American Civil War

:
Organized Crime?
Part 2: Reconstruction

By William P. Litynski

“Order Out of Chaos”, Part 1: Political Reconstruction

From the Ford’s Theatre in Washington, D.C.:

Lone Gunman or Patsy?
The Assassination of American President Abraham Linco n on A!ri "#, "$%&

Lone Gunman or Patsy? ohn Wilkes Booth, an actor and Re!el sym"athi#er, assassinates President $!raham Lincoln at %ord&s 'heatre in Washin(ton, ).C. on $"ril 1*, 1+,-. $!raham Lincoln .as the first $merican "resident e/er to !e assassinated. Was 0kull 1 Bones in/ol/ed in the assassination of President $!raham Lincoln2 3Photo: Li!rary of Con(ress4

Po iticians, Cabinet members, and so diers !a' their fina res!ects to President Abraham Linco n on the morning of A!ri "&, "$%&.

56ecution of the four "ersons condemned as cons"irators 37ary 5. 0urratt, Le.is '. Po.ell, )a/id 5. 8erold, and 9eor(e $. $t#erodt4 at the Old $rsenal Penitentiary on uly :, 1+,-. 3Photo(ra"hed !y $le6ander 9ardner4 3;ational $rchi/es4

A !ainting of (efferson Da)is, former *.+. +enator from ,ississi!!i and former -!resident. of -Confederate +tates of America., in !rison at Fort ,onroe in /am!ton, 0irginia in "$%&. 1Librar' of Congress2

efferson )a/is, the de"osed “President” of the “Confederate 0tates of $merica” .as ca"tured !y the <.0. $rmy in =r.ins/ille, 9eor(ia on 7ay 1>, 1+,-. efferson )a/is&s “ladies” Colonel William Preston ohnston, efferson )a/is&s aide?de?cam", and Burton ;or/ell 8arrison, efferson )a/is&s "ri/ate secretary, .ere ca"tured alon( .ith efferson )a/is. William Preston ohnston and Burton ;or/ell 8arrison .ere mem!ers of SKULL & BONES at @ale <ni/ersity.

efferson )a/is&s assistants William Preston ohnston 3left, 01B 1+-A4 and Burton ;or/ell 8arrison 3ri(ht, 01B 1+-B4

The A as3a Purchase 1,arch 45, "$%62

The signing of the A as3a Treat' of Cessation on ,arch 45, "$%6. From eft to right: Robert +. Che7, *.+. +ecretar' of +tate Wi iam /. +e7ard, Wi iam /unter, ,r. 8odisco, Russian ,inister to the *.+. 9duard de +toec3 , *.+. +enator Char es +umner and Frederic3 W. +e7ard.

The :6.2 mi ion chec3 issued b' the Treasur' of the *.+. to !urchase Russia from the Russian go)ernment

Territor' of A as3a

'he si(natures of <.0. President $ndre. ohnson and <.0. 0ecretary of 0tate William 8. 0e.ard a""ear on a co"y of the 1+,: Ratification of the $laska Purchase.

The ;m!eachment of *.+. President Andre7 (ohnson in "$%$

'he “Radical Re"u!licans” in the <.0. 0enate in/esti(ate <.0. President $ndre. ohnson durin( the im"eachment trial in 1+,+. President $ndre. ohnson had alle(edly /iolated the Tenure of Office Act !y remo/in( 0ecretary of War 5d.in 7. 0tanton from office on %e!ruary A1, 1+,+. President $ndre. ohnson .as acCuitted on 7ay A,, 1+,+ !y one /ote short of a t.o?thirds /ote reCuired to remo/e him from office. 'he “Radical Re"u!licans” im"osed /irtual martial la. in the 0outh in 1+,+ and di/ided the 0outh into fi/e military districts after former Re!el leaders attem"ted to maintain sla/ery throu(h "eona(e and “(randfather clauses”. 3Li!rary of Con(ress4

Skull & Bones members in ol e! in t"e An!re# $o"nson %m&eac"ment 'ase in ()*) , from left to ri(ht: William 7. 5/arts 3President ohnson&s counsel4, <.0. 0enator Orris 0. %erry 3/oted “9uilty”4, Re". William B. Wash!urn 3/oted “@ea”4, Re". ohn $. Peters 3/oted “@ea”4, and Re". Richard ). 8u!!ard 3/oted “;ay”4
William 7a6.ell 5/arts 301B 1+D:4 ser/ed as President $ndre. ohnson&s counsel durin( the 0enate im"eachment trial in 1+,+. <.0. 0enator Orris 0. %erry 301B 1+**4 /oted +Guilty, on three articles of im"eachment a(ainst President $ndre. ohnson in the <.0. 0enate in 7ay 1+,+. <.0. Con(ressman William B. Wash!urn 301B 1+**, R?7assachusetts4 and <.0. Con(ressman ohn $. Peters 301B 1+*A, R? 7aine4 /oted in fa/or -+.ea,/ of im"eachin( President $ndre. ohnson in the <.0. 8ouse of Re"resentati/es on %e!ruary A*, 1+,+. <.0. Con(ressman Richard ). 8u!!ard 301B 1+DB, )?Connecticut4 /oted a(ainst im"eachment -+Nay,/ of President $ndre. ohnson in the <.0. 8ouse of Re"resentati/es on %e!ruary A*, 1+,+.

A ist of -<eas. and -=a's. of members of the *.+. /ouse of Re!resentati)es 7ho )oted on the im!eachment of President Andre7 (ohnson on Februar' 2#, "$%$.

%rom a "hoto(ra"h !y Brady in the <nited 0tates 0i(nal Cor"s, War )e"artment, Washin(ton, ).C. circa 1+,+. 7em!ers of the <.0. 8ouse of Re"resentati/es in char(e of the President $ndre. ohnson im"eachment hearin(s, left to ri(ht, 0eated: BenEamin %. Butler 3former <.0. $rmy (eneral4, 'haddeus 0te/ens, 'homas Williams, ohn $. Bin(ham. 0tandin(: ames %. Wilson, 9eor(e 0. Bout.ell, ohn $. Lo(an. 37athe. Brady "hoto4

0cene from the im"eachment trial of President $ndre. ohnson, held in the 0enate Cham!er in 1+,+. 3Credit: %rank LeslieFs =llustrated ;e.s"a"er, 7arch A+, 1+,+4 3Photo: htt":GG....senate.(o/GartandhistoryGhistoryGcommonGima(eG ohnsonH=m"eachmentH'rial.htm4

0kull 1 Bones 7em!ers 1 Political Reconstruction of $merica 31+,-?1+::4

Orris 0. %erry B.$. @ale 1+** <.0. 0enator 3R?Conn., 1+,:?1+:-4

William Barrett Wash!urn B.$. @ale 1+** <.0. Con(ressman 3R?7ass., 1+,D?1+:14I <.0. 0enator 31+:*?1+:-4

$l"honso 'aft B.$. @ale 1+DD 0ecretary of War 31+:,4I <.0. $ttorney 9eneral 31+:,?1+::4

7orrison R. Waite B.$. @ale 1+D: Chief ustice of the <.0. 0u"reme Court 31+:*?1+++4

William 7. 5/arts B.$. @ale 1+D: <.0. $ttorney 9eneral 31+,+?1+,B4

8enry C. )emin( B.$. @ale 1+D, <.0. Con(ressman 3R?Conn., 1+,D?1+,:4

$u(ustus Brande(ee B.$. @ale 1+*B <.0. Con(ressman 3R?Conn., 1+,D?1+,:4

Ros.ell 8art B.$. @ale 1+*D <.0. Con(ressman 3R?;e. @ork, 1+,-?1+,:4

Richard ). 8u!!ard B.$. @ale 1+DB <.0. Con(ressman 3)?Conn., 1+,:?1+,B4

ohn $ndre. Peters B.$. @ale 1+*A <.0. Con(ressman 3R?7aine, 1+,:?1+:D4

Richard . 8aldeman B.$. @ale 1+-1 <.0. Con(ressman 3)?Penn., 1+,B?1+:D4

0te"hen W. Jello(( B.$. @ale 1+*, <.0. Con(ressman 3R?Conn., 1+,B?1+:-4

ohn 5d.ard 0eeley B.$. @ale 1+D<.0. Con(ressman 3R?;e. @ork, 1+:1?1+:D4

5llis 8enry Ro!erts B.$. @ale 1+-> <.0. Con(ressman 3R?;e. @ork, 1+:1?1+:-4

BenEamin 'ucker 5ames B.$. @ale 1+*D <.0. Con(ressman 3R? Rhode =sland, 1+:1?1+:B4

Constantine C. 5sty B.$. @ale 1+*<.0. Con(ressman 3R?7ass., 1+:A?1+:D4

William Walter Phel"s B.$. @ale 1+,> <.0. Con(ressman 3R?;e. ersey, 1+:D? 1+:-, 1++D?1++B4

William Wallace Cra"o B.$. @ale 1+-A <.0. Con(ressman 3R?7ass., 1+:-?1++D4

)aniel 8. Cham!erlain B.$. @ale 1+,A 9o/ernor of 0outh Carolina 31+:*?1+:,4

).i(ht %oster B.$. @ale 1+*+ ustice of 7assachusetts 0u"reme Court 31+,,?1+,B4

0kull 1 Bones and Reconstruction 31+,-?1+::4
9o/ernment Officials: $l"honso 'aft 301B 1+DD4 K 0ecretary of War 31+:,4I <.0. $ttorney 9eneral 31+:,?1+::4I ud(e of 0u"erior Court of Cincinnati 31+,-?1+:A4 William 7. 5/arts 301B 1+D:4 K <.0. $ttorney 9eneral 3 uly 1:, 1+,+?7arch *, 1+,B4I <.0. 0ecretary of 0tate 31+::?1++14 7orrison R. Waite 301B 1+D:4 K Chief ustice of the <.0. 0u"reme Court 31+:*?1+++4 Orris 0anford %erry 301B 1+**4 K <.0. 0enator 3Re"u!lican Party?Connecticut, 1+,:?1+:-4 William Barrett Wash!urn 301B 1+**4 K <.0. 0enator 3Re"u!lican Party?7assachusetts, 1+:*?1+:-4I <.0. Con(ressman 3Re"u!lican Party? 7assachusetts, 1+,D?1+:14I 9o/ernor of 7assachusetts 3Re"u!lican, 1+:A?1+:*4 8enry Cham"ion )emin( 301B 1+D,4 K <.0. Con(ressman 3Re"u!lican Party?Connecticut, 1+,D?1+,:4I <.0. Collector of =nternal Re/enue 31+,B?1+:A4 $u(ustus Brande(ee 301B 1+*B4 K <.0. Con(ressman 3Re"u!lican Party?Connecticut, 1+,D?1+,:4 Ros.ell 8art 301B 1+*D4 K <.0. Con(ressman 3Re"u!lican Party?;e. @ork, 1+,-?1+,:4 Richard )udley 8u!!ard 301B 1+DB4 K <.0. Con(ressman 3)emocratic Party?Connecticut, 1+,:?1+,B4 ohn $ndre. Peters 301B 1+*A4 K <.0. Con(ressman 3Re"u!lican Party?7aine, 1+,:?1+:D4I $ttorney 9eneral of 7aine 31+,*?1+,,4 Richard . 8aldeman 301B 1+-14 K <.0. Con(ressman 3)emocratic Party?Pennsyl/ania, 1+,B?1+:D4 0te"hen W. Jello(( 301B 1+*,4 K <.0. Con(ressman 3Re"u!lican Party?Connecticut, 1+,B?1+:-4 ohn 5d.ard 0eeley 301B 1+D-4 K <.0. Con(ressman 3Re"u!lican Party?;e. @ork, 1+:1?1+:D4 5llis 8enry Ro!erts 301B 1+->4 K <.0. Con(ressman 3Re"u!lican Party?;e. @ork, 1+:1?1+:-4I 7em!er of ;e. @ork 0tate $ssem!ly 31+,,4 BenEamin 'ucker 5ames 301B 1+*D4 K <.0. Con(ressman 3Re"u!lican Party?Rhode =sland, 1+:1?1+:B4 Constantine C. 5sty 301B 1+*-4 K <.0. Con(ressman 3Re"u!lican Party?7assachusetts, 1+:A?1+:D4I $ssessor of =nternal Re/enue 31+,A? 1+,,I 1+,:?1+:A4 William Walter Phel"s 301B 1+,>4 K <.0. Con(ressman 3Re"u!lican Party?;e. ersey, 1+:D?1+:-, 1++D?1++B4 William Wallace Cra"o 301B 1+-A4 K <.0. Con(ressman 3Re"u!lican Party?7assachusetts, 1+:-?1++D4 )aniel 8. Cham!erlain 301B 1+,A4 K 9o/ernor of 0outh Carolina 3Re"u!lican, 1+:*?1+:,4I $ttorney 9eneral of 0outh Carolina 31+,+?1+:A4 8enry Cham"ion )emin( 301B 1+D,4 K Pro/isional 7ayor of ;e. Orleans under <nion 7artial La. 3Octo!er 1+,A?%e!ruary 1+,D4 9reen Clay 301B 1+-B4 K 7em!er of 7ississi""i 0tate Le(islature durin( Reconstruction 8enry Waterman Warren 301B 1+,-4 K 7em!er of 7ississi""i 0tate Le(islature 31+:>?1+:-4 8u(h White 0heffey 301B 1+D-4 K ud(e of the 0u"erior Court of Lir(inia 31+,-?1+,B4 ohn 'homas Cro6ton 301B 1+-:4 K 7aEor 9eneral in the <.0. $rmyI Commander of the 7ilitary )istrict of 0outh.est 9eor(ia at 7acon, 9eor(ia 31+,-4I <.0. 7inister to Boli/ia 31+:D?1+:*4 William La. Learned 301B 1+*14 K Presidin( ustice of the 0u"reme Court of ;e. @ork 31+:-?1+BA4 ohn Wallace 8ouston 301B 1+D*4 K $ssociate ustice of the 0u"erior Court of )ela.are 31+--?1+BD4 Leonard 5u(ene Wales 301B 1+*-4 K ustice of the 0u"erior Court of )ela.are 31+,*?1++*4 ).i(ht %oster 301B 1+*+4 K ustice of 7assachusetts 0u"reme Court 31+,,?1+,B4 9eor(e 9. 0ill 301B 1+-A4 K Lieutenant 9o/ernor of Connecticut 31+:D?1+::4 Colle(e $dministrators: $ndre. ). White 301B 1+-D4 K inau(ural President of Cornell <ni/ersity 31+,,?1++-4 )aniel C. 9ilman 301B 1+-A4 K inau(ural President of ohns 8o"kins <ni/ersity 31+:-?1B>14I President of <ni/ersity of California at Berkeley 31+:A?1+:-4I 0ecretary of Connecticut 0tate Board of 5ducation 31+,-?1+,,4 Charles ane.ay 0tille 301B 1+DB4 K Pro/ost of <ni/ersity of Pennsyl/ania 31+,+?1++>4 Carroll Cutler 301B 1+-*4 K President of MCaseN Western Reser/e <ni/ersity MCle/eland, OhioN 31+:1?1++,4 William Chau/enet 301B 1+*>4 K Chancellor of Washin(ton <ni/ersity in 0t. Louis 31+,A?1+,B4 8enry 8itchcock 301B 1+*+4 K )ean of the 0t. Louis La. 0chool at Washin(ton <ni/ersity in 0t. Louis 31+,:?1+:>, 1+:+?1++14 8enry Coit Jin(sley 301B 1+D*4 K 'reasurer of @ale <ni/ersity 31+,A?1++,4 William Preston ohnston 301B 1+-A4 K Professor of 5n(lish Literature, 8istory, and Political 5conomy at Washin(ton and Lee <ni/ersity 31+,:?1+::4I inau(ural President of 'ulane <ni/ersity 31++*?1+BB4 BenEamin 0illiman r. 301B 1+D:4 K Professor of Chemistry at @ale <ni/ersity 31+-*?1+:>4 'imothy ).i(ht 301B 1+*B4 K Professor of 0acred Literature at @ale <ni/ersity 31+-B?1++,4 Cyrus ;orthro" 301B 1+-:4 K Professor of 5n(lish at @ale <ni/ersity 31+,D?1++*4 0imeon 5!en Bald.in 301B 1+,14 K Professor of La. at @ale La. 0chool 31+,B?1B1B4 Church Leaders: Charles %. Ro!ertson 301B 1+-B4 K Protestant 5"isco"al Bisho" for the 5"isco"al )iocese of 7issouri 31+,+?1++,4 ose"h Parrish 'hom"son 301B 1+D+4 K Pastor of the Broad.ay 'a!ernacle in ;e. @ork City 31+*-?1+:14 ose"h $u(ustine Benton 301B 1+*A4 K Pastor of Plymouth Con(re(ational Church in 0an %rancisco 31+,D?1+,B4 5d.ard ). 7orris 301B 1+*B4 K Pastor of the 0econd Pres!yterian Church of Colum!us, Ohio 31+--?1+,:4 ames 9ardiner Lose 301B 1+-14 K Pastor of the Beneficent Church in Pro/idence, Rhode =sland 31+,,?1B>14 William 8enry %enn 301B 1+-*4 K Pastor of 8i(h 0treet Con(re(ational Church of Portland, 7aine 31+,,?1B>*4 Leander 'ro.!rid(e Cham!erlain 301B 1+,D4 K Pastor of ;e. 5n(land Church in Chica(o 31+,B?1+:,4 $le6ander 0. '.om!ly 301B 1+-*4 K Pastor of Winthro" 3Con(re(ational4 Church in Boston 31+:A?1+B14 Others: William C. Whitney 301B 1+,D4 K Cor"oration Counsel of ;e. @ork City 31+:-?1++A4 ohn William 0terlin( 301B 1+,*4 K Co?%ounder and 7em!er of 0hearman 1 0terlin( Mla. firm in ;e. @ork CityN 31+:D?1B1+4 'homas 'hacher 301B 1+:14 K Co?%ounder and 7em!er of 0im"son, 'hacher 1 Bartlett Mla. firm in ;e. @ork CityN 31+:-?1B1B4 William 7. 5/arts 301B 1+D:4 K President of the ;e. @ork City Bar $ssociation 31+:>?1+:B4 'homas $nthony 'hacher 301B 1+D-4 K 7em!er of the Connecticut 0tate Board of 5ducation 31+,-?1+::4 ose"h Bur!een Walker 301B 1+**4 K 7em!er of the Board of 5ducation of Concord, ;e. 8am"shire 31+-B?1+:>4

0u"reme Court ustices of the <nited 0tates in 1+,+. Left to ri(ht, ).W. 7iddleton 3Clerk4, )a/id )a/is, ;oah 8aynes 0.ayne, Ro!ert Coo"er 9rier, ames 7oore Wayne, Chief ustice 0almon Portland Chase, 0amuel ;elson, ;athan Cliford, 0amuel %reeman 7iller, 0te"hen ohnson %ield. ames 7oore Wayne, .ho (raduated from Princeton <ni/ersity, .as a <.0. Con(ressman from 9eor(ia and a 7ayor of 0a/annah, 9eor(ia !efore ser/in( as a <.0. 0u"reme Court usticeI Wayne remained on the 0u"reme Court !ench throu(hout the Ci/il War. ;oah 8aynes 0.ayne .as the father of 0croll 1 Jey mem!ers ohn Wa(er 0.ayne 3B.$. @ale 1+-,, 01J 1+-,4 and %rancis 9errard Bond 0.ayne 3B.$. @ale 1+:A, 01J 1+:A4. 3Photo: htt":GGen..iki"edia.or(G.ikiG%ile:0C?1+,+.E"(4

Skull & Bones an! t"e 0econstruction Amen!ments 'he 1Dth $mendment .as a""ro/ed in the <.0. 8ouse of Re"resentati/es on anuary D1, 1+,- !y a mar(in of 11B “@eas”, -, “;ays” and + “;ot Lotin(”I <.0. Con(ressmen 8enry Cham"ion )emin( 301B 1+D,, R?Connecticut4, William Barrett Wash!urn 301B 1+**, R?7assachusetts4, and $u(ustus Brande(ee 301B 1+*B, R?Connecticut4 /oted “@ea” 3@es4 on the 1Dth $mendment. 'he 1*th $mendment .as a""ro/ed in the <.0. 8ouse of Re"resentati/es on une 1D, 1+,, !y a mar(in of 1D+ “@eas”, D, “;ays” and 1> “;ot Lotin(”. Con(ressmen 8enry Cham"ion )emin( 301B 1+D,, R?Connecticut4, Ros.ell 8art 301B 1+*D, R? ;e. @ork4, William Barrett Wash!urn 301B 1+**4, and $u(ustus Brande(ee 301B 1+*B, R?Connecticut4 /oted “@ea” 3@es4 on the 1*th $mendment. 'he 1-th $mendment .as a""ro/ed in the <.0. 8ouse of Re"resentati/es on %e!ruary A-, 1+,B !y a mar(in of 1** “@eas”, ** “;ays” and D- “;ot Lotin(”. 'he 1-th $mendment .as a""ro/ed in the <.0. 0enate on %e!ruary A,, 1+,B !y a mar(in of DB “@eas” and 1D “;ays”. <.0. Con(ressman ohn $ndre. Peters 301B 1+*A, R?7aine4 and <.0. Con(ressman William Barrett Wash!urn 301B 1+**4 /oted “@ea” 3@es4 on the 1-th $mendmentI <.0. Con(ressman Richard )udley 8u!!ard 301B 1+DB, )? Connecticut4 /oted “;ay” 3;o4 on the 1-th $mendment. <.0. 0enator Orris 0. %erry 301B 1+**, R?Connecticut4 /oted “@ea” 3@es4 on the 1-th $mendment.

<.0. President <lysses 0. 9rant takes the oath of office administered !y <.0. 0u"reme Court Chief ustice 0almon P. Chase on the east "ortico of the <.0. Ca"itol in Washin(ton, ).C., <.0.$. on 7arch *, 1+,B, !efore a lar(e cro.d. 3Li!rary of Con(ress4

<.0. President <lysses 0. 9rant and his Ca!inet recei/es credentials from a"anese di"lomats in the 5ast Room of the White 8ouse in 1+:A. 3Li!rary of Con(ress4

Presidential 5lection of 1+:,

Left to ri(ht: 0amuel . 'ilden, Rutherford B. 8ayes, $l"honso 'aft, and William 7. 5/arts
0amuel . 'ilden K 9o/ernor of ;e. @ork 31+:-?1+:,4I Presidential candidate for the )emocratic Party in 1+:, Rutherford B. 8ayes K <.0. Con(ressman 31+,-?1+,:4I 9o/ernor of Ohio 31+,+?1+:A, 1+:,?1+::4I President of the <.0. 31+::?1++14 $l"honso 'aft 301B 1+DD4 K 0ecretary of War 37arch +, 1+:,?7ay AA, 1+:,4I <.0. $ttorney 9eneral 37ay AA, 1+:,?7arch *, 1+::4 William 7. 5/arts 301B 1+D:4 K <.0. $ttorney 9eneral 3 uly 1:, 1+,+?7arch *, 1+,B4I <.0. 0ecretary of 0tate 31+::?1++14I counsel for <.0. President Rutherford 8ayes, in !ehalf of the Re"u!lican Party, !efore the 5lectoral Commission in 1+:,

'he "residential election of 1+:, held on ;o/em!er :, 1+:, .as one of the most contro/ersial "residential elections in $merican history. 'he election of Rutherford B. 8ayes as President of the <nited 0tates in 1+:, des"ite the tainted /otes in the ;orth and the 0outh .as follo.ed !y the end of Reconstruction in the 0outh. $lthou(h 'ilden recei/ed more "o"ular /otes than 8ayes, 8ayes recei/ed 1+- electoral /otes .hile 'ilden recei/ed 1+* electoral /otes.

1+ource: Librar' of Congress Prints > Photogra!hs ?n ine Cata og2

Chief (ustice of the *.+. +u!reme Court ,orrison R. Waite administers the oath of office to *.+. President Rutherford 8. /a'es in front of the *.+. Ca!ito in Washington, D.C. on ,arch #, "$66. ,orrison R. Waite 7as a member of +3u > 8ones at <a e *ni)ersit'. 1Photo: Librar' of Congress2

An i ustration of Chief (ustice of the *.+. +u!reme Court ,orrison R. Waite administering the oath of office to *.+. President Rutherford 8. /a'es in front of the *.+. Ca!ito in Washington, D.C. on ,arch #, "$66.

“Order Out of Chaos”, Part A: 5conomic Reconstruction

-0ie7 in Wa +treet from Corner of 8road7a'., =e7 <or3. 9ngra)ing from Thirt' <ears@ Progress of the *nited +tates 1/artford, Connecticut, "$%62. A=ote: A though the origina tit e sa's corner of 8road7a', it is the corner of 8road +treet. At that time the 8road +treet 7as ca ed 8road Wa' +treet.B 1=ationa Archi)es2

Skull & Bones, New York City, and the Rise of Corporate meri!a

William C. Whitney 3B.$. @ale 1+,D4 Cor"oration Counsel of ;e. @ork City 31+:-?1++A4

ohn William 0terlin( 3B.$. @ale 1+,*4 Co?%ounder and 7em!er of 0hearman 1 0terlin( Mla. firm in ;e. @ork CityN 31+:D?1B1+4

Chauncey 7. )e"e. 3B.$. @ale 1+-,4 President of the ;e. @ork Central 1 8udson Ri/er Railroad Co. 31++-?1+B+4

7orrison R. Waite 3B.$. @ale 1+D:4 Chief ustice of <.0. 0u"reme Court 31+:*?1+++4

William 7. 5/arts 3B.$. @ale 1+D:4 President of ;e. @ork City Bar $ssociation 31+:>?1+:B4I <.0. 0ec. of 0tate 31+::?1++14

;ote: 'homas 'hacher 301B 1+:14 .as the Co?%ounder and 7em!er of 0im"son, 'hacher 1 Bartlett Mla. firm in ;e. @ork CityN 31+:-?1B1B4I William La. Learned 301B 1+*14 .as the Presidin( ustice of the 0u"reme Court of ;e. @ork 31+:-?1+BA4.

-The court does not 7ish to hear argument on the Cuestion 7hether the !ro)ision in the Fourteenth Amendment to the Constitution, 7hich forbids a +tate to den' to an' !erson 7ithin its Durisdiction the eCua !rotection of the a7s, a!! ies to these cor!orations. We are a of o!inion that it does.. E *.+. +u!reme Court Chief (ustice ,orrison R. Waite, "$$%, in Santa Clara County v. Southern Pacific Railroad Company

American Cor!orate FRobber 8arons’ of the ate "Gth Centur'

Left to ri(ht: $ndre. Carne(ie 31+D-?1B1B4, ohn Pier"ont 7or(an 0r. 31+D:?1B1D4, ohn ). Rockefeller 0r. 31+DB?1BD:4, and ay 9ould 31+D,?1+BA4.

Left to ri(ht: ohn aco! $stor ===, $u(ust Belmont 0r., 5d.ard 8. 8arriman, and Cornelius Lander!ilt
;ote: ohn Pier"ont 7or(an earned millions of dollar in "rofit sellin( malfunctioned rifles to the <.0. federal (o/ernment durin( the Ci/il WarI ohn Pier"ont 7or(an also "aid a “su!stitute” OD>> to ser/e as his re"lacement durin( the Ci/il War. Carne(ie, 7or(an, Rockefeller, and 9ould did not ser/e in the military durin( the Ci/il War.

'he Bosses of the 0enate

American =ationa Debt during and after Reconstruction 1"$%&H"G"#2 (u ' ", "$%# H :",$"&,6$#,465.&6 (u ' ", "$$2 H :",G"$,4"2,GG#.54 (u ' ", "G55 H :2,"4%,G%",5G".%6 (u ' ", "$%& H :2,%$5,%#6,$%G.6# (u ' ", "$$4 H :",$$#,"6",62$.56 (u ' ", "G5" H :2,"#4,42%,G44.$G (u ' ", "$%% H :2,664,24%,"64.%G (u ' ", "$$# H :",$45,&2$,G24.&6 (u ' ", "G52 H :2,"&$,%"5,##&.$G (u ' ", "$%6 H :2,%6$,"2%,"54.$6 (u ' ", "$$& H :",$%4,G%#,$64."# (u ' ", "G54 H :2,252,#%#,6$".$G (u ' ", "$%$ H :2,%"",%$6,$&"."G (u ' ", "$$% H :",66&,5%4,5"4.6$ (u ' ", "G5# H :2,2%#,554,&$&."# (u ' ", "$%G H :2,&$$,#&2,2"4.G# (u ' ", "$$6 H :",%&6,%52,&G2.%4 (u ' ", "G5& H :2,26#,%"&,5%4.$# (u ' ", "$65 H :2,#$5,%62,#26.$" (u ' ", "$$$ H :",%G2,$&$,G$#.&$ (u ' ", "G5% H :2,446,"%",$4G.5# (u ' ", "$6" H :2,4&4,2"",442.42 (u ' ", "$$G H :",%"G,5&2,G22.24 (u ' ", "G56 H :2,#&6,"$$,5%".&# (u ' ", "$62 H :2,2&4,2&",42$.6$ (u ' ", "$G5 H :",&&2,"#5,25#.64 (u ' ", "G5$ H :2,%2%,$5%,26".&# (u ' ", "$64 H :2,24#,#$2,GG4.25 (u ' ", "$G" H :",&#&,GG%,&G".%" (u ' ", "G5G H :2,%4G,&#%,2#".5# (u ' ", "$6# H :2,2&",%G5,#%$.#4 (u ' ", "$G2 H :",&$$,#%#,"##.%4 (u ' ", "G"5 H :2,%&2,%%&,$4$.5# (u ' ", "$6& H :2,242,2$#,&4".G& (u ' ", "$G4 H :",&#&,G$&,%$%."4 (u ' ", "G"" H :2,6%&,%55,%5%.%G (u ' ", "$6% H :2,"$5,4G&,5%6."& (u ' ", "$G# H :",%42,2&4,%4%.%$ (u ' ", "G"2 H :2,$%$,464,$6#."% (u ' ", "$66 H :2,25&,45",4G2."5 (u ' ", "$G& H :",%6%,"25,G$4.2& (u ' ", "G"4 H :2,G"%,25#,G"4.%% (u ' ", "$6$ H :2,2&%,25&,$G2.&4 (u ' ", "$G% H :",6%G,$#5,424.#5 (u ' ", "G"# H :2,G"2,#GG,2%G."% (u ' ", "$6G H :2,4#G,&%6,#$2.5# (u ' ", "$G6 H :",$"6,%62,%%&.G5 (u ' ", "G"& H :4,5&$,"4%,$64."% (u ' ", "$$5 H :2,"25,#"&,465.%4 (u ' ", "$G$ H :",6G%,&4",GG&.G5 (u ' ", "G"% H :4,%5G,2##,2%2."% (u ' ", "$$" H :2,5%G,5"4,&%G.&$ (u ' ", "$GG H :",GG",G26,45%.G2 (u ' ", "G"6 H :&,6"6,665,26G.&2 +ource: htt!:II777.treasur'direct.go)Igo)tIre!ortsI!dIhistdebtIhistdebtJhisto4.htm

An i ustration of a scene in the =e7 <or3 Ko d Room in =e7 <or3 Cit' during -8 ac3 Frida'., +e!tember 2#, "$%G. (a' Kou d and his !artner (im Fis3 7ere in)o )ed in cornering the go d mar3et on +e!tember 2#, "$%G. (im Fis3 7as shot and 3i ed in =e7 <or3 Cit' on (anuar' %, "$62. 1+ource: ?ctober G, "$%G edition of Fran3 Les ie’s ; ustrated =e7s!a!er2

Left to right: (a' Kou d, (im Fis3, and Wi iam ,arc' -8oss. T7eed Wi iam ,arc' -8oss. T7eed, 7ho ser)ed as a Krand +achem of Tamman' /a in =e7 <or3 Cit', *.+. Congressman 1DH=e7 <or3, "$&4H"$&&2, De!ut' +treet Commissioner of =e7 <or3 Cit' 1"$%"H"$652, and =e7 <or3 +tate +enator 1"$%6H"$6"2, 7as arrested and con)icted for embeLL ement in "$6#. 8oss T7eed esca!ed from !rison in December "$6&, 7as ca!tured in +!ain, and died in !rison in =e7 <or3 Cit' on A!ri "2, "$6$.

Corne ius 0anderbi t and the rai road mono!o ' of the ate "$55s

+tandard ?i Com!an' refiner' circa "$GG

$merican cor"orate e6ecuti/es and other “ro!!er !arons” in the late 1+>>s and early 1B>>s hired children, many of them .hom .ere illiterate immi(rants from 5uro"e, to "erform menial and ha#ardous Eo!s in the factories. 3;ational $rchi/es4

Left "hoto: $ youn( (irl .orks in a te6tile factory in the early 1B>>s. Ri(ht "hoto: $ (rou" of youn( !oys is seen .orkin( in a coal mine in the early 1B>>s.

0i6 years after .ork !e(an in 1+,A, the railroad .orkers of the Central Pacific Railroad from the .est and the <nion Pacific Railroad from the east met at Promontory 0ummit, <tah on 7ay 1>, 1+,B. =t .as there on 7ay 1>, 1+,B that California 9o/ernor Leland 0tanford 3one of the “Bi( %our” o.ners of the Central Pacific4 dro/e the 9olden 0"ike on the s"ecial tie of "olished California laurel.

'he )en/er Riot of 1++>, .here $mericans, "rimarily railroad .orkers, attack Chinese immi(rants in )en/er, Colorado in ;o/em!er 1++>. Con(ress "assed the Chinese 56clusion $ct of 1++A on 7ay ,, 1++A, "rohi!itin( the immi(ration of Chinese "eo"le initially for 1> yearsI the "rohi!ition .as e6tended until 1B*D .hen Con(ress re"ealed the "rohi!ition 3at the reCuest of 7adame Chian( Jai?shek4.

The Kreat Chicago Fire in ?ctober "$6" 1?ctober $H"5, "$6"2

The corner of Dearborn and ,onroe +treets after the Kreat Chicago Fire of "$6". The ,a'or of Chicago at the time of the Kreat Chicago Fire 7as Ros7e 8. ,ason. Ros7e 8. ,ason’s sons /enr' 8urra ,ason 1+>8 "$652 and A fred 8isho! ,ason 1+>8 "$6"2 7ere members of Skull & Bones at <a e *ni)ersit'.

/a'mar3et Riot at /a'mar3et +Cuare in Chicago on ,a' #, "$$%.

; inois =ationa Kuard troo!s confront stri3ing American Rai 7a' *nion members outside Arcade 8ui ding in the Pu man neighborhood of the south side of Chicago during the Pu man +tri3e in "$G#. *.+. President Kro)er C e)e and, a Democrat, ordered the *.+. Arm' to ; inois to end the stri3es in "$G#. The stri3es ended in (u ' "$G#.

Lone Gunman or Patsy?
The Po itica Assassination of President (ames A. Karfie d

American President (ames Abram Karfie d 1=o)ember "G, "$4" E +e!tember "G, "$$"2 is assassinated b' - one gunman. Char es (. Kuiteau at the 8a timore > Potomac Rai road Passenger Termina in Washington, D.C. on (u ' 2, "$$"M (ames A. Karfie d 7as a su!!orter of a go d and si )er standard. President Karfie d died from his 7ounds on +e!tember "G, "$$".

CLar A eNander ;; of Russia 7as assassinated in +t. Petersburg, Russia on ,arch "4, "$$". CLar A eNander ;; of Russia ru ed Russia from "$&& to "$$". CLar A eNander ;; of Russia 7as the CLar of Russia during the American Ci)i War.

-;f that mischie)ous financia !o ic' 7hich had its origin in the =orth American Re!ub ic shou d become indurated do7n to a fiNture, then that go)ernment 7i furnish its o7n mone' 7ithout cost. ;t 7i !a' off its debts and be 7ithout a debt. ;t 7i ha)e a the mone' necessar' to carr' on its commerce. ;t 7i become !ros!erous be'ond !recedent in the histor' of the ci)i iLed go)ernments of the 7or d. The brains and 7ea th of a countries 7i go to =orth America. That go)ernment must be destro'ed or it 7i destro' e)er' monarch' on the g obe.. E editoria in The London Times in "$%2

S&anis"1American 2ar3 Or4ani5e! 'rime?

From the Krass' Ono in ,ondragPn, +!ain:

Lone Gunman or Patsy?
The Assassination of Prime ,inister of +!ain Antonio CQno)as de Casti o 1August $, "$G62

Lone Gunman or Patsy? ;ta ian mobster ,iche e Angio i o 1 eft2 assassinates Prime ,inister of +!ain Antonio CQno)as de Casti o in ,ondragPn, +!ain on August $, "$G6. Antonio CQno)as de Casti o ser)ed as Prime ,inister of +!ain on siN different occasions 1"$6#H"$6&, "$6&H"$6G, "$6GH"$$", "$$#H"$$&, "$G5H"$G2, "$G&H"$G62. Puerto Rican nationa ist RamPn 9meterio 8etances a eged ' assisted ;ta ian mobster ,iche e Angio i o b' !ro)iding him 7ith mone' and fa se !a!ers.

American batt eshi! *++ ,aine eN! odes at /a)ana /arbor in /a)ana, Cuba on Februar' "&, "$G$, during the ongoing Cuban War of ;nde!endence. The Cuban War of ;nde!endence asted from "$G& unti "$G$.

8att e of +an (uan /i in Cuba during the +!anishHAmerican War in (u ' "$G$. America acCuired Cuba, Phi i!!ines, and Puerto Rico from +!ain at the end of the +!anishHAmerican War. The +!anishHAmerican War asted from A!ri 2&, "$G$ unti August "2, "$G$. 1Photo: Latin American +tudies2

Cuban Arm' Kenera Ca iNto Karcia 1right center2 and *.+. Arm' 8rig. Kenera Wi iam Lud o7 1 eft center2, ta3en during their conference at the time of the anding of the American arm' in "$G$, from !. 4"2 of Harper's Pictorial History of the War with Spain, 0o . ;;, !ub ished b' /ar!er and 8rothers in "$GG. Kenera Ca iNto Karcia died in Washington, D.C. on December "", "$G$.

American President Wi iam ,cOin e' 1(anuar' 2G, "$#4 E +e!tember "#, "G5"2 is assassinated b' - one gunman. Leon CLo gosL, an anarchist, at the PanHAmerican 9N!osition in 8uffa o, =e7 <or3, *.+.A. on +e!tember %, "G5". President ,cOin e' died of his 7ounds on +e!tember "#, "G5".

<a e *ni)ersit' Kraduates and Their ?ccu!ation during the +!anishHAmerican War

$ndre. ). White B.$. @ale 1+-D <.0. 7inister to 9ermany 31+B:?1B>A4

ohn )al#ell B.$. @ale 1+,<.0. Con(ressman 3R?Penn., 1++:?1B1D4

9eor(e P. Wetmore B.$. @ale 1+,: <.0. 0enator 3R?Rhode =sland, 1+B-? 1B>:, 1B>+?1B1D4

Charles ;e.ell %o.ler B.$. @ale 1+:, <.0. Con(ressman 3R? ;e. ersey, 1+B-?1B114

5llis 8enry Ro!erts B.$. @ale 1+-> 'reasurer of the <nited 0tates 31+B:?1B>-4

William J. 'o.nsend B.$. @ale 1+:1 ud(e of the <.0. )istrict Court for the )istrict of Connecticut 31+BA?1B>A4

LeBaron Bradford Colt B.$. @ale 1+,+ ud(e of the <.0. Court of $""eals for the %irst Circuit MBostonN 31++*?1B1D4

)a/id osiah Bre.er B.$. @ale 1+-, ustice of the <.0. 0u"reme Court 31++B?1B1>4

8enry Billin(s Bro.n B.$. @ale 1+-, ustice of the <.0. 0u"reme Court 31+B1?1B>,4

9eor(e 0hiras r. B.$. @ale 1+-D ustice of the <.0. 0u"reme Court 31+BA?1B>D4

Ro!ert Weeks de %orest B.$. @ale 1+:> 9eneral Counsel of Central Railroad of ;e. ersey 31+:*?1BA*4

Lloyd Wheaton Bo.ers B.$. @ale 1+:B 9eneral Counsel of Chica(o 1 ;orth.estern Rail.ay Co. 31+BD?1B>B4

ohn William 0terlin( B.$. @ale 1+,* Co?%ounder of 0hearman 1 0terlin( Mla. firm in ;e. @ork CityN 31+:D?1B1+4

5d.ard Curtis 0mith B.$. @ale 1+:9o/ernor of Lermont 31+B+?1B>>4

'imothy L. Woodruff B.$. @ale 1+:B Lieutenant 9o/ernor of ;e. @ork 31+B:?1B>A4

William Preston ohnston B.$. @ale 1+-A President of 'ulane <ni/ersity 31++*?1+BB4

)aniel C. 9ilman B.$. @ale 1+-A President of ohns 8o"kins <ni/ersity 31+:-?1B>14

Re/. 'imothy ).i(ht B.$. @ale 1+*B President of @ale <ni/ersity 31++,?1+BB4

Cyrus ;orthro" B.$. @ale 1+-: President of <ni/ersity of 7innesota 31++*?1B114

William 'orrey 8arris B.$. @ale 1+-+ <.0. Commissioner of 5ducation 31++B?1B>,4

Wa +treet during the Panic of "G56

ohn Pier"ont 7or(an and Jin( 5d.ard L== attend a house "arty at the 8arcourts& ;uneham Park estate in 1B>:.

ohn Pier"ont 7or(an (a#es ferociously at !ystanders at the funeral of 0enator ohn %airfield )ryden in 1B11.

<a e *ni)ersit' Kraduates and Their ?ccu!ation during the Panic of "G56

$mos Parker Wilder B.$. @ale 1++* <.0. Consul?9eneral in 8on( Jon( 31B>,?1B>B4

William 8o.ard 'aft B.$. @ale 1+:+ <.0. 0ecretary of War 31B>*?1B>+4

Chauncey 7. )e"e. B.$. @ale 1+-, <.0. 0enator 3R?;e. @ork, 1+BB?1B114

9eor(e P. Wetmore B.$. @ale 1+,: <.0. 0enator 3R?Rhode =sland, 1+B-? 1B>:, 1B>+?1B1D4

%rank B. Brande(ee B.$. @ale 1++<.0. 0enator 3R?Conn., 1B>-?1BA*4

)a/id osiah Bre.er B.$. @ale 1+-, ustice of the <.0. 0u"reme Court 31++B?1B1>4

ohn )al#ell B.$. @ale 1+,<.0. Con(ressman 3R?Penn., 1++:?1B1D4

Charles ;e.ell %o.ler B.$. @ale 1+:, <.0. Con(ressman 3R? ;e. ersey, 1+B-?1B114

%rancis Burton 8arrison B.$. @ale 1+B<.0. Con(ressman 3)?;e. @ork, 1B>D?1B>-, 1B>:?1B1D4

8er!ert Parsons B.$. @ale 1+B> <.0. Con(ressman 3R?;e. @ork, 1B>-?1B114

LeBaron Bradford Colt B.$. @ale 1+,+ ud(e of the <.0. Court of $""eals for the %irst Circuit MBostonN 31++*?1B1D4

William J. 'o.nsend B.$. @ale 1+:1 ud(e of the <.0. Court of $""eals for the 0econd Circuit M;e. @ork CityN 31B>A?1B>:4

$rthur '.inin( 8adley B.$. @ale 1+:, President of @ale <ni/ersity 31+BB?1BA14

Cyrus ;orthro" B.$. @ale 1+-: President of <ni/ersity of 7innesota 31++*?1B114

Otto '. Bannard B.$. @ale 1+:, President of ;e. @ork 'rust Co. 31B>*?1B1,4

Ro!ert Weeks de %orest B.$. @ale 1+:> 9eneral Counsel of Central Railroad of ;e. ersey 31+:*?1BA*4

ames 7ulford 'o.nsend B.$. @ale 1+:* 9eneral Counsel of 5.=. du Pont de ;emours Po.der Co. 31B>D?1B1D4

Lloyd Wheaton Bo.ers B.$. @ale 1+:B 9eneral Counsel of Chica(o 1 ;orth.estern Rail.ay Co. 31+BD?1B>B4

ohn William 0terlin( B.$. @ale 1+,* Co?%ounder of 0hearman 1 0terlin( Mla. firm in ;e. @ork CityN 31+:D?1B1+4

8enry Waters 'aft B.$. @ale 1++> Partner of Cad.alader, Wickersham 1 'aft Mla. firm in ;e. @ork CityN 31+BB?1B*-4

'he %ederal Reser/e headCuarters in Washin(ton, ).C. 'he %ederal Reser/e is $merica&s central !ankI the %ederal Reser/e o"erates in a manner similar to the former 0econd Bank of the <nited 0tates.

'he %ederal Reser/e Board as they took office on $u(ust 1>, 1B1*. %rom left to ri(ht, standin(: Paul 7. War!ur(, ohn 0kelton Williams 3Com"troller of the Currency4, W.P.9. 8ardin(, $dol"h C. 7illerI 0eated: Charles 0. 8amlin 39o/ernor4, William 9. 7c$doo 3Chairman and 0ecretary of the 'reasury4, and %rederic $. )elano. 7c$doo is .earin( a mournin( arm!and to commemorate the death, four days earlier, of his mother?in?la., 5llen $6son Wilson, the former %irst Lady and .ife of President Woodro. Wilson. William 9. 7c$doo had married Woodro. Wilson&s dau(hter 5leanor Randol"h Wilson in 7ay 1B1*. Paul 7. War!ur( .as a e.ish !anker .ho .as !orn and raised in 8am!ur(, 9ermanyI Paul 7. War!ur( immi(rated to $merica in 1B>A. Paul 7. War!ur(, alon( .ith <.0. 0enator ;elson $ldrich and four other men, created the %ederal Reser/e durin( a secret meetin( held at ekyll =sland near 0a/annah, 9eor(ia in ;o/em!er 1B1>. 3Photo: ;e. @ork <ni/ersity4

American marines occu!' a corner in 0eracruL, ,eNico in A!ri "G"#. President Woodro7 Wi son ordered the *.+. ,arines to inter)ene in ,eNico to !rotect Wa +treet ban3ers’ -in)estments.. 1Photo: Latin American +tudies2

Panama Cana under construction in the ear ' "G55s. The construction of the Panama Cana 7as financed !rimari ' b' Wa +treet and su!er)ised !rimari ' b' the *.+. go)ernment. The Panama Cana 7as o!en to a commercia and !assenger shi!s beginning on August "&, "G"#.

The Lud o7 ,assacre at Lud o7, Co orado on A!ri 25, "G"#, 7here 25 !eo! e, "" of them chi dren, died )io ent ' during an attac3 b' the Co orado =ationa Kuard on a tent co on' of ",255 stri3ing coa miners and their fami ies. The coa miners i)ing and 7or3ing in Lud o7, Co orado 7ere stri3ing against the Roc3efe er fami 'Ho7ned Co orado Fue > ;ron Com!an'. 1Western /istor'IKenea og' De!artment, Den)er Pub ic Librar'2

Roc3efe er -musc e men. ride in an armored car, 3no7n to the stri3ing miners as the -Death +!ecia ., 7ith a ,"$G& machine gun mounted onto the )ehic e, at a coa mine in Lud o7, Co orado. The Roc3efe er fami ' and other cor!orate eNecuti)es at )arious coa mines used these armored cars to -disci! ine. 7or3ers and to restrict their mo)ements.

'he Wall 0treet Bom!in( occurred outside of the 8ouse of 7or(an in ;e. @ork City at 1A:>1 P.7. on 0e"tem!er 1,, 1BA>. 'he e6"losion killed D+ "eo"le and seriously inEured 1*D "eo"le. 'he !om!in( incident .as alle(edly conducted !y =talian 9alleanist anarchistsI ho.e/er, no "erson .as con/icted in court for their in/ol/ement in the Wall 0treet Bom!in( des"ite the fact that ustice )e"artment, led !y <.0. $ttorney 9eneral $le6ander 7itchell Palmer, made numerous arrests.

“Order Out of Chaos”, Part D: 0ocial Reconstruction 3=ndian Wars 1 im Cro.4

The La3ota, =orthern Che'enne and Ara!aho 7arriors ed b' La3ota 7arrior CraL' /orse defeated the *.+. Arm' at the 8att e of the Litt e 8ighorn in !resentHda' ,ontana on (une 2&H2%, "$6% in an attem!t to !reser)e their and and their 7a' of ife. *.+. Arm' Kenera Keorge A. Custer 7as 3i ed in action on (une 2&, "$6%. The *.+. go)ernment reCuired American ;ndians 1=ati)e Americans2 to i)e in go)ernmentHdesignated -reser)ations. during the "$55s.

Chief ose"h 31+*>?1B>*4, Chief of the ;e# Perce tri!e .ho attem"ted to esca"e to Canada to a/oid li/in( on the “reser/ation”.

-Te Kenera /o7ard ; 3no7 his heart. What he to d me before, ; ha)e it in m' heart. ; am tired of fighting. ?ur chiefs are 3i edM Loo3ing K ass is dead, TooHhu Hhu Hsote is dead. The o d men are a dead. ;t is the 'oung men 7ho sa' 'es or no. /e 7ho ed on the 'oung men is dead. ;t is co d, and 7e ha)e no b an3etsM the itt e chi dren are freeLing to death. ,' !eo! e, some of them, ha)e run a7a' to the hi s, and ha)e no b an3ets, no food. =o one 3no7s 7here the' areR!erha!s freeLing to death. ; 7ant to ha)e time to oo3 for m' chi dren, and see ho7 man' of them ; can find. ,a'be ; sha find them among the dead. /ear me, m' chiefsS ; am tiredM m' heart is sic3 and sad. From 7here the sun no7 stands, ; 7i fight no more fore)er.. E Chief (ose!h, u!on surrendering to the *.+. Arm' in ?ctober "$66 -,' son, m' bod' is returning to m' mother earth, and m' s!irit is going )er' soon to see the Kreat +!irit Chief. When ; am gone, thin3 of 'our countr'. <ou are the chief of these !eo! e. The' oo3 to 'ou to guide them. A 7a's remember that 'our father ne)er so d his countr'. <ou must sto! 'our ears 7hene)er 'ou are as3ed to sign a treat' se ing 'our home. A fe7 'ears more and 7hite men 7i be a around 'ou. The' ha)e their e'es on this and. ,' son, ne)er forget m' d'ing 7ords. This countr' ho ds 'our father@s bod'. =e)er se the bones of 'our father and 'our mother.. E Chief (ose!h The 9 der 1Chief (ose!h’s father2, circa "$6"

$merican soldiers !ury dead nati/e $merican =ndians in anuary 1+B1 after murderin( the nati/es at the Battle of Wounded Jnee in 0outh )akota on )ecem!er AB, 1+B>. 7any $merican =ndian tri!es, includin( the 0iou6, $"ache, and ;a/aEo .ere forced to li/e on “reser/ations”I cor"orate ro!!er !arons used this “o""ortunity” to search for (old, oil, coal, lum!er, and other natural resources and !uild ne. railroad routes .hile /arious "oliticians, !oth Re"u!licans and )emocrats, in Con(ress used this “o""ortunity” to create a “.hite nation”.

Band of $"ache =ndian "risoners take a !reak at a rest sto" !eside 0outhern Pacific Rail.ay near ;ueces Ri/er, 'e6as on 0e"tem!er 1>, 1++,. $mon( those on their .ay to e6ile in %lorida are ;atche# 3center front4 and, to the ri(ht, 9eronimo and his son. 3Photo: ;ational $rchi/es4

+iouN =ation chief +itting 8u and F8uffa o 8i ’ Cod' !ose for a !ortrait in ,ontrea , Tuebec, 8ritish Canada during 8uffa o 8i ’s Wi d West +ho7 in August "$$&. +itting 8u 7as shot in the head b' an ;ndian agenc' !o ice officer on December "&, "$G5 during an attem!t to arrest him and !re)ent him from su!!orting the Khost Dance mo)ement. 1Photo: Librar' of Congress2

%reedman&s Bureau officer "romotes racial "eace in the "ost.ar 0outh. 3Harper's Weekly, uly A-, 1+,+4 'he “Radical Re"u!licans” im"osed /irtual martial la. 3“Reconstruction”4 in the 0outh in 1+,+ and di/ided the 0outh into fi/e military districts in res"onse to the “!lack codes” and other restrictions im"osed on freed sla/es durin( the !e(innin( of Reconstruction. %i/e <.0. $rmy (enerals administered the 0outh from different cities and a""ointed indi/iduals .ho .ere close friends or loyal to the Re"u!lican Party .hile mem!ers of the )emocratic Party .ere mar(inali#ed or e6cluded. 'he 0tate le(islatures in the 0outhern states 3i.e. 0outh Carolina, $la!ama, 9eor(ia, 7ississi""i, Louisiana, 'e6as, ;orth Carolina4 in 1+,-?1+,: "romul(ated /arious “!lack codes” and other la.s restrictin( the ri(hts of the freed sla/es and la.s restrictin( "olitical o""osition. 'he "rimary "ur"ose of Reconstruction and the /irtual martial la. in the 0outh .as to re!uild the 0outh, restore la. and order in the 0outh, and assimilate the freed sla/es into $merican society. Racial tensions remained hi(h in the 0outh durin( and after Reconstruction, des"ite the federal (o/ernment&s attem"t to "romote eCuality and "eace !et.een the former Re!el soldiers and former sla/es.

<.0. $rmy 7aEor 9eneral Oli/er Otis 8o.ard 31+D>?1B>B4 .as a <.0. $rmy officer durin( the Ci/il War, founder and President of 8o.ard <ni/ersity in Washin(ton, ).C. 31+,B?1+:*4, commissioner of the %reedmanFs Bureau 31+,-?1+:*4, and 0u"erintendent of <.0. 7ilitary $cademy at West Point 31++1?1++A4. 7aEor 9eneral 8o.ard also fou(ht a(ainst Chief ose"h and his ;e# Perce tri!e in 1+::.

$ "hoto of a %reedmen&s 0chool. 3Photo: htt":GG....latinamericanstudies.or(Gfreedmans?!ureau.htm4

Ca"tion: “'he %irst Colored 0enator and Re"resentati/es in the *1st and *And Con(ress of the <nited 0tates.” $mericans of $frican descent su""orted the Re"u!lican Party and .ere elected to federal and state offices durin( Reconstruction. $mericans of $frican descents .ere de"ri/ed of their li!erty and suffra(e after Reconstruction ended in 1+::. im Cro. la.s enacted in the former Confederate?occu"ied 0tates reduced $mericans of $frican descent 3!oth full and "artial4 to a state of "eona(e.

An i ustration de!icts a race riot in =e7 ?r eans on (u ' 45, "$%%. Another race riot occurred in =e7 ?r eans in ate ?ctober "$%$. -The riot in =e7 ?r eans HH murdering negroes in the rear of ,echanics@ ;nstituteM P atform in ,echanics@ ;nstitute after the riot., from Harper's Weekly, "$%%

An i ustration de!icts a race riot in =e7 ?r eans on (u ' 45, "$%%.

U+cene in ,em!his, Tennessee During the Riot E 8urning a Freedmen@s +choo HhouseU Harper's Weekly, ,a' 2%, "$%% 1Archi)es ,anuscri!t Co ection2

Memphis Race Riots, Shelby County, Tennessee, May 1-3, 1866. The worst race riot in Tennessee history began as an argument between white policemen and black former Union soldiers. It escalated quickly as mobs of white civilians ravaged black neighborhoods. Nearly fifty people died in the three-day riot: forty-si !frican !mericans and two whites "one of the whites is believed to have died when his own firearm misfired#. $eventy-five people were in%ured and &'( buildings were burned: ninety-one homes) four churches) and eight schools. *ne hundred people were robbed) many civilians lost their life savings) and many of the soldiers lost the money they had %ust received upon ending their service with the Union !rmy. +ive women were raped. ,artial law was finally implemented to stop the riot) but not before much bloodshed and destruction had occured. -espite the widespread violence and investigations by the +reedmen.s /ureau and a 0oint 1ongressional 1ommittee) none of the instigators was ever brought to trial. The ,emphis riot) and a similar riot in New *rleans) lent power to the 2epublicans controlling 1ongress and led to the ratification of the &3th !mendment.

1+ource: htt!:II777.tn.go)Its aIeNhibitsIdisastersIriots.htm2

U+cene in ,em!his, Tennessee During the Riot E +hooting Do7n =egroes on the ,orning of ,a' 2, "$%%U Harper's Weekly, ,a' 2%, "$%% 1Archi)es ,anuscri!t Co ection2

Testimony of Dr. R. M. Mc o!an ,y name is -r. 2. ,. ,c4owan) I live on $outh $treet near 1ausey. *n the &st day of ,ay &566 while at my place I heard shots fired and upon going to the door saw several 7olicemen "one named 1arroll# running up the street away from the mob and when they arrived at the bridge one of the policemen was shot - did not see who shot him - I went to dress the wound) while doing so the police returned with an increased force and immediately upon their arrival they commenced firing upon the colored people indiscriminately. There were women and children amidst the colored people. I saw one colored man killed by the police on the bridge) he was running away from them at the time. I saw another colored man endeavoring to conceal himself) when the police shot him and beat him over the head) he was left for dead. !fter night a colored soldier came to my house for protection) when a number of white men came along accompanied by police. *ne white man entered my place and asked me 8what are you) you damn nigger doing here.8 I replied 8let him alone) he is waiting for the ambulance to gather the murdered.8 9e then said to me 8you damn :ankee son of a bitch you can.t come down here to live.8 I think he also said 8we will burn you out.8 !t this time the police came to the door when the man said 8here is a damn abolitionist who says that the police are doing wrong)8 the mob cried 8bring him out.8 I was forced out. The 1aptain of the 7olice then interfered and said 8let him alone) I know him.8 The ne t morning they assaulted my store during my absence and I was forced to leave ; close it and it remained closed for several days. I think the man who entered my store on the night of the &st is named <m. 7orter) a butcher. I can identify him.

1+ource: htt!:II777.tn.go)Its aIeNhibitsIdisastersIriots.htm2

'he P=n/isi!le 5m"ire of the 0outhP, !etter kno.n as the “Ju Jlu6 Jlan”, .as a terrorist or(ani#ation founded !y former Re!el “soldiers” in Pulaski County, 'ennessee in 7ay 1+,,. 'he Ju Jlu6 Jlan en(a(ed in acts of lynchin(, murder, arson, and terrorism a(ainst $mericans of $frican descent, $mericans .ho su""orted the Re"u!lican Party, and $mericans .ho mo/ed to the 0outh after the Ci/il War 3“car"et!a((ers”4. Both Con(ress and President <lysses 0. 9rant attem"ted to outla. the Ju Jlu6 Jlan !y "assin( the Ci/il Ri(hts $ct of 1+:1, also kno.n as the Ju Jlu6 Jlan $ct.

Ju Jlu6 Jlan terrorists: Confederate 9eneral ;athan Bedford %orrest 3left4 and Confederate Bri(adier 9eneral and <.0. 0enator ohn 'yler 7or(an 3)emocrat, $la!ama, 1+::?1B>:4

$ Ju Jlu6 Jlan ceremony. Was 0kull 1 Bones in/ol/ed in de/elo"in( the Ju Jlu6 Jlan after the Ci/il War2 'here .ere si6 mem!ers of 0kull 1 Bones in the <.0. 8ouse of Re"resentati/es and one mem!er of 0kull 1 Bones in the <.0. 0enate in 1+:1. Con(ressmen ohn 5d.ard 0eeley 301B 1+D-, R?;e. @ork4, BenEamin 'ucker 5ames 301B 1+*D, R?Rhode =sland4, and 5llis 8enry Ro!erts 301B 1+->, R?;e. @ork4 /oted “@ea” 3@es4 on the Ci/il Ri(hts $ct of 1+:1 3Ju Jlu6 Jlan $ct4. ohn $ndre. Peters 301B 1+*A, R?7aine4, 0te"hen W. Jello(( 301B 1+*,, R?Connecticut4, and Richard . 8aldeman 301B 1+-1, )?Pennsyl/ania4 did not /ote on the Ci/il Ri(hts $ct of 1+:1. <.0. 0enator Orris 0anford %erry 301B 1+**4 did not /ote on the Ci/il Ri(hts $ct of 1+:1.

,embers of the Ou O uN O an burn a cross.

,embers of the Ou O uN O an dis! a' a stiffHarm sa ute simi ar to the =aLi Kerman sa ute under Ado f /it er.

Former Rebe 1Confederate2 arm' Kenera A bert Pi3e, a 44 rd Degree Freemason

Front co)er of a boo3 on the Onights of the Ko den Circ e. The Ou O uN O an is re!orted ' an eNtension of the Onights of the Ko den Circ e, a secret societ'.

Three men 'nched in Du uth, ,innesota, circa "G25. 1Photo courtes' of the ,innesota /istorica +ociet'2

Race riot eru"ts in 'ulsa, Oklahoma from 7ay D1? une 1, 1BA1. $n estimated D>> "eo"le .ere killedI most of the /ictims .ere $mericans of $frican descent. 'he race riot eru"ted after 1B?year?old $frican?$merican shoeshine man named )ick Ro.land tri""ed and fell on an ele/ator and fell on 1:?year?old .hite (irl named 0arah Pa(e, an ele/ator o"eratorI )ick Ro.land .as arrested !y 'ulsa city "olice for “assault” and later released. Whites in 'ulsa res"onded !y formin( a lynch mo! and roamin( the streets of 'ulsa. 3Photo: htt":GG....tulsare"arations.or(G'ulsaRiot.htm4

)edicated only .eeks !efore the riot, the 7ount Qion Ba"tist Church .as a (reat source of "ride for many !lack 'ulsans. But after a "rolon(ed !attle, the .hite rioters !urned it?as .ell as more than a half do#en other $frican $merican churches?to the (round 3Courtesy )e"artment of 0"ecial Collections, 7c%arlin Li!rary, <ni/ersity of 'ulsa4. 3Photo: htt":GG....tulsare"arations.or(G'ulsaRiot.htm4

0treet !y street, !lock !y !lock, the .hite in/aders mo/ed north.ard across 'ulsaFs $frican?$merican district, lootin( homes and settin( them on fire. 0e/eral rioters also fle. air"lanes and used their air"lanes to dro" !om!s on /arious homes and !usinesses. 3Courtesy )e"artment of 0"ecial Collections, 7c%arlin Li!rary, <ni/ersity of 'ulsa4 3Photo: htt":GG....tulsare"arations.or(G'ulsaRiot.htm4

White rioters !e(an settin( !lack homes and !usinesses on fire around midni(ht, lar(ely alon( $rcher 0treet. 'here .ere atrocities as .ell. One elderly $frican?$merican cou"le, it .as later re"orted, .as shot in the !ack of the head !y .hites as they knelt in "rayer inside their home 3Courtesy Oklahoma 8istorical 0ociety4. 3Photo: htt":GG....tulsare"arations.or(G'ulsaRiot.htm4

0hortly after the out!reak of /iolence, the 'ulsa "olice "resented the local ;ational 9uardsmen .ith a machine (un?only it "ro/ed to !e defecti/e. $ second machine (un that .as in the hands of .hite ci/ilians, ho.e/er, .as used to considera!le effect durin( the attack on 9reen.ood. 7artial la. .as declared in 'ulsa, Oklahoma durin( the race riot. 3Courtesy )e"artment of 0"ecial Collections, 7c%arlin Li!rary, <ni/ersity of 'ulsa4 3Photo: htt":GG....tulsare"arations.or(G'ulsaRiot.htm4

$s the riot .ore on, $frican?$merican families freCuently !ecame se"arated, as !lack men .ere often the first to !e led a.ay at (un"oint. %or many !lack 'ulsans, it .as hours?and, in some cases, much lon(er?!efore they learned the fate of their lo/ed ones. 3)e"artment of 0"ecial Collections, 7c%arlin Li!rary, <ni/ersity of 'ulsa4 3Photo: htt":GG....tulsare"arations.or(G'ulsaRiot.htm4

Race riot in 9ast +t. Louis on (u ' 2, "G"6

Race riot in 9ast +t. Louis on (u ' 2, "G"6

0ilent Protest "arade is held on %ifth $/enue in ;e. @ork City on uly A+, 1B1:, in res"onse to the 5ast 0t. Louis race riot. =n front ro. are: ames Weldon ohnson Mfar ri(htN, W. 5. B. )uBois MAnd from ri(htN, Re/. 8utchens Che. Bisho", rector of 0t. Phili"Fs 5"isco"al Church M8arlemN and realtor ohn 5. ;ail. 3Photo: ;e. @ork Pu!lic Li!rary4

Left "hoto: 7o! 0to""in( 0treet Car in 5ast 0t. Louis durin( a !loody Race Riot on uly A, 1B1:. Ri(ht "hoto: Race riot in Chica(o in 1B1B. 3Both "hotos: htt":GG....!lack"ast.or(G2CRtreeGRaceSRiotsGRaceSRiots4

8omer Plessy, an $merican citi#en of Creole descent, !rou(ht the case of Plessy v. Ferguson !efore the <.0. 0u"reme Court in 1+B,. 8omer Plessy, .ho .as :G+ .hite 35uro"ean4 and 1G+ !lack 3$frican4, .as arrested for sittin( in the “.hite” section of a se(re(ated train. 'he <.0. 0u"reme Court u"held racist se(re(ation la.s, !etter kno.n as “ im Cro.” la.s, that state le(islatures in the 0outh "romul(ated. 'he <.0. 0u"reme Court unanimously declared racial se(re(ation la.s unconstitutional in Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka, Kansas in 1B-*.

-8ut in )ie7 of the Constitution, in the e'e of the a7, there is in this countr' no su!erior, dominant, ru ing c ass of citiLens. There is no caste here. ?ur Constitution is co orHb ind, and neither 3no7s nor to erates c asses among citiLens. ;n res!ect of ci)i rights, a citiLens are eCua before the a7.. E *.+. +u!reme Court (ustice (ohn ,arsha /ar an, ,a' "$G%, in his dissenting o!inion in Plessy v. er!uson

-+tates’ Rights. in F orida: A -Co ored 9ntrance. for Americans of African descent is dis! a'ed at the +aenger Theater in Pensaco a, F orida, *nited +tates of America in circa "G4$. 1Photo: htt!:II777.!ensa!edia.comI7i3iI+egregation2

$merican tra/elers of $frican descent throu(hout the 0outh .ere directed to Pcolored onlyP .aitin( areas at !us stations, such as this one in )urham, ;orth Carolina, <.0.$. in 1B*>. 30ource: ack )elano, 7ay 1B*>, Li!rary of Con(ress Prints and Photo(ra"hs )i/ision, Washin(ton, ).C.4 htt":GG....amistadresource.or(G"lantationHtoH(hettoGarchi/esGima(eHarchi/e.html

$n $merican man of $frican descent drinks at a .ater cooler reser/ed for PColoredP in Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, <.0.$. in 1BDB. 0e"arate .ater fountains for !lacks and .hites, "ro/idin( such !asic a human need as .ater, hi(hli(hted ho. far?reachin( racial discrimination .as durin( the im Cro. era. 30ource: Russell Lee, uly 1BDB, Li!rary of Con(ress Prints and Photo(ra"hs )i/ision, Washin(ton, ).C.4 htt":GG....amistadresource.or(G"lantationHtoH(hettoGarchi/esGima(eHarchi/e.html

$ cafe in the .arehouse district of )urham, ;orth Carolina .ith se"arate entrances for PWhiteP and PColored,P in 1B*>, ty"ical of eatin( esta!lishments throu(hout the 0outh durin( the im Cro. era. 30ource: ack )elano, 7ay 1B*>, Li!rary of Con(ress Prints and Photo(ra"hs )i/ision, Washin(ton, ).C.4 htt":GG....amistadresource.or(G"lantationHtoH(hettoGarchi/esGima(eHarchi/e.html

0i(n on restaurant indicatin( PWe Cater to White 'rade Only,P Lancaster, Ohio, 1BD+. )urin( im Cro. se(re(ation, some !usiness esta!lishments did not ser/ice !lack "atrons at all. 'his si(n on a restaurant in Lancaster, Ohio, in 1BD+, is clear a!out ser/in( .hites only. 30ource: Ben 0hahn, $u(ust 1BD+, Li!rary of Con(ress Prints and Photo(ra"hs )i/ision, Washin(ton, ).C.4 htt":GG....amistadresource.or(G"lantationHtoH(hettoGarchi/esGima(eHarchi/e.html

Oansas +tate Free Fair in To!e3a, Oansas. Fitter Fami ies Contest eNamining staff and -s7ee!sta3es. 7inning fami '. Archi)a ;nformation: A9+,Am4,&6&.5%,&& 1Photo: htt!:IIb og. ib.umn.eduI!err'542Iim!ossib eIcatJ!o ic'JandJ!o itics.htm 2

A 7oman !oints to a degrading sign regarding (a!anese immigrants i)ing in Ca ifornia.

$ (rou" of Jlansmen "artici"ates in a Jlan rally near 7ont(omery, $la!ama on )ecem!er 1,, 1B-,. 3Photo: 9eor(e 'amesG'he ;e. @ork 'imes4 30ource: T e Tu!ultuous Fifties" # $iew fro! T e %ew &ork Ti!es P oto #rc ives !y )ou(las )reish"oon and $lan 'rachten!er(4

$ (rou" of $merican students of 5uro"ean descent confront t.o $merican students of $frican descent as the t.o $merican students of $frican descent tried to enter ;orth Little Rock 8i(h 0chool in Little Rock, $rkansas on 0e"tem!er 1-, 1B-:. 3Photo: William P. 0traeterG$ssociated Press4 30ource: T e Tu!ultuous Fifties" # $iew fro! T e %ew &ork Ti!es P oto #rc ives !y )ou(las )reish"oon and $lan 'rachten!er(4

Left "hoto: Protests eru"t in front of Little Rock Central 8i(h 0chool in Little Rock, $rkansas on 0e"tem!er *, 1B-: as $rkansas ;ational 9uardsmen stand in the !ack(round. 3Photo: T BettmannGCORB=04 Ri(ht "hoto: $ "aratroo"er from the <.0. $rmy 1>1st $ir!orne )i/ision stands (uard outside Central 8i(h 0chool in Little Rock, $rkansas on 0e"tem!er A-, 1B-:, as students chat durin( a fire drill. 'he troo"s inte(rated Central .ith !are !ayonets on 0e"tem!er A-th, endin( a month of o"en defiance of federal authority. 3Photo: T BettmannGCORB=04

$merican <.0. $rmy soldiers from the 1>1st $ir!orne )i/ision escort the “Little Rock ;ine” students into the former all?.hite Central 8i(h 0chool in Little Rock, $rkansas on 0e"tem!er A-, 1B-:.

)e"uty 0heriff ).8. Lackey fin(er"rints Rosa Parks on %e!ruary AA, 1B-,. 3$ssociated Press "hoto !y 9ene 8arrick4

Police officers in Birmin(ham, $la!ama terrori#e an $merican !oy .ith do(s.

$ 9reyhound !us .ith 1* mem!ers of an interracial (rou" that .as "art of the %reedom Ride .as fire!om!ed outside $nniston, $la!ama on 7ay 1*, 1B,1. 3<nited Press =nternational4 30ource: htt":GG....nytimes.comGA>>+G>,GA>GusGA>ci/il.html4

Wool.orth 0it?=n in ackson, 7ississi""i on 7ay A+, 1B,D

Racial se(re(ation 3“ im Cro.”4 K side effects from the Ci/il War and Reconstruction

)r. 7artin Luther Jin( r. deli/ers a s"eech in front of the Lincoln 7emorial in Washin(ton, ).C. on $u(ust A+, 1B,D.

'he 1,th 0treet Ba"tist Church !om!in( in Birmin(ham, $la!ama on 0e"tem!er 1-, 1B,D

President Lyndon B. ohnson, a lifelon( resident of 'e6as, si(ns the Ci/il Ri(hts $ct of 1B,* into la. in the 5ast Room of the White 8ouse on uly A, 1B,*. )r. 7artin Luther Jin(, r. is standin( directly !ehind the President. 3Photo: Cecil 0tou(htonGLyndon Baines ohnson Li!rary and 7useum4

)r. 7artin Luther Jin( r. .as assassinated around ,:>> ".m. at Lorraine 7otel in 7em"his, 'ennessee, <.0.$. on $"ril *, 1B,+.

Ci)i Rights Leaders in the ear ' "G55s

8oo3er T. Washington 1 eft2 and W.9.8. Du 8ois, A. Phi i! Rando !h

;da 8. We s 1 eft2, ,ar' ,cLeod 8ethune, and +usan 8. Anthon'

9 eanor Roose)e t

*.+. President Theodore Roose)e t meets 7ith Tus3egee ;nstitute founder 8oo3er Washington and at Tus3egee ;nstitute in Tus3egee, A abama in "G5&. 1Photo: <a e Co ection of American Literature, 8einec3e Rare 8oo3 and ,anuscri!t Librar'2

?n Februar' "4, "G5& President Theodore Roosevelt delivers a stirrin! speech to the Lincoln "inner of the Repu#lican Clu# of the City of $ew %ork held at the Waldorf&'storia Hotel. Roosevelt had (ust won his second reelection) and in this speech) he discussed the country*s current state of race relations and his plan for improvin! them. ADDR9++ AT T/9 L;=C?L= D;==9R ?F T/9 R9P*8L;CA= CL*8 ?F T/9 C;T< ?F =9W <?RO WALD?RFHA+T?R;A /?T9L F98 "4, "G5& ,r. President, and 'ou, m' Fe o7H,embers of the Re!ub ican C ub, and 'ou, m' Fe o7HKuests of the Re!ub ican C ub: ;n his second inaugura , in a s!eech 7hich 7i be read as ong as the memor' of this =ation endures, Abraham Linco n c osed b' sa'ing: -With ma ice to7ard noneM 7ith charit' for a M 7ith firmness in the right, as Kod gi)es us to see the right, et us stri)e on to finish the 7or3 7e are inM V to do a 7hich ma' achie)e and cherish a Dust and asting !eace among ourse )es, and 7ith a nations.. ;mmediate ' after his reHe ection he had a read' s!o3en thus: -The strife of the e ection is but human nature !ractica ' a!! ied to the facts of the case. What has occurred in this case must e)er recur in simi ar cases. /uman nature 7i not change. ;n an' future great nationa tria , com!ared 7ith the men of this, 7e sha ha)e as 7ea3 and as strong, as si ' and as 7ise, as bad and as good. Let us, therefore, stud' the incidents of this as !hi oso!h' to earn 7isdom from, and none of them as 7rongs to be re)enged. . . . ,a' not a ha)ing a common interest reunite in a common effort to 1ser)e2 our common countr'W For m' o7n !art, ; ha)e stri)en and sha stri)e to a)oid ! acing an' obstac e in the 7a'. +o ong as ; ha)e been here ; ha)e not 7i ing ' ! anted a thorn in an' man’s bosom. Whi e ; am dee! ' sensib e to the high com! iment of a ree ection, and du ' gratefu , as ; trust, to A might' Kod for ha)ing directed m' countr'men to a right conc usion, as ; thin3, for their o7n good, it adds nothing to m' satisfaction that an' other man ma' be disa!!ointed or !ained b' the resu t. ,a' ; as3 those 7ho ha)e not differed 7ith me to Doin 7ith me in this same s!irit to7ard those 7ho ha)eW. This is the s!irit in 7hich might' Linco n sought to bind u! the =ations 7ounds 7hen its sou 7as 'et seething 7ith fierce hatreds, 7ith 7rath, 7ith rancor, 7ith a the e)i and dreadfu !assions !ro)o3ed b' ci)i 7ar. +ure ' this is the s!irit 7hich a Americans shou d sho7 no7, 7hen there is so itt e eNcuse for ma ice or rancor or hatred, 7hen there is so itt e of )ita conseCuence to di)ide brother from brother. Linco n, himse f a man of +outhern birth, did not hesitate to a!!ea to the s7ord 7hen he became satisfied that in no other 7a' cou d the *nion be sa)ed, for high though he !ut !eace he !ut righteousness sti higher. /e 7arred for the *nionM he 7arred to free the s a)eM and 7hen he 7arred he 7arred in earnest, for it is a sign of 7ea3ness to be ha fHhearted 7hen b o7s must be struc3. 8ut he fe t on ' o)e, a o)e as dee! as the tenderness of his great and sad heart, for a his countr'men a i3e in the =orth and in the +outh, and he onged abo)e e)er'thing for the da' 7hen the' shou d once more be 3nit together in the unbrea3ab e bonds of eterna friendshi!. We of toHda', in dea ing 7ith a our fe o7HcitiLens, 7hite or co ored, =orth or +outh, shou d stri)e to sho7 Dust the Cua ities that Linco n sho7ed: /is steadfastness in stri)ing after the right, and his infinite !atience and forbearance 7ith those 7ho sa7 that right ess c ear ' than he didM his earnest endea)or to do 7hat 7as best, and 'et his readiness to acce!t the best that 7as !racticab e 7hen the idea best 7as unattainab eM his unceasing effort to cure 7hat 7as e)i , cou! ed 7ith his refusa to ma3e a bad situation 7orse b' an' i HDudged or i Htimed effort to ma3e it better. The great Ci)i War in 7hich Linco n to7ered as the oftiest figure eft us not on ' a reunited countr', but a countr' 7hich has the !roud right to c aim as its o7n g or' 7on a i3e b' those 7ho 7ore the b ue and b' those 7ho 7ore the gra', b' those 7ho fo o7ed Krant and b' those 7ho fo o7ed LeeM for both fought 7ith eCua bra)er' and 7ith eCua sincerit' of con)iction, each stri)ing for the ight as it 7as gi)en him to see the ightM though it is no7 c ear to a that the trium!h of the cause of freedom and of the *nion 7as essentia to the 7e fare of man3ind. We are no7 one !eo! e, a !eo! e 7ith fai ings 7hich 7e must not b in3, but a !eo! e 7ith great Cua ities in 7hich 7e ha)e the right to fee Dust !ride.

A good Americans 7ho d7e in the =orth must, because the' are good Americans, fee the most earnest friendshi! for their fe o7Hcountr'men 7ho d7e in the +outh, a friendshi! a the greater because it is in the +outh that 7e find in its most acute !hase one of the gra)est !rob ems before our !eo! e: the !rob em of so dea ing 7ith the man of one co or as to secure him the rights that no one 7ou d grudge him if he 7ere of another co or. To so )e this !rob em it is, of course, necessar' to educate him to !erform the duties a fai ure to !erform 7hich 7i render him a curse to himse f and to a around him. ,ost certain ' a c earHsighted and generous men in the =orth a!!reciate the difficu t' and !er! eNit' of this !rob em, s'm!athiLe 7ith the +outh in the embarrassment of conditions for 7hich she is not a one res!onsib e, fee an honest 7ish to he ! her 7here he ! is !racticab e, and ha)e the heartiest res!ect for those bra)e and earnest men of the +outh 7ho, in the face of fearfu difficu ties, are doing a that men can do for the betterment a i3e of 7hite and of b ac3. The attitude of the =orth to7ard the negro is far from 7hat it shou d be and there is need that the =orth a so shou d act in good faith u!on the !rinci! e of gi)ing to each man 7hat is Dust ' due him, of treating him on his 7orth as a man, granting him no s!ecia fa)ors, but den'ing him no !ro!er o!!ortunit' for abor and the re7ard of abor. 8ut the !ecu iar circumstances of the +outh render the !rob em there far greater and far more acute. =either ; nor an' other man can sa' that an' gi)en 7a' of a!!roaching that !rob em 7i !resent in our time e)en an a!!roNimate ' !erfect so ution, but 7e can safe ' sa' that there can ne)er be such so ution at a un ess 7e a!!roach it 7ith the effort to do fair and eCua Dustice among a menM and to demand from them in return Dust and fair treatment for others. ?ur effort shou d be to secure to each man, 7hate)er his co or, eCua it' of o!!ortunit', eCua it' of treatment before the a7. As a !eo! e stri)ing to sha!e our actions in accordance 7ith the great a7 of righteousness 7e cannot afford to ta3e !art in or be indifferent to the o!!ression or ma treatment of an' man 7ho, against crushing disad)antages, has b' his o7n industr', energ', se fHres!ect, and !erse)erance strugg ed u!7ard to a !osition 7hich 7ou d entit e him to the res!ect of his fe o7s, if on ' his s3in 7ere of a different hue. 9)er' generous im!u se in us re)o ts at the thought of thrusting do7n instead of he !ing u! such a man. To den' an' man the fair treatment granted to others no better than he is to commit a 7rong u!on him a 7rong sure to react in the ong run u!on those gui t' of such denia . The on ' safe !rinci! e u!on 7hich Americans can act is that of -a men u!,. not that of -some men do7n.. ;f in an' communit' the e)e of inte igence, mora it', and thrift among the co ored men can be raised, it is, human ' s!ea3ing, sure that the same e)e among the 7hites 7i be raised to an e)en higher degreeM and it is no ess sure that the debasement of the b ac3s 7i in the end carr' 7ith it an attendant debasement of the 7hites. The !rob em is so to adDust the re ations bet7een t7o races of different ethnic t'!e that the rights of neither be abridged nor Deo!ardedM that the bac37ard race be trained so that it ma' enter into the !ossession of true freedom, 7hi e the for7ard race is enab ed to !reser)e unharmed the high ci)i iLation 7rought out b' its forefathers. The 7or3ing out of this !rob em must necessari ' be s o7M it is not !ossib e in offhand fashion to obtain or to confer the !rice ess boons of freedom, industria efficienc', !o itica ca!acit', and domestic mora it'. =or is it on ' necessar' to train the co ored manM it is Cuite as necessar' to train the 7hite man, for on his shou ders rests a 7e Hnigh un!ara e ed socio ogica res!onsibi it'. ;t is a !rob em demanding the best thought, the utmost !atience, the most earnest effort, the broadest charit', of the statesman, the student, the !hi anthro!istM of the eaders of thought in e)er' de!artment of our nationa ife. The Church can be a most im!ortant factor in so )ing it aright. 8ut abo)e a e se 7e need for its successfu so ution the sober, 3ind ', steadfast, unse fish !erformance of dut' b' the a)erage ! ain citiLen in his e)er'da' dea ings 7ith his fe o7s. The idea of e ementa Dustice meted out to e)er' man is the idea 7e shou d 3ee! e)er before us. ;t 7i be man' a ong da' before 7e attain to it, and un ess 7e sho7 not on ' de)otion to it, but a so 7isdom and se fHrestraint in the eNhibition of that de)otion, 7e sha defer the time for its rea iLation sti further. ;n stri)ing to attain to so much of it as concerns dea ing 7ith men of different co ors, 7e must remember t7o things. ;n the first ! ace, it is true of the co ored man, as it is true of the 7hite man, that in the ong run his fate must de!end far more u!on his o7n effort than u!on the efforts of an' outside friend. 9)er' )icious, )ena , or ignorant co ored man is an e)en greater foe to his o7n race than to the communit' as a 7ho e. The co ored man’s se fHres!ect entit es him to do that share in the !o itica 7or3 of the countr' 7hich is 7arranted b' his indi)idua abi it' and integrit' and the !osition he has 7on for himse f. 8ut the !rime reCuisite of the race is mora and industria u! ifting. LaLiness and shift essness, these, and abo)e a , )ice and crimina it' of e)er' 3ind, are e)i s more !otent for harm to the b ac3 race than a acts of o!!ression of 7hite men !ut together. The co ored man 7ho fai s to condemn crime in another co ored man, 7ho fai s to coHo!erate in a a7fu 7a's in bringing co ored crimina s to Dustice, is the 7orst enem' of his o7n !eo! e, as 7e as an enem' to a the !eo! e. La7Habiding b ac3 men shou d, for the sa3e of their race, be foremost in re ent ess and unceasing 7arfare against a7Hbrea3ing b ac3 men. "f the standards of pri#ate morality and industrial effi!ien!y !an $e raised hi%h

enou%h amon% the $la!k ra!e, then its future on this !ontinent is se!ure& 'he sta$ility and purity of the home is #ital to the welfare of the $la!k ra!e, as it is to the welfare of e#ery ra!e& "n the ne(t pla!e the white man who, if only he is willin%, !an help the !olored man more than all other white men put to%ether, is the white man who is his nei%h$or, North or South& )a!h of us must do his whole duty without flin!hin%, and if that duty is national it must $e done in a!!ordan!e with the prin!iples a$o#e laid down& But in endea#orin% ea!h to $e his $rother*s keeper it is wise to remem$er that ea!h !an normally do most for the $rother who is his immediate nei%h$or& "f we are sin!ere friends of the ne%ro let us ea!h in his own lo!ality show it $y his a!tion therein, and let us ea!h show it also $y upholdin% the hands of the white man, in whate#er lo!ality, who is stri#in% to do +usti!e to the poor and the helpless, to $e a shield to those whose need for su!h a shield is %reat& The heartiest ac3no7 edgments are due to the ministers, the Dudges and a7 officers, the grand Duries, the !ub ic men, and the great dai ' ne7s!a!ers in the +outh, 7ho ha)e recent ' done such effecti)e 7or3 in eading the crusade against 'nching in the +outhM and ; am g ad to sa' that during the ast three months the returns, as far as the' can be gathered, sho7 a sma er number of 'nchings than for an' other three months during the ast t7ent' 'ears. Let us u!ho d in e)er' 7a' the hands of the men 7ho ha)e ed in this 7or3, 7ho are stri)ing to do a their 7or3 in this s!irit. ; am about to Cuote from the address of the Right Re)erend Robert +trange, 8isho! CoadDutor of =orth Caro ina, as gi)en in the -+outhern Church man. of ?ctober $, "G5#. The bisho! first enters an em!hatic ! ea against an' socia interming ing of the racesM a Cuestion 7hich must, of course, be eft to the !eo! e of each communit' to sett e for themse )es, as in such a matter no one communit' and indeed no one indi)idua can dictate to an' other M a 7a's !ro)ided that in each oca it' men 3ee! in mind the fact that there must be no confusing of ci)i !ri)i eges 7ith socia intercourse. Ci)i a7 cannot regu ate socia !ractices. +ociet', as such, is a a7 unto itse f,and 7i a 7a's regu ate its o7n !ractices and habits. Fu recognition of the fundamenta fact that a men shou d stand on an eCua footing, as regards ci)i !ri)i eges, in no 7a' interferes 7ith recognition of the further fact that a ref ecting men of both races are united in fee ing that race !urit' must be maintained. The bisho! continues: ,-hat should the white men of the South do for the ne%ro? 'hey must %i#e him a free hand, a fair field, and a !ordial Godspeed, the two ra!es workin% to%ether for their mutual $enefit and for the de#elopment of our !ommon !ountry& .e must ha#e li$erty, e/ual opportunity to make his li#in%, to earn his $read, to $uild his home& .e must ha#e +usti!e, e/ual ri%hts, and prote!tion $efore the law& .e must ha#e the same politi!al pri#ile%es0 the suffra%e should $e $ased on !hara!ter and intelli%en!e for white and $la!k alike& .e must ha#e the same pu$li! ad#anta%es of edu!ation0 the pu$li! s!hools are for all the people, whate#er their !olor or !ondition& 'he white men of the South should %i#e hearty and respe!tful !onsideration to the e(!eptional men of the ne%ro ra!e, to those who ha#e the !hara!ter, the a$ility and the desire to $e lawyers, physi!ians, tea!hers, prea!hers, leaders of thou%ht and !ondu!t amon% their own men and women& -e should %i#e them !heer and opportunity to %ratify e#ery lauda$le am$ition, and to seek e#ery inno!ent satisfa!tion amon% their own people& 1inally, the $est white men of the South should ha#e fre/uent !onferen!es with the $est !olored men, where, in frank, earnest, and sympatheti! dis!ussion they mi%ht understand ea!h other $etter, smooth diffi!ulties, and so %uide and en!oura%e the weaker ra!e&2 +ure ' 7e can a of us Doin in eN!ressing our substantia agreement 7ith the !rinci! es thus aid do7n b' this =orth Caro ina bisho!, this re!resentati)e of the Christian thought of the +outh. ; am s!ea3ing on the occasion of the ce ebration of the birthda' of Abraham Linco n, and to men 7ho count it their !ecu iar !ri)i ege that the' ha)e the right to ho d Linco n’s memor' dear, and the dut' to stri)e to 7or3 a ong the ines that he aid do7n. We can !a' most fitting homage to his memor' b' doing the tas3s a otted to us in the s!irit in 7hich he did infinite ' greater and more terrib e tas3s a otted to him. Let us be steadfast for the rightM but et us err on the side of generosit' rather than on the side of )indicti)eness to7ard those 7ho differ from us as to the method of attaining the right. Let us ne)er forget our dut' to he ! in u! ifting the o7 ', to shie d from 7rong the humb eM and et us i3e7ise act in a s!irit of the broadest and fran3est generosit' to7ard a our brothers, a our fe o7Hcountr' menM in a s!irit !roceeding not from 7ea3ness but from strength, a s!irit 7hich ta3es no more account of oca it' than it does of c ass or of creedM a s!irit 7hich is reso ute ' bent on seeing that the *nion 7hich Washington founded and 7hich Linco n sa)ed from destruction sha gro7 nob er and greater throughout the ages. ; be ie)e in this countr' 7ith a m' heart and sou . ; be ie)e that our !eo! e 7i in the end rise e)e to e)er' need, 7i in the end trium!h o)er e)er' difficu t' that rises before them. ; cou d not ha)e such confident faith in the destin' of this might' !eo! e if ; had it mere ' as regards one !ortion of that !eo! e. Throughout our and things on the 7ho e ha)e gro7n better and not 7orse, and this is as true of one !art of the countr' as it is of another. ; be ie)e in the +outherner as ; be ie)e in the =ortherner. ; c aim the right to fee !ride in his great Cua ities and in his great deeds eNact ' as ; fee !ride in the great Cua ities

and deeds of e)er' other American. For 7ea or for 7oe 7e are 3nit together, and 7e sha go u! or go do7n togetherM and ; be ie)e that 7e sha go u! and not do7n, that 7e sha go for7ard instead of ha ting and fa ing bac3, because ; ha)e an abiding faith in the generosit', the courage, the reso ution, and the commonHsense of a m' countr'men. The +outhern +tates face difficu t !rob emsM and so do the =orthern +tates. +ome of the !rob ems are the same for the entire countr'. ?thers eNist in greater intensit' in one sectionM and 'et others eNist in greater intensit' in another section. 8ut in the end the' 7i a be so )edM for fundamenta ' our !eo! e are the same throughout this andM the same in the Cua ities of heart and brain and hand 7hich ha)e made this Re!ub ic 7hat it is in the great toHda'M 7hich 7i ma3e it 7hat it is to be in the infinite ' greater toHmorro7. ; admire and res!ect and be ie)e in and ha)e faith in the men and 7omen of the +outh as ; admire and res!ect and be ie)e in and ha)e faith in the men and 7omen of the =orth. A of us a i3e, =ortherners and +outherners, 9asterners and Westerners, can best !ro)e our fea t' to the =ation’s !ast b' the 7a' in 7hich 7e do the =ation’s 7or3 in the !resent M for on ' thus can 7e be sure that our chi dren’s chi dren sha inherit Abraham Linco n’s sing eHhearted de)otion to the great unchanging creed that -righteousness eNa teth a nation.. +ource: htt!:IIdi emmaHN.netI25"4I52I54Ib ac3Hhistor'HmonthHandHtheHmodernHuHsH!residentsHandHtheirH)ie7HonHraceI

8oo3er T. Washington 1center, right2 istens to Theodore Roose)e t 1center, eft2 de i)er a s!eech on stage at Tus3egee ;nstitute 1no7 Tus3egee *ni)ersit'2, A abama. ?n (une 2#, "$G%, 8oo3er T. Washington became the first African American to recei)e an honorar' degree from /ar)ard *ni)ersit'. 3Photo $y meri!an Press sso!iation4'heodore Roose#elt Colle!tion5

Andre7 Carnegie 1front ro7, center2 and Robert C. ?gden 1front ro7, far eft2 )isiting facu t' members of the Tus3egee ;nstitute in Tus3egee, A abama in "G5%. 8oo3er T. Washington and his 7ife ,argaret (ames ,urra' are sitting bet7een Carnegie and ?gden. 1Photo: Librar' of Congress2

8oo3er T. Washington’s 7or3 to im!ro)e education of Americans of African descent ed to his association 7ith some of the nation’s most !o7erfu and 7ea th' figures. /ere, he !oses 7ith education reformer R.C. ?gden 1 eft2, future *.+. !resident Wi iam /o7ard Taft 1second from eft2, and industria ist and !hi anthro!ist Andre7 Carnegie 1right2. 1Photo: Librar' of CongressIhtt!:II777.enc'c o!ediaofa abama.orgIfaceI,u timedia.Ds!WidXmH&"&42

“Order Out of Chaos”, Part *: =ntellectual and 0"iritual Reconstruction

Corne *ni)ersit', ocated in ;thaca, =e7 <or3, *.+.A., 7as estab ished in "$%%. 1Photo: Corne *ni)ersit'2

Left to right: Andre7 D. White, Danie C. Ki man, Timoth' D7ight, Char es (. +ti e, Carro Cut er, Wi iam Preston (ohnston
0kull 1 Bones and Colle(e 5ducation: $ndre. ). White 301B 1+-D4 K inau(ural President of Cornell <ni/ersity M=thaca, ;e. @orkN 31+,,?1++-4 )aniel C. 9ilman 301B 1+-A4 K inau(ural President of ohns 8o"kins <ni/ersity MBaltimore, 7arylandN 31+:-?1B>14I President of <ni/ersity of California at Berkeley 31+:A?1+:-4I 0ecretary of Connecticut 0tate Board of 5ducation 31+,-?1+,,4 'imothy ).i(ht 301B 1+*B4 K President of @ale <ni/ersity 31++,?1+BB4I Professor of 0acred Literature at @ale <ni/ersity 31+-B?1++,4 Charles ane.ay 0tille 301B 1+DB4 K Pro/ost of <ni/ersity of Pennsyl/ania MPhiladel"hiaN 31+,+?1++>4 Carroll Cutler 301B 1+-*4 K President of MCaseN Western Reser/e <ni/ersity MCle/eland, OhioN 31+:1?1++,4 William Chau/enet 301B 1+*>4 K Chancellor of Washin(ton <ni/ersity in 0t. Louis M0t. Louis, 7issouriN 31+,A?1+,B4 William Preston ohnston 301B 1+-A4 K inau(ural President of 'ulane <ni/ersity M;e. OrleansN 31++*?1+BB4I President of Louisiana 0tate <ni/ersity 31++>?1++D4I Professor of 5n(lish Literature, 8istory, and Political 5conomy at Washin(ton and Lee <ni/ersity 31+,:?1+::4 Cyrus ;orthro" 301B 1+-:4 K President of <ni/ersity of 7innesota 31++*?1B114I Professor of 5n(lish at @ale <ni/ersity 31+,D?1++*4 8enry 8itchcock 301B 1+*+4 K )ean of the 0t. Louis La. 0chool at Washin(ton <ni/ersity in 0t. Louis 31+,:?1+:>, 1+:+?1++14 BenEamin 0illiman r. 301B 1+D:4 K Professor of Chemistry at @ale <ni/ersity 31+-*?1+:>4 0imeon 5!en Bald.in 301B 1+,14 K Professor of La. at @ale La. 0chool 31+,B?1B1B4

7em!ers of 0kull and Bones class of 1+,1 0eated 3left to ri(ht4: 0e6tus 0hearer and William 8. %uller. 0tandin( 3left to ri(ht4: Ro!ert L. Cham!erlain, 0imeon 5. Bald.in -Go ernor of 'onnecticut6 (7((1(7(8/, 8u!ert 0. Bro.n, %rancis 5. Jernochan, William 5. Park, Ral"h O. Williams, %ranklin B. )e6ter -Secretary of .ale Uni ersity6 ()*71()77/, ohn 7itchell, 5d.ard R. 0ill, $le6ander P. Root, 0tanford ;e.el -U9S9 :inister to t"e Net"erlan!s6 ()7;1(7<8/, 'racy Peck r., $nthony 8i((ins -U9S9 Senator6 ())71()78/.

$ "aintin( of Colum!ia <ni/ersity, lookin( north from %orty?;inth 0treet in ;e. @ork City, in 1+B*. 0e/eral mem!ers of 0kull 1 Bones attended Colum!ia La. 0chool at Colum!ia <ni/ersity durin( the Ci/il War and Reconstruction, includin( former 0ecretary of the 'reasury %ranklin 7acLea(h 301B 1+,A, LL.B. Colum!ia 1+,*4 and former <.0. 0enator LeBaron Bradford Colt 301B 1+,+, LL.B. Colum!ia 1+:>4.

7em!ers of 0kull and Bones class of 1+,+ 0eated 3left to ri(ht4: $nson Phel"s 'inker and LeBaron Bradford Colt -U9S9 Senator6 (7(=1(7>?/. 0tandin( 3left to ri(ht4: M%irst t.o are not identified on the /erso of the "icture.N 'homas Chalmers 0loane, 8enry P. Wri(ht -@ean of .ale Uni ersity6 ())?1(7<7/, ames Jin(sley 'hacher, Co!urn )e.ees Berry, 0amuel '.eedy, ames Coffin, Chauncey Bunce Bre.ster -Protestant E&isco&al Bis"o& for t"e E&isco&al @iocese of 'onnecticut -()771(7>)/ , William $llison 7cJinney, Charles 8enry %arnam, 5d.ard efferson 'ytus, MLast indi/idual not identified on the /erso of the "icture.N Remainin( unidentified mem!ers .ere William P. )i6on, ohn Le.is, and William Curtis Wood.

;ati/e $merican schoolchildren "ose for a (rou" "ortrait at a !oardin( school. 'he <.0. federal (o/ernment reCuired children of ;ati/e $merican tri!es to attend !oardin( schools 3usually se"aratin( the children from their "arents4 and reCuired children to assimilate to 5uro"ean? $merican culture and renounce their ;ati/e $merican culture.

-olf in Sheep*s Clothin%? Skull & Bones and 'heir Parti!ipation in meri!an Chur!hes durin% Re!onstru!tion

Left !hoto: 8road7a' Tabernac e 1!resentHda' 8road7a' *nited Church of Christ2 7as ocated at 4#th +treet and +iNth A)enue in =e7 <or3 Cit' from "$&G to "G5&. Right !hoto: (ose!h Parrish Thom!son 1+>8 "$4$2, the Pastor of the 8road7a' Tabernac e in =e7 <or3 Cit' 1"$#&H"$6"2

Left: (ose!h Augustine 8enton 1+>8 "$#22, Pastor of P 'mouth Congregationa Church in +an Francisco 1"$%4H"$%G2 Right: Char es F. Robertson 1+>8 "$&G2, the Protestant 9!isco!a 8isho! for the 9!isco!a Diocese of ,issouri 1"$%$H"$$%2

0u""orters of the Prussian?ins"ired com"ulsory school system: 8orace 7ann 3left, 1:B,?1+-B4 and ohn )e.ey 3ri(ht, 1+-B?1B-A4. 8orace 7ann 3$.B. Bro.n <ni/ersity 1+1B4 ser/ed as 0ecretary of the 7assachusetts 0tate Board of 5ducation 31+D:?1+*+4 and a <.0. Con(ressman 3Whi(?7assachusetts, 1+*+?1+-D4. ohn )e.ey .as a Professor of Philoso"hy at Colum!ia <ni/ersity from 1B>* to 1BD>.

-Faith in the !ra'erHhearing Kod is an un!ro)ed and outmoded faith. 'here is no God and there is no soul& /ence, there are no needs for the !ro!s of traditiona re igion. With dogma and creed eNc uded, then immutab e truth is dead and buried. There is no room for fiNed, natura a7 or mora abso utes.. E (ohn De7e', -+ou Hsearching,. Teacher +a!a,ine, +e!tember "G44, !. 44

An i ustration of State Street in Boston, 6assa!husetts, 7&S& & in circa "$#5. ,assachusetts 7as the first +tate to ado!t the Prussian schoo s'stem 1inc uding mandator' attendance and com!u sor' -education.2 in "$&2.

A grou! of American schoo chi dren of African descent !erform the -8e am' sa ute. to the American f ag in /am!ton, 0irginia, *.+.A. in circa "$GG. Francis 8e am' 1"$&&H"G4"2, a 8a!tist minister and a Christian socia ist 7ho 7rote the origina P edge of A egiance in "$G2, ado!ted a stiffHarmed sa ute 7ith the right armM the stiffHarmed sa ute ater became 3no7n as the -8e am' sa ute.. The -8e am' sa ute. 7as discontinued in "G#2 and re! aced 7ith the handHo)erHheart sa ute. 1Photo: Librar' of Congress2

A grou! of schoo chi dren sa ute the American f ag using the mi itar' sa ute in /em!stead, =e7 <or3 in circa "G"&. 1+ource: =e7 <or3 +tate 9ducation De!artment, Assistant Commissioner for 9 ementar' 9ducation2

(ohns /o!3ins *ni)ersit', ocated in 8a timore, ,ar' and, 7as estab ished in "$6&.

*ni)ersit' of Ca ifornia at 8er3e e', ocated in 8er3e e', Ca ifornia, 7as estab ished in "$%G.

$ statue of )aniel Coit 9ilman, the inau(ural President of ohns 8o"kins <ni/ersity 31+:-?1B>14, a""ears at ohns 8o"kins <ni/ersity in Baltimore, 7aryland. 5ducator and humanist $o"n @e#ey earned a Ph.). at ohns 8o"kins <ni/ersity in 1++*. %ormer <.0. President 2oo!ro# 2ilson earned a Ph.). at ohns 8o"kins <ni/ersity in 1++,. 3Photo: %lickr4

$ statue of $ndre. )ickson White, the inau(ural President of Cornell <ni/ersity 31+,,?1++-4, a""ears in front of 9old.in 0mith 8all at Cornell <ni/ersity in =thaca, ;e. @ork. Political "o.er!roker “Colonel” 5d.ard 7andell 8ouse attended Cornell <ni/ersity from 1+:: to 1++>. 3Photo: %lickr4

@$L5 <;=L5R0='@ 1 5$RL@ 1B'8 C5;'<R@ $75R=C$

eremiah )ay 3left4, @ale President 'heodore ).i(ht Woolsey 3center4, and BenEamin 0illiman on Commencement )ay at @ale <ni/ersity on uly A,, 1+,>. 'heodore ).i(ht Woolsey ser/ed as President of @ale <ni/ersity from 1+*, to 1+:1. 'heodore ).i(ht Woolsey .as the President of @ale durin( the 7e6ican War and the $merican Ci/il War. 'heodore ).i(ht Woolsey&s son 'heodore 0alis!ury Woolsey .as initiated into 0kull 1 Bones in 1+:A. 3Picture: 7anuscri"ts 1 $rchi/es, @ale <ni/ersity Li!rary4

Prominent Antebe um <a e Kraduates

8oratio 0eymour B.$. @ale 1:B: <.0. 0enator 3)?Lermont, 1+A1?1+DD4

8enry Bald.in B.$. @ale 1:B: ustice of the <.0. 0u"reme Court 31+D>?1+**4

ohn C. Calhoun B.$. @ale 1+>* <.0. 0enator 3)?0outh Carolina, 1+DA?1+*D, 1+*-?1+->4

ohn 7. Clayton B.$. @ale 1+1<.0. 0ecretary of 0tate 31+*B?1+->4

'rusten Polk B.$. @ale 1+D1 <.0. 0enator 3)?7issouri, 1+-:?1+,A4

$sher Ro!!ins B.$. @ale 1:+A <.0. 0enator 3W?Rhode =s., 1+A-?1+DB4

a!e# W. 8untin(ton B.$. @ale 1+>, <.0. 0enator 3W?Conn., 1+*>?1+*:4

=saac Cha"man Bates B.$. @ale 1+>A <.0. 0enator 3Whi(?7ass., 1+*1?1+*-4

0amuel 0. Phel"s B.$. @ale 1+11 <.0. 0enator 3Whi(?Lermont, 1+DB? 1+-1, 1+-D?1+-*4

Ro(er 0herman Bald.in B.$. @ale 1+11 <.0. 0enator 3W?Conn., 1+*:?1+-14

0te"hen R. Bradley B.$. @ale 1::<.0. 0enator 3)R?Lermont, 1:B1?1:B-I 1+>1?1+1D4

0amuel W. )ana B.$. @ale 1::<.0. 0enator 3%?Conn., 1+1>?1+A14

Chauncey 9oodrich B.$. @ale 1::, 7ayor of 8artford, Connecticut 31+1A?1+1-4I attended 8artford Con/ention in 1+1*

ames 8illhouse B.$. @ale 1::D 'reasurer of @ale <ni/ersity 31:+A?1+DA4I attended 8artford Con/ention in 1+1*

BenEamin 'allmad(e B.$. @ale 1::D <.0. Con(ressman 3%?Conn., 1+>1?1+1:4

5d.ard )orr 9riffin B.$. @ale 1:B> President of Williams Colle(e 31+A1?1+D,4

Bennet 'yler B.$. @ale 1+>* President of )artmouth Colle(e 31+AA?1+A+4

8eman 8um"hrey B.$. @ale 1+>President of $mherst Colle(e 31+AD?1+*-4

William 7a6.ell B.$. @ale 1+>A President of 8am"den? 0ydney Colle(e MLir(iniaN 31+D+?1+*-4

$u(ustus B. Lon(street B.$. @ale 1+1D President of <ni/. of 7ississi""i 31+*B?1+-,4

@ale <ni/ersity 9raduates 1 $merican Ci/il War 31+,1?1+,-4
%ederal and 0tate 9o/ernment Officials 3<nion4: Cassius 7arcellus Clay 3B.$. 1+DA4 K <.0. 7inister to Russia 31+,1?1+,A, 1+,D?1+,B4 William '. 7inor 3B.$. 1+D*4 K <.0. Consul 9eneral at 8a/ana, Cu!a M0"ainN 31+,*?1+,:4 William 7. 5/arts 3B.$. 1+D:, 01B 1+D:4 K 0"ecial )i"lomatic 5n/oy to 9reat Britain and %rance BenEamin 9rat# Bro.n 3B.$. 1+*:4 K <.0. 0enator 3R?7issouri, 1+,D?1+,:4 8enry L. )a.es 3B.$. 1+DB4 K <.0. Con(ressman 3R?7assachusetts, 1+-:?1+:-4 ohn La. 3B.$. 1+1*4 K <.0. Con(ressman 3)?=ndiana, 1+,1?1+,-4 William Barrett Wash!urn 3B.$. 1+**, 01B 1+**4 K <.0. Con(ressman 3R?7assachusetts, 1+,D?1+:14 8enry Cham"ion )emin( 3B.$. 1+D,, 01B 1+D,4 K <.0. Con(ressman 3R?Connecticut, 1+,D?1+,:4 $u(ustus Brande(ee 3B.$. 1+*B, 01B 1+*B4 K <.0. Con(ressman 3R?Connecticut, 1+,D?1+,:4 9eor(e C. Woodruff 3B.$. 1+A-4 K <.0. Con(ressman 3)?Connecticut, 1+,1?1+,D4 Rufus Paine 0"aldin( 3B.$. 1+1:4 K <.0. Con(ressman 3R?Ohio, 1+,D?1+,B4 Willard P. 8all 3B.$. 1+DB4 K 9o/ernor of 7issouri 31+,*?1+,-4I Lieutenant 9o/ernor of 7issouri 31+,1?1+,*4 ohn $ndre. Peters 3B.$. 1+*AI 01B 1+*A4 K $ttorney 9eneral of 7aine 31+,*?1+,,4 ).i(ht %oster 3B.$. 1+*+I 01B 1+*+4 K $ttorney 9eneral of 7assachusetts 31+,1?1+,*4 Chauncey 7. )e"e. 3B.$. 1+-,, 01B 1+-,4 K 0ecretary of 0tate of ;e. @ork 31+,*?1+,-4 William 0tron( 3B.$. 1+A+4 K ud(e of the 0u"reme Court of Pennsyl/ania 31+-:?1+,+4 =saac $t.ater 3B.$. 1+**4 K ud(e of the 0u"reme Court of 7innesota 31+-:?1+,*4 Charles $llen 3B.$. 1+1-4 K Chief ustice of the 0uffolk County 0u"erior Court MBoston, 7assachusettsN 31+-B?1+,:4 %rederick $. 'allmad(e 3B.$. 1+114 K 0u"erintendent of the ;e. @ork City 7etro"olitan Police M;@P)N 31+-:?1+,A4I Clerk of the ;e. @ork Court of $""eals 31+,A?1+,-4 7ichael Waller Ro!inson 3B.$. 1+-:4 K 7em!er of the 7issouri 0tate Le(islature 31+,1?1+,D4 William 8untin(ton Russell 3B.$. 1+DD, 01B 1+DD4 K 7aEor?9eneral in the 7ilitia of the 0tate of Connecticut 31+,A?1+:>4 Orris 0anford %erry 3B.$. 1+**, 01B 1+**4 K Bri(adier 9eneral in the <.0. Lolunteers 31+,A?1+,-4I <.0. Con(ressman 3R?Conn., 1+-B?1+,14 ose"h Cooke ackson 3B.$. 1+-:, 01B 1+-:4 K !re/etted Bri(adier 9eneral in the ,th ;e. ersey Lolunteers ohn 'homas Cro6ton 3B.$. 1+-:, 01B 1+-:4 K 7aEor 9en., <nion $rmyI Commander of 7ilitary )istrict of 0W 9eor(ia at 7acon, 9eor(ia 31+,-4 Channin( Richards 3B.$. 1+-+4 K 7ilitary 7ayor of 7em"his, 'ennessee 3;o/em!er 1+,*? uly 1+,-4 Re!el 9o/ernment Officials: Richard 'aylor 3B.$. 1+*-, 01B 1+*-4 K Commander of the MConfederateN $rmy of 'ennessee 31+,-4 8enry Rootes ackson 3B.$. 1+DB, 01B 1+DB4 K 7aEor 9eneral in the Confederate $rmy ohn Perkins r. 3B.$. 1+*>, 01B 1+*>4 K 7em!er of the Confederate 8ouse of Re"resentati/es 3Louisiana, 1+,*?1+,-4 William '.0. Barry 3B.$. 1+*1, 01B 1+*14 K Chairman of the 7ississi""i 0ecession Con/ention in 1+,1I 0i(ner of the Confederate Constitution William Preston ohnston 3B.$. 1+-A, 01B 1+-A4 K Confederate President efferson )a/is&s aide?de?cam" Burton ;or/ell 8arrison 3B.$. 1+-B, 01B 1+-B4 K Pri/ate 0ecretary to Confederate President efferson )a/is $llen 'aylor Ca"erton 3B.$. 1+DA4 K Confederate 0enator 3Lir(inia, 1+,1?1+,-4 William ;athan 8arrell 0mith 3B.$. 1+D*4 K 7em!er of the Confederate 8ouse of Re"resentati/es 3;orth Carolina, 1+,A?1+,-4 %rederick W.7. 8olliday 3B.$. 1+*:4 K 7em!er of the Confederate 8ouse of Re"resentati/es 3Lir(inia, %e!ruary 1+,*?$"ril 1+,-4 William Bennett %lemin( 3B.$. 1+A-4 K ud(e of the 0u"erior Court of Chatham County, 9eor(ia M0a/annahN 31+*:?1+*B, 1+-D?1+,+, 1+:B?+14 0amuel $u(ustus 7a/erick 3B.$. 1+A-4 K 7em!er of 'e6as 0tate 8ouse of Re"resentati/es 31+-D?1+--, 1+-B?1+,D4I 'e6as 0tate 0enator M0an $ntonio districtN 31+--?1+-B4 Colle(e Presidents, Colle(e Professors, and Church Leaders: Re/. 'heodore ).i(ht Woolsey 3B.$. 1+A>4 K President of @ale <ni/ersity 31+*,?1+:14 %rederick $.P. Barnard 3B.$. 1+A+4 K President of Colum!ia <ni/ersity 31+,*?1++B4 0amuel Ware %isher 3B.$. 1+D-4 K President of 8amilton Colle(e 31+-+?1+,,4 $aron Lucius Cha"in 3B.$. 1+D:4 K inau(ural President of Beloit Colle(e MWisconsinN 31+*B?1++,4 5d.ard )ickinson 3B.$. 1+AD4 K 'reasurer of $mherst Colle(e 31+D-?1+:D4I father of "oet 5mily )ickinson %rancis 9illette 3B.$. 1+AB4 K Chairman of Connecticut 0tate Board of 5ducation 31+*B?1+,-4 BenEamin 0illiman 3B.$. 1:B,4 K Professor of Chemistry, 7ineralo(y, and 9eolo(y at @ale <ni/ersity 31+>A?1+,*4 BenEamin 0illiman r. 3B.$. 1+D:, 01B 1+D:4 K Professor of Chemistry at @ale <ni/ersity 31+*,?1++-4 8u!ert $nson ;e.ton 3B.$. 1+->4 K Professor of 7athematics at @ale <ni/eristy 31+--?1+B>4 William 8eathcote )eLancey 3B.$. 1+1:4 K Protestant 5"isco"al Bisho" for the 5"isco"al )iocese of Western ;e. @ork 31+DB?1+,-4 %rancis 8u(er Rutled(e 3B.$. 1+A>4 K Protestant 5"isco"al Bisho" for the 5"isco"al )iocese of %lorida 31+-1?1+,,4 'homas 7arch Clark 3B.$. 1+D14 K Protestant 5"isco"al Bisho" for the 5"isco"al )iocese of Rhode =sland 31+-*?1B>D4 William =n(raham Ji" 3B.$. 1+D14 K Protestant 5"isco"al Bisho" for the 5"isco"al )iocese of California 31+-:?1+B>4 Richard 8ooker Wilmer 3B.$. 1+D,4 K Protestant 5"isco"al Bisho" for the 5"isco"al )iocese of $la!ama and Louisiana 31+,>?1B>>4 9ardiner 0"rin( 3B.$. 1+>-4 K Pastor of Brick Pres!yterian Church in ;e. @ork City 31+1>?1+:D4 ose"h Parrish 'hom"son 3B.$. 1+D+, 01B 1+D+4 K Pastor of Broad.ay 'a!ernacle in ;e. @ork City 31+*-?1+:14 9eor(e Washin(ton Bla(den 3B.$. 1+AD4 K Pastor of Old 0outh Church in Boston 31+D,?1+:A4 ohn Chester Backus 3B.$. 1+D>4 K Pastor of the %irst Pres!yterian Church in Baltimore, 7aryland 31+D,?1+:-4 0amuel Wolcott 3B.$. 1+DD4 K Pastor of 8i(h 0treet Con(re(ational Church in Pro/idence, Rhode =sland 31+-D?1+-B4I Pastor of ;e. 5n(land Church in Chica(o 31+-B?1+,A4I Pastor of Plymouth Church in Cle/eland, Ohio 31+,A?1+:*4 Charles 8enry 8all 3B.$. 1+*A4 K Rector of the Church of the 5"i"hany in Washin(ton, ).C. 31+-,?1+,B4I Rector of the 8oly 'rinity Church in Brooklyn, ;e. @ork 31+,B?1+B-4 Ray Palmer 3B.$. 1+D>4 K Pastor of %irst Con(re(ational Church in $l!any, ;e. @ork 31+->?1+,,4 Others: ames )arrach 3B.$. 1+A:4 K 0u"erintendent of the ;e. @ork 8os"ital in ;e. @ork City Mon Broad.ay o""osite Pearl 0treetN 31+-*?1+,*4 Charles %. Pond 3B.$. 1+D>4 K President of the ;e. 8a/en, 8artford and 0"rin(field Railroad Com"any 31+*A?1+,:4 osiah ).i(ht Whitney 3B.$. 1+DB4 K 0tate 9eolo(ist of California 31+,>?1+:*4I 0tur(is?8oo"er Professor of 9eolo(y at 8ar/ard 0chool of 7ines 31+:-?1+B,4 %rederick $dol"hus Porcher 3B.$. 1+A+4 K President of 0outh Carolina 8istorical 0ociety 31+-,?1+++4

@ale <ni/ersity 9raduates and 'heir Occu"ation durin( Reconstruction 31+,-?1+::4 %ederal 9o/ernment Officials: William 7. 5/arts 3B.$. 1+D:, 01B 1+D:4 K <.0. $ttorney 9eneral 31+,+?1+,B4I <.0. 0ecretary of 0tate 31+::?1++14 5d.ards Pierre"ont 3B.$. 1+D:4 K <.0. $ttorney 9eneral 31+:-?1+:,4 $l"honso 'aft 3B.$. 1+DD, 01B 1+DD4 K <.0. 0ecretary of War 31+:,4I <.0. $ttorney 9eneral 31+:,?1+::4I ud(e of the 0u"erior Court of Cincinnati 31+,-?1+:A4 Cassius 7arcellus Clay 3B.$. 1+DA4 K <.0. 7inister to Russia 31+,1?1+,A, 1+,D?1+,B4 ohn 'homas Cro6ton 3B.$. 1+-:, 01B 1+-:4 K <.0. 7inister to Boli/ia 31+:D?1+:*4 William '. 7inor 3B.$. 1+D*4 K <.0. Consul 9eneral at 8a/ana, Cu!a M0"ainN 31+,*?1+,:4 9eor(e 9oundry 7un(er 3B.$. 1+*+, 01J 1+*+4 K <.0. $ttorney for the ;orthern )istrict of ;e. @ork 31+,,?1+,:4 Cal/in 9oddard Child 3B.$. 1+--, 01J 1+--4 K <.0. $ttorney for the )istrict of Connecticut 31+:>?1++>4 $nthony 8i((ins 3B.$. 1+,1, 01B 1+,14 K <.0. $ttorney for the )istrict of )ela.are 31+,B?1+:,4 Channin( Richards 3B.$. 1+-+4 K $ssistant <.0. $ttorney for the 0outhern )istrict of Ohio MCincinnatiN 31+:1?1+::4I <.0. $ttorney for the 0outhern )istrict of Ohio 31+::?1++D4 William 8em"hill ones 3B.$. 1+D14 K )e"uty %irst Com"troller of the 'reasury 31+:-?1+:,4 BenEamin 9rat# Bro.n 3B.$. 1+*:4 K <.0. 0enator 3R?7issouri, 1+,D?1+,:4I 9o/ernor of 7issouri 31+:1?1+:D4 Orris 0anford %erry 3B.$. 1+**, 01B 1+**4 K <.0. 0enator 3R?Connecticut, 1+,:?1+:-4 8enry L. )a.es 3B.$. 1+DB4 K <.0. 0enator 3R?7assachusetts, 1+:-?1+BD4I <.0. Con(ressman 3R?7assachusetts, 1+-:?1+:-4 $llen 'aylor Ca"erton 3B.$. 1+DA4 K <.0. 0enator 3)?West Lir(inia, 1+:-?1+:,4 William Barrett Wash!urn 3B.$. 1+**, 01B 1+**4 K <.0. 0enator 3R?7assachusetts, 1+:*?1+:-4I 9o/ernor of 7assachusetts 31+:A?1+:*4I <.0. Con(ressman 3R?7assachusetts, 1+,D?1+:14 $u(ustus Brande(ee 3B.$. 1+*B, 01B 1+*B4 K <.0. Con(ressman 3R?Connecticut, 1+,D?1+,:4 8enry C. )emin( 3B.$. 1+D,, 01B 1+D,4 K <.0. Con(ressman 3R?Connecticut, 1+,D?1+,:4I <.0. Collector of =nternal Re/enue 31+,B?1+:A4 Richard )udley 8u!!ard 3B.$. 1+DB, 01B 1+DB4 K <.0. Con(ressman 3)?Connecticut, 1+,:?1+,B4 0te"hen W. Jello(( 3B.$. 1+*,, 01B 1+*,4 K <.0. Con(ressman 3R?Connecticut, 1+,B?1+:-4 Ros.ell 8art 3B.$. 1+*D, 01B 1+*D4 K <.0. Con(ressman 3R?;e. @ork, 1+,-?1+,:4 William 5. Ro!inson 3B.$. 1+*14 K <.0. Con(ressman 3)?;e. @ork, 1+,:?1+,B, 1++1?1++-4 ohn 5d.ard 0eeley 3B.$. 1+D-, 01B 1+D-4 K <.0. Con(ressman 3R?;e. @ork, 1+:1?1+:D4 5llis 8enry Ro!erts 3B.$. 1+->, 01B 1+->4 K <.0. Con(ressman 3R?;e. @ork, 1+:1?1+:-4 Constantine C. 5sty 3B.$. 1+*-, 01B 1+*-4 K <.0. Con(ressman 3R?7assachusetts, 1+:A?1+:D4 William Wallace Cra"o 3B.$. 1+-A, 01B 1+-A4 K <.0. Con(ressman 3R?7assachusetts, 1+:-?1++D4 ohn $ndre. Peters 3B.$. 1+*A, 01B 1+*A4 K <.0. Con(ressman 3R?7aine, 1+,:?1+:D4 BenEamin 'ucker 5ames 3B.$. 1+*D, 01B 1+*D4 K <.0. Con(ressman 3R?Rhode =sland, 1+:1?1+:B4 Richard . 8aldeman 3B.$. 1+-1, 01B 1+-14 K <.0. Con(ressman 3)?Pennsyl/ania, 1+,B?1+:D4 William Walter Phel"s 3B.$. 1+,>, 01B 1+,>4 K <.0. Con(ressman 3R?;e. ersey, 1+:D?1+:-, 1++D?1++B4 Carter 8enry 8arrison 3B.$. 1+*-, 01J 1+*-4 K <.0. Con(ressman 3)?=llinois, 1+:-?1+:B4 Randall Lee 9i!son 3B.$. 1+-D, 01J 1+-D4 K <.0. Con(ressman 3)?Louisiana, 1+:-?1++D4 Rufus Paine 0"aldin( 3B.$. 1+1:4 K <.0. Con(ressman 3R?Ohio, 1+,D?1+,B4 La#arus ). 0hoemaker 3B.$. 1+*>4 K <.0. Con(ressman 3R?Pennsyl/ania, 1+:1?1+:-4 5lias W. Lea/en.orth 3B.$. 1+A*4 K <.0. Con(ressman 3R?;e. @ork, 1+:-?1+::4 $l"heus 0. Williams 3B.$. 1+D14 K <.0. Con(ressman 3)?7ichi(an, 1+:-?1+:+4 7orrison R. Waite 3B.$. 1+D:, 01B 1+D:4 K Chief ustice of the <.0. 0u"reme Court 31+:*?1+++4 William 0tron( 3B.$. 1+D14 K $ssociate ustice of the <.0. 0u"reme Court 31+:>?1++>4 Le.is B. Woodruff 3B.$. 1+D>4 K ud(e of the <.0. Circuit Courts for the 0econd Circuit M;e. @ork CityN 31+,B?1+:-4 $le6ander 0mith ohnson 3B.$. 1+D-4 K ud(e of the <.0. Circuit Courts for the 0econd Circuit M;e. @ork CityN 31+:-?1+:+4 William Burnham Woods 3B.$. 1+*-4 K ud(e of the <.0. Circuit Courts for the %ifth Circuit M;e. OrleansN 31+,B?1++>4 Rensselaer Russell ;elson 3B.$. 1+*,, 01B 1+*,4 K ud(e of the <.0. )istrict Court for the )istrict of 7innesota 31+-+?1+B,4 ;athaniel 0hi"man 3B.$. 1+*+4 K ud(e of the <.0. )istrict Court for the )istrict of Connecticut 31+:D?1+BA4 8enry Billin(s Bro.n 3B.$. 1+-,4 K ud(e of the <.0. )istrict Court for the 5astern )istrict of 7ichi(an M)etroitN 31+:-?1+B>4 5d.ard C. Billin(s 3B.$. 1+-D4 K ud(e of the <.0. )istrict Court for the 5astern )istrict of Louisiana M;e. OrleansN 31+:,?1+BD4 0tate and Local 9o/ernment Officials: )aniel 8. Cham!erlain 3B.$. 1+,A, 01B 1+,A4 K 9o/ernor of 0outh Carolina 31+:*?1+:,4I $ttorney 9eneral of 0outh Carolina 31+,+?1+:A4 8enry 8untly 8ai(ht 3B.$. 1+**4 K 9o/ernor of California 31+,:?1+:14 Charles R. =n(ersoll 3B.$. 1+*>4 K 9o/ernor of Connecticut 31+:D?1+::4 Christo"her C. Co6 3B.$. 1+D-4 K Lieutenant 9o/ernor of 7aryland 31+,-?1+,+4 9eor(e 9. 0ill 3B.$. 1+-AI 01B 1+-A4 K Lieutenant 9o/ernor of Connecticut 31+:D?1+::4 8enry C. Ro!inson 3B.$. 1+-D4 K 7ayor of 8artford, Connecticut 31+:A?1+:*4 William C. Whitney 3B.$. 1+,D, 01B 1+,D4 K Cor"oration Counsel of ;e. @ork City 31+:-?1++A4 0amuel Lathro" Bronson 3B.$. 1+--4 K Cor"oration Counsel of ;e. 8a/en, Connecticut 31+:D?1+:+4 William La. Learned 3B.$. 1+*1, 01B 1+*14 K Presidin( ustice of the 0u"reme Court of ;e. @ork 31+:-?1+BA4 Ori(en 0torrs 0eymour 3B.$. 1+A*4 K Chief ustice of the 0u"reme Court of Connecticut 31+:D?1+:*4 Charles ohnson 7cCurdy 3B.$. 1+1:4 K ud(e of the Connecticut 0u"reme Court of 5rrors 31+,D?1+,:4 ).i(ht %oster 3B.$. 1+*+, 01B 1+*+4 K ustice of 7assachusetts 0u"reme Court 31+,,?1+,B4 Charles %rederick 0anford 3B.$. 1+*:4 K ud(e of the 0u"erior Court of ;e. @ork City 31+:-?1++14 )a/id . Bre.er 3B.$. 1+-,4 K ud(e of Jansas 0tate 0u"reme Court 31+:>?1++*4 ohn Wallace 8ouston 3B.$. 1+D*, 01B 1+D*4 K ustice of the 0u"erior Court of )ela.are 31+--?1+BD4 Leonard 5u(ene Wales 3B.$. 1+*-, 01B 1+*-4 K ustice of the 0u"erior Court of )ela.are 31+,*?1++*4

8u(h White 0heffey 3B.$. 1+D-, 01B 1+D-4 K ud(e of the 0u"erior Court of Lir(inia 31+,-?1+,B4 $l!ert Pierson Condit 3B.$. 1+->, 01B 1+->4 K 7em!er 31+,,?1+,:, 1+:14 and 0"eaker 31+:14 of the ;e. ersey 0tate Le(islature 9eor(e 7orris Woodruff 3B.$. 1+-:4 K Connecticut 0tate Railroad Commissioner 31+:*?1+B:4I President of the !oard of the Connecticut 0tate Railroad Commission 31+:-?1+B:4I 7em!er of Connecticut 0tate Board of 5ducation 31+,-?1+::4 5li#ur Wri(ht 3B.$. 1+A,4 K 7assachusetts Commissioner of =nsurance 31+-+?1+,,4I author of Politics and 'ysteries of (ife )nsurance 31+:D4I a!olitionistI 0ecretary of ;e. @ork $nti?0la/ery 0ociety 31+DD4 Colle(e Presidents: Re/. 'heodore ).i(ht Woolsey 3B.$. 1+A>4 K President of @ale <ni/ersity 31+*,?1+:14 Re/. ;oah Porter 3B.$. 1+D14 K President of @ale <ni/ersity 31+:1?1++,4 %rederick $.P. Barnard 3B.$. 1+A+4 K President of Colum!ia <ni/ersity 31+,*?1++B4 0amuel Ware %isher 3B.$. 1+D-4 K President of 8amilton Colle(e M;e. @orkN 31+-+?1+,,4 9eor(e 'hacher 3B.$. 1+*>4 K President of the <ni/ersity of =o.a 31+:1?1+::4 ohn 8. Lathro" 3B.$. 1+1B4 K inau(ural President of <ni/ersity of 7issouri 31+*1?1+*B, 1+,-?1+,,4 $ndre. ). White 3B.$. 1+-D, 01B 1+-D4 K inau(ural President of Cornell <ni/ersity M=thaca, ;e. @orkN 31+,,?1++-4 )aniel C. 9ilman 3B.$. 1+-A, 01B 1+-A4 K inau(ural President of ohns 8o"kins <ni/ersity MBaltimore, 7arylandN 31+:-?1B>14I President of <ni/ersity of California at Berkeley 31+:A?1+:-4 8enry )urant 3B.$. 1+A:4 K inau(ural President of <ni/ersity of California at Berkeley 31+:>?1+:A4I 7ayor of Oakland, California 31+:D?1+:-4 ohn Wesley ohnson 3B.$. 1+,A4 K inau(ural President of <ni/ersity of Ore(on 31+:,?1+BD4 5dmund $sa Ware 3B.$. 1+,D4 K inau(ural President of MClarkN $tlanta <ni/ersity M$tlanta, 9eor(iaN 31+,:?1++-4 8enry La.rence 8itchcock 3B.$. 1+DA4 K President of MCaseN Western Reser/e <ni/ersity MCle/eland, OhioN 31+--?1+:14 Carroll Cutler 3B.$. 1+-*, 01B 1+-*4 K President of MCaseN Western Reser/e <ni/ersity MCle/eland, OhioN 31+:1?1++,4 9eor(e Wilson 7cPhail 3B.$. 1+D-4 K President of )a/idson Colle(e 31+,,?1+:14I former President of Lafayette Colle(e ulian 7. 0turte/ant 3B.$. 1+A,4 K President of =llinois Colle(e M ackson/ille, =llinoisN 31+**?1+:,4 Charles ane.ay 0tille 3B.$. 1+DB, 01B 1+DB4 K Pro/ost of <ni/ersity of Pennsyl/ania 31+,+?1++>4 William Chau/enet 3B.$. 1+*>, 01B 1+*>4 K Chancellor of Washin(ton <ni/ersity in 0t. Louis 31+,A?1+,B4 8enry Barnard 3B.$. 1+D>4 K President of 0t. ohn&s Colle(e M$nna"olis, 7arylandN 31+,,?1+,:4I <.0. Commissioner of 5ducation 31+,:?1+:>4 0tate and Local 5ducators: William 'orrey 8arris 3B.$. 1+-+4 K 0u"erintendent of 0chools of 0t. Louis, 7issouri 31+,+?1++>4 $riel Parish 3B.$. 1+D-4 K 0u"erintendent of 0chools of ;e. 8a/en, Connecticut 31+,-?1++14 Charles )aniel 8ine 3B.$. 1+:1, 01B 1+:14 K 0u"erintendent of 0chools of 0a(ina., 7ichi(an 31+:1?1+:*4 'homas $nthony 'hacher 3B.$. 1+D-, 01B 1+D-4 K 7em!er of Connecticut 0tate Board of 5ducation 31+,-?1+::4 Constantine C. 5sty 3B.$. 1+*-, 01B 1+*-4 K 7em!er of 7assachusetts 0tate Board of 5ducation 31+:1?1+:B4I <.0. Con(ressman ose"h Bur!een Walker 3B.$. 1+**, 01B 1+**4 K 7em!er of the Board of 5ducation of Concord, ;e. 8am"shire 31+-B?1+:>4 8orace )ay 3B.$. 1+D,4 K 0ecretary of Board of 5ducation of ;e. 8a/en, Connecticut 31+,+?1B>A4 M ohnN Wa(er 0.ayne 3B.$. 1+-,, 01J 1+-,4 K 7em!er of the Board of 5ducation of 'oledo, Ohio 31+:A?1+:,4 =saac $t.ater 3B.$. 1+**4 K 7em!er of the Board of 5ducation of 7innea"olis, 7innesota 31+,+?1+:+4 0amuel Chester 9ale 3B.$. 1+-*4 K 7em!er of the Board of 5ducation of 7innea"olis, 7innesota 31+:1?1++>4 Church Leaders: 'homas 7arch Clark 3B.$. 1+D14 K Protestant 5"isco"al Bisho" for the 5"isco"al )iocese of Rhode =sland 31+-*?1B>D4 William =n(raham Ji" 3B.$. 1+D14 K Protestant 5"isco"al Bisho" for the 5"isco"al )iocese of California 31+-:?1+B>4 Richard 8ooker Wilmer 3B.$. 1+D,4 K Protestant 5"isco"al Bisho" for the 5"isco"al )iocese of $la!ama and Louisiana 31+,>?1B>>4 Charles %. Ro!ertson 3B.$. 1+-B, 01B 1+-B4 K Protestant 5"isco"al Bisho" for the 5"isco"al )iocese of 7issouri 31+,+?1++,4 9ardiner 0"rin( 3B.$. 1+>-4 K Pastor of Brick Pres!yterian Church in ;e. @ork City 31+1>?1+:D4 ose"h Parrish 'hom"son 3B.$. 1+D+, 01B 1+D+4 K Pastor of the Broad.ay 'a!ernacle in ;e. @ork City 31+*-?1+:14 ose"h $u(ustine Benton 3B.$. 1+*A, 01B 1+*A4 K Pastor of Plymouth Con(re(ational Church in 0an %rancisco 31+,D?1+,B4 5d.ard ). 7orris 3B.$. 1+*B, 01B 1+*B4 K Pastor of the 0econd Pres!yterian Church of Colum!us, Ohio 31+--?1+,:4 William 5/es 7oore 3B.$. 1+*:, 01B 1+*:4 K Pastor of the 0econd Pres!yterian Church of Colum!us, Ohio 31+:A?1+B*4 ames 9ardiner Lose 3B.$. 1+-1, 01B 1+-14 K Pastor of the Beneficent Church in Pro/idence, Rhode =sland 31+,,?1B>14 William 8enry %enn 3B.$. 1+-*, 01B 1+-*4 K Pastor of 8i(h 0treet Con(re(ational Church of Portland, 7aine 31+,,?1B>*4 $le6ander 0. '.om!ly 3B.$. 1+-*, 01B 1+-*4 K Pastor of Winthro" 3Con(re(ational4 Church in Boston 31+:A?1+B14 0amuel W. )uffield 3B.$. 1+,D4 K Pastor of +th Pres!yterian Church in Chica(o 31+:*?1+:,4I Pastor of the Jenderton Pres!yterian Church in Philadel"hia 31+,:?1+:>4 Charles 8enry 8all 3B.$. 1+*A4 K Rector of the Church of the 5"i"hany in Washin(ton, ).C. 31+-,?1+,B4I Rector of the 8oly 'rinity Church in Brooklyn, ;e. @ork 31+,B?1+B-4 0amuel Wolcott 3B.$. 1+DD4 K Pastor of 8i(h 0treet Con(re(ational Church in Pro/idence, Rhode =sland 31+-D?1+-B4I Pastor of ;e. 5n(land Church in Chica(o 31+-B?1+,A4I Pastor of Plymouth Church in Cle/eland, Ohio 31+,A?1+:*4 9eor(e Washin(ton Bla(den 3B.$. 1+AD4 K Pastor of Old 0outh Church in Boston 31+D,?1+:A4 8enry 7artyn )e6ter 3B.$. 1+*>4 K Pastor of Pine 0treet Con(re(ational Church in Boston 31+*B?1+,:4 8enry $u(ustus Boardman 3B.$. 1+AB4 K Pastor of 'enth Pres!yterian Church of Philadel"hia 31+DD?1+:,4 ohn Chester Backus 3B.$. 1+D>4 K Pastor of the %irst Pres!yterian Church in Baltimore, 7aryland 31+D,?1+:-4I 'rustee of Princeton <ni/ersity 31+,>?1+:A4 8iram Phel"s $rms 3B.$. 1+A*4 K Pastor of %irst 3Con(re(ational4 Church of ;or.ich, Connecticut 31+D,?1+:D4 William =/es Budin(ton 3B.$. 1+D*4 K Pastor of Clinton $/enue Con(re(ational Church in Brooklyn, ;e. @ork 31+--?1+:+4 La.yers: ohn William 0terlin( 3B.$. 1+,*, 01B 1+,*4 K Co?%ounder and 7em!er of 0hearman 1 0terlin( Mla. firm in ;e. @ork CityN 31+:D?1B1+4 'homas 'hacher 3B.$. 1+:1, 01B 1+:14 K Co?%ounder and 7em!er of 0im"son, 'hacher 1 Bartlett Mla. firm in ;e. @ork CityN 31+:-?1B1B4 Ro!ert Weeks de %orest 3B.$. 1+:>, 01J 1+:>4 K 9eneral Counsel of Central Railroad of ;e. ersey 31+:*?1BA*4

@ale <ni/ersity 9raduates 30kull 1 Bones4 1 Reconstruction 31+,-?1+::4 9o/ernment Officials: )aniel 8. Cham!erlain 301B 1+,A4 K 9o/ernor of 0outh Carolina 3Re"u!lican, 1+:*?1+:,4I $ttorney 9eneral of 0outh Carolina 31+,+?1+:A4 9reen Clay 301B 1+-B4 K 7em!er of 7ississi""i 0tate Le(islature durin( Reconstruction 8enry Waterman Warren 301B 1+,-4 K 7em!er of 7ississi""i 0tate Le(islature 31+:>?1+:-4 8u(h White 0heffey 301B 1+D-4 K ud(e of the 0u"erior Court of Lir(inia 31+,-?1+,B4 ohn 'homas Cro6ton 301B 1+-:4 K 7aEor 9eneral in the <.0. $rmyI Commander of the 7ilitary )istrict of 0outh.est 9eor(ia at 7acon, 9eor(ia 31+,-4I <.0. 7inister to Boli/ia 31+:D?1+:*4 7orrison R. Waite 301B 1+D:4 K Chief ustice of the <.0. 0u"reme Court 31+:*?1+++4 William 7. 5/arts 301B 1+D:4 K <.0. $ttorney 9eneral 31+,+?1+,B4I <.0. 0ecretary of 0tate 31+::?1++14 $l"honso 'aft 301B 1+DD4 K 0ecretary of War 31+:,4I <.0. $ttorney 9eneral 31+:,?1+::4I ud(e of 0u"erior Court of Cincinnati 31+,-?1+:A4 Orris 0anford %erry 301B 1+**4 K <.0. 0enator 3Re"u!lican Party?Connecticut, 1+,:?1+:-4 William Barrett Wash!urn 301B 1+**4 K <.0. 0enator 3Re"u!lican Party?7assachusetts, 1+:*?1+:-4I <.0. Con(ressman 3Re"u!lican Party? 7assachusetts, 1+,D?1+:14I 9o/ernor of 7assachusetts 3Re"u!lican, 1+:A?1+:*4 8enry Cham"ion )emin( 301B 1+D,4 K <.0. Con(ressman 3Re"u!lican Party?Connecticut, 1+,D?1+,:4I <.0. Collector of =nternal Re/enue 31+,B?1+:A4 $u(ustus Brande(ee 301B 1+*B4 K <.0. Con(ressman 3Re"u!lican Party?Connecticut, 1+,D?1+,:4 Ros.ell 8art 301B 1+*D4 K <.0. Con(ressman 3Re"u!lican Party?;e. @ork, 1+,-?1+,:4 Richard )udley 8u!!ard 301B 1+DB4 K <.0. Con(ressman 3)emocratic Party?Connecticut, 1+,:?1+,B4 ohn $ndre. Peters 301B 1+*A4 K <.0. Con(ressman 3Re"u!lican Party?7aine, 1+,:?1+:D4I $ttorney 9eneral of 7aine 31+,*?1+,,4 Richard . 8aldeman 301B 1+-14 K <.0. Con(ressman 3)emocratic Party?Pennsyl/ania, 1+,B?1+:D4 0te"hen W. Jello(( 301B 1+*,4 K <.0. Con(ressman 3Re"u!lican Party?Connecticut, 1+,B?1+:-4 ohn 5d.ard 0eeley 301B 1+D-4 K <.0. Con(ressman 3Re"u!lican Party?;e. @ork, 1+:1?1+:D4 5llis 8enry Ro!erts 301B 1+->4 K <.0. Con(ressman 3Re"u!lican Party?;e. @ork, 1+:1?1+:-4I 7em!er of ;e. @ork 0tate $ssem!ly 31+,,4 BenEamin 'ucker 5ames 301B 1+*D4 K <.0. Con(ressman 3Re"u!lican Party?Rhode =sland, 1+:1?1+:B4 Constantine C. 5sty 301B 1+*-4 K <.0. Con(ressman 3Re"u!lican Party?7assachusetts, 1+:A?1+:D4I $ssessor of =nternal Re/enue 31+,A? 1+,,I 1+,:?1+:A4 William Walter Phel"s 301B 1+,>4 K <.0. Con(ressman 3Re"u!lican Party?;e. ersey, 1+:D?1+:-, 1++D?1++B4 William Wallace Cra"o 301B 1+-A4 K <.0. Con(ressman 3Re"u!lican Party?7assachusetts, 1+:-?1++D4 William La. Learned 301B 1+*14 K Presidin( ustice of the 0u"reme Court of ;e. @ork 31+:-?1+BA4 ohn Wallace 8ouston 301B 1+D*4 K ustice of the 0u"erior Court of )ela.are 31+--?1+BD4 Leonard 5u(ene Wales 301B 1+*-4 K ustice of the 0u"erior Court of )ela.are 31+,*?1++*4 ).i(ht %oster 301B 1+*+4 K ustice of 7assachusetts 0u"reme Court 31+,,?1+,B4 9eor(e 9. 0ill 301B 1+-A4 K Lieutenant 9o/ernor of Connecticut 31+:D?1+::4 $l!ert Pierson Condit 301B 1+->4 K 7em!er 31+,,?1+,:, 1+:14 and 0"eaker 31+:14 of the ;e. ersey 0tate Le(islature Colle(es: $ndre. ). White 301B 1+-D4 K inau(ural President of Cornell <ni/ersity 31+,,?1++-4 )aniel C. 9ilman 301B 1+-A4 K inau(ural President of ohns 8o"kins <ni/ersity 31+:-?1B>14I President of <ni/ersity of California at Berkeley 31+:A?1+:-4I 0ecretary of Connecticut 0tate Board of 5ducation 31+,-?1+,,4 Charles ane.ay 0tille 301B 1+DB4 K Pro/ost of <ni/ersity of Pennsyl/ania 31+,+?1++>4 Carroll Cutler 301B 1+-*4 K President of MCaseN Western Reser/e <ni/ersity 31+:1?1++,4 William Chau/enet 301B 1+*>4 K Chancellor of Washin(ton <ni/ersity in 0t. Louis 31+,A?1+,B4 8enry 8itchcock 301B 1+*+4 K )ean of the 0t. Louis La. 0chool at Washin(ton <ni/ersity in 0t. Louis 31+,:?1+:>, 1+:+?1++14 8enry Coit Jin(sley 301B 1+D*4 K 'reasurer of @ale <ni/ersity 31+,A?1++,4 William Preston ohnston 301B 1+-A4 K Professor of 5n(lish Literature, 8istory, and Political 5conomy at Washin(ton and Lee <ni/ersity 31+,:?1+::4 BenEamin 0illiman r. 301B 1+D:4 K Professor of Chemistry at @ale <ni/ersity 31+-*?1+:>4 'imothy ).i(ht 301B 1+*B4 K Professor of 0acred Literature at @ale <ni/ersity 31+-B?1++,4 Cyrus ;orthro" 301B 1+-:4 K Professor of 5n(lish at @ale <ni/ersity 31+,D?1++*4 0imeon 5!en Bald.in 301B 1+,14 K Professor of La. at @ale La. 0chool 31+,B?1B1B4 Churches: Charles %. Ro!ertson 301B 1+-B4 K Protestant 5"isco"al Bisho" for the 5"isco"al )iocese of 7issouri 31+,+?1++,4 ose"h Parrish 'hom"son 301B 1+D+4 K Pastor of the Broad.ay 'a!ernacle in ;e. @ork City 31+*-?1+:14 ose"h $u(ustine Benton 301B 1+*A4 K Pastor of Plymouth Con(re(ational Church in 0an %rancisco 31+,D?1+,B4 5d.ard ). 7orris 301B 1+*B4 K Pastor of the 0econd Pres!yterian Church of Colum!us, Ohio 31+--?1+,:4 William 5/es 7oore 301B 1+*:4 K Pastor of the 0econd Pres!yterian Church of Colum!us, Ohio 31+:A?1+B*4 ames 9ardiner Lose 301B 1+-14 K Pastor of the Beneficent Church in Pro/idence, Rhode =sland 31+,,?1B>14 William 8enry %enn 301B 1+-*4 K Pastor of 8i(h 0treet Con(re(ational Church of Portland, 7aine 31+,,?1B>*4 $le6ander 0. '.om!ly 301B 1+-*4 K Pastor of Winthro" 3Con(re(ational4 Church in Boston 31+:A?1+B14 Others: William C. Whitney 301B 1+,D4 K Cor"oration Counsel of ;e. @ork City 31+:-?1++A4 ohn William 0terlin( 301B 1+,*4 K Co?%ounder and 7em!er of 0hearman 1 0terlin( Mla. firm in ;e. @ork CityN 31+:D?1B1+4 'homas 'hacher 301B 1+:14 K Co?%ounder and 7em!er of 0im"son, 'hacher 1 Bartlett Mla. firm in ;e. @ork CityN 31+:-?1B1B4 William 7. 5/arts 301B 1+D:4 K President of the ;e. @ork City Bar $ssociation 31+:>?1+:B4 'homas $nthony 'hacher 301B 1+D-4 K 7em!er of the Connecticut 0tate Board of 5ducation 31+,-?1+::4 ose"h Bur!een Walker 301B 1+**4 K 7em!er of the Board of 5ducation of Concord, ;e. 8am"shire 31+-B?1+:>4

$nte!ellum $merican %ederal and 0tate 9o/ernment Officials 30kull 1 Bones4 %ederal 9o/ernment Officials: William 8enry Washin(ton 301B 1+D*4 K <.0. Con(ressman 3Whi( Party?;orth Carolina, 1+*1?1+*D4 ohn Wallace 8ouston 301B 1+D*4 K <.0. Con(ressman 3Whi( Party?)ela.are, 1+*-?1+-14 $llen %erdinand O.en 301B 1+D:4 K <.0. Con(ressman 3Whi( Party?9eor(ia, 1+*B?1+-14I Consul in 8a/ana, Cu!a M0"ainN 31+-14 ohn Perkins r. 301B 1+*>4 K <.0. Con(ressman 3)emocratic Party?Louisiana, 1+-D?1+--4 William 'aylor 0ulli/an Berry 301B 1+*14 K <.0. Con(ressman 3)emocratic Party?7ississi""i, 1+-D?1+--4 Orris 0anford %erry 301B 1+**4 K <.0. Con(ressman 3Re"u!lican Party?Connecticut, 1+-B?1+,14 8enry Rootes ackson 301B 1+DB4 K <.0. 7inister to the $ustrian 5m"ire 31+-*?1+-+4 0tate 9o/ernment Officials 30outhern4: ames ;. Lea 301B 1+D*4 K $ssociate ustice of Louisiana 0u"reme Court 31+--?1+,D4 8u(h White 0heffey 301B 1+D-4 K 7em!er of the 9eneral $ssem!ly of the 0tate of Lir(inia 31+*,?1+-*4 $llen %erdinand O.en 301B 1+D:4 K 7em!er of 9eor(ia 0tate 8ouse of Re"resentati/es 31+*D?1+*:4 Curtis %ield Burnham 301B 1+*>4 K 7em!er of Jentucky 8ouse of Re"resentati/es 31+-1, 1+-B?1+,D4 William 'aylor 0ulli/an Berry 301B 1+*14 K 7em!er of 7ississi""i 0tate 8ouse of Re"resentati/es 31+*B?1+-1, 1+--4 ohn 8enry %elder 301B 1+**4 K 7em!er of 0outh Carolina 0tate Le(islature 31+-A?1+,14 Richard 'aylor 301B 1+*-4 K Louisiana 0tate 0enator 31+-,?1+,14 'homas 7cJinney ack 301B 1+-D4 K 7em!er of 'e6as 0tate Le(islature 31+-B4 0tate 9o/ernment Officials 3;orthern4: ohn Wallace 8ouston 301B 1+D*4 K $ssociate ustice of the 0u"erior Court of )ela.are 31+--?1+BD4 8enry C. )emin( 301B 1+D,4 K 7em!er of Connecticut 0tate 8ouse of Re"resentati/es 31+*B?1+->, 1+-B?1+,14 'homas 7arshall Jey 301B 1+D+4 K Ohio 0tate 0enator 31+-+?1+,14 BenEamin 'ucker 5ames 301B 1+*D4 K Rhode =sland 0tate 0enator 31+-*?1+-:4I 7em!er of Rhode =sland 8ouse of Re". 31+-B?1+,>4 William Barrett Wash!urn 301B 1+**4 K 7em!er of 7assachusetts 0tate 8ouse of Re"resentati/es 31+-D?1+--4 Constantine C. 5sty 301B 1+*-4 K 7assachusetts 0tate 0enator 31+-:?1+-+4 8enry B. 8arrison 301B 1+*,4 K Connecticut 0tate 0enator 31+-*?1+-,4 $u(ustus Brande(ee 301B 1+*B4 K 7em!er of Connecticut 0tate 8ouse of Re"resentati/es 31+-*?1+-:, 1+-B?1+,14

$merican 0tate 9o/ernment Officials durin( the $merican Ci/il War 30kull 1 Bones4 ).i(ht %oster 301B 1+*+4 K $ttorney 9eneral of 7assachusetts 31+,1?1+,*4 ohn $ndre. Peters 301B 1+*A4 K $ttorney 9eneral of 7aine 31+,*?1+,,4I 7aine 0tate 0enator 31+,A?1+,D4 Chauncey 7. )e"e. 301B 1+-,4 K 0ecretary of 0tate of ;e. @ork 31+,*?1+,-4I 7em!er of ;e. @ork 0tate $ssem!ly 31+,1?1+,D4 8enry Cham"ion )emin( 301B 1+D,4 K 7ayor of 8artford, Connecticut 31+-*?1+-+, 1+,>?1+,A4I Pro/isional 7ayor of ;e. Orleans under <nion 7artial La. 3Octo!er 1+,A?%e!ruary 1+,D4 William %rierson Coo"er 301B 1+D+4 K ustice of 'ennessee 0u"reme Court 31+,1?1+,A, 1+::?1++,4 ohn Wallace 8ouston 301B 1+D*4 K $ssociate ustice of the 0u"erior Court of )ela.are 31+--?1+BD4 Leonard 5u(ene Wales 301B 1+*-4 K ustice of the 0u"erior Court of )ela.are 31+,*?1++*4 $ndre. ). White 301B 1+-D4 K ;e. @ork 0tate 0enator 31+,*4 William 8enry 9leason 301B 1+-D4 K 7em!er of ;e. @ork 0tate $ssem!ly 31+,*?1+,-4 Charles 7. 'yler 301B 1+--4 K 7em!er of 7assachusetts 8ouse of Re"resentati/es 31+,A4 BenEamin 'ucker 5ames 301B 1+*D4 K Rhode =sland 0tate 0enator 31+,D?1+,*4 $l/yn P. 8yde 301B 1+*-4 K 7em!er of Connecticut 0tate 8ouse of Re"resentati/es 31+-*, 1+-+, 1+,D4 9eor(e Pratt 301B 1+-:4 K 7em!er of Connecticut 8ouse of Re"resentati/es 31+,>, 1+,*?1+,-, 1+,B4 ohn Ball Bris!rin 301B 1+*,4 K 7em!er of 7innesota 0tate Le(islature 31+-+?1+,*4

Prominent Re!el 3Confederate4 Bonesmen Richard 'aylor 301B 1+*-4 K Lieutenant 9eneral in the Confederate $rmyI Commander of the )e"artment of $la!ama, 7ississi""i, and 5ast Louisiana 31+,*?1+,-4I Commander of the MConfederateN $rmy of 'ennessee 31+,-4I 0urrendered to the <nion $rmy near 7o!ile, $la!ama on 7ay *, 1+,-I son of former <.0. President Qachary 'aylorI Confederate President efferson )a/is&s !rother?in?la. 8enry Rootes ackson 301B 1+DB4 K 7aEor 9eneral in the Confederate $rmyI dele(ate to the )emocratic Presidential Con/ention at Charleston, 0outh Carolina in 1+,>I ser/ed as a "risoner?of?.ar after surrenderin( to the <nion $rmy at the Battle of ;ash/ille in )ecem!er 1+,* William Preston ohnston 301B 1+-A4 K Colonel in the Confederate $rmyI efferson )a/is&s aide?de?cam"I ca"tured !y the <nion $rmy alon( .ith efferson )a/is in =r.ins/ille, 9eor(ia on 7ay 1>, 1+,-I ser/ed as a "all!earer at 9en. Ro!ert 5. Lee&s funeralI President of 'ulane <ni/ersity 31++*?1+BB4I son of Confederate Bri(. 9en. $l!ert 0idney ohnston, former 0ecretary of War of the Re"u!lic of 'e6as ohn Perkins r. 301B 1+*>4 K 7em!er of the Confederate 8ouse of Re"resentati/es for Louisiana M0econd Con(ressN 31+,*?1+,-4I )ele(ate to the Confederate Pro/isional Con(ress in 7ont(omery, $la!ama 31+,1?1+,A4 William '.0. Barry 301B 1+*14 K Chairman of the 7ississi""i 0ecession Con/ention in 1+,1I )ele(ate to the Confederate Pro/isional Con(ress 31+,1?1+,A4I 0i(ner of the Confederate ConstitutionI Colonel in command of the D-th 7ississi""i =nfantryI ca"tured at 7o!ile, $la!ama on $"ril 1A, 1+,Burton ;or/ell 8arrison 301B 1+-B4 K Pri/ate 0ecretary to Confederate President efferson )a/isI ca"tured !y the <nion $rmy alon( .ith efferson )a/is in =r.ins/ille, 9eor(ia on 7ay 1>, 1+,-I father of former <.0. Con(ressman %rancis Burton 8arrison 301B 1+B-4 'homas L. Bayne 301B 1+*:4 K ColonelI Chief of the Bureau of %orei(n 0u""lies in the Confederate War )e"artmentI married to 7ary 9ayle, the dau(hter of former 9o/ernor of $la!ama ohn 9ayle 'homas 7cJinney ack 301B 1+-D4 K ColonelI $dEutant 9eneral of the )e"artment of 'e6as, Confederate $rmy 31+,*?1+,-4I $ide?de?cam" to Confederate Bri(adier 9eneral $l!ert 0idney ohnston until 9en. ohnston&s death at Battle of 0hilohI son of William 8. ack, former 0ecretary of 0tate of the Re"u!lic of 'e6as 8u(h White 0heffey 301B 1+D-4 K 0"eaker of the Lir(inia 8ouse of )ele(ates 31+,1?1+,-4 Lincent 7armaduke 301B 1+-A4 K Colonel, Confederate $rmyI son of former 9o/ernor of 7issouri 7eredith 7iles 7armaduke $le6ander Porter Root 301B 1+,14 K 7aEorI $ssistant $dEutant?9eneral on the staff of Confederate Bri(adier 9eneral 'homas )rayton ames ;. Brickell 301B 1+*-4 K %irst Lieutenant, Ordnance Officer for the Confederate $rmy in Louisiana William %eli6 $le6ander 301B 1+-14 K $ssistant to Confederate 9en. $.R. La.ton, the Uuartermaster?9eneral of the Confederate $rmy 8enry Williams 301B 1+D:4 K Lieutenant of the =rish Lolunteers from 0a/annah, 9eor(ia 3Confederate $rmy4 Prominent %ederal 3<nion4 Bonesmen William 7. 5/arts 301B 1+D:4 K 0"ecial )i"lomatic 5n/oy to 9reat Britain and %rance under President $!raham Lincoln 9reen Clay 301B 1+-B4 K 0ecretary of the <.0. Le(ation at 0t. Peters!ur(, Russia 31+,14I 0ecretary of the <.0. Le(ation at 'urin and %lorence 31+,A?1+,+4I Colonel, <nion $rmyI son of former <.0. Con(ressman Brutus unius Clay Constantine C. 5sty 301B 1+*-4 K $ssessor of =nternal Re/enue 31+,A?1+,,I 1+,:?1+:A4 William 8untin(ton Russell 301B 1+DD4 K 7aEor?9eneral in the 7ilitia of the 0tate of Connecticut 31+,A?1+:>4 Orris 0anford %erry 301B 1+**4 K Bri(adier 9eneral in the <nited 0tates Lolunteers 31+,A?1+,-4 ose"h Cooke ackson 301B 1+-:4 K !re/etted Bri(adier 9eneral in the ,th ;e. ersey /olunteers ohn 'homas Cro6ton 301B 1+-:4 K 7aEor 9eneral, <nion $rmyI Commander of 7ilitary )istrict of 0outh.est 9eor(ia at 7acon, 9a. 31+,-4 William 0e.ard Pierson 301B 1+D,4 K !re/etted Bri(adier 9eneral, <nion $rmyI selected as 7ayor of 0andusky, Ohio in 1+,1 'homas 7arshall Jey 301B 1+D+4 K ColonelI ud(e $d/ocate on the staff of <nion $rmy 9en. 9eor(e B. 7cClellan 'haddeus %oote 301B 1+**4 K Colonel in 1>th 7ichi(an Ca/alry 8enry 7cCormick 301B 1+-A4 K Colonel in the %irst Re(iment of Pennsyl/ania 7ilitia Rufus Co.les Cram"ton 301B 1+-14 K Lieutenant Colonel of the 1*-th =llinois Lolunteers 5d.ard Payson ;ettleton 301B 1+-,4 K Lieutenant Colonel in D1st 7assachusetts =nfantryI !re/etted Colonel 8enry 8itchcock 301B 1+*+4 K !re/etted Lieutenant ColonelI $ssistant $dEutant 9eneral, <.0. LolunteersI 0er/ed as ud(e $d/ocate on the "ersonal staff of <nion $rmy 9eneral William '. 0hermanI son of 8enry 8. 8itchcock, former Chief ustice of the 0u"reme Court of $la!ama )aniel 8enry Cham!erlain 301B 1+,A4 K Ca"tain in -th 7assachusetts Colored =nfantry 31+,*?1+,-4 8enry Larnum %reeman 301B 1+,B4 K Ca"tain in 1Ath <.0. Colored =nfantry 31+,D?1+,-4 ;e.ton 0"auldin( 7anross 301B 1+->4 K Ca"tain in 1,th Re(iment of Connecticut LolunteersI died at Battle of $ntietam on 0e"t. 1:, 1+,A 'homas 8ed(e 301B 1+,:4 K 0econd Lieutenant in Com"any 9, 1>,th Re(iment of ;e. @ork Lolunteer =nfantry 31+,*?1+,-4 Leonard 5u(ene Wales 301B 1+*-4 K 0econd Lieutenant in %irst )ela.are Lolunteers in 1+,1 5d.ard %oster Blake 301B 1+-+4 K $dEutant in the -th Re(iment of Connecticut LolunteersI killed in action in Lir(inia on $u(ust B, 1+,A )iodate Cushman 8annahs 301B 1+-B4 K Ca"tain in the ,th ;e. @ork Ca/alryI killed in action in Lir(inia on 0e"tem!er 1>, 1+,A )aniel 8e!ard 301B 1+,>4 K $ssistant $dEutant?9eneral of Lolunteers Mof OhioNI died on $u(ust :, 1+,A 9eor(e Coit Ri"ley 301B 1+,A4 K 1st LieutenantI 'enth Connecticut Re(iment, Com"any $I $ide?de?cam" to 9en. Orris 0. %erry 301B 1+**4 in 1+,Charles 7iller Bliss 301B 1+-A4 K And LieutenantI 0econd Lermont =nfantry durin( the Ci/il War 0amuel 8ensha. Bates 301B 1+DD4 K ser/ed as a "ri/ate in the A*th Re(iment of 7assachusetts Lolunteers durin( Ci/il War William Bald.in Ross 301B 1+-A4 K mem!er of the 0e/enth Re(iment ;e. @ork 0tate 9uard durin( the Ci/il War aco! Coo"er 301B 1+-A4 K Cha"lain of the 'hird Jentucky Re(iment, <.0. Lolunteers Charles 7ellen 'yler 301B 1+--4 K Cha"lain of the AAnd 7assachusetts =nfantry %rancis 5u(ene Butler 301B 1+-:4 K Cha"lain of the A-th Re(iment of ;e. ersey LolunteersI died at 0uffolk, Lir(inia on 7ay *, 1+,D William Jittred(e 8all 301B 1+-B4 K Cha"lain of the 1:th Connecticut =nfantry 5d.ard Bro.n %ur!ish 301B 1+,>4 K Cha"lain of the A-th 7aine Lolunteers William Curtis ohnston 301B 1+,>4 K Cha"lain of the 1Dth <.0. Jentucky LolunteersI died of "neumonia in Jentucky on )ecem!er D, 1+,A

8$RL$R) <;=L5R0='@ 1 5$RL@ 1B'8 C5;'<R@ $75R=C$

Aar ar! Uni ersity is locate! in 'ambri!4e6 :assac"usetts6 Bust outsi!e of Boston9

$ 7eetin( of 'he Boston Brahmins: Presidents of 8ar/ard <ni/ersity "ose for a "ortrait. Left to ri(ht, osiah Uuincy 31+AB?1+*-4, 5d.ard 5/erett 31+*,?1+*B4, ared 0"arks 31+*B?1+-D4, ames Walker 31+-D?1+,>4, and Cornelius Con.ay %elton 31+,>?1+,A4. 3Photo: Wikimedia4

$merican merchants in Boston, 8artford, ;e. @ork City, Philadel"hia, and Baltimore relied on fast?mo/in( cli""er shi"s in the 1+*>s and 1+->s as they e6"anded their trade .ith the British 5m"ire and o"ened trade .ith China 3includin( 8on( Jon( and 0han(hai4 and a"an 3!e(innin( in 1+-D4. Warren )elano (ained a hu(e fortune in the o"ium trade in 8on( Jon(. Warren )elano&s son %rederic $. )elano, a 8ar/ard (raduate, ser/ed as the first Lice Chairman of the %ederal Reser/e from 1B1* to 1B1,. Warren )elano&s (randson %ranklin )elano Roose/elt, a 8ar/ard (raduate, ser/ed as the President of the <nited 0tates from 1BDD to 1B*-.

8ar/ard (raduates 3left to ri(ht4: Cale! Cushin(, 5d.ard 5/erett, and Ro!ert Charles Winthro" Cale! Cushin( 3B.$. 1+1:4 ser/ed as a <.0. Con(ressman durin( the O"ium War. Cushin( ser/ed the <.0. $ttorney 9eneral under President %ranklin Pierce. Cushin( ser/ed as the Chairman of the )emocratic ;ational Con/entions at Charleston and Baltimore in 1+,>. 5d.ard 5/erett 3B.$. 1+114 ser/ed as the 9o/ernor of 7assachusetts 31+D,?1+*>4 and as <.0. 7inister to 9reat Britain 31+*1?1+*-4 durin( the O"ium WarI 5/erett ser/ed as President of 8ar/ard <ni/ersity 31+*,?1+*B4, 0ecretary of 0tate 31+-A?1+-D4, and <.0. 0enator 3Whi(? 7assachusetts, 1+-D?1+-*4. 5d.ard 5/erett .as the Lice Presidential candidate for the Constitutional <nion Party in 1+,>. Ro!ert Charles Winthro" 3B.$. 1+A+4 .as a <.0. Con(ressman 3Whi(?7assachusetts, 1+*>?1+*A, 1+*A?1+->4, a 0"eaker of the <.0. 8ouse of Re"resentati/es 31+*:?1+*B4, and a <.0. 0enator 31+->?1+-14. Ro!ert Charles Winthro" is <.0. 0enator ohn %. Jerry&s (reat?(reat? (randfather.

Prominent Antebe um /ar)ard Kraduates

9eor(e Bancroft B.$. 8ar/ard 1+1: <.0. 7inister to Prussia 31+,:?1+:14

Cale! Cushin( B.$. 8ar/ard 1+1: <.0. $ttorney 9eneral 31+-D?1+-:4

ose"h Coolid(e B.$. 8ar/ard 1+1: Partner of Russell 1 Co. o"ium syndicate 31+D*?1+*>4

0amuel $. 5liot B.$. 8ar/ard 1+1: 7ayor of Boston 31+D:?1+DB4

$l/a Woods B.$. 8ar/ard 1+1: inau(ural President of <ni/ersity of $la!ama 31+D1?1+D:4

ohn Uuincy $dams B.$. 8ar/ard 1:+: President of the <nited 0tates 31+A-?1+AB4

ose"h 0tory B.$. 8ar/ard 1:B+ ustice, <.0. 0u"reme Court 31+11?1+*-4

5d.ard 5/erett B.$. 8ar/ard 1+11 <.0. 7inister to 9reat Britain 31+*1?1+*-4

Ro!ert Charles Winthro" B.$. 8ar/ard 1+A+ 0"eaker of the <.0. 8ouse of Re"resentati/es 31+*:?1+*B4

Charles 0umner B.$. 8ar/ard 1+D> <.0. 0enator 3R?7ass., 1+-1?1+:*4

Charles %. $dams 0r. B.$. 8ar/ard 1+A<.0. 7inister to 9reat Britain 31+,1?1+,+4

Ro!ert Rantoul r. B.$. 8ar/ard 1+A, 7em!er of 7ass. 0tate Board of 5ducation 31+D:?1+*A4

5!ene#er R. 8oar B.$. 8ar/ard 1+D<.0. $ttorney 9eneral 31+,B?1+:>4

William $. Richardson B.$. 8ar/ard 1+*D 0ecretary of the 'reasury 31+:D?1+:*4

%rederick $. 0a.yer B.$. 8ar/ard 1+** <.0. 0enator 3R?0outh Carolina, 1+,+?1+:D4

8ar/ard <ni/ersity 9raduates and 'heir Occu"ation durin( the $merican Ci/il War 31+,1?1+,-4 1 Reconstruction 31+,-?1+::4 9o/ernment Officials: 5!ene#er R. 8oar 3B.$. 1+D-, LL.B. 1+DB4 K <.0. $ttorney 9eneral 31+,B?1+:>4I <.0. Con(ressman 3Re"u!lican?7assachusetts, 1+:D?1+:-4 William $dams Richardson 3B.$. 1+*D, LL.B. 1+*,4 K 0ecretary of the 'reasury 31+:D?1+:*4 Charles %rancis $dams 0r. 3B.$. 1+A-4 K <.0. 7inister to 9reat Britain 31+,1?1+,+4 9eor(e Bancroft 3B.$. 1+1:4 K <.0. 7inister to the Jin(dom of Prussia 31+,:?1+:14I <.0. 7inister to 9ermany 31+:1?1+:*4 ohn Lothro" 7otley 3B.$. 1+D14 K <.0. 7inister to $ustria 31+,1?1+,:4I <.0. 7inister to 9reat Britain 31+,B?1+:>4 5d.ard oy 7orris 3B.$. 1+D,4 K <.0. 7inister to 'urkey MOttoman 5m"ireN 31+,1?1+:>4 Cale! Cushin( 3B.$. 1+1:4 K <.0. 7inister to 0"ain 31+:*?1+::4 ohn Chandler Bancroft )a/is 3B.$. 1+*>4 K <.0. 7inister to 9ermany 31+:*?1+::4 $yres Philli"s 7errill 3B.$. 1+*-4 K <.0. 7inister to Bel(ium 31+:,?1+::4 ames R. Partrid(e 3B.$. 1+*1, LL.B. 1+*D4 K <.0. 7inister to 8onduras 31+,A4I <.0. 7inister to 5l 0al/ador 31+,D?1+,,4I <.0. 7inister to Lene#uela 31+,B?1+:>4I <.0. 7inister to Bra#il 31+:1?1+::4 $le6ander Wheelock 'hayer 3B.$. 1+*D, LL.B. 1+*+4 K <.0. Consul at 'rieste M$ustriaN 31+,*?1++A4 Wickham 8offman 3B.$. 1+*14 K 0ecretary of <.0. Le(ation at London 31+:*?1+::4I 0ecretary of <.0. Le(ation at Paris 31+,:?1+:*4I 0ecretary of <.0. Le(ation at 0t. Peters!ur(, Russia 31+::?1++D4 William 0ydney 'hayer 3B.$. 1+->4 K <.0. Consul 9eneral in 5(y"t 31+,1?1+,*4 Charles 8ale 3B.$. 1+->4 K <.0. Consul 9eneral in 5(y"t 31+,*?1+:>4I $ssistant <nited 0tates 0ecretary of 0tate 31+:A?1+:D4I 0"eaker of the 7assachusetts 0tate 8ouse of Re"resentati/es 31+-B4 Charles 0umner 3B.$. 1+D>, LL.B. 1+D*4 K <.0. 0enator 3Re"u!lican?7assachusetts, 1+-1?1+:*4 %rederick $. 0a.yer 3B.$. 1+**4 K <.0. 0enator 3Re"u!lican?0outh Carolina, 1+,+?1+:D4I $ssistant 0ecretary of the 'reasury 31+:D?1+:*4 0amuel 'homas Worcester 3B.$. 1+D>4 K <.0. Con(ressman 3Re"u!lican?Ohio, 1+,1?1+,D4 ohn 9anson 3B.$. 1+DB4 K <.0. Con(ressman 3)emocrat?;e. @ork, 1+,D?1+,-4 9eor(e 7. Brooks 3B.$. 1+**, LL.B. 1+*:4 K <.0. Con(ressman 3Re"u!lican?7assachusetts, 1+,B?1+:A4 9eor(e %. 8oar 3B.$. 1+*,, LL.B. 1+*B4 K <.0. Con(ressman 3Re"u!lican?7assachusetts, 1+,B?1+::4 William W. Warren 3B.$. 1+-,, LL.B. 1+-,4 K <.0. Con(ressman 3)emocrat?7assachusetts, 1+:-?1+::4 %rederick 9eor(e Brom!er( 3B.$.1+-+4 K <.0. Con(ressman 3Li!eral Re"u!lican?$la!ama, 1+:D?1+:-4I 'reasurer of 7o!ile, $la!ama 31+,:? 1+,B4I 7em!er of $la!ama 0tate 0enate 31+,+?1+:A4I Postmaster of 7o!ile, $la!ama 3 uly 1+,B? une 1+:14 $shur Ware 3B.$. 1+>*4 K ud(e of the <.0. )istrict Court for 7aine 31+AA?1+,,4 5d.ard %o6 3B.$. 1+D*, LL.B. 1+D:4 K ud(e of the <.0. )istrict Court for 7aine 31+,,?1++14 Willard 8all 3B.$. 1:BB4 K ud(e of the <.0. )istrict Court for )ela.are 31+AD?1+:14 Pele( 0"ra(ue 3B.$. 1+1A4 K ud(e of the <.0. )istrict Court for 7assachusetts 31+*1?1+,-4 0amuel 'reat 3B.$. 1+D:4 K ud(e of the <.0. )istrict Court for the 5astern )istrict of 7issouri 31+-:?1++:4 5d.ard 8enry )urell 3B.$. 1+D14 K ud(e of the <.0. )istrict Court for Louisiana 31+,D?1+:A4 William Whitin( 3B.$. 1+DD, LL.B. 1+D+4 K 0olicitor of the War )e"artment 31+,A?1+,-4 ;athan We!! 3B.$. 1+*,4 K <.0. $ttorney for the )istrict of 7aine 31+:>?1+:+4 9eor(e 0tillman 8illard 3B.$. 1+A+4 K <.0. $ttorney for the )istrict of 7assachusetts 31+,,?1+:14I O/erseer, 8ar/ard <ni/ersity 31+:1?1+:-4 Charles $llen 3B.$. 1+*:4 K $ttorney 9eneral of 7assachusetts 31+,:?1+:A4 9eor(e 'yler Bi(elo. 3B.$. 1+AB4 K Chief ustice of the 0u"reme Court of 7assachusetts 31+,>?1+,:4 8orace 9ray 3B.$. 1+*-, LL.B. 1+*B4 K Chief ustice of the 0u"reme Court of 7assachusetts 31+:D?1++14 Pliny 7errick 3B.$. 1+1*4 K ustice of the 0u"reme Court of 7assachusetts 31+-D?1+,*4 William Cro.ninshield 5ndicott 3B.$. 1+*:4 K ustice of the 0u"reme Court of 7assachusetts 31+,D?1++A4 ohn )a/is Lon( 3B.$. 1+-:4 K 7em!er of the 7assachusetts 0tate 8ouse of Re"resentati/es 31+:-?1+:+4I 0"eaker of the 7assachusetts 0tate 8ouse of Re"resentati/es 31+:,?1+:+4 ohn 9. Palfrey 3B.$. 1+1-4 K Postmaster of Boston 31+,1?1+,:4 ;athaniel Bradstreet 0hurtleff 3B.$. 1+D1, 7.). 1+D*4 K 7ayor of Boston 31+,+?1+:14I O/erseer of 8ar/ard <ni/ersity 31+-A?1+,1, 1+,D?1+,B4 5lisha Reynolds Potter 3B.$. 1+D>4 K ustice of Rhode =sland 0u"reme Court 31+,+?1++A4I Rhode =sland 0tate 0enator 31+*:?1+-A, 1+,1?,D4 5d.ard Jent 3B.$. 1+A14 K ustice of the 7aine 0u"reme Court 31+-B?1+:D4 Colle(e $dministrators and Professors: Cornelius Con.ay %elton 3$.B. 1+A:4 K President of 8ar/ard <ni/ersity 31+,>?1+,A4 'homas 8ill 3$.B. 1+*D4 K President of 8ar/ard <ni/ersity 31+,A?1+,+4 Charles William 5liot 3$.B. 1+-D4 K President of 8ar/ard <ni/ersity 31+,B?1B>B4 William $u(ustus 0tearns 3B.$. 1+A:4 K President of $mherst Colle(e 31+-*?1+:,4 0amuel 5liot 3B.$. 1+DB4 K President of 'rinity Colle(e M8artford, ConnecticutN 31+,>?1+,*4 Charles 0hort 3B.$. 1+*,4 K President of Jenyon Colle(e 31+,D?1+,:4 'homas Chase 3B.$. 1+*+4 K President of 8a/erford Colle(e 31+:*?1++,4 ohn )aniel Runkle 3B.0. 1+-14 K President of the 7assachusetts =nstitute of 'echnolo(y 31+:>?1+:+4 ose"h 7oore 3B.0. 1+,14 K President of 5arlham Colle(e 31+,+?1++D4 Christo"her C. Lan(dell 3B.$. 1+-14 K )ean of 8ar/ard La. 0chool 31+:>?1+B-4 'heo"hilus Parsons 3B.$. 1+1-4 K )ane Professor of La. at 8ar/ard La. 0chool 31+*+?1+,B4 9eor(e Ra"all ;oyes 3B.$. 1+1+4 K 8ancock Professor of 8e!re. at 8ar/ard <ni/ersity 31+*>?1+,+4 ohn Call )alton 3B.$. 1+**I 7.). 1+*:4 K Professor of Physiolo(y 31+--?1++D4 and President 31++*?1++B4 at Colle(e of Physicians and 0ur(eons in ;e. @ork City Church Leaders: 0te"hen 5lliott 3B.$. 1+A*4 K Protestant 5"isco"al Bisho" for the 5"isco"al )iocese of 9eor(ia 31+*1?1+,,4 $lfred Lee 3B.$. 1+A:4 K Protestant 5"isco"al Bisho" for the 5"isco"al )iocese of )ela.are 31+*1?1++:4 ;ehemiah $dams 3B.$. 1+A,4 K Pastor of <nion Con(re(ational Church in Boston 31+D*?1+:+4

Chandler Ro!!ins 3B.$. 1+AB4 K Pastor of 0econd MCon(re(ationalN Church of Boston 31+DD?1+:*4 5d.ard 5/erett 8ale 3B.$. 1+DB4 K 7inister of 0outh Con(re(ational Church in Boston 31+-,?1+BB4 0te"hen 8i((inson 'yn( 3B.$. 1+1:4 K Pastor of 0t. 9eor(e&s Church in ;e. @ork City 31+*-?1+:+4 William 8enry %urness 3B.$. 1+A>4 K 7inister of the %irst <nitarian Church in Philadel"hia 31+A-?1+:-4 Richard %uller 3B.$. 1+A*4 K Pastor of :th Ba"tist Church in Baltimore 31+*:?1+:14I former President of 0outhern Ba"tist Con/ention 9eor(e 5d.ard 5llis 3B.$. 1+DD4 K Pastor of 8ar/ard <nitarian Church in Charlesto.n, 7assachusetts 31+*>?1+,B4I O/erseer of 8ar/ard <ni/ersity 31+->?1+:B4 ohn %other(ill Waterhouse Ware 3B.$. 1+D+4 K Pastor of Church of the 0a/iour in Baltimore 31+,:?1+:A4I Pastor of $rlin(ton 0treet Church in Boston 31+:A?1++14 Others: Charles %rancis $dams r. 3$.B. 1+-,4 K 7em!er of the Board of Railroad Commissioners of 7assachusetts 31+,B?1+:B4 ames )andrid(e 8aly!urton 3B.$. 1+AD4 K ud(e of the )istrict of Lir(inia MConfederacyN 31+,1?1+,-4 9eor(e Partrid(e 0an(er 3B.$. 1+*>, LL.B. 1+**4 K President of ohn 8ancock 7utual Life =nsurance Co. 31+,D4 Willard Philli"s 3B.$. 1+1>4 K President of ;e. 5n(land 7utual Life =nsurance Com"any 31+*:?1+:>4 'homas 0her.in 3B.$. 1+A-4 K Princi"al of 5n(lish 8i(h 0chool in Boston 31+D:?1+,B4 0ydney 8o.ard 9ay 3B.$. 1+DD4 K 5ditor of $merican $nti?0la/ery 0tandard in ;e. @ork City 31+*D?1+-:4I $(ent for the under(round rail.ay 31+*D?1+-:4I 7em!er of the 5ditorial 0taff of %ew &ork Tri*une Mne.s"a"erN 31+-:?1+,A4I 7ana(in( 5ditor of %ew &ork Tri*une 31+,A?1+,-4I 7ana(in( 5ditor of + icago Tri*une 31+,:?1+:14I 7em!er of the 5ditorial 0taff of %ew &ork Evening Post Mne.s"a"erN 31+:A?1+:*4 5#ra 0tiles 9annett 3B.$. 1+A>4 K Pastor of %ederal 0treet Church in Boston 31+A*?1+:14I O/erseer of 8ar/ard <ni/. 31+D-?1+-A, 1+-D?1+-+4

PR=;C5'O; <;=L5R0='@ 1 5$RL@ 1B'8 C5;'<R@ $75R=C$

Princeton <ni/ersity is located in Princeton, ;e. ersey, a to.n near 'renton, ;e. ersey and Philadel"hia.

Princeton "o.er!rokers $aron Burr r. 3left4 and ;icholas Biddle $aron Burr r. 3$.B. Princeton 1::A4, the Lice President of the <.0. from 1+>1 to 1+>-, mortally .ounded $le6ander 8amilton in a duel at Weeha.ken, ;e. ersey on uly 11, 1+>*. Burr .as indicted for murder in ;e. @ork and ;e. ersey !ut ne/er tried in either EurisdictionI he esca"ed to 0outh Carolina and later returned to Washin(ton, ).C. to com"lete his time in office. $aron Burr r. .as arrested and tried for treason in $u(ust 1+>: for attem"tin( to esta!lish a “re"u!lic” in the 0outh.est of .hich he .as to !e the head. Burr .as acCuitted of treason and .ent to 5n(land in 1+>+. $aron Burr r. returned to ;e. @ork City in 1+1AI he died in 0taten =sland, ;e. @ork on 0e"tem!er 1*, 1+D,. ;icholas Biddle 3$.B. Princeton 1+>14 ser/ed as the President of the 0econd Bank of the <nited 0tates from 1+AD to 1+D,.

“Colonel” 5d.ard 7. 8ouse 3left4 and <.0. President Woodro. Wilson 3Photo: 7anuscri"ts 1 $rchi/es, @ale <ni/ersity Li!rary4 5d.ard 7. 8ouse .as a "olitical "o.er!roker from $ustin, 'e6as, <.0.$. .ho su""orted the esta!lishment of the %ederal Reser/e 0ystem. 5d.ard 7. 8ouse, one of the co?founders of the Council on %orei(n Relations in ;e. @ork City, .as the author of P ilip ,ru" #d!inistrator, a !ook in .hich he "romotes communism, socialism, central !ank, and income ta6 in $merica. “Colonel” 5d.ard 7. 8ouse .as the son of British?!orn Re!el 3Confederate4 !lockade runner and !usinessman 'homas William 8ouseI 'homas William 8ouse .as the mayor of 8ouston, 'e6as in 1+,A. Woodro. Wilson, a se(re(ationist and a .hite su"remacist, .as the son of a Re!el 3Confederate4 cha"lain. Woodro. Wilson .as the President of Princeton <ni/ersity 31B>A?1B1>4, 9o/ernor of ;e. ersey 31B11?1B1D4, and President of the <nited 0tates 31B1D?1BA14. Woodro. Wilson si(ned the %ederal Reser/e $ct, a !ill esta!lishin( the %ederal Reser/e, $merica&s central !ank, on )ecem!er AD, 1B1D.

Princeton <ni/ersity 9raduates and $merican Ci/il War 31+,1?1+,-4 Confederate: ohn =. 7iddleton 3$.B. 1+1B4 K 0i(ner of the 0outh Carolina Ordinance of 0ecession 31+,>4 William P. %inley 3$.B. 1+A>4 K 0i(ner of the 0outh Carolina Ordinance of 0ecession 31+,>4 $le6ander 7a#yck 3$.B. 1+A>4 K 0i(ner of the 0outh Carolina Ordinance of 0ecession 31+,>4 $!raham W. Lena!le 3$.B. 1+1B4 K 7em!er of the Confederate Con(ress 3;orth Carolina, 1+,A?1+,*4 $le6ander R. Boteler 3$.B. 1+D-4 K 7em!er of the Confederate Con(ress 3Lir(inia, 1+,A?1+,*4I <.0. Con(ressman 3Lir(inia, 1+-B?1+,14 )a/id %unsten 3$.B. 1+D+4 K 7em!er of the Confederate Con(ress 3Lir(inia, 1+,*?1+,-4 Walter Preston 3$.B. 1+DB4 K 7em!er of the Confederate Con(ress 3Lir(inia, 1+,A?1+,*4 8enry Cousins Cham!ers 3$.B. 1+**4 K 7em!er of the Confederate Con(ress 37ississi""i, 1+,A?1+,-4 Richard Wilde Walker 3$.B. 1+*14 K Confederate 0enator 3$la!ama, 1+,*?1+,-4 $lfred 8. ColCuitt 3$.B. 1+**4 K 7em!er of the 9eor(ia 0ecession Con/ention 31+,14I 7aEor 9eneral of the Confederate $rmy 31+,1?1+,-4 Walter L. Jeirn 3$.B. 1+*+4 K 7em!er of the 7ississi""i 0ecession Con/ention 31+,14 Ro!ert Crai( Jent 3$.B. 1+*B4 K 7em!er of the Lir(inia 0ecession Con/ention 31+,14 ames Chesnut r. 3$.B. 1+D-4 K 0i(ner of the Confederate Constitution ames ay $rcher 3$.B. 1+D-4 K Bri(adier 9eneral of the Confederate $rmy 31+,A?1+,*4 Bradley 'yler ohnson 3$.B. 1+*B4 K Bri(adier 9eneral of the Confederate $rmy 31+,*?1+,-4 $llen 'homas 3$.B. 1+->4 K Bri(adier 9eneral of the Confederate $rmy 31+,D?1+,-4 Williams 0te/enson Walker 3$.B. 1+-14 K Bri(adier 9eneral of the Confederate $rmy 31+,A?1+,-4 <nion: William Le.is )ayton 3$.B. 1+A-4 K <.0. $m!assador to %rance 31+,1?1+,*4 ames 7oore Wayne 3$.B. 1+>+4 K ustice of the <.0. 0u"reme Court 31+D-?1+,:4I 7ayor of 0a/annah, 9eor(ia 31+1:?1+1B4 ohn ay ackson, r. 3$.B. 1+*-4 K ud(e of the <.0. )istrict Court for the Western )istrict of Lir(inia 31+,1?1+,*4 ames )unlo" 3$.B. 1+114 K Chief ustice of the <.0. Circuit Court for the )istrict of Colum!ia 31+-:?1+,D4 Richard 0tockton %ield 3$.B. 1+A14 K <.0. 0enator 3R?;e. ersey, 1+,A?1+,D4I ud(e of the <.0. )istrict Court for ;e. ersey 31+,D?1+:>4 ames $lfred Pearce 3$.B. 1+AA4 K <.0. 0enator 3Whi(G)emocrat?7aryland, 1+*D?1+,A4 ames Walter Wall 3$.B. 1+D+4 K <.0. 0enator 3)emocrat?;e. ersey, 1+,D4 William Pennin(ton 3$.B. 1+1D4 K <.0. Con(ressman 3Re"u!lican?;e. ersey, 1+-B?1+,14I 0"eaker of the <.0. 8ouse 31+,>?1+,14 ohn L.;. 0tratton 3$.B. 1+D,4 K <.0. Con(ressman 3Re"u!lican?;e. ersey, 1+-B?1+,D4 Charles ohn Biddle 3$.B. 1+D:4 K <.0. Con(ressman 3)emocrat?Pennsyl/ania, 1+,1?1+,D4 Ro!ert 7cJni(ht 3$.B. 1+DB4 K <.0. Con(ressman 3Re"u!lican?Pennsyl/ania, 1+-B?1+,D4 ohn 'hom"son ;i6on 3$.B. 1+*14 K <.0. Con(ressman 3Re"u!lican?;e. ersey, 1+-B?1+,D4 %rancis P. Blair r. 3$.B. 1+*14 K <.0. Con(ressman 3Re"u!lican?7issouri, 1+-:?1+-B, 1+,>, 1+,1?1+,A, 1+,D?1+,*4I 7aEor 9eneral of the <nited 0tates Lolunteers 31+,A?1+,-4 $le6ander 8enry 3$.B. 1+*>4 K 7ayor of Philadel"hia 31+-+?1+,,4 5d.ard William Whel"ley 3$.B. 1+D*4 K Chief ustice of the 0u"reme Court of ;e. ersey 31+,1?1+,*4 William W. Belkna" 3$.B. 1+*+4 K Bri(adier 9eneral of the <nited 0tates Lolunteers 31+,*?1+,-4 William 7umford Baker 3$.B. 1+*,4 K Pastor of %irst Pres!yterian Church in $ustin, 'e6as 31+->?1+,-4I <nionist durin( the Ci/il War ohn 7aclean, r. 3$.B. 1+1,4 K President of Princeton <ni/ersity 31+-*?1+,+4 Princeton <ni/ersity 9raduates and Reconstruction 31+,-?1+::4 William W. Belkna" 3$.B. 1+*+4 K 0ecretary of War 31+,B?1+:,4 ames ). Cameron 3$.B. 1+-A4 K 0ecretary of War 31+:,?1+::4 9eor(e 7. Ro!eson 3$.B. 1+*:4 K 0ecretary of the ;a/y 31+,B?1+::4I $ttorney 9eneral of ;e. ersey 31+,:?1+,B4 ;athaniel 9. 'aylor 3$.B. 1+*>4 K Commissioner of =ndian $ffairs 31+,:?1+,B4 ames 7oore Wayne 3$.B. 1+>+4 K ustice of the <.0. 0u"reme Court 31+D-?1+,:4 9eor(e 8. Boker 3$.B. 1+*A4 K <.0. 7inister to 'urkey MOttoman 5m"ireN 31+:1?1+:-4I <.0. 7inister to Russia 31+:-?1+::4 ohn 0har"enstein 8a(er 3$.B. 1+D,4 K <.0. 0enator 3)emocrat?California, 1+:D?1+:-4 ames J. Jelly 3$.B. 1+DB4 K <.0. 0enator 3)emocrat?Ore(on, 1+:1?1+::4 %rancis P. Blair r. 3$.B. 1+*14 K <.0. 0enator 3)emocrat?7issouri, 1+:1?1+:D4 ohn Potter 0tockton 3$.B. 1+*D4 K <.0. 0enator 3)emocrat?;e. ersey, 1+,-?1+,,, 1+,B?1+:-4 $le6ander 8amilton Bailey 3$.B. 1+D:4 K <.0. Con(ressman 3Re"u!lican?;e. @ork, 1+,:?1+:14 'homas Laurens ones 3$.B. 1+*>4 K <.0. Con(ressman 3)emocrat?Jentucky, 1+,:?1+:1, 1+:-?1+::4 ;athaniel 9. 'aylor 3$.B. 1+*>4 K <.0. Con(ressman 3Whi(G<nionist?'ennessee, 1+-*?1+--, 1+,,?1+,:4 %rederick 8. 'eese 3$.B. 1+*D4 K <.0. Con(ressman 3)emocrat?;e. ersey, 1+:-?1+::4 ames ). 0tra.!rid(e 3$.B. 1+**4 K <.0. Con(ressman 3Re"u!lican?Pennsyl/ania, 1+:D?1+:-4 0te/enson $rcher 3$.B. 1+*,4 K <.0. Con(ressman 3)emocrat?7aryland, 1+,:?1+:-4 William 8. $rmstron( 3$.B. 1+*:4 K <.0. Con(ressman 3Re"u!lican Pennsyl/ania, 1+,B?1+:14 8iester Clymer 3$.B. 1+*:4 K <.0. Con(ressman 3)emocrat?Pennsyl/ania, 1+:D?1++14 Charles 5d.ard Phel"s 3$.B. 1+-A4 K <.0. Con(ressman 3Conser/ati/e?7aryland, 1+,-?1+,B4 Charles 8ai(ht 3$.B. 1+-:4 K <.0. Con(ressman 3)emocrat?;e. ersey, 1+,:?1+:14 ohn ay ackson, r. 3$.B. 1+*-4 K ud(e of the <.0. )istrict Court for West Lir(inia 31+,*?1B>14 $ndre. 'odd 7cJinney 3$.B. 1+-+4 K <.0. $ttorney for 'e6as 31+:1?1+:D4 ose"h Wil!erforce 7artin 3$.B. 1+--4 K <.0. $ttorney for $rkansas 31+:*?1+:,4 Charles 8enry Lu#en!er( 3$.B. 1+-:4 K <.0. $ttorney for the %irst )istrict of Louisiana 31+,,?1+:A4 %urman 0he""ard 3$.B. 1+*-4 K <.0. $ttorney for the 5astern )istrict of Pennsyl/ania 31+,+?1+:14 ohn Cal/in Reed 3$.B. 1+-*4 K 9rand 9iant of the Ju Jlu6 Jlan in O(lethor"e County, 9eor(ia 31+,+?1+:14 ohn 7aclean, r. 3$.B. 1+1,4 K President of Princeton <ni/ersity 31+-*?1+,+4 ames Clarke Wellin( 3$.B. 1+**4 K President of 9eor(e Washin(ton <ni/ersity 31+:1?1+B*4I President of 0t. ohn&s Colle(e M$nna"olis, 7arylandN 31+,:?1+:>4 5lihu 0"encer 7iller 3$.B. 1+D,4 K Professor of La. at <ni/ersity of Pennsyl/ania 31+-A?1+:A4

BROW; <;=L5R0='@ 1 5$RL@ 1B'8 C5;'<R@ $75R=C$

Bro.n <ni/ersity6 an % y Lea4ue colle4e6 is locate! in Pro i!ence6 0"o!e %slan!6 U9S9A9

Prominent Antebe um 8ro7n *ni)ersit' Kraduates

ames %enner $.B. Bro.n 1:+B 9o/ernor of Rhode =sland 31+>:?1+11, 1+A*?1+D1, 1+*D?1+*-4

onathan 7a6cy $.B. Bro.n 1:+: President of <ni/ersity of 0outh Carolina 31+>*?1+A>4

8orace 7ann $.B. Bro.n 1+1B <.0. Con(ressman 3Whi(?7ass., 1+*+?1+-D4I 0ecretary of 7assachusetts 0tate Board of 5ducation 31+D:?1+*+4

Pendleton 7urrah $.B. Bro.n 1+*+ 9o/ernor of 'e6as MConfederateN 31+,D?1+,-4

William Learned 7arcy $.B. Bro.n 1+>+ 9o/ernor of ;e. @ork 31+DD?1+D+4

Bro.n <ni/ersity 9raduates and $merican Ci/il War 31+,1?1+,-4 and Reconstruction 31+,-?1+::4 Lafayette 0. %oster 3$.B. 1+A+4 K <.0. 0enator 3Re"u!lican?Connecticut, 1+--?1+,:4 8enry Bo.en $nthony 3$.B. 1+DD4 K <.0. 0enator 3Re"u!lican?Rhode =sland, 1+-B?1++*4 0amuel 9reene $rnold 3$.B. 1+*14 K <.0. 0enator 3Re"u!lican?Rhode =sland, 1+,A?1+,D4I Lt. 9o/. of Rhode =sland 31+-A?1+-D, 1+,1?1+,A4 5li 'hayer 3$.B. 1+*-4 K <.0. Con(ressman 3Re"u!lican?7assachusetts 1+-:?1+,14 BenEamin %. 'homas 3$.B. 1+D>4 K <.0. Con(ressman 3<nionist?7assachusetts, 1+,1?1+,D4 ;athan %. )i6on r. 3$.B. 1+DD4 K <.0. Con(ressman 3Whi(GRe"u!lican?Rhode =sland, 1+*B?1+-1, 1+,D?1+:14 Charles Russell 'rain 3$.B. 1+D:4 K <.0. Con(ressman 3Re"u!lican?7ass., 1+-B?1+,D4I $ttorney 9eneral of 7assachusetts 31+:1?1+:+4 'homas $llen enckes 3$.B. 1+D+4 K <.0. Con(ressman 3Re"u!lican?Rhode =sland, 1+,D?1+:14 9eor(e 8. Bro.ne 3$.B. 1+*>4 K <.0. Con(ressman 3)emocrat?Rhode =sland 1+,1?1+,D4I <.0. $ttorney for Rhode =sland 31+-A?1+,14 0amuel 0. Co6 3$.B. 1+*,4 K <.0. Con(ressman 3)emocrat?Ohio, 1+-:?1+,-I )emocrat?;e. @ork, 1+,B?1+:D, 1+:D?1++-, 1++,?1++B4 Christo"her Ro!inson 3$.B. 1+A-4 K <.0. 7inister to Peru 31+,1?1+,-4 ohn Pitman 3$.B. 1:BB4 K ud(e of the <.0. )istrict Court for the )istrict of Rhode =sland 31+A-?1+,*4 onathan Russell Bullock 3$.B. 1+D*4 K ud(e of the <.0. )istrict Court for the )istrict of Rhode =sland 31+,-?1+,B4I ustice of the 0u"reme Court of Rhode =sland 31+,A?1+,*4I Lieutenant 9o/ernor of Rhode =sland 31+,>?1+,14 5d.in Channin( Larned 3$.B. 1+*>4 K <.0. $ttorney for the ;orthern )istrict of =llinois MChica(oN 31+,1?1+,-4 Win(ate 8ayes 3$.B. 1+**4 K <.0. $ttorney for Rhode =sland 31+,1?1+:14 0amuel Coney 3$.B. 1+AB4 K 9o/ernor of 7aine 31+,*?1+,:4 Pendleton 7urrah 3$.B. 1+*+4 K 9o/ernor of 'e6as MConfederateN 31+,D?1+,-4 Walter 0. Bur(es 3$.B. 1+D14 K $ttorney 9eneral of Rhode =sland 31+-1?1+-*, 1+,>?1+,D4 'heron 7etcalf 3$.B. 1+>-4 K ustice of the 0u"reme Court of 7assachusetts 31+*+?1+,-4 9eor(e $rnold Brayton 3$.B. 1+A*4 K ustice of the 0u"reme Court of Rhode =sland 31+*D?1+,-, 1+,,?1+,+4 $lfred Bos.orth 3$.B. 1+D-4 K ustice of the 0u"reme Court of Rhode =sland 31+-*?1+,A4 'homas 5.in( 3$.B. 1+-,4 K Chief ustice of the 0u"reme Court of Jansas 31+,1?1+,A4 William 9aston 3$.B. 1+*>4 K 7ayor of Ro6!ury, 7ass. 31+,1?1+,A4I 7ayor of Boston 31+:1?1+:A4I 9o/ernor of 7assachusetts 31+:-?1+:,4 )aniel )yer Leach 3$.B. 1+D>4 K 0u"erintendent of Pu!lic 0chools of Pro/idence, Rhode =sland 31+--?1++*4 Barnas 0ears 3$.B. 1+A-4 K President of Bro.n <ni/ersity 31+--?1+,:4 Re/. 9eor(e Whitefield 0amson 3$.B. 1+DB4 K President of 9eor(e Washin(ton <ni/ersity Mformerly Colum!ian Colle(eN 31+-B?1+:14 5!ene#er )od(e 3$.B. 1+*>4 K President of Col(ate <ni/ersity 31+,+?1+B>4 BenEamin Bos.orth 0mith 3$.B. 1+1,4 K Protestant 5"isco"al Bisho" of Jentucky 31+DA?1++*4 Phili" $llen 3$.B. 1+>D4 K Cotton manufacturer in Pro/idence, Rhode =sland 31+1A?1+,-4 Qachariah $llen 3$.B. 1+1D4 K Cotton manufacturer in Pro/idence, Rhode =sland 31+AA?1++A4 ulian 8artrid(e 3$.B. 1+*B, LL.B. 8ar/ard 1+-A4 K Confederate Con(ressman 31+,A?1+,-4I <.0. Con(ressman 3)?9eor(ia, 1+:-?1+:B4

Pro)idence, Rhode ;s and in "$&$, 7ith factories in the bac3ground 1Librar' of Congress2

)$R'7O<'8 COLL595 1 5$RL@ 1B'8 C5;'<R@ $75R=C$

)artmouth Colle(e, an =/y Lea(ue colle(e, is located in 8ano/er, ;e. 8am"shire, <.0.$., near the Lermont?;e. 8am"shire !order. 3Photo: %lickr4

Prominent Antebe um Dartmouth Kraduates

)aniel We!ster $.B. )artmouth 1+>1 <.0. 0enator 3Whi(?7ass., 1+A:?1+*1, 1+*-?1+->4

Le/i Wood!ury $.B. )artmouth 1+>B 0ecretary of the 'reasury 31+D*?1+*14

0almon P. Chase $.B. )artmouth 1+A, Chief ustice of the <.0. 0u"reme Court 31+,*?1+:D4

Rufus Choate $.B. )artmouth 1+1B <.0. 0enator 3Whi(?7ass., 1+*1?1+*-4

'haddeus 0te/ens $.B. )artmouth 1+1* <.0. Con(ressman 3Whi(GRe"u!lican?Penn., 1+*B?1+-D, 1+-B?1+,+4

ames W. 9rimes $.B. )artmouth 1+D, <.0. 0enator 3R?=o.a, 1+-B?1+,B4

ohn Went.orth $.B. )artmouth 1+D, 7ayor of Chica(o 31+-:?1+-+, 1+,>?1+,14

BenEamin %. %landers $.B. )artmouth 1+*A 7ayor of ;e. Orleans 31+:>?1+:A4

ohn )udley Phil!rick $.B. )artmouth 1+*A 0u"erintendent of Pu!lic 0chools of Boston 31+-,?1+:*, 1+:-?1+:+4

0yl/anus 'hayer $.B. )artmouth 1+>: 0u"erintendent of <.0. 7ilitary $cademy 31+1:?1+DD4

)artmouth Colle(e 9raduates and $merican Ci/il War 31+,1?1+,-4 and Reconstruction 31+,-?1+::4 9o/ernment Officials: 0almon P. Chase 3$.B. 1+A,4 K 0ecretary of the 'reasury 31+,1?1+,*4I Chief ustice of the <.0. 0u"reme Court 31+,*?1+:D4 5d.ard $. Rollins 3$.B. 1+-14 K <.0. Commissioner of =nternal Re/enue 31+,-?1+,B4I 0"eaker, ;e. 8am". 0tate 8ouse of Re". 31+,1?1+,A4 9eor(e Perkins 7arsh 3$.B. 1+A>4 K <.0. 7inister to =taly 31+,1?1++A4 BenEamin %ranklin Whidden 3$.B. 1+*>4 K <.0. Consul?9eneral in 8aiti MPort au PrinceN 31+,A?1+,-4 7arCuis )e Lafayette Lane 3$.B. 1+*B4 K <.0. Consul at Leracru#, 7e6ico 31+,A?1+,:4 William Breck 3$.B. 1+D+4 K <.0. Lice?Consul in 0in(a"ore 31+-:?1+,>4I <.0. Consul in 0.ato., China 31+,>?1+,,4 ohn Lord 8ayes 3$.B. 1+D14 K Chief Clerk of <.0. "atent Office 31+,1?1+,-4I head of <.0. 'ariff Commission 31++A?1++D4 0amuel $u(ustus )uncan 3$.B. 1+-+4 K $ssistant Commissioner of Patents 31+:>?1+:A4 BenEamin %. %landers 3$.B. 1+*A4 K 7ayor of ;e. Orleans 31+:>?1+:A4I 7ilitary 9o/ernor of Louisiana 31+,:?1+,+4I <.0. Con(ressman 3<nionist?Louisiana, )ecem!er D, 1+,A?7arch D, 1+,D4I $ssistant 'reasurer of the <nited 0tates at ;e. Orleans 31+:D?1++A4 9eor(e %oster 0he"ley 3$.B. 1+D:4 K 7ilitary 9o/ernor of Louisiana 31+,A?1+,*4I 7ilitary 9o/ernor of Richmond, Lir(inia 31+,-4 ohn Went.orth 3$.B. 1+D,4 K 7ayor of Chica(o 31+-:?1+-+, 1+,>?1+,14I <.0. Con(ressman 3)emocratGRe"u!lican?=llinois, 1+*D?1+-1, 1+-D?1+--, 1+,-?1+,:4I 7em!er of =llinois 0tate Board of 5ducation 31+,1?1+,*, 1+,+?1+:A4 ose"h )ana We!ster 3$.B. 1+DA4 K 7aEor 9eneral of <.0. Lolunteers durin( Ci/il WarI Chief of 0taff under 9en. <lysses 0. 9rant and 9en. William '. 0hermanI $ssessor 31+,B?1+:A4 and Collector 31+:-?1+:,4 of =nternal Re/enueI $ssistant 'reasurer of the <.0. 31+:A?1+:-4 )aniel Clark 3$.B. 1+D*4 K <.0. 0enator 3Re"u!lican?;e. 8am"shire, 1+-:?1+,,4 ames W. 9rimes 3$.B. 1+D,4 K <.0. 0enator 3Re"u!lican?=o.a, 1+-B?1+,B4 'haddeus 0te/ens 3$.B. 1+1*4 K <.0. Con(ressman 3Whi(GRe"u!lican?Pennsyl/ania, 1+*B?1+-D, 1+-B?1+,+4 'homas 7cJey 5d.ards 3$.B. 1+1D4 K <.0. Con(ressman 3Re"u!lican?;e. 8am"shire, 1+-B?1+,D4 Bradford ;. 0te/ens 3$.B. 1+D-4 K <.0. Con(ressman 3)emocrat?=llinois, 1+:1?1+:D4 )aniel Wheel.ri(ht 9ooch 3$.B. 1+*D4 K <.0. Con(ressman 3Re"u!lican?7assachusetts, 1+-+?1+,-, 1+:D?1+:-4 ohn ;o!le 9ood.in 3$.B. 1+**4 K <.0. Con(ressman 3Re"u!lican?7aine, 1+,1?1+,D4 0amuel ;e.ell Bell 3$.B. 1+*:4 K <.0. Con(ressman 3)emocrat?;e. 8am"shire, 1+:1?1+:D, 1+:-?1+::4 ames Willis Patterson 3$.B. 1+*+4 K <.0. Con(ressman 3Re"u!lican?;e. 8am"shire, 1+,D?1+,:4I <.0. 0enator 3;e. 8am"., 1+,:?1+:D4 Charles Wesley Willard 3$.B. 1+-14 K <.0. Con(ressman 3Re"u!lican?Lermont, 1+,B?1+:-4 Wal!rid(e $!ner %ield 3$.B. 1+--4 K $ssistant $ttorney 9eneral of the <nited 0tates 31+,B?1+:>4 )a/id 'imothy Cor!in 3$.B. 1+-:4 K <.0. $ttorney for the )istrict of 0outh Carolina MCharlestonN 31+,:?1+::4 $lanson Bertram Lon( 3$.B. 1+-+4 K <.0. $ttorney for the 5astern )istrict of Louisiana M;e. OrleansN 31+:>4 $mos '. $kerman 3$.B. 1+*A4 K <.0. $ttorney for the )istrict of 9eor(ia M$tlantaN 31+,B?1+:>4I <.0. $ttorney 9eneral 31+:>?1+:14 )a/id 8a/en 7ason 3$.B. 1+*14 K <.0. $ttorney for the )istrict of 7assachusetts MBostonN 31+:>?1+:D4 Perkins Bass 3$.B. 1+-A4 K <.0. $ttorney for the ;orthern )istrict of =llinois MChica(oN 31+,-?1+,,4 ohn Jin( Lalentine 3$.B. 1+--4 K <.0. $ttorney for the 5astern )istrict of Pennsyl/ania MPhiladel"hiaN 31+:-?1+++4 $sa Went.orth 'enney 3$.B. 1+-B4 K <.0. $ttorney for the 5astern )istrict of ;e. @ork MBrooklynN 31+:D?1++-4 $lfred Russell 3$.B. 1+->4 K <.0. $ttorney for the )istrict of 7ichi(an M)etroitN 31+,1?1+,B4 ohn Bear )oane Co(s.ell 3$.B. 1+->4 K <.0. $ttorney for the )istrict of Wisconsin M7il.aukeeN 31+,1?1+,+4 8enry Pearson Rolfe 3$.B. 1+*+4 K <.0. $ttorney for the )istrict of ;e. 8am"shire 31+,B?1+:*4 oshua 9ilman 8all 3$.B. 1+-14 K <.0. $ttorney for the )istrict of ;e. 8am"shire 31+:*?1+:B4 7atthe. 8ar/ey 3$.B. 1+>,4 K ud(e of the <.0. )istrict Court for ;e. 8am"shire 31+D1?1+,,4 )aniel Clark 3$.B. 1+D*4 K ud(e of the <.0. )istrict Court for ;e. 8am"shire 31+,,?1+B14 Ro(er 0herman 9reene 3$.B. 1+-B4 K $ssociate ustice of the 0u"reme Court of Washin(ton 'erritory 31+:>?1+:B4 9eor(e W. 5mery 3$.B. 1+-+4 K 9o/ernor of <tah 'erritory 31+:-?1++>4 5d.ard %ollans!ee ;oyes 3$.B. 1+-:4 K 9o/ernor of Ohio 31+:A?1+:*4 ;elson )in(ley r. 3$.B. 1+--4 K 9o/ernor of 7aine 31+:*?1+:,4 Peter '. Wash!urn 3$.B. 1+D-4 K 9o/ernor of Lermont 31+,B?1+:>4 Lyman 9. 8inckley 3$.B. 1+-,4 K Lieutenant 9o/ernor of Lermont 31+:*?1+:,4 BenEamin %. Prescott 3$.B. 1+-,4 K 0ecretary of 0tate of ;e. 8am"shire 31+:A?1+::4 William Co(s.ell Clarke 3$.B. 1+DA4 K $ttorney 9eneral of ;e. 8am"shire 31+,D?1+:A4 Le.is Whitehouse Clark 3$.B. 1+->4 K $ttorney 9eneral of ;e. 8am"shire 31+:A?1+:,4 =ra Perley 3$.B. 1+AA4 K Chief ustice of the 0u"reme Court of ;e. 8am"shire 31+--?1+-B, 1+,*?1+,B4 9eor(e W. ;esmith 3$.B. 1+A>4 K ustice of the 0u"reme Court of ;e. 8am"shire 31+-B?1+:>4 William 8enry Bartlett 3$.B. 1+*:4 K ustice of the 0u"reme Court of ;e. 8am"shire 31+,1?1+,:4 William 0"encer Ladd 3$.B. 1+--4 K ustice of the 0u"reme Court of ;e. 8am"shire 31+:>?1+:*4 onathan 5/erett 0ar(ent 3$.B. 1+*>4 K ustice 31+-B?1+:D4 and Chief ustice 31+:D?1+:*4 of the 0u"reme Court of ;e. 8am"shire =saac %letcher Redfield 3$.B. 1+A-4 K Chief ustice of the 0u"reme Court of Lermont 31+-A?1+,>4 BenEamin 8. 0teele 3$.B. 1+-:4 K $ssociate ustice of the 0u"reme Court of Lermont 31+,-?1+:>4 'imothy Parker Redfield 3$.B. 1+D,4 K $ssociate ustice of the 0u"reme Court of Lermont 31+:>?1++*4 ason )o.ner 3$.B. 1+D+4 K ud(e of the 0u"reme Court of Wisconsin 31+,*?1+,:4 BenEamin %ranklin )ennison 3$.B. 1+*-4 K ud(e of the <.0. Court for Washin(ton 'erritory 31+,+?1+:>4 Oli/er 7iller 3$.B. 1+*+4 K ud(e of the 7aryland 0tate Court of $""eals 31+,:?1+BA4 ames %rederick oy 3$.B. 1+DD4 K 7em!er of 7ichi(an 0tate Le(islature 31+,1?1+,A4I President of 7ichi(an Central Railroad 31+,:4 8ar/ey e.ell 3$.B. 1+**4 K 0"eaker of the 7assachusetts 0tate 8ouse of Re"resentati/es 31+,+?1+:14 0te"hen 7oody Cros!y 3$.B. 1+*B4 K 7em!er of the 7assachusetts 0tate 8ouse of Re"resentati/es 31+,B4I 7assachusetts 0tate 0enator 31+:>?1+:14I )irector of Boston 1 $l!any Railroad 31+:1?1+:A4 5ducators and ournalists: ohn 5aton 3$.B. 1+-*4 K <.0. Commissioner of 5ducation 31+:>?1++,4I 0u"erintendent of Pu!lic 5ducation in 'ennessee 31+,:?1+,B4 $sa )od(e 0mith 3$.B. 1+D>4 K President of )artmouth Colle(e 31+,D?1+::4

0amuel 9ilman Bro.n 3$.B. 1+D14 K President of 8amilton Colle(e 31+,:?1++14 Charles $u(ustus $iken 3$.B. 1+*,4 K President of <nion Colle(e 31+,B?1+:14I Prof., Latin Lan(ua(e and Literature at )artmouth 31+-B?1+,,4 ose"h 'orrey 3$.B. 1+1,4 K President of <ni/ersity of Lermont 31+,A?1+,,4 BenEamin La!aree 3$.B. 1+A+4 K President of 7iddle!ury Colle(e 31+*>?1+,,4 7ilo Parker e.ett 3$.B. 1+A+4 K President of Lassar Colle(e 31+,1?1+,*4 William 5d.ard Barnard 3$.B. 1+-,4 K President of <ni/ersity of Washin(ton 31+,D?1+,,4 )aniel Blaisdell 3$.B. 1+A:4 K 'reasurer of )artmouth Colle(e 31+D-?1+:-4 %rederick Chase 3$.B. 1+,>4 K 'reasurer of )artmouth Colle(e 31+:-?1+B>4 Carlton Chase 3$.B. 1+1:4 K Protestant 5"isco"al Bisho" of the )iocese of ;e. 8am"shire 31+**?1+:>4 ohn )udley Phil!rick 3$.B. 1+*A4 K 0u"erintendent of the Boston Pu!lic 0chools 31+-,?1+:*, 1+:-?1+:+4 Cyrus Porter 0mith 3$.B. 1+A*4 K President of Brooklyn Board of 5ducation 31+*:?1+,+4 onathan Ross 3$.B. 1+-14 K 7em!er of Lermont 0tate Board of 5ducation 31+,,?1+:>4I ustice of 0u"reme Court of Lermont 31+:>?1+B>4 ohn Bradley Peaslee 3$.B. 1+,D4 K 0u"erintendent of Cincinnati Pu!lic 0chools 31+:*?1++,4I 'rustee of 7iami <ni/ersity 31+:1?1+:B4 0amuel 8ar/ey 'aylor 3$.B. 1+DA4 K Princi"al of Phili"s $ndo/er $cademy M7assachusettsN 31+D:?1+:14 ose"h 'racy 3$.B. 1+1*4 K 5ditor of %ew &ork -*server Mne.s"a"er in ;e. @ork CityN 31+D-?1+:*4

;)' League Rebe s
@ale <ni/ersity: Richard 'aylor 3B.$. 1+*-, 01B 1+*-4 K Commander of the MConfederateN $rmy of 'ennessee 31+,-4 8enry Rootes ackson 3B.$. 1+DB, 01B 1+DB4 K 7aEor 9eneral in the Confederate $rmy ohn Perkins r. 3B.$. 1+*>, 01B 1+*>4 K 7em!er of the Confederate 8ouse of Re"resentati/es 3Louisiana, 1+,*?1+,-4 William '.0. Barry 3B.$. 1+*1, 01B 1+*14 K Chairman of the 7ississi""i 0ecession Con/ention in 1+,1I 0i(ner of the Confederate Constitution William Preston ohnston 3B.$. 1+-A, 01B 1+-A4 K Confederate President efferson )a/is&s aide?de?cam" Burton ;or/ell 8arrison 3B.$. 1+-B, 01B 1+-B4 K Pri/ate 0ecretary to Confederate President efferson )a/is $llen 'aylor Ca"erton 3B.$. 1+DA4 K Confederate 0enator 3Lir(inia, 1+,1?1+,-4 William ;athan 8arrell 0mith 3B.$. 1+D*4 K 7em!er of the Confederate 8ouse of Re"resentati/es 3;orth Carolina, 1+,A?1+,-4 ames 8. $dams 3B.$. 1+D14 K 9o/ernor of 0outh Carolina 31+-*?1+-,4I Si4ner of t"e Sout" 'arolina Or!inance of Secession -()*</ 'homas L. Bayne 3B.$. 1+*:, 01B 1+*:4 K ColonelI Chief of the Bureau of %orei(n 0u""lies in the Confederate War )e"artment 'homas 7cJinney ack 3B.$. 1+-D, 01B 1+-D4 K ColonelI $dEutant 9eneral of the )e"artment of 'e6as, Confederate $rmy 31+,*?1+,-4 Randall Lee 9i!son 3B.$. 1+-D4 K Bri(adier 9eneral in the Confederate $rmy ;ote: 01B is an a!!re/iation for 0kull 1 Bones. udah P. BenEamin attended @ale <ni/ersity for t.o years !efore dro""in( out.

Princeton <ni/ersity: ohn =. 7iddleton 3$.B. 1+1B4 K Si4ner of t"e Sout" 'arolina Or!inance of Secession -()*</ William Peronneau %inley 3$.B. 1+A>4 K Si4ner of t"e Sout" 'arolina Or!inance of Secession -()*</ $le6ander 7a#yck 3$.B. 1+A>4 K Si4ner of t"e Sout" 'arolina Or!inance of Secession -()*</ ames Chesnut r. 3$.B. 1+D-4 ? 0i(ner of the Confederate ConstitutionI )ele(ate to the Confederate Pro/isional Con(ress in 7ont(omery, $la!ama 31+,14 $!raham W. Lena!le 3$.B. 1+1B4 K 7em!er of the Confederate Con(ress 3;orth Carolina, 1+,A?1+,*4 $le6ander Ro!inson Boteler 3$.B. 1+D-4 K 7em!er of the Confederate Con(ress 3Lir(inia, 1+,A?1+,*4 )a/id %unsten 3$.B. 1+D+4 K 7em!er of the Confederate Con(ress 3Lir(inia, 1+,*?1+,-4 Walter Preston 3$.B. 1+DB4 K 7em!er of the Confederate Con(ress 3Lir(inia, 1+,A?1+,*4 8enry Cousins Cham!ers 3$.B. 1+**4 K 7em!er of the Confederate Con(ress 37ississi""i, 1+,A?1+,-4 Richard Wilde Walker 3$.B. 1+*14 K Confederate 0enator 3$la!ama, 1+,*?1+,-4 $lfred 8. ColCuitt 3$.B. 1+**4 K 7em!er of the 9eor(ia 0ecession Con/ention 31+,14I 7aEor 9eneral of the Confederate $rmy 31+,1?1+,-4 Walter L. Jeirn 3$.B. 1+*+4 K 7em!er of the 7ississi""i 0ecession Con/ention 31+,14 Ro!ert Crai( Jent 3$.B. 1+*B4 K 7em!er of the Lir(inia 0ecession Con/ention 31+,14 ames ay $rcher 3$.B. 1+D-4 K Bri(adier 9eneral of the Confederate $rmy 31+,A?1+,*4 Bradley 'yler ohnson 3$.B. 1+*B4 K Bri(adier 9eneral of the Confederate $rmy 31+,*?1+,-4 $llen 'homas 3$.B. 1+->4 K Bri(adier 9eneral of the Confederate $rmy 31+,D?1+,-4 Williams 0te/enson Walker 3$.B. 1+-14 K Bri(adier 9eneral of the Confederate $rmy 31+,A?1+,-4 8ar/ard <ni/ersity: Ro!ert W. Barn.ell 3B.$. 1+A14 K Confederate 0enator 30outh Carolina, 1+,1?1+,-4I 0i(ner of the Confederate ConstitutionI Si4ner of t"e Sout" 'arolina Or!inance of Secession -()*</ William %ord )e0aussure 3B.$. 1+1>4 K Si4ner of t"e Sout" 'arolina Or!inance of Secession -()*</ BenEamin %aneuil )unkin 3B.$. 1+114 K Si4ner of t"e Sout" 'arolina Or!inance of Secession -()*</ ames )andrid(e 8aly!urton 3B.$. 1+AD4 K Confederate ud(e for the )istrict of Lir(inia 31+,1?1+,-4 Bro.n <ni/ersity: Pendleton 7urrah 3$.B. 1+*+4 K 9o/ernor of 'e6as 31+,D?1+,-4 Ro!ert BenEamin 8ilton 3$.B. 1+*D4 K 7em!er of the Confederate Con(ress 3%lorida, 1+,A?1+,-4 ulian 8artrid(e 3$.B. 1+*B4 K 7em!er of the Confederate Con(ress 39eor(ia, 1+,A?1+,-4 ames P. Boyce 3$.B. 1+*:4 K President of the 0outhern Ba"tist 'heolo(ical 0eminary 31+:D?1+++4I 7em!er of the 0outh Carolina 0tate $ssem!ly 31+,A?1+,D, 1+,*?1+,-4 Colum!ia <ni/ersity: ohn 0lidell 3B.$. 1+1>4 K <.0. 0enator from Louisiana 31+-D?1+,14I Confederate 5n/oy to %rance 31+,1?1+,-4

=/y Lea(ue Re!els, from left to ri(ht: Ro!ert W. Barn.ell 38ar/ard4, ames Chesnut r. 3Princeton4, Richard 'aylor 3@ale4, ohn 0lidell 3Colum!ia4, Pendleton 7urrah 3Bro.n4

+?*T/ CAR?L;=A > ;0< L9AK*9 +T*D9=T+
Princeton <ni/ersity ohn 'aylor 3$.B. 1:B>4 K 9o/ernor of 0outh Carolina 31+A,?1+A+4I <.0. 0enator 30outh Carolina, 1+1>?1+1,4I <.0. Con(ressman 31+>:? 1+1>, 1+1:?1+A14I 7em!er of the 0outh Carolina 0enate 31+1+?1+A,4 Patrick ;o!le 3$.B. 1+>,4 K 9o/ernor of 0outh Carolina 31+D+?1+*>4I Lieutenant 9o/ernor of 0outh Carolina 31+D>?1+DA4I 7em!er of the 0outh Carolina $ssem!ly 31+1*?1+A*, 1+DA?1+D,4I 7em!er of 0outh Carolina 0enate 31+D,?1+D+4 Whitemarsh BenEamin 0ea!rook 3$.B. 1+1A4 K 9o/ernor of 0outh Carolina 31+*+?1+->4I Lieutenant 9o/ernor of 0outh Carolina 31+D*?1+D,4I 7em!er of 0outh Carolina $ssem!ly 31+1*?1+AB4I 7em!er of 0outh Carolina 0enate 31+A,?1+D*4 )aniel 5lliott 8u(er 3$.B. 1:B+4 K <.0. 0enator 30outh Carolina, 1+*D?1+*-4I ud(e of the 0u"reme Court of 0outh Carolina 31+1B?1+A+4I 7em!er of the 0outh Carolina $ssem!ly 31+>*?1+>B, 1+1+?1+1B, 1+D>?1+DA4 ames Chesnut r. 3$.B. 1+D-4 K <.0. 0enator 3)emocrat?0outh Carolina, 1+-+?1+,>4I 7em!er of 0outh Carolina 0enate 31+-A?1+-+4I 7em!er of 0outh Carolina $ssem!ly 31+*>?1+*,, 1+->?1+-A4 ohn 7iddleton 3$.B. 1+>A4 K 7em!er of the 0outh Carolina $ssem!ly 31+A-?1+A,4 ohn =. 7iddleton 3$.B. 1+1B4 K 7em!er of 0outh Carolina $ssem!ly 31+DB?1+-:4I 7em!er of 0outh Carolina 0enate 31+-:?1+-+4 William P. %inley 3$.B. 1+A>4 K 7em!er of the 0outh Carolina $ssem!ly 31+DA?1+D,4I President of Charleston Colle(e 31+*-?1+-:4 $le6ander 7a#yck 3$.B. 1+A>4 K 7em!er of the 0outh Carolina 0enate 31+*+?1+,-4 ohn $/ery Ben!ury 3$.B. 1+*:4 K 7em!er of the 0outh Carolina $ssem!ly 31+-B?1+,14 8ar/ard <ni/ersity: Ro!ert Wood.ard Barn.ell 3B.$. 1+A14 K <.0. Con(ressman 3)emocrat?0outh Carolina, 1+AB?1+DD4I President of the <ni/ersity of 0outh Carolina 31+D-?1+*14I <.0. 0enator 3)emocrat?0outh Carolina, 1+->4 'homas R. 7itchell 3B.$. 1+>A4 K <.0. Con(ressman 3Re"u!licanG acksonian?0outh Carolina, 1+A1?1+AD, 1+A-?1+AB, 1+D1?1+DD4 William %ord )e 0aussure 3B.$. 1+1>4 K <.0. 0enator 3)emocrat?0outh Carolina, 1+-A?1+-D4 BenEamin %aneuil )unkin 3B.$. 1+114 K 0i(ner of the 0outh Carolina Ordinance of 0ecession 31+,>4 Bro.n <ni/ersity: onathan 7a6cy 3$.B. 1:+:4 K President of Bro.n <ni/ersity 31:BA?1+>A4I President of <ni/ersity of 0outh Carolina 31+>*?1+A>4 ames 5r/in 3$.B. 1:B:4 K <.0. Con(ressman 3Re"u!lican?0outh Carolina, 1+1:?1+A14I 0outh Carolina 0tate 0enator 31+A,?1+AB4 $ndre. Pickens 3$.B. 1+>14 K 9o/ernor of 0outh Carolina 31+1,?1+1+4 as"er $dams 3$.B. 1+1-4 K President of the Colle(e of Charleston M0outh CarolinaN 31+A*?1+A,, 1+A+?1+D,4 ames P. Boyce 3$.B. 1+*:4 K President of the 0outhern Ba"tist 'heolo(ical 0eminary 31+:D?1+++4I 7em!er of the 0outh Carolina 0tate $ssem!ly 31+,A?1+,D, 1+,*?1+,-4 @ale <ni/ersity: $!raham ;ott 3B.$. 1:+:4 K <.0. Con(ressman 3%?0outh Carolina, 1:BB?1+>14 0te"hen 5lliott 3B.$. 1:B14 K inau(ural President of the Bank of the 0tate of 0outh Carolina 31+1A?1+D>4 ohn C. Calhoun 3B.$. 1+>*4 K <.0. Con(ressman 3)R?0outh Carolina, 1+11?1+1:4I 0ecretary of War 31+1:?1+A-4I <.0. 0enator 3)?0outh Carolina, 1+DA?1+*D, 1+*-?1+->4I Lice President of the <.0. 31+A-?1+DA4I 0ecretary of 0tate 31+**?1+*-4 ohn 7yers %elder 3B.$. 1+>*4 K <.0. Con(ressman 3)?0outh Carolina, 1+D1?1+D-4I 0outh Carolina 0tate 0enator 31+1,?1+A>, 1+*>?1+-14 Christo"her 5. 9adsden 3B.$. 1+>*4 K Protestant 5"isco"al Bisho" of 0outh Carolina 31+*>?1+-D4 $u(ustus Bald.in Lon(street 3B.$. 1+1D4 K President of <ni/. of 7ississi""i 31+*B?1+-,4I President of <ni/. of 0outh Carolina 31+-:?1+,14 =saac 5d.ard 8olmes 3B.$. 1+1-4 K 7em!er of the 0outh Carolina $ssem!ly 31+A,?1+AB, 1+DA?1+DD4I <.0. Con(ressman 3)emocrat?0outh Carolina, 1+DB?1+-14 ames 8o"kins $dams 3B.$. 1+D14 K 9o/ernor of 0outh Carolina 31+-*?1+-,4I 0outh Carolina 0tate 0enator 31+->?1+-D4

Left to ri(ht: ames Chesnut r., ohn C. Calhoun, and Ro!ert W. Barn.ell

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