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REVISION LOG SHEET NOTE NO. 1 PAGE 4 DESCRIPTION / REMARKS Deleted: 1. (Substitution) “IPPCN (Industria Petrolera, Petroquímica y Carbonífera Nacional)” to “RDP” in the 2nd paragraph. Substituted: “10045D-000-CS-AD-A251(RDP-IB-000-CS-AD-A251 Overall Drainage System” to “10045D-000-PR-DB-004(RDP-IB-000PR-DB-004 Design Basis for Overall Drainage System” Section 6.1 Changed: “(AOC)” to “(COC)” Added: “6.1.3 (Deletion) Entire Section“ Added: “7.4.3 (Modification) …” Section 7.9.5 Changed Paragraph Section 7.10 Changed Paragraph
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REFINERIA DEL PACIFICO SK ENGINEERING & CONSTRUCTION
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TABLE OF CONTENTS 1. SCOPE ................................................................................................................................... 4 2. MODIFICATION ..................................................................................................................... 4 3. ATTACHMENT ....................................................................................................................... 8
REFINERIA DEL PACIFICO SK ENGINEERING & CONSTRUCTION
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SCOPE PDVSA Specification HE-251-PRT Rev. 2, dated Sep. 1995, Drainage Systems, is adopted for the Refinery and Petrochemical Complex of the Ecuadorian Pacific Project owned by Refinería del Pacífico (hereinafter “RDP”) and used with the revisions noted in this addendum.
MODIFICATION Paragraphs shall be revised as shown below to indicate the type of change: (Addition) New paragraph or supplemental requirements/clarifications to an existing paragraph. Paragraph deleted. A decision has been made as required. Paragraph superseded in its entirety Shall indicate specific revisions as noted in this specification
(Deletion) (Decision) (Substitution) (Modification)
(Substitution) “PDVSA ” shall be changed to” RDP” throughout the specification. (Substitution) “IPPCN ” shall be changed to” RDP” throughout the specification. The following requirements are defined as new, addition, deletion, and revisions to Specification PDVSA HE-251-PRT Rev. 2, dated Sept. 1995.
(Deletion) IR-S-00 IR-G-01 IR-P-01 0602.1.472 AG-211-PRT AG-212-PT (Addition)
Delete as follow “Definitions” “Design Criteria for Offshore Facilities” “Emergency Stop, Block, Depressurization and Plant & Equipment Systems” “Dike for Storage Tanks” “Dike for Storage Tanks” “Concrete Curbed Walls for Storage Tanks” Add as follow
REFINERIA DEL PACIFICO SK ENGINEERING & CONSTRUCTION RDP-IB-000-CS-AD-HE-251PRT 10045D-000-CS-AD-HE-251PRT Rev. Date 0 17-Aug2011 Pag e 4 of 8
(Substitution) . Definitions” Substitution as follow “Drain systems for water not contaminated by hydrocarbons” to “Drain systems for Non-contaminated water by hydrocarbons (NCW)” “Drain systems for waters contaminated by hydrocarbons” to “ Drain systems for accidently oil contaminated water (AOC)” (Addition) Add as follow Continuously Oil Contaminated Wastewater (COC) Sanitary Sewage Wastewater (SSW) 6. sewers.3. washrooms. floor sinks in kitchens. (Deletion) Entire section “6.1.” to “This system collects domestic wastewater from toilets. excreta and liquid residues disposal in rural areas 4. Ecuadorian Building Code. showers. urinals. urinals.3.4. (Substitution) 6.1.1. Drain systems for waters contaminated by chemical products” Substitution as follow “Sewage Water Systems” to “Sanitary Sewage Wastewater (SSW)” “These systems carry waste coming from toilets. (Deletion) (Substitution) Entire section “4. sanitary and dining rooms. canteens and other domestic sources from REFINERIA DEL PACIFICO SK ENGINEERING & CONSTRUCTION RDP-IB-000-CS-AD-HE-251PRT 10045D-000-CS-AD-HE-251PRT Rev. dressing rooms. bathroom sinkholes.2. (Substitution) “Drain systems for waters not contaminated by hydrocarbons” to “Drain systems for Non-Contaminated water by hydrocarbons (NCW)” “Drain systems for waters contaminated by hydrocarbons” to “Drain systems for accidentally oil contaminated wastewater (AOC)” “PDVSA QA-201-POT “Hydrostatic Test for Pipes” to “10045D-000-PI-AD-PI020801 (RDP-IB-000-PI-AD-PI020801) Addendum to Inspection Procedure PDVSA PI-02-08-01 Hydrostatic and Pneumatic Test for Piping Systems” 6. Code of practice for the design of running water supply systems. launderers.1. Plumbing Design. Date 0 17-Aug2011 Pag e 5 of 8 6.“Design Basis for Overall Drainage System” CPE INEN 005-Parte 9-2:97. 22.214.171.124.
the most restrictive norms will be used. Sewers must be sized in compliance with the norms of the “Instituto Nacional de Obras Sanitarias.9.90” “Minimum and maximum flow velocities must comply with this Guide as well as the norms of the “Instituto Nacional de Obras Sanitarias”.5.3 (Modification) 7. „ Vent pipes must be installed on all atmospheric vessel relief valves.6. The slope of open channel shall be calculated based on 10045D-000-CS-DB-001 (RDPIB-000-CS-DB-001) Section 8. catch basin must exist every 233 m2…” to 2 “For process units. The Sanitary Sewage Wastewater shall be collected in sumps and transferred to the biological treater in the Effluent Treatment Plants (ETP). Date 0 17-Aug-2011 6 Page of 8 7. Block. they must be located at a safe place based on a dispertion and radiation analysis result. Nevertheless.8. warehouses and shelters on site.9.2. (Deletion) 7.” 7.” “For process units. „ Gases and vapors discharged from vent pipes must not present injury risk to personnel or risk of equipment REFINERIA DEL PACIFICO SK ENGINEERING & CONSTRUCTION RDP-IB-000-CS-AD-HE-251-PRT 10045D-000-CS-AD-HE-251-PRT Rev. Sewers must be sized in compliance with CPE INEN 005-Parte 9-2:97.1.8.”” to “ e.buildings.4. The floor of an open channel must have a minimum slope of 1% towards the catch basin” to “ d.”” to “e.2. (Substitution) 7. Ventilation pipes will be placed in compliance with the norms of PDVSA IR-P-01 “Emergency Stop. (Substitution) 7.” “e.1. 752 Extraordinaria” of 26-02-62. Code of practice for the design of running water supply systems.1.00” to “Paved areas by asphalt or concrete 0. Plumbing Design. The venting system design must meet the following requirements: „ Discharges to atmosphere must be located at least 30 meters from continuos ignition. excreta and liquid residues disposal in rural areas”” “e. Ecuadorian Building Code. (Substitution) 7. “Gaceta Oficial Nro. Depressurization Systems and Plan & Equipment Ventilation.9. catch basin must exist every 280 m …” “Paved areas by asphalt or concrete 1. to discharge at least 3 meters above any working platform and a separation distance of at least 30 meters from other working platforms.8 (Substitution) .” “d. (Deletion) “the norms of the “Instituto Nacional de Obras Sanitarias” (National Institute of Sanotary Works).3 item 5.
the vent pipe must have a coupled connection to discharge steam or any other inert gas in the vertical piping of the venting system so a fire in the discharge can be suffocated.Vent headers designed to receive liquids or condensibles must beself–draining to avoid liquid accumulation in the piping.709 at 15°C (59 °F) and 1. „ All vertical vent piping must have a drain or weep hole at its base to eliminate water that could accumulate within the piping.damage. can discharge to closed drain systems with valves. „ In locations where vapor and gas atmospheric discharge pipes can be affected by electrical discharges (static and lightning).2” “Drain systems of offshore platforms must be designed RDP-IB-000-CS-AD-HE-251PRT 10045D-000-CS-AD-HE-251PRT Rev.1. Neither discharge must go to pathways or areas visited by personnel or close to equipment working at temperatures above 315 °C (600 °F).10.1. „ Residual light ends in vessels with volumes less than or equal to 0. „ Flammable liquids and/or combustible liquids with operating temperatures below their flash point. „ All relief valves venting liquid or two–phase fluid must discharge through a separator.472 “Earth dikes for storage Tanks” and PDVSA AG-212-PT “Concrete Walls for Storage Tanks” to “Design of dikes or containment walls around storage tanks will have to comply with the requirements indicated in 10045D000-CS-DB-001 (RDP-IB-000-CS-DB-001) Section 8. Date 0 17-Aug2011 Pag e 7 of 8 8. except relief valves installed to release liquid thermal expansion. (Substitution) “Design of dikes or containment walls around storage tanks will have to comply with the requirements indicated in Guide PDVSA 0602. (Deletion) REFINERIA DEL PACIFICO SK ENGINEERING & CONSTRUCTION . or to a flare or vent stack. 7. „ Discharges of vapor or condensate must be through steam traps.03 kg/cm2 (14. „ Relief device discharge piping must be supported and anchored to withstand the resulting reaction forces.7 psi) must be vented to a safe location. „ Hydrocarbons lighter than 68 API that is with relative density of 0.1.1.1 m3 (26 gallons) can be vented to atmosphere when equipment is out of service or for major maintenance.
(Deletion) “The drain system must be designed in compliance to what is established by the Gaceta Oficial de la Republica de Venezuela No. 752 “Guias Sanitarias para Proyectos.5.1. Date 0 17-Aug2011 Pag e 8 of 8 .2. (Deletion) 3.” 8. Reparacion y Reforma de Edificios” (Sanitary Guide for Projects. Reparation and Reform of Buildings).1. ATTACHMENT PDVSA HE-251-PRT Drainage Systems REFINERIA DEL PACIFICO SK ENGINEERING & CONSTRUCTION RDP-IB-000-CS-AD-HE-251PRT 10045D-000-CS-AD-HE-251PRT Rev. Construction.” Entire section 9. Construccion.according to what is established in document PDVSA-IR-G-01 “Design Criteria for Offshore Installations”. 9.
R.R.95 MAY 93 DIC. A. Carlos Corrie © PDVSA. J. 1983 SPECIALISTS .N.J.T. 85 DATE GENERAL REVISION GENERAL REVISION APPROVED DESCRIPTION DATE May 93 31 29 29 PAG L. J. APPROV DATE May 93 REV APPROV APPROV.ENGINEERING DESIGN MANUAL VOLUME 18-I ENGINEERING SPECIFICATION PDVSA No. E. TITLE HE-251-PRT DRAINAGE SYSTEMS 2 1 0 REV SEP. Luis Hernandez APPROV.
.................................. 3 6.......................................5.........1..7...... Basic Components of the Drain System ....................................... Storm Drainage ............................6...................................................................................4..11............................. 12 7.................. Sanitary Drainage......................................... 26 8... 2......2.. 3.......................................... 21 7....3.................................................................................... 4.... 12 7......... 12 7........................................................... Docks ..1........... Design Considerations .. 6.................................................................1..9............................................................................ 2 APPLICATIONS....4..................................... 3 BASIC DESIGN CONCEPT ... Types of Drainage Systems ................. 11 7......................... 13 7.......5.................................................................... 25 8... 24 8........................ 5.... SCOPE ....................3..................................... Determination of Design Flows ... INSTALLATION ............3............... 27 9................................................ 11 7...... Dikes or Containment Walls .......................2.. 8 6..................................PVDSA HE-251-PRT ENGINEERING SPECIFICATION DRAINAGE SYSTEMS REVISION 0 DATE NOV.............................................. Furnace and Boilers . 6 6.... 14 7..... 24 8........................ 26 8..4...................................... 25 8............... 3 6....... Truck Loading shelters ............................ Calculation Procedure ................... 11 7........................ Drainage Area Delimitation .10.......................................................................... DESIGN REQUIREMENTS . Heater Drainage...... 12 7................... Main Industrial Drainage Outside Process Areas ................. Pump Drainage . 12 7....................................... 2 REFERENCES ...... 3 GENERAL ASPECTS ............. 31 ................ Basic Components of Drainage Systems ..................8...................... Production Areas .. 2 DEFINITIONS...........2................................................... Buildings . 9 7............ Water Control and Containment Methods ........ SPECIFIC APPLICATIONS ............ 97 PAGE 1 INDEX 1.... Equipment Drainage ..
S. requirements of this Guide are not applicable to offshore and lake facilities unless specified. 2. APPLICATION This Guide applies to IPPCN installations processing. By and large. This Guide must be applied in new IPPCN’s new installations and for expansions or modifications to be done on existing facilities. 3. except when the latter is more demanding. 97 PAGE 2 1.1. This guide will have retroactive application to existing installations. storing or handling inflammable or combustible liquids. In general. Block. REFERENCES PDVSA – Petróleos de Venezuela.A. whose current risk level (determined based on criteria indicated in Section 5) for risk tolerance established in document IR-S-02 “Criteria for Quantitative Risk Analysis”. Depressurization and Plant & Equipment Systems” 0602. decrees or official norms in force will prevail over what is referred to in this Guide.PVDSA HE-251-PRT ENGINEERING SPECIFICATION DRAINAGE SYSTEMS REVISION 0 DATE NOV. “Definitions” “Criteria for Quantitative Risk Analysis” “Location of Equipment and Facilities in Relation to Third Parties” “Firewater Systems” “Design Criteria for Offshore Facilities” “Emergency Stop. Petroquímica y Carbonífera Nacional) in order to avoid propagation of fires originated as a consequence of inflammable or combustible liquid spills. Requirements established by laws. this Guide is based on the application of the latest techniques and practices of fire prevention established by organizations nationally and internationally recognized as well as IPPCN’s own experience. SCOPE This guide defines the minimum design requirements of drain systems in facilities of the IPPCN (Industria Petrolera. regulations.472 “Dike for Storage Tanks” AG-211-PRT “Dike for Storage Tanks” AG-212-PT “Concrete Curbed Walls for Storage Tanks” IR-S-00 IR-S-02 IR-M-02 IR-M-03 IR-G-01 IR-P-01 NFPA – National Fire Protection Association NFPA 15 “Water Spray Fixed Systems for Fire Protection” NFPA 30 “Flammable and Combustible Liquids Code” .
1. GENERAL ASPECTS 6.PVDSA HE-251-PRT ENGINEERING SPECIFICATION DRAINAGE SYSTEMS REVISION 0 DATE NOV. This same premise must be applied for existing facilities in which a risk analysis justifies the need to increase coverage level of such installations. On those particular cases where installations to be protected are detected to incur in deviations related to the application of engineering best practices. Types of Drain Systems Treatment process of effluent liquids of a facility requires their segregation from the source. DEFINITIONS See document IR-S-00 “Definitions” 5. liquid streams will have to be separated by different drain systems in accordance to the following classification: ⎯ ⎯ ⎯ ⎯ Drain systems for waters not contaminated by hydrocarbons Drain systems for waters contaminated by hydrocarbons Drain systems for waters contaminated with chemical products Sewage water systems A brief description of these systems is presented below: . For that purpose. mainly when it involves damage to people or third parties’ properties. BASIC DESIGN CONCEPT This Guide establishes the minimum design requirements for drain systems in order to achieve a quick discharge of liquid spills which might occur in facilities. 97 PAGE 3 API – American Petroleum Institute API RP 2001 “Fire Protection in Refineries” 4. This Guide assumes that the facilities to be protected have been projected and erected complying with basic engineering principles and the best experienced practices accumulated to this date at IPPCN. minimum requirements will be scaled up in relation to the ones established by this Guide. Risk Analysis will be performed in accordance to the establishments in document IR-S-02 “Criteria for Quantitative Risk Analysis” 6.
In each area serviced by this system. Some of them are: ⎯ Service stations ⎯ Process areas ⎯ Truck loading shelters ⎯ Docks ⎯ Spaces inside containment walls and storage tanks ⎯ Other areas where hydrocarbons are handled Discharge of this drainage will be performed through underground pipes in a network designed to flow by gravity. 6. enough catch basins must exist in order to discharge fire and rain water. Drain systems for waters not contaminated by hydrocarbons Rain water belongs into this classification as well as rainwater applied to areas such as: ⎯ Uncultivated. A wastewater drain system will be designed in relation to equipment’s location. Effluent discharges with temperatures above 45°C must be avoided in order to prevent inflammable vapor emissions.PVDSA HE-251-PRT ENGINEERING SPECIFICATION DRAINAGE SYSTEMS REVISION 0 DATE NOV.1. minding the wind’s predominant direction for the location of the . This network consists of a main drain pipe joining into catch basins located in the areas being serviced through lateral and sub-lateral piping. the separator will discharge into the main system. avoiding fire propagation and floods. undeveloped areas ⎯ Perimeter roads ⎯ Vehicle parking ⎯ Building roofs ⎯ Areas outside containment walls in tank farms ⎯ Areas where the presence of hydrocarbon spills cannot be predicted Drainage of waters not contaminated by hydrocarbons will be discharged by means of open channels into catch basins. Drain systems for waters contaminated by hydrocarbons Rain water and firewater from areas normally contaminated by hydrocarbons will go into this system as well as spills originated in areas where these types of products are handled.1. In this case. The main pipe of a specific area must not pass through other areas and must connect to a separator.1. This system cannot be interconnected with the wastewater drain system. 97 PAGE 4 6.2.
especially on the downstream side of long straight sections of pipes placed at low inclinations. COD or BOD. Moreover. as well as water spill or runoff from areas where products such as acids. launderers. urinals.6 meters.PVDSA HE-251-PRT ENGINEERING SPECIFICATION DRAINAGE SYSTEMS REVISION 0 DATE NOV. Usually. drain. Sewage water systems These systems carry waste coming from toilets.4. ⎯ Chemical laboratory waste ⎯ Sulfurous waste waters from separators 6. showers.3. 97 PAGE 5 separator.1.1. lateral or sub-lateral pipe will be 0. . all underground drain pipes must be hydrostatically tested at a pressure equal to one and a half (1.5) times maximum operating pressure. bathroom catch basins. Impermeability of drain systems is essential to avoid leaks that could cause release of hydrocarbons or other contaminants which would eventually reach the water table level after seeping into the ground. caustics and others not allowed discharging to the sanitary sewer or any other sewer in the plant. the main pipe and its interconnection manholes are installed in the perimeter of the area to be drained. Before being covered. The way in which this test is performed as well as its duration and acceptable tolerances will be based on the accepted engineering practices as per document PDVSA-QA-201-POT “Hydrostatic Test for Pipes”. dressing rooms. Drain systems for waters contaminated by chemical products Storm water and fire water are considered contaminated with chemical products. floor sinks in kitchens. sanitary and dining rooms. ⎯ High concentrations of acid or alkaline materials. 6. The minimum ground layer which should exist on top of any main. pipe joints and manholes which allow filtration represent a load increase in effluent treatment installations since they allow for the seeping of underground water.
6. Basic Components of Drain Systems They are: ⎯ Catch Basins ⎯ Sub-lateral drain pipes ⎯ Lateral drain pipes ⎯ Main drain pipes ⎯ Open channels ⎯ Manholes ⎯ Hydraulic seals ⎯ Ventilation pipes ⎯ Oil traps ⎯ Separators Figure 1 shows an example of the typical arrangement of a process area’s drainage system. 6.2. Open Channel A continuous open duct discharging into a catch basin or directly into a separator or an effluent-treatment plant.2. . 6. Catch Basins They collect liquids which could exist above the terrain’s surface and from process equipment’s effluents. Manhole A concrete structure used as a joint point between underground pipes and as a sediment trap. 97 PAGE 6 6. 126.96.36.199.PVDSA HE-251-PRT ENGINEERING SPECIFICATION DRAINAGE SYSTEMS REVISION 0 DATE NOV.1. they discharge into lateral drain pipes.2. 6. 6. They can also trap sediments avoiding clogging of the drainage system. 6.2. Main Drain Piping Collects runoff from the lateral drains and discharge them to a separator or effluent-treatment plant. Sub-lateral Drain Piping Pipes connected to catch basins. Discharges to the main drain piping.2.5. Lateral Drain Piping Piping collecting effluents coming from two or more sub-lateral drain pipe systems.2. Also serves to provide access for inspection work and maintenance to pipes discharging into it.3.
PROCESS AREA – TYPICAL DRAIN SYSTEM TYPICAL CATCH BASIN ARRANAGEMENT S = Catch Basin . 97 PAGE 7 FIG 1.PVDSA HE-251-PRT ENGINEERING SPECIFICATION DRAINAGE SYSTEMS REVISION 0 DATE NOV.
2.PVDSA HE-251-PRT ENGINEERING SPECIFICATION DRAINAGE SYSTEMS REVISION 0 DATE NOV. firewater and hydrocarbon spills to flow to a safe place. 6. 6. This separation is generally done by gravity.9. limiting flow speed and overflow rate. must be considered: ⎯ Equipment placement ⎯ Terrain topography ⎯ Predominant direction of the wind ⎯ Drainage requirements during facility’s construction ⎯ Requirements to ease effluent segregation ⎯ Future expansion of installations and/or changes in process technology or effluent treatment requirements ⎯ Facility’s operability and safety ⎯ Environmental control regulations ⎯ Over load effects during emergency situations ⎯ Sufficient conduction capacity to handle firewater draining in accordance to section 6. 97 PAGE 8 6. Design Considerations In the design of a full drain system for a facility.7.3. which represents .2. pumping the effluents to the separator is necessary. 6. At first.8. among others. Oil trap A device designed to contain floating oil only. In these cases.2. it is not designed for the segregation of emulsion oil. Facilities built over low areas usually require filling in order for rain water. the following factors. Hydraulic Seal A device designed to isolate the different parts of a hydrocarboncontaminated water drain system with the objective of avoiding inflammable vapor motion and the eventual propagation of a fire and/or explosion 6.2. Ventilation Pipes It is a device over the top of manhole cover to maintain atmospheric pressure inside and prevent it from lifting due to increase of the pipe pressure. Separator A device designed to eliminate small oil particles found in suspension.10.2 from document PDVSA IR-M-03 “Firewater Systems” plus maximum effluent stream.
97 PAGE 9 additional costs. in order to control the exiting of effluents. Dikes or Containment Walls Dikes or containment walls are used in storage tank areas to contain spills that could originate in the tanks or related equipment.2. Maximum height will depend on design conditions. 6. The area enclosed by containment walls can drain to pipes going through the wall and discharge to open channels or through a closed drainage system. Floor Slope Main method to runoff of effluents to safe places minimizing the risk to equipment and structures.4.4. have a concave shape in order to return sudden liquid spills back to the surrounded area. 6. outside the wall. within possibility. floor slope must be such that it guarantees quick outflow of spills. Curbs Curbs can be installed where necessary to contain or direct the flow of spilled liquids. rain water and firewater. Frequently.PVDSA HE-251-PRT ENGINEERING SPECIFICATION DRAINAGE SYSTEMS REVISION 0 DATE NOV. Figure 2 shows typical details of their configuration.1. They must. Water Control and Containment Methods Five (5) methods or basic systems exist for the water control and/or containment of spills. 6. as described below. natural floor slope can be effectively used in the design of drain systems as a mechanism for fire prevention. On both cases an ascending stem valve (OS & Y) must be installed at the downstream end of the drain pipe.4. . 6.3.4.
2. Open Channels This effluent disposal method is basically used to remove and conduct rain and fire water in a quick and effective way. Crossing will only be allowed for pipes with welded joints. a remote dam system can be used to contain and conduct hydrocarbon spills. CURB – CONFIGURATION On those cases in which space limitations exist or where there is an advantage to be taken from terrain topography.3 and 188.8.131.52. Underground Pipe Network Sub-lateral. or fireproof coating. These pipes must be protected against possible action by flames by means of a concrete slab or bridge.5.9. lateral and main pipe networks form one of the top methods for effluent direction.PVDSA HE-251-PRT ENGINEERING SPECIFICATION DRAINAGE SYSTEMS REVISION 0 DATE NOV. In cases where it’s necessary for the equipment drain system to discharge into an open channel.4. the discharge will have to be through the grating. .5.2. they shall not have joints. Underground pipes are amply described in sections 7. 6.9. 6. Pipelines carrying hydrocarbons must not be laid down over adjacent sleepers and / or open drain channel with fire water or service water lines. Therefore. threaded or flanged accessories. location in relation to facility equipment and piping must be carefully studied. nor where its use allows for a fire to affect other equipment as in the case presented by battery limits inside process areas. These channels shall not be used neither as part of a hydrocarboncontaminated waste water system except on the cases mentioned in section 6. In case no other option exists and pipelines must cross these channels. 97 PAGE 10 FIG 2.4 in this Guide. 7.
1. control rooms. 97 PAGE 11 7. Oil interceptors. pump groups. The design and installation of sanitary drains must comply with the norms of the “Instituto Nacional de Obras Sanitarias” (National Institute of Sanitary Works). Drainage from ovens. at a height such that it forbids flooding from either rain or product waters. 7. A process plant’s floor must have a slope such that it guarantees quick outflow of spills into catch basins. Each one of these areas will have a maximum surface of 280m2 in paved zones. towers and the sort must flow to catch basins in order to prevent fire propagation to an adjacent area. municipal drainage and/or third parties’ properties. Figure 6 shows the typical arrangement within an individual drain area. DESIGN REQUIREMENTS Process areas must be designed and operated preventing combustible and inflammable liquid discharges into public waters. and the Engineering Specification of PDVSA PA-204-PT “Sewage Disposal Systems” 7. will have to be elevated above the highest point of the tallest plant floor.PVDSA HE-251-PRT ENGINEERING SPECIFICATION DRAINAGE SYSTEMS REVISION 0 DATE NOV.1.1. whichever is the largest. The public areas surrounding a plant or process unit. 752 Extraordinaria” of 26-02-62. traps and catch basins cannot be placed at a distance less than 9 meters from access paths.2.1. . Sanitary Drainage 7. “Gaceta Oficial Nro. hydrogen compressors and hydrotreaters. Sizing of sanitary drains will be determined by drain loads in compliance to the applicable code.2. 7. exchanger banks. each individual drain area will have to occupy a maximum surface of 465m2. The highest floor level must go below the longitudinal axis of the process pipelines in order to avoid leaks and inflammable or combustible liquid spills to collect below them. Storm Drainage Storm drainage will be sized for cases of rain or fire. In the case of non-paved zones. Units in the process area must be subdivided in individual drain areas.
7. Slope of pavement must be 150mm at its maximum and end in a catch basin. . they will not be included in case separate waste treatment is required.4. Lines starting at dry sumps must be sealed at the catch basin.1. street drainage.3. heaters.5. Waste water of the whole process plus estimated rainfall (both must be cumulative along the system) 7.4. 7. 7. Pump Drainage Each pump must be installed with an open drain.4. 97 PAGE 12 7. Arrangements of drain areas must be the most convenient to prevent fire propagation from an area into another. etc.6. Connect not more than four pump drains at a manhole with a cleanout circulation trap used as a seal against fire. 7.3. sewer or circulation trap at no less than 10 meters away from the heater. Waste water of the whole process plus a simple tolerance value for firewater. 7. piping supports and sleepers.3. For process units. catch basins must exist every 233 m2 of an area. pavement or surface must have a slope for water to run far from process equipment.2.3. Equipment Drainage Drains coming from equipment must discharge at an open drain joint.2.566lt/min (454m3/h). Heater Drainage Arrangement of drain areas around heaters must be done in such a way that dry catch basins are installed adjacent to the heater but not under it. Loads in sub-paragraphs 7. 7.3. Whenever practical. but can never be less than 7.4. Also.PVDSA HE-251-PRT ENGINEERING SPECIFICATION DRAINAGE SYSTEMS REVISION 0 DATE NOV. Such tolerance will be the largest quantity of fire water which can be supplied in a single step and which can be discharged in the main drainage from any service or process unit.1.2 must not include loads from chemical drainage until after some means of neutralization.3.3. 7. Drainage of areas must flow to catch basins or fireproof sealed manholes. must be sized to satisfy the most demanding requirements from the ones mentioned below. Main Industrial Drainage Outside Process Areas Main industrial drains outside of process units receiving the combined flow of tank farms. Drainage Area Delimitation 7.7. containers. process units.1 and 7. 7.3.
Runoff coefficient measured as follows: Paved areas by asphalt or concrete 1. Flow rate through channels and pipes will have to be established for the most unfavorable conditions. Firewater flow will be determined according to the requirements established in Guide PDVSA IR-M-03 “Firewater Systems”.8. L/min. Calculation Procedure 7. and will develop considering the individual placement of equipment on the different areas.PVDSA HE-251-PRT ENGINEERING SPECIFICATION DRAINAGE SYSTEMS REVISION 0 DATE NOV. General Basic parameters for the design of an underground or open drain system are: the location of equipment inside facilities and flow rate.1. in square meters.50 Loose rocks and lawns 0. i = Tc = Tc = a = .8. Rain water flow rate is a function of its maximum intensity. Setting of the drain system will derive from the terrain’s topography and full arrangement of the facilities.40 Rainfall Intensity in mm/h. for the selected frequency and duration.4 of Specification PDVSA-SD-251 “Site Data” Peak precipitation must be converted to velocity or peak discharge using the equation: Q = 0. 97 PAGE 13 7. Equal to: Concentration Time A minimum of 10 minutes must be used Drain area. tributary to the point being designed.00 Joined Paths 0. Process water flow rate will be strictly determined based on process considerations. This flow rate will be obtained in the following way: Design rain flow rate will be based on paragraph 1.70 Clay or other non-paved surfaces 0.0166 (Cia) Where: Q = C = Flow Quantity. the individual drainage areas and the characteristics of their surfaces.
9.1. pipes are designed to be free flowing by gravity and sized so that velocities lie within admissible range by the materials in use. with minimum and maximum flow rates within the expected range. Requirements for their placement will be the following: a. No catch basin can be directly connected to another catch basin. Internal minimum dimensions will be 0. Minimum and maximum flow velocities must comply with this Guide as well as the norms of the “Instituto Nacional de Obras Sanitarias”.2. Flow velocities between 1 and 1. including future requirements for additional capacity.60m on each side. Design will specify for a full cross-section.61m/s while maximum will be 2. Minimum velocity will be 0. Basic Components of the Drainage System 7.1m/s. stairs or under pipelines.11 b. 97 PAGE 14 7. Each catch basin will have to be placed in the lowest point of its individual drain area. flow rate will be the maximum estimate. Individual or multiple drainage pipes discharging into a catch basin will do so by submerging the outlet by a minimum of 0. Cannot be placed under equipment. e. their hydraulic design is made considering partially full pipes. b. Determination of Flow Rate and Velocity Drain systems are considered to operate at atmospheric pressures. Catch Basins Design of a catch basin will comply with the following requisites: a. the most restrictive norms will be used. Drainage pipes whose flow depends on gravity do not run full at normal conditions. These dimensions must allow for efficient flow of the design flow rates established in section 7.3m/s are recommended.60m x 0. Catch basin covers will be a honeycomb shape in all non-paved areas or where sediment or considerable debris can exist.8. Therefore. under the discharge pipe. .15 meters under its water level c. Bottom of the catch basin will need to be at 0. c. Straight slot and grill type covers will be used for streets and avenues.30m as a minimum. 7. Drainage joints discharging into catch basin must be sealed joints.9.PVDSA HE-251-PRT ENGINEERING SPECIFICATION DRAINAGE SYSTEMS REVISION 0 DATE NOV. The catch basin must be fitted with a seal at discharge d. equivalent to seventy percent (70%) of the pipes’s diameter.
7. as a minimum. corrosion in soils and physicochemical characteristics of the effluents. cast iron or concrete. by consequence. use elbows with a maximum angle of 45° or manholes.4.5. which will need to be 200mm.PVDSA HE-251-PRT ENGINEERING SPECIFICATION DRAINAGE SYSTEMS REVISION 0 DATE NOV.9. 7. Open Channels Open channels can be used to drain waters not contaminated by hydrocarbons (firewater. .9. b. Main Drain Piping Main drain pipes must comply with the design requirements mentioned in section 7.9. Pipes will be preferably installed in a straight line. Construction material can be carbon steel.9.9. rainwater) and waters contaminated by hydrocarbons when the presence of inflammable vapors and. Lateral Drain Piping Design for lateral drain pipes must be done in compliance with requirements indicated in section 7. e. Its intersection with other drain systems will be done through “Y” joints or manholes.2 7. process and fire waters. Internal nominal diameter cannot be smaller than 150mm. especially production areas. a risk of fire are very improbable. c.2. 97 PAGE 15 d. When changes are made to the direction of the pipe layout. 7. Sub-laterals must be sized based on 1900L/min starting from each catch basin.9. For its selection different factors will be considered such as: static and dynamic loads. Such conditions occur in areas handling Class III-A and III-B hydrocarbons and wherever spill temperature is less than 60°C.2 a & b. In process areas the maximum distance of a liquid in open air will need to be the minimum possible and in no case longer than 15 meters.3. except for sanitary lines outside specification. Catch Basins must be installed inside each individual unit’s area for the efficient drainage of storm. Open channels can also be used on those areas. Sub-lateral Drain Piping Sub-lateral drain pipes must comply with the following requirements: a. where the volume of liquids to drain are large enough where use of pipe may not be possible.
d. in non-paved areas. Sewers must be sized in compliance with the norms of the “Instituto Nacional de Obras Sanitarias” . The slab must be placed at ground level in paved areas and at a minimum height of 5cm. these channels can be used when the products to be drained are so viscous they can cause obstructions in the pipes (paraffin plants). c. e. b. Sizing must allow for the entrance of personnel for maintenance work.9. Manhole Design must comply with the following aspects: a. They will be built from reinforced concrete c. Open channels will need to comply with the following requirements a. Channels will be covered only where required by personnel protection.6. The floor of an open channel must have a minimum slope of 1% towards the catch basin. depth will be more than width. d. 97 PAGE 16 In the same way. Dimensions of the channels will be determined in accordance to the corresponding hydraulic calculations. 7.PVDSA HE-251-PRT ENGINEERING SPECIFICATION DRAINAGE SYSTEMS REVISION 0 DATE NOV. Sealed firewalls will be placed on open channels in order to prevent fire propagation among areas. they will need to be impermeable. Open channels must be monolithically poured together with the catch basin in which it discharges. In the case of fill joints at the base of a tank with an open channel. b. Whenever possible. Discharge of water vapor or condensate will not be allowed into open channel systems for hydrocarbon-contaminated waters. Their top slab will be designed in such a way that allows for its removal in order to permit maintenance works. Discharge point into the manhole must be placed at a lower level than the lowest pipe conducting effluents into it. Firewalls must be designed in such a way that their maintenance and debris/sediment cleanout can be easily performed. Open channels must be built from reinforced concrete.
d. f. At intervals no longer than 90m.PVDSA HE-251-PRT ENGINEERING SPECIFICATION DRAINAGE SYSTEMS REVISION 0 DATE NOV. or at intervals no longer than 150m. for main drain pipes with a diameter equal or larger than 600mm. b.7. c. In order to drain large process units. Where alignment “in elevation” undergoes changes larger than 10°. The seal must be installed by submerging it no less than 150mm under liquid level. Hydraulic seal The preferred method to seal drain lines is to seal the inlet of the catch basin or manhole placed downstream. g. This method allows for the travel of accumulated oil inside the drain system. On integrated plants. At the joint of the main pipe of an area with other main pipes from different areas. which will be subdivided in individual areas of surfaces no larger than 5000m2. 97 PAGE 17 Manholes will be placed according to the following criteria: a. 7. At the blind end of a main drain pipe. .9. for main drain pipes with a diameter less than 600mm. separating the systems through manholes fitted with a seal. On main pipes where changes of direction angles larger than 45° exist e. details for manholes fitted with hydraulic seals are shown. drainage systems of each process will necessarily be joined on to the main drain pipe through hydraulicallysealed manholes. In Figures 3 and 4.
MANHOLE FITTED WITH HYDRAULIC SEAL – DETAILS .PVDSA HE-251-PRT ENGINEERING SPECIFICATION DRAINAGE SYSTEMS REVISION 0 DATE NOV. 97 PAGE 18 FIG 3.
MANHOLES FITTED WITH HYDRAULIC SEALS – DETAILS . 97 PAGE 19 FIG 4.PVDSA HE-251-PRT ENGINEERING SPECIFICATION DRAINAGE SYSTEMS REVISION 0 DATE NOV.
When seals are set up by submerging pipe inlet joints. Manhole ventilation holes will have to comply with the following requirements a.8. Block. The ventilation hole must have a minimum 10 cm diameter and placed on the manhole cover. 97 PAGE 20 a. individual process units. Ventilation pipes will be placed in compliance with the norms of PDVSA IR-P-01 “Emergency Stop. Where main or lateral pipes from storage tank areas. c. On the highest manhole or the highest point of each individual drain pipe section endowed with a seal. join into the main installation drain pipe. b. c. Ventilation pipes All sealed sections of a sewer system will have to be ventilated to prevent seal blasts due to inflammable gas pressure increase. b. integrated plants or equipment located just outside process areas. Ventilation holes cannot be placed under pipe ways or other equipment e.PVDSA HE-251-PRT ENGINEERING SPECIFICATION DRAINAGE SYSTEMS REVISION 0 DATE NOV. At each catch basin’s discharge point Between process units In the last manhole joined to a main drain pipe before entering a separator. Depressurization Systems and Plant & Equipment Ventilation” . They will be installed at both sides of the seal if the manhole is equipped with a deflector-type seal. Hydraulic seal will have to be kept at maximum and minimum flow conditions Height of seal will be minimum 15cm. ventilation holes with seals will need to be installed at the manhole and also at the next manhole upstream the drain pipe. 7. d. d.9. Requirements for the location of hydraulic seals are the following: a. a ventilation shaft will have to be placed. b.
Cleanouts will be installed to ease cleaning in the direction of flow.0 meters above level when found in a safe and open area and will be protected against accidental damages caused by mobile equipment.2m or more in length. manholes and barometric condenser sump with sealed covers must be supplied. e. 7. In the absence of a manhole or catch basin. c. Vents a.10. Pipes going through containment walls must be designed to prevent excessive efforts caused by fire or soil settlement. Dikes or Containment Walls Design of dikes or containment walls around storage tanks will have to comply with the requirements indicated in Guide PDVSA 0602. Vents cannot end below pipes or any other equipment. They are also required for when the sewer diverts 45° and is preceded by a straight line section 15. Minimum size for the ventilation shaft will be 4in. Cleanout a. (100mm. 7. and must be vented to a safe place.2m. b.4 meters above any adjacent service platform b. .9. This can require underground extension to a safe location after securing the vent to pipe supports or some other structure. Cleanout must be the same size than the size of the pipeline for sanitary sewers and 6” minimum for all other sewers. c. Vents shall not be placed within 30 horizontal meters from another boiler or ignition source. 97 PAGE 21 7. In process areas where inflammable vapors could be present close to fire sources (such as boilers). b. At least 2.10. Drain line can be considered cleaners if the extension of the head is less than 15.9. The total sum of redirections does not exceed 135°. d. A minimum of 3.) above level.472 “Earth dikes for storage Tanks” and PDVSA AG-212-PT “Concrete Walls for Storage Tanks”. a cleanout must be supplied for each 30 meters of straight line sections for piping 12” and less.1. c. they can be placed within 15 horizontal meters from boilers or other ignition sources. Cleanouts must be supplied where the sewer diverts 90°.) and must end: a. This includes the 90° vertical to horizontal shift.PVDSA HE-251-PRT ENGINEERING SPECIFICATION DRAINAGE SYSTEMS REVISION 0 DATE NOV. Ventilation lines will be oriented towards personnel risk prevention.9. When elevated (15m.
Distance of the dam in relation to the limits of third parties’ properties will need to be established in compliance to what is defined in document PDVSA IR-M-02 “Location of Equipment and Facilities in Relation to Third Parties” e. b. Minimum distance between remote dam and the closest tank’s wall will be calculated in function to the radiation produced by fire in the dam assuming it is full up to nominal capacity. For the case of liquid storage which boiling point is above 25°C. The volume of any remote dam system cannot be less than 110% the largest tank capacity draining into it. Drainage line routes will need to be located in such a way that if spilled liquid is ignited. details or a storage tank area with containment walls are provided. Remote Dam System A remote dam system will be used when construction of containment walls is not possible. 97 PAGE 22 In Figure 5. tanks or adjacent property will not be exposed to the fire .1.10.PVDSA HE-251-PRT ENGINEERING SPECIFICATION DRAINAGE SYSTEMS REVISION 0 DATE NOV. 7. A remote dam system can be designed to serve a maximum of ten (10) tanks. the following requirements will be applied: a. d. c. A slope which guarantees quick flow of effluents to the containment wall.
97 PAGE 23 FIG 5.PVDSA HE-251-PRT ENGINEERING SPECIFICATION DRAINAGE SYSTEMS REVISION 0 DATE NOV. TANK AREA WITH CONTAINMENT WALLS – DETAILS SUMP FOR DRAIN .
Firewater plus process water Firewater will be included in the following way: a. . Flow rate of firewater to drain will be sixty percent (60%) the value calculated according to section 6. The flow rate to use for design will not include waters contaminated with chemical products which have not been neutralized or which require different treatment. For each sub-lateral pipe: flow coming from each catch basin b.11.3. Through main drain pipe. or the total quantity of water from process areas plus flow rate of firewater required for the highest risk in the facilities. For each sub-lateral pipe: flow from each catch basins c. 97 PAGE 24 7.PVDSA HE-251-PRT ENGINEERING SPECIFICATION DRAINAGE SYSTEMS REVISION 0 DATE NOV.11. Firewater will be 60% of the value calculated according to point 6.2 in Guide PDVSA IR-M-03 “Firewater Systems” and will be included in the following way: a. Loading shelters and Pump Stations Located outside Process Areas Sub-lateral and lateral piping serving these areas should be designed to drain estimated water flow.11. flow accumulated from lateral pipes draining through it 7. Estimated rain water quantity is cumulative in the facilities. For each lateral pipe: flow accumulated from catch basins draining through it d. or firewater flow. Process and Service Areas Flow rates to be used for drain systems will be the highest value determined by the following combinations: a. Rain water plus process water b.1. using the highest value.11. will need to be sized for the total quantity of water from process areas plus estimated rain water. process units. public road drainage and others. Determination of Design Flows 7. Main Drain Duct External to Process Areas Ducts receiving the combined flow of tank and storage areas.2. 7.2 in guide PDVSA IR-M-03 “Firewater Systems” b. For each lateral pipe: flow accumulated from the catch basin draining into it. using the largest value.
the maximum water level contained by the dikes does not cause tank floatability. 7.1. Drain systems of offshore platforms must be designed according to what is established in document PDVSA-IR-G-01 “Design Criteria for Offshore Installations” .1. with a fully open drain valve. impermeable and with a minimum slope of two and a half percent (2. due to the high volatility of storage products. For anchorless tanks the system must be designed so that. Production Areas 8. Lake and Shallow Water Platforms Drainage system to be installed must safely and quickly direct liquid spills that might occur. the internal containment area must be designed with a slope such that the spilled liquids are directed towards an internal sump placed in a safe location. Spherical storage tanks cannot be installed in low places where hydrocarbon spills might accumulate under them. Drains must be located around equipment whose operational nature can cause leaks or liquid hydrocarbon spills. which will need to be drained within 6 hours at most. Curbs built around pressurized tanks must have a height such that it allows for the dispersion of gas and vapor from possible spills.PVDSA HE-251-PRT ENGINEERING SPECIFICATION DRAINAGE SYSTEMS REVISION 0 DATE NOV.11. This sump or safe place must be located at a distance such that flames and radiation originating in it do not affect the tank. Atmospheric Storage Tank Area The Drain system for tank within dike area will have to be designed based on rainwater quantity gathered in 24 hours. the volumetric capacity of the area surrounded by curbs does not need to be equal to the tank’s volume.5. adjacent equipment or third parties.1.5%) leading to a sump or safe place.11. Ground under and around spheres is required to be paved. SPECIFIC APPLICATIONS 8. Offshore. 8. Gathering capacity of the sump or safe place must be determined in function to the quantity of liquid that would not vaporize in the worst possible leak scenario. 97 PAGE 25 7.4. Pressurized Tank Area In pressurized storage tanks. In the case of cooled tanks.
Furnace and Heaters Each furnace or heater must be surrounded with a curb of a height given by design conditions when the possibility of liquid hydrocarbon spill exists. As an alternative. a catch basin must be built at this place. Also. In this case. Truck Loading shelters Loading areas will have to be completely covered by concrete or any other material impermeable to product spills and which can resist the damage a fire can cause. Typical details of this catch basin are shown in Fig 8. Area surrounded by the curb must be provided with a drain pipe to direct effluents to the drain system of waters contaminated with hydrocarbons. details of this arrangement are shown. It is recommended that their location is instead done on the perimeter of the loading area in order to minimize truck and load equipment exposure.1. Interceptors. 97 PAGE 26 8. cannot be at a distance less than 9 meters from furnaces or heaters and other permanent ignition sources.2. . furnaces and heaters can be partially surrounded with a curb that. Area must have a slope which allows for the hydrocarbon spill to not flow under any vehicle. 8.2. drained liquids can be discharged into a safe location if and only if equipment and third parties’ property are not exposed and it does not cause an adverse impact on the environment. dry catch basins must be separately drained from the open catch basins through discharges endowed with hydraulic seals. Inland Facilities Drainage systems must be designed for the safe removal of liquid hydrocarbon leaks away from the affected area. Due to the fact that spills are normally limited to the close vicinity of the hose connection. oil traps and open catch basins with discharges endowed with hydraulic seals. Only dry catch basins are allowed to be placed at distances less than indicated. along with terrain inclination allows for the spills to be directed to a safe place. Catch basins cannot be located under a truck load area. 8. All drained liquids must be sent into a remote containment dam. area must be divided into individual drainage areas provided with curbs and open channels discharging into sumps in order to contain and limit the extension of the spill. As an alternative.PVDSA HE-251-PRT ENGINEERING SPECIFICATION DRAINAGE SYSTEMS REVISION 0 DATE NOV.3. The floor below each furnaces or heater must have a slope so that no liquid spill builds up there or flows to other heaters or process equipment. In Figure 7.
Floor finishing of the control building or the structure where it is located. Sumps must be equipped with firewalls and supplied of adequate traps and hydraulic seals. Necessary measures have to be taken in order to avoid leaks from equipment and spills from load and unload operations to contaminate water. 8. the draining system will need to be closed and returning to the corresponding tank. These collections must have a pumping system sending inflammable liquids to a tank located on the dock’s platform.5.4.PVDSA HE-251-PRT ENGINEERING SPECIFICATION DRAINAGE SYSTEMS REVISION 0 DATE NOV. and will be able to drain into a remote containment dam. rain and fire waters. Control Buildings The area occupied by a control building must be isolated through enough slope of the surrounding surface so that it diverts liquid spills that can affect it into open channels parallel to access roads.1. 97 PAGE 27 Sumps and pipelines connected will have to be sized to allow discharge of the spilled hydrocarbons. For liquefied. The edge of the dock’s platform must be supplied with a concrete curb in order to prevent hydrocarbon leaks from reaching the water. pressurized or cooled gases. Therefore. collections will have to be installed under areas and sites where equipment prone to present leaks exist and which are found above water level. Docks Due to the use of hoses and other flexible connections for loading and unloading operations.5. will have to be above ground level of the area it surrounds at a height such that it prevents flooding from both rain water and products. 8. Natural drains from pipelines must be designed in a way such that allows for leaks and spills originated in them to flow far away from load sites. there is a higher probability for the occurrence of inflammable liquid spills in docks than in other areas. Buildings 8. .
PVDSA HE-251-PRT ENGINEERING SPECIFICATION DRAINAGE SYSTEMS REVISION 0 DATE NOV. 97 PAGE 28 FIG 6. PROCESS AREA – TYPICAL ARRANGEMENT IN AN INDIVIDUAL DRAIN AREA S = CATCH BASIN .
DRAIN SYSTEM DETAIL CATCH BASIN CONCRETE FLOOR WITH SLOPE TO CATCH BASINS CATCH BASIN CATCH BASIN . LOADING SHELTERS . 97 PAGE 29 FIG 7.PVDSA HE-251-PRT ENGINEERING SPECIFICATION DRAINAGE SYSTEMS REVISION 0 DATE NOV.
2.PVDSA HE-251-PRT ENGINEERING SPECIFICATION DRAINAGE SYSTEMS REVISION 0 DATE NOV. 97 PAGE 30 FIG 8. Administrative Buildings Areas occupied by buildings or installations not handling hydrocarbons must be isolated by enough slope of the surrounding surface in order to avoid liquid spills that could affect them by directing them into open channels parallel to access roads or to sumps.5. LOADING SHELTER – CATCH BASIN AT THE LOADING HOSE AREA 8. .
they can be covered with a freight supporting plate or concrete cover. 752 “Guías Sanitarias para Proyectos. In no case should the top of the pipe be at any less than 0. Reparación y Reforma de Edificios” (Sanitary Guides for Projects. Under road or vehicle transit areas. sewer lines different from carbon steel requiring protection. When on the floor located at street level large quantities of firewater are expected. 9. Installation of sanitary sewers in the proximity of drinking water lines need to comply with the establishments of the Instituto Nacional de Obras Sanitarias (National Institute of Sanitary Works). an open channel system can be installed.2. alkyls and other substances. Construcción. 9.3.4. 8. The drain system must be designed in compliance to what is established by the Gaceta Oficial de la República de Venezuela No.PVDSA HE-251-PRT ENGINEERING SPECIFICATION DRAINAGE SYSTEMS REVISION 0 DATE NOV. The minimum depth measured from the level of finish up to the top of the pipe will be determined calculating compression loads. will have to be wrapped in concrete or sleeve with a minimum space of 75 mm to the pipe. Reparation and Reform of Buildings). Openings existing on the floor must be examined to prevent liquids from passing from one floor to another.5. INSTALLATION 9. . hydraulic seals must be supplied. 9. 97 PAGE 31 Buildings must have adequate drainage capacity on each floor in order to discharge the maximum anticipated firewater.3. Alternatively. Laboratories Materials to be used in laboratory drains require special care due to the disposal of acids. Construction. Workshops An open channel with grating and a drain at the doorway leading to an area where inflammable liquids exist should be placed. In workshops where floor drains or their joints discharge into drain systems which may contain liquid hydrocarbons.1. so as to avoid any spills to pass underneath the door.5. 8.76 meters under that level.
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