0 DATE NOV. 97 PAGE 19 FIG 4. MANHOLES FITTED WITH HYDRAULIC SEALS – DETAILS .

Depressurization Systems and Plant & Equipment Ventilation” . d. Where main or lateral pipes from storage tank areas. Ventilation pipes will be placed in compliance with the norms of PDVSA IR-P-01 “Emergency Stop. When seals are set up by submerging pipe inlet joints. c. Manhole ventilation holes will have to comply with the following requirements a. Hydraulic seal will have to be kept at maximum and minimum flow conditions Height of seal will be minimum 15cm.8. b. 97 PAGE 20 a. Requirements for the location of hydraulic seals are the following: a. At each catch basin’s discharge point Between process units In the last manhole joined to a main drain pipe before entering a separator. Ventilation holes cannot be placed under pipe ways or other equipment e. d. integrated plants or equipment located just outside process areas.9. ventilation holes with seals will need to be installed at the manhole and also at the next manhole upstream the drain pipe. individual process units.PVDSA HE-251-PRT ENGINEERING SPECIFICATION DRAINAGE SYSTEMS REVISION 0 DATE NOV. b. b. c. join into the main installation drain pipe. Block. The ventilation hole must have a minimum 10 cm diameter and placed on the manhole cover. Ventilation pipes All sealed sections of a sewer system will have to be ventilated to prevent seal blasts due to inflammable gas pressure increase. They will be installed at both sides of the seal if the manhole is equipped with a deflector-type seal. 7. a ventilation shaft will have to be placed. On the highest manhole or the highest point of each individual drain pipe section endowed with a seal.

The total sum of redirections does not exceed 135°. a cleanout must be supplied for each 30 meters of straight line sections for piping 12” and less. Ventilation lines will be oriented towards personnel risk prevention.) and must end: a. Vents a. c.0 meters above level when found in a safe and open area and will be protected against accidental damages caused by mobile equipment. Drain line can be considered cleaners if the extension of the head is less than 15. Vents cannot end below pipes or any other equipment.4 meters above any adjacent service platform b. 7. Pipes going through containment walls must be designed to prevent excessive efforts caused by fire or soil settlement.10.9. Cleanout a.1. This includes the 90° vertical to horizontal shift. b. 97 PAGE 21 7.2m. manholes and barometric condenser sump with sealed covers must be supplied. 7. . A minimum of 3. Vents shall not be placed within 30 horizontal meters from another boiler or ignition source. They are also required for when the sewer diverts 45° and is preceded by a straight line section 15. Cleanouts will be installed to ease cleaning in the direction of flow.2m or more in length. they can be placed within 15 horizontal meters from boilers or other ignition sources.PVDSA HE-251-PRT ENGINEERING SPECIFICATION DRAINAGE SYSTEMS REVISION 0 DATE NOV. c. Cleanouts must be supplied where the sewer diverts 90°. Cleanout must be the same size than the size of the pipeline for sanitary sewers and 6” minimum for all other sewers. and must be vented to a safe place.9.472 “Earth dikes for storage Tanks” and PDVSA AG-212-PT “Concrete Walls for Storage Tanks”. At least 2. c.) above level. In the absence of a manhole or catch basin. This can require underground extension to a safe location after securing the vent to pipe supports or some other structure. Dikes or Containment Walls Design of dikes or containment walls around storage tanks will have to comply with the requirements indicated in Guide PDVSA 0602. (100mm. Minimum size for the ventilation shaft will be 4in. b.9. When elevated (15m.10. d. e. In process areas where inflammable vapors could be present close to fire sources (such as boilers).

Distance of the dam in relation to the limits of third parties’ properties will need to be established in compliance to what is defined in document PDVSA IR-M-02 “Location of Equipment and Facilities in Relation to Third Parties” e. tanks or adjacent property will not be exposed to the fire . details or a storage tank area with containment walls are provided. For the case of liquid storage which boiling point is above 25°C. Minimum distance between remote dam and the closest tank’s wall will be calculated in function to the radiation produced by fire in the dam assuming it is full up to nominal capacity. 97 PAGE 22 In Figure 5. the following requirements will be applied: a. 7. Drainage line routes will need to be located in such a way that if spilled liquid is ignited. The volume of any remote dam system cannot be less than 110% the largest tank capacity draining into it.1. d. A slope which guarantees quick flow of effluents to the containment wall.10. c.PVDSA HE-251-PRT ENGINEERING SPECIFICATION DRAINAGE SYSTEMS REVISION 0 DATE NOV. Remote Dam System A remote dam system will be used when construction of containment walls is not possible. b. A remote dam system can be designed to serve a maximum of ten (10) tanks.

PVDSA HE-251-PRT ENGINEERING SPECIFICATION DRAINAGE SYSTEMS REVISION 0 DATE NOV. 97 PAGE 23 FIG 5. TANK AREA WITH CONTAINMENT WALLS – DETAILS SUMP FOR DRAIN .

Main Drain Duct External to Process Areas Ducts receiving the combined flow of tank and storage areas.11. Estimated rain water quantity is cumulative in the facilities.3. . or the total quantity of water from process areas plus flow rate of firewater required for the highest risk in the facilities. For each lateral pipe: flow accumulated from catch basins draining through it d. Rain water plus process water b. 7. will need to be sized for the total quantity of water from process areas plus estimated rain water. or firewater flow. For each sub-lateral pipe: flow coming from each catch basin b.2 in guide PDVSA IR-M-03 “Firewater Systems” b. Through main drain pipe. Determination of Design Flows 7. using the largest value. flow accumulated from lateral pipes draining through it 7. using the highest value.PVDSA HE-251-PRT ENGINEERING SPECIFICATION DRAINAGE SYSTEMS REVISION 0 DATE NOV. For each sub-lateral pipe: flow from each catch basins c. public road drainage and others. 97 PAGE 24 7. process units.1. The flow rate to use for design will not include waters contaminated with chemical products which have not been neutralized or which require different treatment. Loading shelters and Pump Stations Located outside Process Areas Sub-lateral and lateral piping serving these areas should be designed to drain estimated water flow. For each lateral pipe: flow accumulated from the catch basin draining into it.2.11. Process and Service Areas Flow rates to be used for drain systems will be the highest value determined by the following combinations: a. Firewater plus process water Firewater will be included in the following way: a.2 in Guide PDVSA IR-M-03 “Firewater Systems” and will be included in the following way: a.11. Firewater will be 60% of the value calculated according to point 6. Flow rate of firewater to drain will be sixty percent (60%) the value calculated according to section 6.11.

11. adjacent equipment or third parties. Spherical storage tanks cannot be installed in low places where hydrocarbon spills might accumulate under them. SPECIFIC APPLICATIONS 8. with a fully open drain valve.11. the maximum water level contained by the dikes does not cause tank floatability. For anchorless tanks the system must be designed so that. 97 PAGE 25 7. 7. Ground under and around spheres is required to be paved.1. Drain systems of offshore platforms must be designed according to what is established in document PDVSA-IR-G-01 “Design Criteria for Offshore Installations” . Drains must be located around equipment whose operational nature can cause leaks or liquid hydrocarbon spills. Offshore. Production Areas 8. Pressurized Tank Area In pressurized storage tanks. Curbs built around pressurized tanks must have a height such that it allows for the dispersion of gas and vapor from possible spills. which will need to be drained within 6 hours at most. impermeable and with a minimum slope of two and a half percent (2. Gathering capacity of the sump or safe place must be determined in function to the quantity of liquid that would not vaporize in the worst possible leak scenario. This sump or safe place must be located at a distance such that flames and radiation originating in it do not affect the tank. In the case of cooled tanks. the internal containment area must be designed with a slope such that the spilled liquids are directed towards an internal sump placed in a safe location.5.1.4. the volumetric capacity of the area surrounded by curbs does not need to be equal to the tank’s volume.1.5%) leading to a sump or safe place.PVDSA HE-251-PRT ENGINEERING SPECIFICATION DRAINAGE SYSTEMS REVISION 0 DATE NOV. Atmospheric Storage Tank Area The Drain system for tank within dike area will have to be designed based on rainwater quantity gathered in 24 hours. Lake and Shallow Water Platforms Drainage system to be installed must safely and quickly direct liquid spills that might occur. due to the high volatility of storage products. 8.

It is recommended that their location is instead done on the perimeter of the loading area in order to minimize truck and load equipment exposure. As an alternative.2. Area must have a slope which allows for the hydrocarbon spill to not flow under any vehicle. a catch basin must be built at this place. The floor below each furnaces or heater must have a slope so that no liquid spill builds up there or flows to other heaters or process equipment. 8.2. furnaces and heaters can be partially surrounded with a curb that. 97 PAGE 26 8. area must be divided into individual drainage areas provided with curbs and open channels discharging into sumps in order to contain and limit the extension of the spill. All drained liquids must be sent into a remote containment dam. drained liquids can be discharged into a safe location if and only if equipment and third parties’ property are not exposed and it does not cause an adverse impact on the environment. Only dry catch basins are allowed to be placed at distances less than indicated. In this case.3. details of this arrangement are shown. 8. Furnace and Heaters Each furnace or heater must be surrounded with a curb of a height given by design conditions when the possibility of liquid hydrocarbon spill exists. As an alternative. oil traps and open catch basins with discharges endowed with hydraulic seals. along with terrain inclination allows for the spills to be directed to a safe place. cannot be at a distance less than 9 meters from furnaces or heaters and other permanent ignition sources. .PVDSA HE-251-PRT ENGINEERING SPECIFICATION DRAINAGE SYSTEMS REVISION 0 DATE NOV. Catch basins cannot be located under a truck load area.1. Also. Typical details of this catch basin are shown in Fig 8. Interceptors. Truck Loading shelters Loading areas will have to be completely covered by concrete or any other material impermeable to product spills and which can resist the damage a fire can cause. Inland Facilities Drainage systems must be designed for the safe removal of liquid hydrocarbon leaks away from the affected area. dry catch basins must be separately drained from the open catch basins through discharges endowed with hydraulic seals. Area surrounded by the curb must be provided with a drain pipe to direct effluents to the drain system of waters contaminated with hydrocarbons. Due to the fact that spills are normally limited to the close vicinity of the hose connection. In Figure 7.

rain and fire waters. 97 PAGE 27 Sumps and pipelines connected will have to be sized to allow discharge of the spilled hydrocarbons.4. The edge of the dock’s platform must be supplied with a concrete curb in order to prevent hydrocarbon leaks from reaching the water. will have to be above ground level of the area it surrounds at a height such that it prevents flooding from both rain water and products. Control Buildings The area occupied by a control building must be isolated through enough slope of the surrounding surface so that it diverts liquid spills that can affect it into open channels parallel to access roads. pressurized or cooled gases. collections will have to be installed under areas and sites where equipment prone to present leaks exist and which are found above water level.PVDSA HE-251-PRT ENGINEERING SPECIFICATION DRAINAGE SYSTEMS REVISION 0 DATE NOV. the draining system will need to be closed and returning to the corresponding tank. and will be able to drain into a remote containment dam. there is a higher probability for the occurrence of inflammable liquid spills in docks than in other areas. Floor finishing of the control building or the structure where it is located. . These collections must have a pumping system sending inflammable liquids to a tank located on the dock’s platform. For liquefied. Docks Due to the use of hoses and other flexible connections for loading and unloading operations. 8.5. 8.1. Buildings 8. Therefore.5. Sumps must be equipped with firewalls and supplied of adequate traps and hydraulic seals. Natural drains from pipelines must be designed in a way such that allows for leaks and spills originated in them to flow far away from load sites. Necessary measures have to be taken in order to avoid leaks from equipment and spills from load and unload operations to contaminate water.

PVDSA HE-251-PRT ENGINEERING SPECIFICATION DRAINAGE SYSTEMS REVISION 0 DATE NOV. 97 PAGE 28 FIG 6. PROCESS AREA – TYPICAL ARRANGEMENT IN AN INDIVIDUAL DRAIN AREA S = CATCH BASIN .

DRAIN SYSTEM DETAIL CATCH BASIN CONCRETE FLOOR WITH SLOPE TO CATCH BASINS CATCH BASIN CATCH BASIN . 97 PAGE 29 FIG 7.PVDSA HE-251-PRT ENGINEERING SPECIFICATION DRAINAGE SYSTEMS REVISION 0 DATE NOV. LOADING SHELTERS .

PVDSA HE-251-PRT ENGINEERING SPECIFICATION DRAINAGE SYSTEMS REVISION 0 DATE NOV. Administrative Buildings Areas occupied by buildings or installations not handling hydrocarbons must be isolated by enough slope of the surrounding surface in order to avoid liquid spills that could affect them by directing them into open channels parallel to access roads or to sumps. LOADING SHELTER – CATCH BASIN AT THE LOADING HOSE AREA 8. .5. 97 PAGE 30 FIG 8.2.

5. 8.2. 752 “Guías Sanitarias para Proyectos. 8. alkyls and other substances. Alternatively. Construction.3. INSTALLATION 9. 9.PVDSA HE-251-PRT ENGINEERING SPECIFICATION DRAINAGE SYSTEMS REVISION 0 DATE NOV. sewer lines different from carbon steel requiring protection. they can be covered with a freight supporting plate or concrete cover. Workshops An open channel with grating and a drain at the doorway leading to an area where inflammable liquids exist should be placed. an open channel system can be installed. Installation of sanitary sewers in the proximity of drinking water lines need to comply with the establishments of the Instituto Nacional de Obras Sanitarias (National Institute of Sanitary Works). Openings existing on the floor must be examined to prevent liquids from passing from one floor to another. 9. 9. will have to be wrapped in concrete or sleeve with a minimum space of 75 mm to the pipe. so as to avoid any spills to pass underneath the door. In workshops where floor drains or their joints discharge into drain systems which may contain liquid hydrocarbons. 97 PAGE 31 Buildings must have adequate drainage capacity on each floor in order to discharge the maximum anticipated firewater. Laboratories Materials to be used in laboratory drains require special care due to the disposal of acids.3.4.76 meters under that level. When on the floor located at street level large quantities of firewater are expected. . Reparation and Reform of Buildings). The drain system must be designed in compliance to what is established by the Gaceta Oficial de la República de Venezuela No. In no case should the top of the pipe be at any less than 0. The minimum depth measured from the level of finish up to the top of the pipe will be determined calculating compression loads.5.1. Reparación y Reforma de Edificios” (Sanitary Guides for Projects. Construcción. hydraulic seals must be supplied. Under road or vehicle transit areas.