This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
Part 2: Paris Peace Conference of 1919 & T e !sta"#is ment of a $e% Wor#d Order
By William P. Litynski
Paris Peace Conference of 1919
Edward M. House (standing, far left) appears with mem ers of the !ommission on League of "ations in #pril $%$%. &eated, left to right' (apanese #m assador to )reat Britain &utemi !hinda, (apanese diplomat "o uaki Makino, Leon Bourgeois (*ran+e), ,o ert !e+il (Mem er of British Parliament and mem er of the Milner )roup), -ittorio .rlando (Prime Minister of /taly), Epita+io Pessoa (later President of Bra0il)1 Eleftherios -eni0elos (Prime Minister of )ree+e). &tanding, left to right' !onstantine 2iamandy (,umania), 3!olonel4 Edward M. House, ,oman 2mowski (Poland), Milenko ,. -esnit+h (&er ia), )eneral (an !hristian &muts (future Prime Minister of &outh #fri+a), Woodrow Wilson (President of the 5nited &tates), 6aral 6ramar (!0e+hoslo7akia), Paul Hymans (*oreign Minister of Belgium), unidentified, !hinese diplomat 2r. -.6. Wellington 6oo, (aime Batalha8,eis (Portugal), -ittorio &+ialo9a (*oreign Minister of /taly), and unidentified. (Photo' Manus+ripts : #r+hi7es, ;ale 5ni7ersity)
Decisions made at the Paris Peace Conference or recognized before the Paris Peace Conference
• • • • • • • • • Esta lishment of the League of "ations Esta lishment of the ,oyal /nstitute of /nternational #ffairs Esta lishment of the !oun+il on *oreign ,elations /ndependen+e of Poland, Hungary, *inland, Lithuania, Estonia, and Lat7ia !reation of !0e+hoslo7akia and ;ugosla7ia )erman Empire, ,ussian Empire, and #ustro8Hungarian Empire Partition and territorial o++upation (and later +ollapse) of the .ttoman Empire (<reaty of &e7res) !reation of Le anon, &yria, /ra=, and Palestine ( oth /srael and (ordan) Massi7e reparations payment against )ermany (Weimar ,epu li+)
#meri+an (ewish finan+ier Bernard Baru+h (far right) appears with (from left to right) Louis Lou+heur (*ren+h diplomat), Mem er of Parliament Winston !hur+hill (standing), and British Prime Minister 2a7id Lloyd )eorge at the Paris Pea+e !onferen+e in $%$%. 2a7id Lloyd )eorge was the Prime Minister of )reat Britain from 2e+em er >, $%$? to .+to er @@, $%@@.
Mem ers of 3<he /n=uiry4 appear together at the Paris Pea+e !onferen+e in $%$%. &eated, from left to right' !harles Homer Haskins, /saiah Bowman, &idney Me0es, (ames Brown &+ott, and 2a7id Hunter Miller. &tanding, from left to right' !harles &eymour, ,o ert H. Lord, William L. Westermann, Mark (efferson, Edward M. House, )eorge Louis Beer, 2ouglas W. (ohnson, !li7e 2ay, William Edward Lunt, (ames <. &hotwell, and #llyn #. ;oung. (Photo' Manus+ripts : #r+hi7es, ;ale 5ni7ersity Li rary) E7eryone in this photo eA+ept for Westermann, (efferson, Beer, Lunt, and &hotwell were mem ers of the !oun+il on *oreign ,elations in $%@@. (ames <. &hotwell was a mem er of the !oun+il on *oreign ,elations. Edward M. House was the head of 3<he /n=uiry4 and the founder of the !oun+il on *oreign ,elations. !harles Homer Haskins, (ames Brown &+ott, !harles &eymour, ,o ert H. Lord, Edward M. House, 2ouglas W. (ohnson, !li7e 2ay, and (ames <. &hotwell were mem ers of the #meri+an /nstitute of /nternational #ffairs.
and #llyn #. &tanding. House was the founder of the !oun+il on *oreign . from left to right' !harles Homer Haskins. from left to right' !harles &eymour. W. Edward M. Beer. &idney Me0es. an internationalist organi0ation lo+ated in "ew . L. (ames <.). Westermann.elations (!*. and Lunt were mem ers of the !oun+il on *oreign . House. E7eryone in that photo eA+ept for Westermann. . 2ouglas W. &eated. Lord. Mark (efferson. (ames Brown &+ott. !li7e 2ay. (ohnson. .elations. and 2a7id Hunter Miller. )eorge Louis Beer. Edward M. . &hotwell.ork !ity. Lunt.oung. (efferson.o ert H. E.*ront page photo' Mem ers of the /n=uiry appear together at the Paris Pea+e !onferen+e in $%$%. W. /saiah Bowman.
/& PE#!E !. G... D. (. )atterson 0r. (unt – Territorial S#ecialist on Italy +."*E.ecutive 3ffice +.on – Territorial S#ecialist on Inner $sia/ Et nogra# y S#ecialist Douglas +. 0a!es Brown Scott – Tec nical $dviser David Hunter Miller – Tec nical $dviser 0ose# ". *rary4 &eference (ouis H. (ord – Territorial S#ecialist on &ussia and )oland " arles Ho!er Haskins – Territorial S#ecialist on *rance%Belgiu!%Sc leswig +. &ic ard ".MEMBE. ). +ester!ann – Territorial S#ecialist on +estern $sia George (ouis Beer – Territorial S#ecialist on $frica Stanley . . +illia!s – Territorial S#ecialist on *ar East and )acific (t. *ara'ee – Et nogra# y S#ecialist Ma2. -otestein – Territorial S#ecialist on Ger!any Dr. E. (. Horn'eck – Territorial S#ecialist on *ar East and )acific Mr. – E. Blank4 "artogra# y D. Moon4 &esearc )reston Slossen4 History 3. #< <HE P#. (o'eck4 "artogra# y $l'ert (y'yer4 History )arker T. S otwell – History S#ecialist/ (i'rary S#ecialist $llyn $. Stratton4 (aw4 "artogra# y . &oland B.erner4 $ustrian -ationalis! $r!in .ecutive 3fficer of t e E. Gray4 -ear East5"aucasus &o'ert 0. Tasker Bliss Sidney Mezes – Director of Division of Intelligence Isaia Bow!an – " ief of Territorial Intelligence " arles Sey!our – Territorial S#ecialist on $ustria%Hungary "live Day – Territorial S#ecialist on t e Balkans &o'ert H.& .E"!E /" $%$% Edward M. 0o nson – Boundary To#ogra# y S#ecialist 0a!es T. T.. Grew – Secretary and Su#ervising Director "a#t. (eonard $yres – Econo!ic and Statistics S#ecialist Mark 0efferson – Geogra# y and "artogra# y S#ecialist +illia! ". -elson – Territorial S#ecialist on England +. House Gen.* <HE /"B5/. 1oung – Econo!ic and Statistics S#ecialist "ol. Di. Bullitt – "urrent Intelligence Su!!aries S#ecialist "a#t.
T e 6SS George Washington )assenger (ist for Dece!'er 74 898: 2estination' Paris Pea+e !onferen+e .
*. 8>:%94 S otwell $t t e )aris )eace "onference?.uiry ##. (eonard $yres =$r!y Statistician?4 George "reel =#u'licity5censors i#? 3t er geogra# ers and cartogra# ers of t e In. Bra'eck +illia! Briese!eister4 "artogra# er Mary "arwood Eugene @an "leef4 &ainfall5te!#erature !a#s of (atin $!erica Stuart Davis -evin *enne!an4 Geology " arles .$. &our+e' Papers of Mark (efferson.4 (aw4 "artogra# y +ester!ann4 +.irsc George McBride4 $GS (i'rarian +. Taidor &ussell (. East Adriatic Interestingly4 a young 0. Bow!an also !et (awrence of $ra'ia and *eisal4 S erif of Mecca.4 History Slossen4 )reston4 History Stratton4 3.D.4 $ustrian -ationalis! (o'eck4 $r!in . Mat ews *rederick Morris4 "artogra# y Her!an -agel H.uiry not going to )aris included< " arles Besswerger 0o n +.4 *ar East 0efferson4 Mark4 " ief "artogra# er .gsu. Boundary topography.4 &ussia4 Inner $sia *rary4 D.4 Director Moon4 )arker T.4 -ear East5"aucasus Haskins4 " arles H. Eastern Mi+higan 5ni7ersity http'CCmonar+h.4 Econo!ics =Source< Gelfand4 T e In. $lso on 'oard were )resident and Mrs.G. 0o nson4 Cartographer.Dece!'er 74 898: T e 6SS George Washington #assenger list included t e In.4 *rance%Belgiu!%Sc leswig4 History Horn'eck4 Stanley .4 &ussia and )oland (unt4 +illia! E.4 "olonies4 $frica Blank4 +. &al# s Ellen " urc ill Se!#le4 -ear East4 $ustro%Hungarian 'order Everett .on4 &oland B. +iget -otes< =Source< Gelfand4 The Inquiry? $t )aris ot ers !e!'ers included< Douglas +..erner4 &o'ert 0. +ilson4 Sec..4 Italy (y'yer4 $l'ert4 History Mezes4 Sidney E.. +rig t was also in )aris at t is ti!e4 and dined wit AIsaia B Bow!an during t e )eace "onferenceC +rig t was later =89DE? ired 'y Bow!an as (i'rarian of t e $!erican Geogra# ical Society.(..uiry< Beer4 George (. (ansing4 Henry + ite ="o!!issioner?4 0a!es Scott4 "ol.4 Turkey5-ear East5+estern $sia 1oung4 $.4 &esearc Sey!our4 " arles4 $ustria%Hungary S otwell4 0a!es T..(.4 &eference Gray4 (ouis H.eduC9+ramptonCpoliti+sC .4 "artogra# y (ord4 &o'ert H.).4 "artogra# y Bow!an4 Isaia 4 " ief of Territorial Intelligence Day4 "live4 Balkans Di.
elations. 2a7is. . and Henry M. *rom left to right' British Prime Minister 2a7id Lloyd )eorge.o inson.Mem ers of the . and #meri+an President Woodrow Wilson meet at the Paris Pea+e !onferen+e in -ersailles. Benson. Whitney H. )en. &hepardson. Benson were mem ers of the !oun+il on *oreign .rlando. Prime Minister of *ran+e )eorges !lemen+eau.eparations !ommission appear together at the Paris Pea+e !onferen+e in $%$%. &eated from left to right' Her ert Hoo7er. Edward M. Bernard Baru+h. House. and -an+e M+!ormi+k. . Lamont. /talian Prime Minister of /taly -ittorio . &tanding from left to right' <homas W. "orman H. &. W. &. E7eryone in this photo eA+ept for Bernard Baru+h and W. <asker Bliss. )ordon #u+hin+loss.
and #meri+aDs President Woodrow Wilson.. (BettmannC!.B/&) Lea7ing the Hall of Mirrors at -ersailles after signing the Pea+e <reaty on (une @E. Woodrow Wilson.B/&) . Prime Minister of *ran+e )eorges !lemen+eau. $%$%.rlando. *ran+e. British Prime Minister 2a7id Lloyd )eorge. Prime Minister of *ran+e )eorges !lemen+eau.Heads of state appear at the Paris Pea+e !onferen+e of $%$% in -ersailles. and British Prime Minister 2a7id Lloyd )eorge tip their hats to the +heering +rowd.. &onnino. (BettmannC!. *rom left to right' /talyDs Prime Minister -ittorio .
.<his pi+ture was pu lished in Paris 1919: Six Months That Changed the World by Margaret MacMillan . eAa+tly fi7e years after the assassination of #ustrian #r+hduke *ran0 *erdinand in &ara9e7o. <he )erman delegation would sign the -ersailles <reaty on (une @F. $%$%.
form elligerents to neutrals. . <hirty8two +ountries. <he full Pea+e !onferen+e met only eight times. were in7ited to send delegates to Paris.<he seating plan at the Paris Pea+e !onferen+e in $%$%.
T ere were over 84EEE4EEE Ger!ans in )oland4 GGE4EEE in Hungary4 H48EE4EEE in "zec oslovakia4 a'out IEE4EEE in &o!ania4 GEE4EEE in 1ugoslavia4 and DGE4EEE in Italy. Since a considera'le #eriod was needed for t e &e#arations "o!!ission to discover t e value of t ese categories4 t e Ger!ans were re. Instead a co!#ro!ise4 originally suggested 'y t e $!erican 0o n *oster Dulles4 was ado#ted.J T e following clause4 $rticle DHD4 was concerned wit t e re#arations o'ligation4 listing ten categories of da!ages of w ic t e tent 4 concerned wit #ensions and inserted 'y General S!uts4 re#resented a lia'ility larger t an t e aggregate of t e #receding nine categories toget er. By it Ger!any acce#ted Ft e res#onsi'ility of Ger!any and er allies for causing all t e loss and da!age to w ic t e $llied and $ssociated Govern!ents and t eir nationals ave 'een su'2ected as a conse.ed in nu!'er and size of vessels4 w ile $ustria4 Hungary4 and Bulgaria were allowed no navy wort y of t e na!e. T e work of t at conference ad undou'tedly reduced t e nu!'ers of !inority #eo#les4 'ut t is ad only served to increase t e intensity of feeling of t e !inorities re!aining. T e efforts of t e $!ericans to esta'lis so!e rational 'asis for re#arations4 eit er 'y an engineering survey of t e actual da!age to 'e re#aired or an econo!ic survey of Ger!anyMs ca#acity to #ay re#arations4 were s unted aside4 largely 'ecause of *renc o'2ections. It was clearly understood t at t e disar!a!ent of t e defeated )owers was 'ut t e first ste# toward t e general disar!a!ent of t e victor nations as well. $ustria was una'le to #ay any re#arations 'ecause of t e weakened econo!ic condition of t at stu!# of t e Ha's'urg E!#ire. D:8 FT e re#arations #rovisions of t e treaties caused so!e of t e !ost violent argu!ents at t e )eace "onference and were a #rolific source of controversy for !ore t an a dozen years after t e conference ended.FT ese territorial dis#utes are of i!#ortance 'ecause t ey continued to lacerate relations i#s 'etween neig 'oring states until well into t e #eriod of +orld +ar II and even later.% day ulti!atu!4 w ic t reatened to occu#y t e &u r @alley. T ese training #rovisions were a !istake4 forced t roug 'y t e $nglo%$!ericans over t e vigorous #rotests of t e *renc . In t e case of t e Ger!ans t is connection was e.tended to cover t e !uc larger total of war costs4 were 'locked 'y t e Britis 4 w o would ave o'tained !uc less under da!ages t an under costs.#licitly !ade in t e treaty so t at it was necessary4 in order to kee# Ger!any legally disar!ed4 for t e ot er signers of t e treaty to work constantly toward general disar!a!ent after 8989 lest t e Ger!ans clai! t at t ey were no longer 'ound to re!ain disar!ed. In all of t e treaties4 certain wea#ons like tanks4 #oisonous gas4 air#lanes4 eavy artillery4 and wars i#s over a certain size4 as well as all international trade in ar!s4 were for'idden. D:8%D:H . Eac ar!y was restricted in size4 Ger!any to 8EE4EEE !en4 $ustria to HE4EEE4 Hungary to HG4EEE4 and Bulgaria to DE4EEE. By t is4 Ger!any was forced to ad!it an unli!ited4 t eoretical o'ligation to #ay 'ut was actually 'ound to #ay for only a li!ited list of ten categories of o'ligations.uence of t e war i!#osed u#on t e! 'y t e aggression of Ger!any and er allies. To #rotect t ese !inorities t e $llied and $ssociated )owers forced t e new states of central and eastern Euro#e to sign !inority treaties4 'y w ic t ese !inorities were granted a certain !ini!u! of cultural and #olitical rig ts. 3nly in May 89D8 was t e full re#arations o'ligation #resented to t e Ger!ans. 3n t is4 as in so !any issues w ere t e *renc were overruled 'y t e $nglo%$!ericans4 ti!e was to #rove t at t e *renc #osition was correct.J – Tragedy and Hope 'y "arroll Kuigley4 #. By #roving to t e *renc t at t e Ger!an ca#acity to #ay was4 in fact4 li!ited4 and t at t e *renc would get a !uc larger fraction of Ger!anyNs #ay!ents under Fda!agesJ t an under Fcosts4J t e $!ericans were a'le to cut down on t e Britis de!ands4 alt oug t e Sout $frican delegate4 General S!uts4 was a'le to get !ilitary #ensions inserted as one of t e categories for w ic Ger!any ad to #ay. T e re#arations clauses of t e ot er treaties were of little significance. $!ounting to 8HD t ousand !illion gold !arks =a'out HD. T e na!es of *iu!e4 T race4 Bessara'ia4 E#irus4 Transylvania4 Me!el4 @ilna4 Tesc en4 t e Saar4 Danzig4 and Macedonia were still ec oing as 'attle%cries of over eated nationalists twenty years after t e )eace "onference asse!'led at )aris. T e c ief Britis financial delegates4 (ords "unliffe and Su!ner4 were so astrono!ically unrealistic in t eir esti!ates of Ger!anyMs a'ility to #ay t at t ey were called t e F eavenly twins4J w ile !any younger !e!'ers of t e delegation led 'y 0o n Maynard =later (ord? .uantities of #ro#erty4 c iefly coal and ti!'er.J – Tragedy and Hope 'y "arroll Kuigley4 #. T e *renc were torn 'etween a desire to o'tain as large a fraction as #ossi'le of Ger!anyNs #ay!ents and a desire to #ile on Ger!any suc a crus ing 'urden of inde'tedness t at Ger!any would 'e ruined 'eyond t e #oint w ere it could t reaten *renc security again. T ere were a'out G4EEE4EEE + ite &ussians and 6krainians in )oland and a'out 848EE4EEE of t ese in &o!ania. T ese treaties were guaranteed 'y t e (eague of -ations4 'ut t ere was no #ower to enforce o'servation of t eir ter!s.eynes4 eit er saw i!#ortant econo!ic li!its on Ger!anyNs a'ility to #ay or felt t at a #olicy of fellows i# and fraternity s ould incline Britain toward a low esti!ate of Ger!anyNs o'ligations.uired to 'egin i!!ediate delivery to t e victors of large . T ere were 7GE4EEE Magyars in 1ugoslavia4 IGE4EEE in "zec oslovakia4 and a'out 84GEE4EEE in &o!ania.a!#le4 against )oland. Moreover4 t ese !en ad to 'e volunteers on twelve%year enlist!ents4 and all co!#ulsory !ilitary training4 general staffs4 or !o'ilization #lans were for'idden.J – Tragedy and Hope 'y "arroll Kuigley4 #.G 'illion dollars?4 t is 'ill was acce#ted 'y Ger!any under #ressure of a si. T e for!er ad!ission as gone down in istory as t e Fwar%guilt clauseJ =$rticle DH8 of t e treaty?. Bulgaria and Hungary #aid only s!all fractions of t eir o'ligations 'efore all re#arations were wi#ed out in t e financial de'acle of 89H8%89HD. T e $nglo%$!ericans regarded co!#ulsory !ilitary training as L!ilitaristicL/ t e *renc considered it t e natural conco!itant of universal !an ood suffrage and ad no o'2ections to its use in Ger!any4 since it would #rovide only a large nu!'er of #oorly trained !en/ t ey did4 owever4 o'2ect to t e twelve%year enlist!ent favored 'y t e Britis 4 since t is would #rovide Ger!any wit a large nu!'er of ig ly trained !en w o could 'e used as officers in any revived Ger!an $r!y. *eeling was so ig on t is issue t at it #roved i!#ossi'le to set an e. T e !ost t at could 'e done was to issue a #u'lic re#ri!and against t e offending govern!ent4 as was done4 !ore t an once4 for e. D:E%D:8 FT e disar!a!ent #rovisions of t e #eace treaties were !uc easier to draw u# t an to enforce. $t t e sa!e ti!e4 $!erican efforts to restrict re#arations to war da!ages4 and not allow t e! to 'e e. T e nu!'ers of t ese re!ained large. Ger!any was allowed a s!all navy fi.act figure for Ger!anyNs re#arations in t e treaty itself. T e Britis delegation was s ar#ly divided.
House and his entourage pose for a group photo en route to Europe on the && .uite clear t at t e defeated )owers could 'e !ade to fulfill t e #rovisions of t ese treaties only if t e coalition w ic ad won t e war were to continue to work as a unit. Left to right' 2udley *ield Malone.ale 5ni7ersity Li rary) . $s a conse. conse.J – Tragedy and Hope 'y "arroll Kuigley4 #.uences and i!#lications. T e Ger!an -avy was at t e 'otto! of Sca#a *low4 scuttled 'y t e Ger!ans t e!selves/ t e Ger!an !erc ant fleet was scattered4 ca#tured4 and destroyed/ t e Ger!an colonial rivalry was ended and its areas occu#ied/ t e Ger!an co!!ercial rivalry was cri##led 'y t e loss of its #atents and industrial tec ni.ce#t for t e ig ly inade.ues4 t e destruction of all its co!!ercial outlets and 'anking connections t roug out t e world4 and t e loss of its ra#idly growing #rewar !arkets. Britain and *rance saw t e world fro! #oints of view so different t at it was al!ost i!#ossi'le to 'elieve t at t ey were looking at t e sa!e world.otterdam in $%$?. "ew . !ar7er.orkCManus+ripts : #r+hi7es. T is did not occur.uence of t e war4 even 'efore t e Treaty of @ersailles was signed4 Britain ad o'tained all er c ief a!'itions in res#ect to Ger!any. Britain4 after 898:4 felt secure4 w ile *rance felt co!#letely insecure in t e face of Ger!any.FT e treaties !ade at )aris ad no enforce!ent #rovisions wort y of t e na!e e. &idney Edward Me0es. Italy was alienated 'y t e failure of t e treaty to satisfy er a!'itions in t e Mediterranean and $frica. Britain ad o'tained t ese ai!s 'y Dece!'er 898: and needed no treaty to retain t e!. !lifford ". Edward Mandell House. If t e $nglo% *renc Entente ad 'een !aintained4 t e treaties could ave 'een enforced wit out eit er t e 6nited States or Italy.uate & ineland clauses w ic we ave already !entioned. and !ary <. )rayson. . It was not !aintained. But t ese were only details. T e reason for t is was si!#le4 alt oug it ad !any co!#le. (Photo' 5nderwood : 5nderwood. D:H Edward M. It is . T e 6nited States left t e coalition as a result of t e &e#u'lican victory over +ilson in t e congressional elections of 898: and t e #residential election of 89DE.
Me!'ers of t e House Mission in -ove!'er%Dece!'er 898I4 led 'y F"olonelJ Edward Mandell House .
M T ey la'oured alone4 'e ind closed doors. 6nder t e #ressure of #u'lic o#inion4 t eir !ood was #itiless. It was al!ost as long as is second4 and was even stronger in tone. Most citizen soldiers w o survived would s ed t eir !ilitary titles as soon as t ey re%entered civilian life.N T is would 'e $!ericaMs entry into Euro#e.J – 1 1!" War and #eace 'y Gregor Dallas4 #. Bot !en were very !oved. But a'ove all it ad to s ow t e world t at t e $!erican initiative t at 0anuary re#resented a co!#lete 'reak wit t e #ast. T e Secretary of t e Interior wanted negotiations #ost#oned until Ger!an troo#s ad 'een #us ed across t e & ine. His talents were a##reciated on t e two continents. T at *riday4 House !anaged only to #resent t e !aterials gat ered/ t e drafting of t e s#eec 'egan t e ne.as. T e ar!istice would ave Mto !ake a renewal of ostilities on t e #art of Ger!any i!#ossi'leM. T ree weeks after receiving Ger!anyMs first note4 e at last called is "a'inet. T e )ost!aster General si!#ly de!anded unconditional surrender.as4 w o saw everyt ing4 understood everyt ing and4 acting on is own sense4 knew ow to 'e eard and res#ected 'y every'odyM.t !orning.? 6nder HouseMs ai!ia'le c air!ans i#4 t is grou# of 8GE learned !en ad 'een !eeting4 in great secrecy4 wit in t e #re!ises of t e $!erican Geogra# ical Society of -ew 1ork since Se#te!'er. Germany would also have to conform better to Wilson’s vision of the new world order: if the United States 'must deal with the military masters and the monarchical autocrats of Germany now it must demand not !eace ne"otiations but surrender'# $hus Wilson sou"ht military ca!itulation and a transformation of Germany’s institutions# Wilson wanted a revolution in Germany# His note also outlined t e course to follow to end t e ostilities.J – 1 1!" War and #eace 'y Gregor Dallas4 #. T us4 w ile t e 'asis of #eace negotiations was to 'e laid 'y t e $!ericans4 t e i!!ediate !ilitary ter!s of t e ar!istice were going to 'e set4 as a tec nical #reli!inary4 'y $llied !ilitary e. +ilson wanted House to el# i! draft a s#eec on $!ericaMs war ai!s w ic would answer t e &ussians4 rally t e $llies and drive a wedge 'etween t e rulers and t e ruled of Ger!any. House4 on t e ot er and4 was a civilian w o delig ted in !ilitary title. House told +ilson4 M1ou will eit er 'e on t e crest of t e wave after itMs delivered or re#osing #eacefully in t e de#t s. +ilson said t at t e force of #u'lic o#inion !ig t take i! to a Mcyclone cellarM for forty%eig t ours. D>%DI F-ow t e surrender docu!ent ad to 'e drafted.aiserMs Ger!any % t ey see!ed to i! e. "le!enceau would regard i! as a su#er%civilized !an out of t e wastes of Te. +ilson i!self ty#ed u# t e final version and read it aloud to House on t e Sunday afternoon. House4 at fifty%nine4 'elonged to t e select clu' of Mt ose w o ave t e #ower to end itM. So!e ow +ilson i!agined t ere would 'e no conflict 'etween t e two. T e Secretary of t e Treasury said it was u# to t e !ilitary to set t e ter!s.#erts. T e young Englis di#lo!at Harold -icolson called i! Man affa'le $t enaM.an walked into t e + ite House in +as ington D".ui##ed wit infor!ation and reco!!endations fro! a 'ody of sc olarly advisers known as MT e In. House ad co!e to +as ington e. He regarded is Secretary of State4 &o'ert (ansing4 as an idiot and went to t e foreign di#lo!ats for advice. +ilsonMs instructions to t e! ad 'een to #re#are data for a Mdi#lo!atic offensiveM and for an eventual #eace conference structured in accordance wit t e new ideas. $ #olitical deadlock of nearly four years see!ed to 'e 'reaking. :9 . House4 w o served a !ost unusual #resident4 'elieved e ad t e w erewit al to give it.%#oint #rogra!!e for a #eace wit out anne.F3n *riday4 7 0anuary 898:4 a s ort grey% aired Te. M+e actually got down to work at alf%#ast ten4M House recorded in an i!#ecca'ly ke#t diary4 Mand finis ed re!aking t e !a# of t e world4 as we would ave it4 at alf%#ast twelve oMclock. In t e first #lace4 e was seeking a way of kee#ing t e new Bols evik regi!e in &ussia in t e +estern alliance. T e $griculture Secretary didnMt t ink Ger!anyMs constitutional refor!s were sincere. T e civilian aut orities in Berlin ad answered t e &ussians wit a M" rist!as DeclarationM t at a##eared to acce#t t e Bols evik ter!s. T ere was so!e dou't t at Ger!anyMs Su#re!e "o!!and % t e Oberste Heeresleitung =3H(? would go along wit t is4 'ut t e Eastern and "entral Euro#ean initiatives de!anded an i!!ediate res#onse fro! t e +est. He was addressed as M"olonelM4 t oug e ad never 'een a soldier and ad seen no 'attle/ t e onour ad 'een 'estowed on i! in Houston for is sage advice to four successive governors of Te. +it out House 'y is side4 +ilson was !ore isolated t an ever. T e note was forwarded to Berlin on DH 3cto'er A898:B.ually evil. Second4 e o#ed t at is countryMs unrivalled econo!ic #ower would #rovide t e !eans of 'ringing t e war to a close.uiryM. So t e res#onse ad to 'e radical. He was i!self no ordinary !an. =$ strange voca'ulary would 'e one of t e !arks of t e -ew Di#lo!acy. T e Bols eviks4 on signing a ceasefire wit t e "entral )owers =Ger!any and $ustria%Hungary? on 8G Dece!'er4 ad #resented a si. So4 incredi'ly4 +ilson wrote is t ird note to Ger!any alone. Two t ings were on is !ind. He was voted to no office4 e eld no #ost/ 'ut an in erited fortune ad given i! t e #ower of influence4 and a keen #olitical !ind did t e rest. $ll is corres#ondence wit Ger!any would 'e #assed on to t e $llied govern!ents. House was a!ong t ose w o 'elieved4 like a soldier on t e front4 t at t e war ad created a totally novel situation4 an international configuration of forces t at ad no #recedent in istory. + en so!e'ody re!arked t at t e #u'lis ing of t e #eace notes wit out t e consent of t e $llies !ig t see! to t e! coercion4 +ilson re#lied t at t ey needed coercion. Edward M. In a conversation wit 0usserand e weig ed u# t e #ros and cons of a MBols evistM Ger!any over t e . If t ey were ready to negotiate #eace on t e 'asis of +ilsonian #rinci#les4 t en t eir !ilitary advisers would 'e asked to su'!it ter!s for an ar!istice t at would assure t eir #eo#le Munrestricted #ower to safeguard and enforce t e details of t e #eaceM. T ere was a lot of talk a'out #eace in t e first week of 0anuary 898:. +oodrow +ilson4 twenty%eig t )resident of t e 6nited States4 s#oke of i! as is M#rivy counsellorM4 and it was in t at ca#acity t at e ad 'een called to t e + ite House.ations or inde!nities/ it could a##eal to an $!erican #resident w o4 'efore going to war wit Ger!any t e #revious $#ril4 ad called for M#eace wit out victoryM.
6.S. )resident +oodrow +ilsonNs letter on 3cto'er 874 898:
Edward M. House attempted to ring the 5nited &tates of #meri+a into the League of "ations. Edward M. House and )eneral <asker Bliss would 9oin the !oun+il on *oreign ,elations. British Prime Minister 2a7id Lloyd )eorge would 9oin the ,oyal /nstitute of /nternational #ffairs.
Bernard Baru+h, "orman H. 2a7is, -an+e M+!ormi+k, and Her ert Hoo7er stand together in their top hats and formal suits. E7eryone eA+ept for Baru+h would 9oin the !oun+il on *oreign ,elations.
Edward M. House, &e+retary of &tate ,o ert Lansing, Woodrow Wilson, Henry White, and 5.&. #rmy )eneral <asker Bliss prepare for a meeting at the Paris Pea+e !onferen+e. House and Bliss were mem ers of the !oun+il on *oreign ,elations. (Photo' "ational #r+hi7es and ,e+ords #dministration)
House (left) stands neAt to Prime Minister of *ran+e )eorges !lemen+eau (+enter) in Paris shortly after the end of World War /.ale 5ni7ersity Li rary) <he #meri+an !ommission to "egotiation Pea+e .Edward M. <he man on the right is &tephen Bonsal. (Photo' Manus+ripts : #r+hi7es. .
&eated from left to right' 3!olonel4 Edward M. Henry White.o ert Lansing. #llen 2ulles (later a !/# 2ire+tor) is seen standing in the a+k row on the left side. <asker H. President Woodrow Wilson.ale 5ni7ersity) is seen standing in the rear near the +enter. &e+retary of &tate . Bliss. Bernard Baru+h is seen standing in the se+ond row. 5. also wearing a dark mousta+he. .&. wearing a dark mousta+he. 5. ehind Woodrow WilsonDs right shoulder. !harles &eymour (later President of .&. House. )en.# group portrait of mem ers of the #meri+an !ommission to "egotiation Pea+e.
*ran+e on (une @F. House lea7e -ersailles Pala+e near Paris.3!olonel4 Edward M. House and his wife Mrs. . *ashion for men and women +hanged +onsidera ly after World War /1 women egan wearing dresses with hem lines a o7e their ankles and slee7eless dresses. (Photo' Manus+ripts : #r+hi7es.ale 5ni7ersity) . $%$% after the signing of the pea+e with )ermany.
)resident +oodrow +ilsonNs advisor? and )ri!e Minister of *rance Georges "le!enceau are seated toward t e window in t e center.S.T e signing of t e #eace treaty at t e )alace of @ersailles on 0une D:4 8989 =) oto< -ational $rc ives? T e Signing of t e Treaty of @ersailles on 0une D:4 8989. "olonel Edward M. =) oto< 6llstein Bilderdienst4 Berlin? . House =6.
House.ca5glo'al85glossaryP#o#.T e +orld +ar I Institutions< (eague of -ations4 T e &oyal Institute of International $ffairs O "ouncil on *oreign &elations The opening session of the League of Nations was held in Geneva. Switzerland on November 15. (Photo: tt#<55www. The United States of America was not a member of the League of Nations. 1920. Congress voted against America’s participation in the League of Nations following World War I.S. The League of Nations was the creation of President Woodrow Wilson and his advisor “Colonel” Edward M.glo'alautono!y.EEH7? .2s#QidR3&. members of U.
J It was founded 'y t e Grou#4 as 'een consistently controlled 'y t e Grou#4 and to t is day is t e Milner Grou# in its widest as#ect. FTHE &31$( I-STIT6TE 3* I-TE&-$TI3-$( $**$I&S =&II$? is not ing 'ut t e Milner Grou# Fwrit large. In !ore recent years4 owever4 t e fact t at "urtis was t e real founder of t e Institute as 'een #u'licly stated 'y !e!'ers of t e Institute and 'y t e Institute itself on !any occasions4 and never denied. 3ne e. (ionel "urtis during t e )eace "onference of )aris in 89894 t ose associated wit i! in laying t e foundations were a grou# of co!#aratively young !en and wo!en.T e " at a! House in (ondon4 t e official ead. 8:D . T e real founder of t e Institute was (ionel "urtis4 alt oug t is fact was concealed for !any years and e was #resented to t e #u'lic as !erely one a!ong a nu!'er of founders.uarters of T e &oyal Institute of International $ffairs. $ll t ree of t ese organizations were for!ed 'y t e sa!e s!all grou# of #ersons4 all t ree received t eir initial financial 'acking fro! Sir $'e Bailey4 and all t ree used t e sa!e !et ods for working out and #ro#agating t eir ideas =t e so%called &ound Ta'le !et od of discussion grou#s #lus a 2ournal?. T is si!ilarity is not an accident. In t e $nnual &e#ort of t e Institute for 897D%897H we read t e following sentence< F+ en t e Institute was founded t roug t e ins#iration of Mr. T e new organization was intended to 'e a wider as#ect of t e Milner Grou#4 t e #lan 'eing to influence t e leaders of t oug t t roug The $ound Table and to influence a wider grou# t roug t e &II$.a!#le will suffice.J – "arroll Kuigley4 The Anglo%A&erican Establish&ent4 #. It is t e legiti!ate c ild of t e &ound Ta'le organization4 2ust as t e latter was t e legiti!ate c ild of t e F"loser 6nionJ !ove!ent organized in Sout $frica in 89EI.
3nce again t e task was entrusted to (ionel "urtis w o esta'lis ed4 in England and eac do!inion4 a front organization to t e e.isting su'!erged &ound Ta'le Grou#.elations. F$t t e end of t e war of 89874 it 'eca!e clear t at t e organization of t is syste! ad to 'e greatly e. T e "ouncil of t e &II$ =w ic 4 'y "urtisNs energy ca!e to 'e oused in " at a! House4 across St.ork !ity. is lo+ated on the southwest +orner of Park #7enue and ?Fth &treet in midtown Manhattan orough in "ew .#ertsL w ic ad 'een recruited 'y t e Milner grou#. $%@$. T is front organization4 called t e &oyal Institute of International $ffairs4 ad as its nucleus in eac area t e e.J – "arroll Kuigley4 Tragedy and Hope4 #.uare fro! t e $stors4 and was soon known 'y t e na!e of t is ead. In -ew 1ork it was known as t e "ouncil on *oreign &elations4 and was a front for 0.#erts4J including (a!ont and Beer4 w o ad gone to t e )aris )eace "onference and t ere 'eca!e close friends wit t e si!ilar grou# of Englis Le.uarters? and t e 'oard of t e "ouncil on *oreign &elations ave carried ever since t e !arks of t eir origin.tended.isting local &ound Ta'le Grou#. 6ntil 89>E t e council at " at a! House was do!inated 'y t e dwindling grou# of MilnerMs associates4 w ile t e #aid staff !e!'ers were largely t e agents of (ionel "urtis. head=uarters of the !oun+il on *oreign . <he !oun+il on *oreign .elations was in+orporated on (uly @%. Morgan and "o!#any in association wit t e very s!all $!erican &ound Ta'le Grou#. T e $!erican organizers were do!inated 'y t e large nu!'er of Morgan Fe. 9G8%9GD . 0a!esMs S. In fact4 t e original #lans for t e &oyal Institute of International $ffairs and t e "ouncil on *oreign &elations were drawn u# at )aris.<he Harold Pratt House. T e &ound Ta'le for years =until 89>8? was edited fro! t e 'ack door of " at a! House grounds in 3r!ond 1ard4 and its tele# one ca!e t roug t e " at a! House switc 'oard. ). one lo+k west of the ?F th &treet and Hunter !ollege su way station.
epu li+ outside the .Armistice and Revolution in Germany Declaration of the German Republic: # +rowd gathers outside the . $%$F. )erman delegates in *ran+e are es+orted to the Western front in *ran+e to sign the armisti+e on "o7em er $$.ei+hstag on "o7em er %. Er0 erger was assassinated in )ermany on #ugust @?. $%@$.ei+hstag in Berlin as )erman statesman Philipp &+heidemann pro+laims the )erman . $%$F and for+es the a di+ation of the 6aiser Wilhelm //. Matthias Er0 erger (+enter) ser7ed as the )erman Minister of *inan+e from $%$% to $%@E. .
ile on -ove!'er 8E4 898:4 t e day after t e announce!ent of is a'dication. During an e.aiser +il el! II of Ger!any =fourt fro! left? crosses t e Dutc 'order and goes into e. T e c ancellor i!self4 *oreign Minister +il el! Solf4 and Kuarter!aster General +il el! Groener =Eric (udendorffNs successor in t e Su#re!e $r!y "o!!and? also urged +il el! to ste# down. In late 3cto'er 898:4 +il el! defiantly wit drew to t e ar!yNs !ain ead.J *aced wit a !ass revolutionary !ove!ent and an ulti!atu! 'y *riedric E'ert4 Ma.cf!Qi!agePidRHIHI? . T e # otogra# s ows +il el! II and is entourage waiting for t e royal train at t e station in t e Dutc 'order town of Ei2sden =# otogra# ed 'y an unknown Dutc student?.t !orning. von Baden – de!anded +il el!Ns a'dication. =Source< tt#<55ger!an istorydocs. Instead4 e indulged in delusions< e t oug t of dying a eroNs deat w ile leading is troo#s into 'attle or of giving u# t e title of E!#eror and continuing is reign as .uisite for t e sus#ension of ostilities. von Baden took t e li'erty of announcing t e .g i%dc. Internally4 t e Social De!ocrats – w o were now #art of t e #arlia!entary govern!ent under &eic " ancellor Ma. +il el! II was forced to go into e.ile in t e -et erlands t e ne..org5su'Pi!age.c ange of notes 'etween Ger!any and t e 6nited States on t e su'2ect of a ceasefire4 it 'eca!e clear t at t e $llies regarded t e a'dication of +il el! II as a #rere.uarters in S#a4 Belgiu!/ e refused to acce#t t e realities of t e situation until t e 'itter end.ing of )russia Fonly.aiserNs a'dication on -ove!'er 94 898:.
Ma# of t e +estern *ront in 898:4 including t e 3ccu#ation Sones and designated routes of Ger!an wit drawal .
Si!ultaneously4 Ger!any tried to wear down er +estern foes 'y a #olicy of attrition in t e trenc es and to force Britain out of t e war 'y a retaliatory su'!arine 'lockade directed at Britis s i##ing. T e su'!arine attack4 as a new !et od of naval warfare4 was a##lied wit esitation and ineffectiveness until 898I. To weaken Ger!any t e Entente )owers 'egan a 'lockade of t e "entral )owers4 controlling t e sea directly4 in s#ite of t e indecisive Ger!an naval c allenge at 0utland in 898>4 and li!iting t e i!#orts of neutrals near Ger!any4 like t e -et erlands. $ny effort to 'reak in on Ger!any fro! so!e ot er front was regarded as futile4 and was !ade difficult 'y t e continuing Ger!an #ressure in *rance.#losives. 3n t e o!e front every effort was !ade to control econo!ic life so t at all goods would 'e used in t e !ost effective fas ion #ossi'le and so t at food4 leat er4 and ot er necessities would 'e distri'uted fairly to all. +alter &at enau4 director of t e Ger!an Electric "o!#any and of so!e five dozen ot er enter#rises4 organized t e Ger!an econo!ic syste! in a !o'ilization w ic !ade it #ossi'le for Ger!any to fig t on wit slowly dwindling resources. It tried to o#en t e 'lockade 'y defeating its ene!ies to t e sout and east =&ussia4 &o!ania4 and Italy?. T e 'lockade and t e rising tide of $!erican !an#ower gave t e Ger!an leaders t e c oice of surrender or co!#lete econo!ic and social u# eaval. T us t e #eriod 8987% 898: saw a race 'etween t e econo!ic attrition of Ger!any 'y t e 'lockade and t e #ersonal attrition of t e Entente 'y !ilitary action.F%oo&in" bac& on the military history of the 'irst World War it is clear that the whole war was a sie"e o!eration a"ainst Germany# 3nce t e original Ger!an onslaug t was sto##ed on t e Marne4 victory for Ger!any 'eca!e i!#ossi'le 'ecause s e could not resu!e er advance. In 898I t is effort was largely successful4 'ut it was too late.uity of submarine attac&s brou"ht the United States into the war on the side of the -ntente in that critical month of (!ril 191)# In t e !eanti!e t e Ger!any #olicy of !ilitary attrition on t e +estern *ront worked well until 898:. +it out e. T ese were t e Ger!an counter'lockade 'y su'!arines on Britain4 t e increase in Ger!an !an#ower in t e +est resulting fro! er victory in t e East4 and t e arrival on t e +estern *ront of new $!erican forces.J – Tragedy and Hope 'y "arroll Kuigley4 )art G4 " a#ter 8D =Military History4 8987%898:? . By $ugust of 898: Ger!any ad given er 'est4 and it ad not 'een ade. T is race was never settled on its !erits 'ecause t ree new factors entered t e #icture in 898I.tracting nitrogen fro! t e air4 and t us o'tained an ade.uate.uate su##ly of t e !ost necessary constituent of all fertilizers and all e. $hen it was a!!lied with such ruthless efficiency that almost a million tons of shi!!in" was sun& in the month of (!ril 191) and *ritain was driven within three wee&s of e+haustion of her food su!!ly# $his dan"er of a *ritish defeat dressed in the !ro!a"anda clothin" of moral outra"e at the ini. $nd in t at area4 clearly no decision could 'e reac ed. $ccordingly4 alt oug s#oradic attacks were !ade on t e Italian *ront4 in t e $ra' areas of t e 3tto!an E!#ire4 on t e Dardanelles directly in 898G4 against Bulgaria t roug Saloniki in 898G%898:4 and along t e w ole &ussian *ront4 'ot sides continued to regard nort eastern *rance as t e vital area. T e success of t is struggle on t e o!e front was due to t e a'ility of two Ger!an 0ews. T e first two of t ese factors were over'alanced in t e #eriod Marc %Se#te!'er4 898:4 'y t e t ird. To resist t is 'lockade4 Ger!any used a four%#ronged instru!ent. 3n t e ot er and4 t e Entente )owers could not e2ect t e Ger!an s#ear ead fro! *renc soil4 alt oug t ey sacrificed !illions of !en and 'illions of dollars in t e effort to do so. 3n t e !ilitary side Ger!any !ade a t reefold re#ly to t e Britis 'lockade. Before 8987 t e c ief source of nitrogen ad 'een in t e guano de#osits of " ile4 and4 'ut for Ha'er4 t e Britis 'lockade would ave co!#elled a Ger!an defeat in 898G fro! lack of nitrates.ce#tion4 led 'y t e 0unker !ilitary co!!anders4 t ey c ose surrender. Ha'er4 t e c e!ist4 devised a !et od for e. By 0anuary of t at year Ger!any ad 'een losing !en at a'out alf er rate of re#lace!ent and at a'out alf t e rate at w ic s e was inflicting losses on t e Entente )owers.
+it out analyzing t e four factors !entioned a'ove4 it is . T e causes of t is event ave 'een analyzed at great lengt . $he German submarine assault on *ritain early in 191) drove *ritain close to the door of starvation by its ruthless sin&in" of the merchant shi!!in" u!on which *ritain's e+istence de!ended# . Indeed4 in s#ite of t e govern!entMs efforts to act wit a certain se!'lance of neutrality4 it was clear in 8987 t at t is was t e view of t e c ief leaders in t e govern!ent wit t e single e.FT e !ost i!#ortant di#lo!atic event of t e latter #art of t e *irst +orld +ar was t e intervention of t e 6nited States on t e side of t e Entente )owers in $#ril 898I. *or al!ost a century 'efore 898I t e 6nited States ad 'een willing to allow Britis control of t e sea to go unc allenged4 'ecause it was clear t at Britis control of t e sea #rovided no t reat to t e 6nited States4 'ut on t e contrary4 #rovided security for t e 6nited States at a s!aller cost in wealt and res#onsi'ility t an security could ave 'een o'tained 'y any ot er !et od.uite different #oints of view. Se#arated fro! all ot er Great )owers 'y t e $tlantic and )acific oceans4 t e security of $!erica re. T ese !ig t 'e su!!arized as follows< =8? T e Ger!an su'!arine attacks on neutral s i##ing !ade it necessary for t e 6nited States to go to war to secure Lfreedo! of t e seasL/ =D? t e 6nited States was influenced 'y su'tle Britis #ro#aganda conducted in drawing roo!s4 universities4 and t e #ress of t e eastern #art of t e country w ere $nglo# ilis! was ra!#ant a!ong t e !ore influential social grou#s/ =H? t e 6nited States was inveigled into t e war 'y a cons#iracy of international 'ankers and !unitions !anufacturers eager to #rotect t eir loans to t e Entente )owers or t eir warti!e #rofits fro! sales to t ese )owers/ and =7? Balance of )ower #rinci#les !ade it i!#ossi'le for t e 6nited States to allow Great Britain to 'e defeated 'y Ger!any.uite clear t at neit er t e govern!ent nor t e #eo#le of t e 6nited States were #re#ared to acce#t a defeat of t e Entente at t e ands of t e "entral )owers.cuse w ic was legally weak4 alt oug e!otionally satisfying. + atever t e weig t of t ese four in t e final decision4 it is .ce#tion of Secretary of State +illia! 0ennings Bryan.JJ – Tragedy and Hope 'y "arroll Kuigley4 )art G4 " a#ter 8H =Di#lo!atic History4 8987%898:? .efeat of *ritain could not be !ermitted because the United States was not !re!ared to ta&e over control of the sea itself and could not !ermit German control of the sea because it had no assurance re"ardin" the nature of such German control# $he fact that the German submarines were actin" in retaliation for the ille"al *ritish bloc&ade of the continent of -uro!e and *ritish violations of international law and neutral ri"hts on the hi"h seas the fact that the (n"lo/Sa+on herita"e of the United States and the (n"lo!hilism of its influential classes made it im!ossible for the avera"e (merican to see world events e+ce!t throu"h the s!ectacles made by *ritish !ro!a"anda0 the fact that (mericans had lent the -ntente billions of dollars which would be 1eo!ardi2ed by a German victory the fact that the enormous -ntente !urchases of war materiel had created a boom of !ros!erity and inflation which would colla!se the very day that the -ntente colla!sed3 all these factors were able to brin" wei"ht to bear on the (merican decision only because the balance/of/!ower issue laid a foundation on which they could wor&# $he im!ortant fact was that *ritain was close to defeat in (!ril 191) and on that basis the United States entered the war# T e unconscious assu!#tion 'y $!erican leaders t at an Entente victory was 'ot necessary and inevita'le was at t e 'otto! of t eir failure to enforce t e sa!e rules of neutrality and international law against Britain as against Ger!any.#osed to invasion 'y land fro! t e 6nited States4 constituted a ostage for Britis naval 'e avior acce#ta'le to t e 6nited States. In general t ere ave 'een four c ief reasons given for t e intervention fro! four . $s 0o n Bassett Moore4 $!ericaMs !ost fa!ous international lawyer4 #ut it4 L+ at !ost decisively contri'uted to t e involve!ent of t e 6nited States in t e war was t e assertion of a rig t to #rotect 'elligerent s i#s on w ic $!ericans saw fit to travel and t e treat!ent of ar!ed 'elligerent !erc ant!en as #eaceful vessels.uired eit er t at t e control of t ose oceans 'e in its own ands or in t e ands of a friendly )ower. T e #resence of "anada as a Britis territory ad2acent to t e 6nited States4 and e. T ey constantly assu!ed t at Britis violations of t ese rules could 'e co!#ensated wit !onetary da!ages4 w ile Ger!an violations of t ese rules !ust 'e resisted4 'y force if necessary. Since t ey could not ad!it t is unconscious assu!#tion or #u'licly defend t e legiti!ate 'asis of international #ower #olitics on w ic it rested4 t ey finally went to war on an e.uite clear t at t e 6nited States could not allow Britain to 'e defeated 'y any ot er )ower. Bot assu!#tions were contrary to reason and to settled law4 and no ot er #rofessed neutral advanced t e!.
But4 for t e reasons we ave already !entioned4 #eace re!ained elusive until t e great Ger!an offensives of 898: ad 'een 'roken.cellent su##ly of coking coal wit an inade.J – Tragedy and Hope 'y "arroll Kuigley4 #.clude t e Ha's'urg E!#ire fro! t e s ores of t e $driatic Sea4 w ile t e Ser's were even !ore deter!ined to reac t ose s ores 'y t e ac. T is #oint was reac ed in &ussia in 898I and in Ger!any and $ustria in 898:.ico if war 'egan. $ustria was4 until t e deat of E!#eror *rancis 0ose# in 898>4 unwilling to acce#t any #eace w ic would leave t e Slavs4 es#ecially t e Ser's4 free to continue t eir nationalistic agitations for t e disintegration of t e Ha's'urg E!#ire. T e @atican4 working t roug "ardinal )acelli =later )o#e )ius TII? soug t a negotiated #eace w ic would #revent t e destruction of t e Ha's'urg E!#ire4 t e last "at olic Great )ower in Euro#e. DG8%DGH . T ey were a failure 'ecause any negotiated #eace re. DG8 F+ ile t e di#lo!acy of neutrality and intervention was !oving along t e lines we ave descri'ed4 a #arallel di#lo!atic effort was 'eing directed toward efforts to negotiate #eace.uate su##ly of iron ore4 w ile t e occu#ied areas ad #lenty of t e latter 'ut an inade. He 'roke off di#lo!atic relations wit Ger!any on *e'ruary Hrd4 and4 after two !ont s of indecision4 asked t e "ongress for a declaration of war $#ril H4 898I. Moreover4 as t e tide of 'attle wa. 3n t e ot er and4 Italy was deter!ined to e. $ccordingly4 it 'eca!e clear to t e Ger!ans t at t ey would 'e starved into defeat unless t ey could defeat Britain first 'y unrestricted su'!arine warfare.e!'ourg4 #art of Belgiu!4 and (ongwy in *rance 'ecause of t e !ineral and industrial resources of t ese areas. +ilson was notified of t is decision on 0anuary H8st.J – Tragedy and Hope 'y "arroll Kuigley4 #. It was so irreconcila'le in t ese #rotests t at Ger!any sent +ilson a note on May 74 898>4 in w ic it #ro!ised t at Fin t e future !erc ant vessels wit in and wit out t e war zone s all not 'e sunk wit out warning and wit out safeguarding u!an lives4 unless t ese s i#s atte!#t to esca#e or offer resistance.uate su##ly of t e for!er4 ad a great deal to do wit t e Ger!an o'2ections to a negotiated #eace and t e a!'iguous ter!s in w ic t eir war ai!s were discussed. T e final decision was influenced 'y t e constant #ressure of is closest associates4 the reali2ation that *ritain was reachin" the end of her resources of men money and shi!s 4 and t e knowledge t at Ger!any was #lanning to seek an alliance wit Me.uires a willingness on 'ot sides to !ake t ose concessions w ic will #er!it t e continued survival of t e ene!y. $ccordingly4 #eace 'eca!e #ossi'le only w en war weariness ad reac ed t e #oint w ere one side concluded t at even defeat was #refera'le to continuation of t e war.FT e 6nited States #rotested violently against t e su'!arine warfare w ile 'rus ing aside Ger!an argu!ents 'ased on t e Britis 'lockade. In 8987%898:4 owever4 in order to win #u'lic su##ort for total !o'ilization4 eac countryMs #ro#aganda ad 'een directed toward a total victory for itself and total defeat for t e ene!y. T e fact t at Ger!any ad an e.J In return t e Ger!an govern!ent o#ed t at t e 6nited States would #ut #ressure on Britain to follow t e esta'lis ed rules of international law in regard to 'lockade and freedo! of t e sea. Since t ey were aware t at resort to t is !et od would #ro'a'ly 'ring t e 6nited States into t e war against t e!4 t ey !ade anot er effort to negotiate #eace 'efore resorting to it. $fter t e &ussian revolutions of 898I4 !any of t ese o'stacles to a negotiated #eace 'eca!e weaker. *ro! t e various efforts to negotiate #eace it is clear t at Britain was unwilling to acce#t any #eace w ic would not include t e restoration of Belgiu! or w ic would leave Ger!any su#re!e on t e "ontinent or in a #osition to resu!e t e co!!ercial4 naval4 and colonial rivalry w ic ad e. +ilson refused to do so. In Ger!any t is #oint of view was greatly reinforced 'y t e realization t at !ilitary defeat and #olitical c ange were #refera'le to t e econo!ic revolution and social u# eaval w ic would acco!#any any effort to continue t e war in #ursuit of an increasingly unattaina'le victory. T ese efforts were a failure 'ut are4 nonet eless4 of considera'le significance 'ecause t ey reveal t e !otivations and war ai!s of t e 'elligerents.ed and waned4 giving alternate #eriods of elation and discourage!ent to 'ot sides4 t e side w ic was te!#orarily elated 'eca!e increasingly attac ed to t e fetis of total victory and unwilling to acce#t t e lesser ai! of a negotiated #eace. + en t eir offer to negotiate4 !ade on Dece!'er 8D4 898>4 was re2ected 'y t e Entente )owers on Dece!'er DIt 4 t e grou# in t e Ger!an govern!ent w ic ad 'een advocating rut less su'!arine warfare ca!e into a #osition to control affairs4 and ordered t e resu!#tion of unrestricted su'!arine attacks on *e'ruary 84 898I.uisition of Ha's'urg%ruled Slav areas in t e +estern Balkans. Hu!anitarians like Henry *ord or &o!ain &olland 'eca!e increasingly alar!ed at t e continued slaug ter.uire.isted 'efore 8987/ *rance was unwilling to acce#t any solution w ic did not restore $lsace%(orraine to er/ t e Ger!an Hig "o!!and and t e Ger!an industrialists were deter!ined not to give u# all t e occu#ied territory in t e west4 'ut were o#ing to retain (orraine4 #art of $lsace4 (u. )ro!inent !en in all countries4 like (ord (ansdowne =Britis foreign secretary 'efore 8987?4 'eca!e so alar!ed at t e s#read of Socialis! t at t ey were willing to !ake al!ost any concessions to sto# t e destruction of civilized ways of life 'y continued warfare. In ti!e4 'ot sides 'eca!e so en!es ed in t eir own #ro#aganda t at it 'eca!e i!#ossi'le to ad!it #u'licly oneMs readiness to acce#t suc lesser ai!s as any negotiated #eace would re.
to take effect at 88<EE a. T e Ger!an $r!y was clearly 'eaten in t e field/ t e negotiations for an ar!istice were co!!enced 'y t e civilian govern!ent at t e insistence of t e Hig "o!!and4 and t e Treaty of @ersailles itself was su'se. T e ar!istice was signed on -ove!'er 884 898:4 at G<EE a.!.uent Ger!an resent!ent at t e Treaty of @ersailles.uently signed4 rat er t an re2ected4 at t e insistence of t e sa!e Hig "o!!and in order to avoid a !ilitary occu#ation of Ger!any. T e Ger!ans were also re. of Baden wit orders to !ake an i!!ediate ar!istice or face !ilitary disaster =Se#te!'er D9%3cto'er 84 898:?.F$fter w at (udendorff called Lt e 'lack day of t e Ger!an $r!yL =$ugust :4 898:?4 a Ger!an "rown "ouncil4 !eeting at S#a4 decided victory was no longer #ossi'le4 and decided to negotiate for an ar!istice. 3n t is 'asis an ar!istice co!!ission !et Ger!an negotiators on -ove!'er It .ce#t for a 'rief occu#ation of t e &u r district in 89DH. T is was not done 'ecause of a controversy 'etween t e crown #rince and (udendorff in w ic t e for!er advised an i!!ediate retreat to t e LHinden'urg (ineL twenty !iles to t e rear4 w ile t e latter wis ed to !ake a slow wit drawal so t at t e Entente could not organize an attack on t e Hinden'urg (ine 'efore winter. T e Ger!an &evolution was s#reading4 and t e . He was !ost insistent on t e res#onsi'le govern!ent4 warning t at if e ad to deal Fwit !ilitary !asters or !onarc ical autocratsJ e would de!and Fnot negotiations 'ut surrender. T e Ger!an Hig "o!!and re!oved t e c ancellor4 Hertling4 and #ut in t e !ore de!ocratic )rince Ma.J In a series of notes 'etween Ger!any and t e 6nited States4 +ilson !ade it clear t at e would grant an ar!istice only if Ger!any would wit draw fro! all occu#ied territory4 !ake an end to su'!arine attacks4 acce#t t e *ourteen )oints4 esta'lis a res#onsi'le govern!ent4 and acce#t ter!s w ic would #reserve t e e. Two Entente victories4 at Saint%Kuentin =$ugust H8st? and in *landers =Se#te!'er Dnd? !ade t is dis#ute !oot. In t e !eanti!e4 t e Entente Su#re!e +ar "ouncil refused to acce#t t e *ourteen )oints as t e 'asis for #eace until "olonel House t reatened t at t e 6nited States would !akes a se#arate #eace wit Ger!any.J T e Ger!an constitution was c anged to give all #owers to t e &eic stag/ (udendorff was fired/ t e Ger!an -avy at .uent clai! of t e Ger!an !ilitarists t at t e Ger!an $r!y was never defeated 'ut was Fsta''ed in t e 'ackJ 'y t e o!e front t roug a co!'ination of international "at olics4 international 0ews4 and international Socialists. 3n 3cto'er Gt a Ger!an note to )resident +ilson asked for an ar!istice on t e 'asis of t e *ourteen )oints of 0anuary :4 898:4 and is su'se. DGH%DGG .ce#t t ose necessary to !ake it clear w en er s#okes!en s#oke for t e &eic stag !a2ority and w en t ey Fs#eak for t e !ilitary #arty and t e !en w ose creed is i!#erial do!ination. By t ese tactics t e Ger!an $r!y was a'le to esca#e t e !ilitary occu#ation of Ger!any w ic t ey so dreaded. It #rovided t at t e Ger!ans !ust evacuate all occu#ied territory =including $lsace%(orraine? wit in fourteen days4 and t e left 'ank of t e & ine #lus t ree 'ridge eads on t e rig t 'ank wit in t irty%one days4 t at t ey surrender uge s#ecified a!ounts of war e.uired to renounce t e treaties of Brest%(itovsk and of Buc arest4 w ic t ey ad i!#osed on &ussia and on &o!ania4 and to #ro!ise to re#air t e da!age of occu#ied territories.uent #rinci#les of Se#te!'er DI4 898:. T e Ger!ans 'egan an involuntary retreat4 drenc ing t e ground t ey evacuated wit F!ustard gasJ in order to slow u# t e Entente #ursuit4 es#ecially t e tanks. $n additional factor connected wit t ese events lies in t e su'se.isting Entente !ilitary su#eriority. T e Ger!an negotiators received t e Entente !ilitary ter!s and asked for an i!!ediate ending of ostilities and of t e econo!ic 'lockade and a reduction in t e Entente de!and for !ac ine guns fro! HE4EEE to DG4EEE on t e grounds t at t e difference of G4EEE was needed to su##ress t e Ger!an &evolution. In t ese negotiations +ilson ad clearly #ro!ised t at t e #eace treaty wit Ger!any would 'e negotiated and would 'e 'ased on t e *ourteen )oints/ as we s all see4 t e Treaty of @ersailles was i!#osed wit out negotiation4 and t e *ourteen )oints fared very #oorly in its #rovisions.iel !utinied4 and t e . T ere is no !erit w atever in t ese contentions.#anded t e !eaning of Frestoration of invaded territoryJ to include co!#ensation to t e civilian #o#ulation for t eir war losses. $lt oug t e last ene!y forces did not leave Ger!an soil until 89H84 no #ortions of Ger!any were occu#ied 'eyond t ose signified in t e ar!istice itself =t e & ineland and t e t ree 'ridge eads on t e rig t ank of t e & ine? e.ual weig t wit t e titles of i!#erialist )owers/ t e evacuation of &ussia/ t e evacuation and restoration of Belgiu!/ t e evacuation of *rance and t e restoration to er of $lsace%(orraine as in 8:IE/ t e read2ust!ent of t e Italian frontiers on nationality lines/ free and autono!ous develo#!ent for t e #eo#les of t e Ha's'urg E!#ire/ t e evacuation4 restoration4 and guarantee of &o!ania4 Montenegro4 and Ser'ia4 wit t e last%na!ed securing free access to t e sea/ international guarantees to kee# t e Straits #er!anently o#ened to t e s i#s and co!!erce of all nations/ freedo! for t e autono!ous develo#!ent of t e non%Turkis nationalities of t e 3tto!an E!#ire4 along wit a secure sovereignty for t e Turks t e!selves/ an inde#endent )olis state wit free access to t e sea and wit international guarantees/ a (eague of -ations to afford F!utual guarantees of #olitical inde#endence and territorial integrity to great and s!all states alikeJ/ and no destruction of Ger!any or even any alteration of er institutions e.J – Tragedy and Hope 'y "arroll Kuigley4 #.ui#!ent4 trucks4 loco!otives4 all su'!arines4 t e c ief naval vessels4 all #risoners of war4 and ca#tured !erc ant s i#s4 as w%ell as t e Baltic fortresses4 and all valua'les and securities taken in occu#ied territory4 including t e &ussian and &o!anian gold reserves. T ey t en de!anded and received a definition of t e !eaning of eac ter!4 !ade a reservation on Ft e freedo! of t e seas4J and e.aiser fled fro! Berlin =3cto'er D:t ?.!.aiser a'dicated on -ove!'er :t . T e last #oint was conceded4 'ut t e ot er two refused. T e *ourteen )oints #ro!ised t e end of secret di#lo!acy/ freedo! of t e seas/ freedo! of co!!erce/ disar!a!ent/ a fair settle!ent of colonial clai!s4 wit t e interests of t e native #eo#les receiving e. T e negotiations wit +ilson leading u# to t e $r!istice of 898: are of great significance4 since t ey for!ed one of t e c ief factors in su'se. T ese state!ents of +ilson ad ca#tured t e i!aginations of idealistic #ersons and su'2ect #eo#les everyw ere. T is last #oint was of considera'le i!#ortance4 as t e Ger!ans ad syste!atically looted or destroyed t e areas t ey evacuated in t e last few !ont s of t e war.
+it t e colla#se of &ussia in 898I4 t e *renc soug t a su'stitute ally in )oland. So!ew at si!ilar results occurred in Marienwerder4 'ut not in nort ern Sc leswig4 w ic voted to 2oin Den!ark. T ey did get t e !ines4 'ut t e area was se#arated #olitically fro! 'ot countries to 'e ruled 'y t e (eague of -ations for fifteen years and t en given a #le'iscite. (loyd George refused to give it to )oland. T ey gave u# t eir se#aratist agitation in return for +ilsonMs #ro!ise of Marc 874 8989 to give a 2oint $nglo%$!erican guarantee against a Ger!an attack. Because in $llenstein4 w ere )olis %s#eaking #eo#le were 7E #ercent of t e #o#ulation4 only D #ercent voted to 2oin )oland4 t e area was returned to Ger!any/ in 6##er Silesia4 w ere t e co!#ara'le figures were >G #ercent and 7E #ercent4 t e area was s#lit4 t e !ore industrial eastern #ortion going to )oland4 w ile t e !ore rural western #art was returned to Ger!any/ in .#erts =w o were very #ro%)olis ? gave )oland access to t e sea 'y severing East )russia fro! t e rest of Ger!any 'y creating a )olis "orridor in t e valley of t e @istula. T e last dis#uted territorial c ange of t e Treaty of @ersailles was concerned wit t e Saar Basin4 ric in industry and coal. T e first of t ese !ust 'e reserved until later4 'ut t e ot ers s ould 'e !entioned ere. 3n t e one and4 t e & ineland and t ree 'ridge eads on t e rig t 'ank of t e & ine were to 'e occu#ied 'y $llied troo#s for fro! five to fifteen years. + en t e #le'iscite was eld in 89HG4 after an ad!ira'le (eague ad!inistration4 only a'out D4EEE out of a'out GD:4EEE voted to 2oin *rance4 w ile a'out go #ercent wis ed to 2oin Ger!any4 t e re!ainder indicating t eir desire to continue under (eague rule. T is last area was given to t e new state of (it uania in 89D7 'y t e "onference of $!'assadors. In addition to t e areas !entioned4 Ger!any ad to return $lsace and (orraine to *rance4 give t ree s!all districts to Belgiu!4 and a'andon t e nort ern edge of East )russia around Me!el to t e $llied )owers. However4 t e city of Danzig4 at t e !out of t e @istula4 was clearly a Ger!an city. T is !eant t at any Ger!an troo#s or fortifications were e. $lt oug its #o#ulation was clearly Ger!an4 t e *renc clai!ed !ost of it in 8989 on t e grounds t at two%t irds of it ad 'een inside t e *renc frontiers of 8:87 and t at t ey s ould o'tain t e coal !ines as co!#ensation for t e *renc !ines destroyed 'y t e Ger!ans in 898:.J T e si. cases w ere self% deter!ination =t at is4 #le'iscites? was actually used s owed t at t e #eo#les of t ese areas were not so nationalistic as t e #eace!akers 'elieved.J – Tragedy and Hope 'y "arroll Kuigley4 #. T e *renc wis ed to detac t e w ole of Ger!any west of t e & ine =t e so%called & ineland? to create a se#arate state and increase *renc security against Ger!any. Since "le!enceau ad 'een a'le to #ersuade *oc and )oincarU to acce#t t e & ine settle!ent only 'ecause of t is guarantee4 its failure to !aterialize ended is #olitical career.lagenfurt4 w ere Slovene%s#eakers for!ed >: #ercent of t e #o#ulation4 only 7E #ercent wanted to 2oin 1ugoslavia4 so t e area was left in $ustria. T e c ief territorial dis#utes arose over t e )olis "orridor4 t e & ineland4 and t e Saar. DI>%DI: . T e *ourteen )oints ad #ro!ised to esta'lis an inde#endent )oland wit access to t e Baltic Sea. T is #ro!ise was signed in treaty for! on 0une D:4 89894 'ut fell t roug w en t e 6nited States Senate did not ratify t e agree!ent.F$ll t e original #eace treaties consisted of five c ief #arts< =a? t e "ovenant of t e (eague of -ations/ ='? t e territorial #rovisions/ =c? t e disar!a!ent #rovision/ =d? t e re#arations #rovisions/ and =e? #enalties and guarantees. In t eory4 t e territorial #rovisions of t e treaties were 'ased on Fself%deter!ination4J 'ut in fact t ey were usually 'ased on ot er considerations< strategic4 econo!ic4 #unitive4 legal #ower4 or co!#ensation. 3f t ese two clauses4 t e !ilitary occu#ation of t e & ineland and t e 'ridge eads was ended in 89HE4 five years a ead of sc edule.#osed to a . Instead4 it was !ade a *ree "ity under t e #rotection of t e (eague of -ations. 3n t e ot er and t e & ineland and a zone fifty kilo!eters wide along t e rig t 'ank were to 'e #er!anently de!ilitarized and any violation of t is could 'e regarded as a ostile act 'y t e signers of t e treaty.uick *renc !ilitary t rust fro! t e west4 and Ger!any could not t reaten *rance or !ove eastward against "zec oslovakia or )oland if *rance o'2ected. $ccordingly4 *oc wanted to give all of East )russia to )oland. T e & ineland settle!ent as it stood ad two .uite se#arate #rovisions.cluded fro! t is area forever. This 'as the &ost i&portant clause o( the Treaty o( )ersailles* So long as it re!ained in effect4 t e great industrial region of t e &u r on t e rig t 'ank of t e & ine4 t e econo!ic 'ack'one of Ger!anyMs a'ility to wage warfare4 was e. Instead4 t e e.ce#t in t e 3tto!an E!#ire w ere LnationalityL usually !eant Freligion. T is !ade it #ossi'le for Hitler to destroy t e second #rovision4 t e de!ilitarization of western Ger!any4 'y re!ilitarizing t e area in Marc 89H>. By Fself%deter!inationJ t e #eace!akers usually !eant Fnationality4J and 'y FnationalityJ t ey usually !eant Flanguage4J e. It ad 'een *renc #olicy4 since a'out 8GEE4 to o##ose any strong state in central Euro#e 'y seeking allies in eastern Euro#e. In eac case4 t e voters4 #ro'a'ly for econo!ic reasons4 c ose to 2oin t e econo!ically !ore #ros#erous state rat er t an t e one s aring t e sa!e language. Most of t e area was )olis %s#eaking4 and Ger!an co!!erce wit East )russia was largely 'y sea.
.*renc officers4 including Mars al *oc 4 #ose for a grou# # otogra# 'efore receiving t e Ger!an $r!istice in *rance on -ove!'er 884 898:.
osslyn Wemyss. #dolf Hitler demanded *ran+eHs surrender in the same railway +ar in $%IE. erndorff and Ernst -anselow. *ren+h )eneral MaAime Weygand. and British *irst &ea Lord &ir . stands to a++ept the )erman surrender. &enior )erman and #llied +ommanders and politi+ians sign the #rmisti+e ending the war in a railway +ar near !ompiGgne. general ma9or 2etlof 7on Winterfeldt (with helmet). early on the morning of "o7em er $$. . *ren+h *ield Marshal *erdinand *o+h (standing). $%$F. the #llied supreme +ommander (+enter). *ield Marshal *erdinand *o+h. Matthias Er0 erger. *ran+e. #lfred 7on . /n the foreground. from right to left. Behind the ta le.T e trains w ic 'roug t t e two sides toget er at "o!#iegne4 *rance for $r!istice negotiations on -ove!'er 884 898:.
*ro! left to rig t< *renc ar!y officer Mars al *erdinand *oc 4 )ri!e Minister of *rance Georges "le!enceau4 )ri!e Minister of Great Britain David (loyd George4 )ri!e Minister of Italy @ittorio 3rlando4 and *oreign Minister of Italy Baron Sidney "ostantino Sonnino !eet #rivately at 8E Downing Street in (ondon on Dece!'er D4 898:. . =) oto< (i'rary of "ongress? $llied occu#ied troo#s enter t e Ger!an city of Trier =Treves? in Dece!'er 898:.
.T e Ger!an delegation #oses for a grou# #ortrait at t e )aris )eace "onference in @ersailles4 *rance on May I4 8989.
Georges "le!enceau4 t e )ri!e Minister of *rance4 delivers a s#eec to t e Ger!an delegates at t e Trianon )alace Hotel in @ersailles4 *rance on May I4 8989 during t e ongoing )aris )eace "onference. .
=) oto< Hulton Getty )icture "ollection (i!ited? .Ger!an delegates attend t e )aris )eace "onference at t e @ersailles )alace in *rance in early 8989. S#ectators watc t e Ger!an delegates sign t e @ersailles Treaty on 0une D:4 8989.
Ma# of Ger!any =F+ei!ar &e#u'licJ? fro! 8989%89HI
Ma# of Ger!any and its territorial losses 8989%89D8
(eft< Delegates fro! around t e world watc Ger!an di#lo!ats sign t e Treaty of @ersailles at @ersailles )alace near )aris4 *rance on 0une D:4 8989. &ig t< $rticle DH8 of t e @ersailles Treaty =T e +ar Guilt "lause?
Ger!an troo#s utilize a converted Britis tank during t e failed "o!!unist S#artacist u#rising in Berlin in 0anuary 8989. =) oto< (i'rary of "ongress?
)erman soldiers guard an interse+tion with ar ed wires during the )erman ,e7olution of $%$%. (BettmannC!.,B/&)
<housands of )ermans protest against the -ersailles treaty on the 6oenigsplat0 in Berlin, )ermany on (une $@, $%$%. <his demonstration was made y the )ermans dri7en from #lsa+e Lorraine. (5nderwood : 5nderwoodC!.,B/&)
6aiser Wilhelm // of )ermany meets with *ield Marshal #ugust 7on Ma+kensen and other )erman offi+ers on #pril @@, $%$J (,ussian !ommunist -ladimir LeninDs IJth irthday). (Photo' )erman *ederal #r+hi7es)
The Partition of Eastern Europe )o7ernment . $%$F. 3!olonel4 Edward M.B/&) &oldiers surround the +ar of !0e+hoslo7akiaDs President <omas )arrigue Masaryk in the . *ran+e on 2e+em er @. #rmy )eneral <asker H. unidentified man. British Prime Minister 2a7id Lloyd )eorge. -esnit+h..ffi+ials draft the terms of the <reaty of -ersailles in -ersailles. &wit0erland and then London in the early stages of the *irst World War.osslyn Wemyss1 *ield Marshal &ir 2ouglas Haig.. from left to right' )eneral di . $%$F.ld <own &=uare in Prague on President MasarykDs return to !0e+hoslo7akia on 2e+em er @$. When the . unidentified man. (/mage' BettmannC!.o ilant. and &er ian *oreign Minister Milenko . he returned and was ele+ted its first president. *ighting against #ustriaHs allian+e with )ermany and its aggressi7e poli+y in the Balkans. where he organi0ed the !0e+hoslo7ak mo7ement for independen+e. from left to right' #dmiral .. 5. *ren+h Prime Minister )eorges !lemen+eau.&. .epu li+ of !0e+hoslo7akia was esta lished in $%$F.B/&) .n the left side of the ta le. Bliss. .n the right side of the ta le. /talian Minister of *oreign #ffairs Baron )iorgio &onnino. )reek Prime Minister Eleutherios -eni0elos. and *ren+h *oreign Minister &tephen Pi+hon. House. Masaryk es+aped #ustria to /taly. (/mage' K &+heufler !olle+tionC!.
ussia in PLrnu. Lithuania de+lared its independen+e from . Mem ers of !oun+il of Lithuania in $%$>.Estonians +ele rate their de+laration of independen+e from . Lat7ia de+lared its independen+e from . <he &o7iet . . $%$F. Estonia on *e ruary @M. $%$F. $%$F.ussia on "o7em er $F. $%$F.ussian !ommunists signed the <reaty of Brest8Lito7sk on Mar+h M. a week after )ermany de+lared an armisti+e ending World War /.ussia on *e ruary $?.
un4 a 0ewis "o!!unist4 was a !e!'er of t e Soviet "o!!unist )arty/ Bela .un =for!erly BUla . $%$%. . (/mage' K !.un was arrested 'y t e Soviet secret #olice and tried in Moscow in 89H:/ Bela .# huge +rowd turns out in a pu li+ s=uare in Budapest. $he 4un"arian Soviet 5e!ublic lasted from 6arch 71 1919 to (u"ust 1 1919# Bela .o n?4 t e *oreign Minister of t e Hungarian Soviet &e#u'lic4 delivers a s#eec in Buda#est4 Hungary in 8989..un ad launc ed a Fred terrorJ of secret #olice against Fene!iesJ of t e regi!e w ile in office.B/&) Hungarian "o!!unist agent Bela .un was e. Hungary for the pro+lamation of a new Bolshe7ik (!ommunist) go7ernment in Hungary on Mar+h @$. Bela .ecuted in $ugust 89H:.
(ews in London protest against the reported massa+re of (ews in Poland on (uly >.eds (!ommunists). during whi+h they fought on the White (anti8!ommunist) side against the . of "ummi in *inland.ussia on 2e+em er ?. . $%$>. NProte+ting )uardN. &u+h paramilitary units were formed right efore the *innish !i7il War in $%$F. $%$%.B/&) <he Suojeluskunta. *inland de+lared its independen+e from &o7iet . (Photo' K BettmannC!..
B/&) . #ustria on 2e+em er $M. $%@E. (Photo' K BettmannC!.5nemployed men loiter in the streets of in -ienna.. 5nemployment in #ustria was widespread e+ause of the politi+al situation and the low eA+hange rates.
$ !a# of t e et nic grou#s of $ustria%Hungry in 898E .
$ !a# of t e et nic grou#s of $ustria%Hungry in 898E $ !a# of t e dissolution of $ustria%Hungary in 898: .
is standing (with long eard) in the middle.omania.<he negotiations o++ur efore the signing the <reaty of <rianon in -ersailles.ugosla7ia. !ount #l ert #pponyi. in $%@E. *ran+e. . <he treaty fiAed the new +ommon orders of Hungary with #ustria. and . . a diplomat from Hungary. near Paris. !0e+hoslo7akia.
$ustria was reduced fro! 88G4EEE s. T e Treaty of Trianon reduced Hungary fro! 8DG4EEE s. T us t ey ad little clai! to *iu!e.uare !iles wit : !illion in a'itants.#erts at )aris wis ed to give Italy neit er *iu!e nor Dal!atia4 'ut "olonel House tried to overrule t e e. To #rotect Trieste4 Italy wanted to control all t e #ossi'le co!#eting #orts in t e area. T e #rocess lcd to dis#utes and even to violent clas es of ar!s4 and so!e issues are still su'2ects of discord to t e #resent ti!e.J – Tragedy and Hope 'y "arroll Kuigley4 #.J – Tragedy and Hope 'y "arroll Kuigley4 #. T e struggle over @ilna 'egan in 8989 w en t e )oles took t e district fro! t e &ussians 'ut soon lost it again. T e (it uanians refused to acce#t t e validity of t is vote or a decision of t e "onference of $!'assadors of Marc 89DH4 giving t e area to )oland. -evert eless4 at )aris t ey insisted on it4 for #olitical and econo!ic reasons.uisition of Trieste gave t e! a great sea#ort wit no future4 since it was se#arated 'y a #olitical 'oundary fro! t e interland w ence it could draw its trade. Instead4 (it uania continued to consider itself at war wit )oland until Dece!'er 89DI. $ grou# of *ascists fro! Italy =w ere t is #arty was not yet in office? seized t e city in Marc 89DD and were re!oved 'y t e Italian $r!y t ree weeks later. $ #le'iscite4 ordered 'y t e (eague of -ations4 was eld in 0anuary 89DD under )olis control and gave a )olis !a2ority. T e treaties of #eace set t e 'oundaries of t e defeated states 'ut not t ose of t e new states. To 1ugoslavia went Bosnia4 Herzegovina4 and Dal!atia. T is #ro'le! was acute 'ecause one of t e Great )owers was involved. T e city of *iu!e itself was largely Italian4 'ut t e su'ur's and surrounding countryside were overw el!ingly Slav. )oland did not fare so well at t e ot er end of its frontier. !ont s t e )olis ar!ies ad crossed t is and advanced 'eyond .#erts in order to o'tain Italian su##ort for t e (eague of -ations in return. In view of t ese distur'ances )oland and &o!ania signed a defensive alliance against &ussia in Marc 89D8. T ese latter were fi.uare !iles wit HE !illion in a'itants to HD4EEE s.ed 'y a nu!'er of treaties !ade in t e years following 898:. T ere fig ting 'roke out 'etween "zec and )olis forces over Tesc en in 0anuary 8989. DI9%D:E . In Se#te!'er 8989 an erratic Italian #oet4 Ga'riele DN$nnunzio4 wit a 'and of free'ooters4 seized *iu!e and set u# an inde#endent govern!ent on a co!ic%o#era 'asis. $ &ussia n counterattack soon drove t e )oles 'ack4 and )olis territory was invaded in its turn.iev. T e Su#re!e "ouncil in Dece!'er 8989 ad laid down t e so%called F"urzon (ineJ as t e eastern 'oundary of )olis ad!inistration4 'ut wit in si. )olandNs eastern frontier was settled only after a 'loody war wit t e Soviet 6nion. T e "onference of $!'assadors divided t e area 'etween t e two clai!ants4 'ut gave t e valua'le coal !ines to "zec oslovakia =0uly ?. DI9 FT e !ost i!#ortant dis#ute of t is kind arose over t e dis#osition of *iu!e. To Italy went Sout Tyrol4 Trentino4 Istria4 and an e. T e final settle!ent4 signed at &iga in Marc 89D84 gave )oland a frontier 8GE !iles fart er east t an t e "urzon (ine and 'roug t into )oland !any non%)olis #eo#les4 including one !illion + ite &ussians and four !illion 6krainians. T is settle!ent was not satisfactory. In 3cto'er 89DE4 t e "onference of $!'assadors recognized Bessara'ia as #art of &o!ania.FT e territorial #rovisions of t e treaties of Saint%Ger!ain and Trianon were suc as to destroy co!#letely t e $ustro% Hungarian E!#ire. T e )oles a##ealed in #anic to t e Su#re!e "ouncil4 w ic was reluctant to intervene. Moreover4 t e Italian ac. T e e.uare !iles wit D8 !illion in a'itants to HG4EEE s. DI:%DI9 FT e !ost violent controversies arose in regard to t e 'oundaries of )oland.cluded t e Ha's'urg E!#ire fro! t e $driatic Sea4 and not wis ing to see any new )ower rise in its #lace4 t ey did all t ey could to a!#er 1ugoslavia and to curtail its access to t e $driatic. To "zec oslovakia went Slovakia and &ut enia/ to &o!ania went Transylvania4 #art of t e Hungarian #lain4 and !ost of t e Banat/ to 1ugoslavia went t e rest of t e Banat4 "roatia%Slavonia4 and so!e ot er districts. To "zec oslovakia went Bo e!ia4 Moravia4 #arts of (ower $ustria4 and $ustrian Silesia. T e &ussian offensive was 'roken on t e @istula4 and #eace negotiations 'egan.J – Tragedy and Hope 'y "arroll Kuigley4 #.G !illion in a'itants. Having 2ust e. T e Italians ad yielded *iu!e to 1ugoslavia in t e Treaty of (ondon of 898G and ad #ro!ised4 in -ove!'er 898:4 to draw t e Italian%1ugoslav 'oundary on lines of nationality. 3f t ese4 only t at wit Ger!any was set 'y t e Treaty of @ersailles. $fter t eir return4 t e issue was left unsettled. T e *renc 4 owever4 did not esitate4 and sent General +eygand wit su##lies to defend +arsaw. +ilson overruled House and issued is fa!ous a##eal to t e Italian #eo#le w ic resulted in t e te!#orary wit drawal of t e Italian delegation fro! )aris. T e dis#ute 'etween Italy and 1ugoslavia continued wit decreasing 'itterness until -ove!'er 89DE4 w en t ey signed a treaty at &a#allo dividing t e area 'ut leaving *iu!e itself a free city. &ussia #rotested4 and t e 6nited States refused to acce#t t e transfer.tensive area nort of t e $driatic4 including Trieste. &o!ania also ad a dis#ute wit &ussia arising fro! t e &o!anian occu#ation of Bessara'ia in 898:. T e #ro'le! was finally settled 'y t e Treaty of &o!e of 0anuary 89D74 'y w ic *iu!e was granted to Italy4 'ut t e su'ur' of )ort Baros and a fifty%year lease on one of t e t ree ar'or 'asins went to 1ugoslavia. T e &ussians yielded it to t e (it uanians in 89DE4 and t is was acce#ted 'y )oland4 'ut wit in t ree !ont s it was seized 'y )olis free'ooters.uare !iles wit >. T e )oles refused to acce#t t eir ot er frontiers as suggested 'y t e $llies at )aris4 and 'y 89DE were at war wit (it uania over @ilna4 wit &ussia over t e eastern 'order4 wit t e 6krainians over Galicia4 and wit "zec oslovakia over Tesc en. To &o!ania went Bukovina.
Poland. Estonia. #ustro8Hungarian Empire. <he . !roats and &lo7enes).ussian Empire. !0e+hoslo7akia.ei+h). *ran+e re+ei7ed a 3mandate4 (prote+torate) o7er Le anon and &yria while )reat Britain re+ei7ed a 3mandate4 o7er Mesopotamia (/ra=) and Palestine ((ordan and /srael). Lithuania.ugosla7ia (6ingdom of &er s. .ttoman Empire (<urkey) would +ollapse y the end of World War /.# map of Europe in $%$I efore #ustriaDs #r+hduke *ran0 *erdinand was assassinated in &ara9e7o. <he +ountries of #ustria. and the . #ustro8Hungarian Empire. Lat7ia.ussian Empire. *inland. Hungary. and 5kraine (until $%@E) were esta lished following the +ollapse of the . . and )erman Empire. )erman Empire (&e+ond .
(Photo' K BettmannC!. Poland regained its independen+e on "o7em er $$.B/&) )olis @oluntary II Deat S. =)olis $rc ives? .. $%$F. Poland and &o7iet . $%@E. Poland on #ugust $?.Re&i&a# of Po#and and '(raine )eneral (osef Pilsudski re7iews his troops in Warsaw.ussia fought o7er disputed territory of present8day 5kraine in $%@E.uad soldiers dis#lay t eir unit flag in (viv4 )oland Alater 6kraineB in 89DE. following the +apitulation of /mperial )ermany and the #ustro8Hungarian Empire.
Postwar orders are marked in la+k.*rontlines (marked in red line) of the Polish8Bolshe7ik O.epu li+.ussiaP War and Polish85krainian War in Mar+h $%$%. <he light lue area surrounding the +ity of Lwow (L7i7) represents the territory +ontrolled y the West 5krainian "ational . .
*rontlines of t e )olis %Bols evik +ar in $ugust 89DE/ )ost%war 'orders !arked wit 'lack .
M ars al 0ozef )ilsudski4 )resident of )oland =89DE%89HG? .
It was4 in s ort4 uni!#ressive. It also e.clusively to !utual su##ort along t eir eastern frontiers4 t at is4 it was directed only at &ussia4 wit w ic &u!aniaMs relations were even worse t an )olandMs4 and #rovided no direct su##ort to )oland in relation to Ger!any. Meanw ile4 in t e !id%89DEs4 Britain viewed t e Euro#ean scene #ri!arily in ter!s of er desire to revive Ger!any and to reintegrate er into 'ot t e Euro#ean state syste! and t e #attern of world trade. Toward t e sout 4 )olis %"zec oslovak relations never develo#ed any real war!t or !utual confidence owing to t e two countriesN . &ecovery 'y eit er Ger!any or &ussia =$ustria%Hungary aving disintegrated 'eyond re#air? and es#ecially an acco!!odation 'etween t e! would inevita'ly 'e dangerous to )oland and raise again t e s#ecter of er #artition. Two decades later4 er govern!ent%in%e. +it in li!its4 )oland could seek to e. It is not sur#rising t at t is deterioration in )olandMs international situation 'etween t e s#ring of 89DG and t at of 89D> s ould occasionally 'e cited as one of t e #reci#itating causes 'e ind )ilsudskiNs decision to resu!e #ower and stage is Far!ed de!onstrationJ in May4 89D>. T e fact t at t ey were !ilitarily still too weak to truncate or #artition er at t at ti!e was of scant co!fort to )oland4 w ic could ardly fail to 'e aware of er neig 'orsM deter!ination to c ange t is !ilitary as#ect of t e #ower e.as#erate t e!4 na!ely4 t at t ey could e.#lains t e unre!itting )olis efforts to develo# t e countryMs econo!ic4 de!ogra# ic4 and !ilitary #otential.Etat 'y 0ose# &ot sc ild =89>>?4 #. 3nly wit &u!ania did )oland conclude a #olitical alliance4 signed on Marc H4 89D84 and renewed #eriodically4 'ut t is4 on 'alance4 #roved to 'e !ore advantageous to t e &u!anian t an t e )olis #artner.#ense – and t is is #recisely w at #roceeded to occur. D9D%D9> .tent t at Britain s owed any #ositive interest in )oland during t e 89DEs4 it was largely as a #ossi'le foil against Soviet &ussia4 and t e occasions w en s e !anifested suc an interest generally coincided wit inter!ittent #eriods of Britis %Soviet tension. *ranceNs )olis #olicy during t e interwar #eriod4 w ile !ore tortured t an BritainMs4 was also ulti!ately unsatisfactory fro! )olandMs #oint of view4 for reasons to 'e analyzed #resently.ercise no leverage on t e +estern #owers to o'lige t e! eit er to onor an o'ligation or to acknowledge a co!!it!ent to )oland. To t e e.s Coup -. Here4 owever4 t e )oles constantly ca!e u# against a frustration w ic never ceased to e.uarrel over t e econo!ically valua'le city and district of Tesc en ="ieszyn4 Tesln?4 t eir contrasting #erce#tions of &ussiaMs and HungaryMs #ro#er roles in Euro#e =eac regarding t e ot erNs 'ete noire wit so!e 'enevolence?4 and t eir contrasting social structures and reci#rocally irritating national #syc ologies.ile was once again #owerless to #revent a warti!e decision 'y Britain and t e 6nited States t at t eir alliance wit t e Soviet 6nion ad #riority over t eir co!!it!ents to t e )olis govern!ent and its eastern frontier clai!s.#lains t e #o#ularity of t e ar!y and t e readiness to !ake sacrifices for its su##ort a!ong all sectors of )olis society. Si!ultaneously4 s e could atte!#t to organize alliances and coalitions wit and a!ong ot er !ediu! and s!all #owers also t reatened 'y Ger!any or &ussia. *renc and Britis #olicy toward )oland was to #rove si!#ly a function of t eir #olicy toward Ger!any or &ussia. "onfronted 'y t e dual en!ity of er 'ig neig 'ors4 )oland was o'viously interested in ensuring t at any conflict 'etween erself and eit er or 'ot of t e! s ould not re!ain localized 'ut s ould 'ring #owerful friends%%e. Si!ultaneously4 Ger!any was engaged in a !a2or effort to destroy )oland econo!ically t roug t e tariff war and t roug successful intrigues to #revent $!erican and Britis financial aid to er. T us4 w en *rance decided in t e !id%89DEs to atte!#t a ra##roc e!ent wit Ger!any4 t ere was not ing t at )oland could do to avert t is i!#licit 'ut definite desertion 'y er +estern ally.tricate erself fro! t is vise of ostile neig 'ors and unrelia'le friends 'y so develo#ing er own strengt as to render t e risks of an attack u#on er #ro i'itive to t e #otential aggressor=s?.#ense wit t eir Berlin Treaty of -eutrality and -onaggression of $#ril D74 89D>.uation in due course. /t #ertained e. Britain 'elieved erself to ave few or no vital interests in East "entral Euro#e and refused to guarantee t e areaMs #ost%@ersailles frontiers against Ger!an revisionist #ressure.ually unwilling to tolerate Ger!an and5or &ussian ege!ony over East "entral Euro#e%%to er own su##ort. It was for t is #ur#ose t at )oland concluded an alliance wit *rance on *e'ruary 894 89D8 =followed 'y a secret !ilitary convention two days later?4 and des#erately – and for long vainly – strove to interest Britain in er 'e alf as a factor of sta'ility in an area w ic in t e long run would 'e regarded as vital also to Britis interests.J – #ilsuds+i. T e first of t ese two strategies e.F)olandNs resurrection as an inde#endent state after +orld +ar I was rendered #ossi'le – as )ilsudski ad #ro# etically con2ectured on t e eve of t at conflict – 'y t e tri#le defeat of all t ree of er #artitioning #owers in t e course of t e war. Ho#es of develo#ing a )olis %Baltic%Scandinavian or )olis %Baltic co!'ination were rendered a'ortive 'y Scandinavian and *innis #reference for neutrality and noninvolve!ent as well as 'y (it uaniaMs refusal encouraged 'y Ger!any and #articularly 'y &ussia – to reconcile erself to )olandNs forci'le seizure in 89DE of +ilno =@ilnius4 @ilna?4 a city w ic (it uania regarded as er istoric ca#ital t oug er current et nic%de!ogra# ic clai!s to it were weak. of security against Ger!any and &ussia #roved disa##ointing. Des#ite #ost%898: differences in #u'lic ideologies and #olitical structures4 a ra#idly reviving Ger!any and a !ore slowly resuscitating &ussia coo#erated wit eac ot er and against )oland t roug out !ost of t e 89DEs. 1et )oland 'y erself was inca#a'le of #reventing eit er t e restoration of Ger!anyMs and &ussiaMs #ower or t e resu!#tion of t eir traditional #olicy of !utual colla'oration at )olandMs e. 3n t e w ole4 t erefore4 t e efforts to create a collective East "entral Euro#ean # alan. T e !ultilateral (ocarno Treaties of 3cto'er 8>4 89DG4 w ic #artially legiti!ated4 as it were4 Ger!anyNs anti%)olis revisionis! 'y acce#ting er legal%#olitical distinction 'etween t e validity of er western and er eastern frontiers4 ad 'roug t to t e fore *ranceMs unrelia'ility as )olandMs ally and BritainMs indifference to )olandMs security interests in relation to Ger!any. Euro#ean di#lo!atic develo#!ents in t e !ont s #receding )ilsudskiMs cou# ad starkly e!# asized )olandMs vulnera'ilities in t e s# ere of foreign affairs. T e second strategy was di#lo!atically a!'itious 'ut 'roug t only !eager results. Half a year later4 Ger!any and &ussia reaffir!ed t eir L&a#allo #olicyL of close coo#eration – i!#licitly 'ut categorically at )olandNs e.
Hoff!ann and Ser iy 3sta#enko . *ro! t e left< General Brink!ann4 Mykola (iu'ynsky4 Mykola (evytsky4 3leksandr Sevriuk4 General Ma.Signing of t e )eace Treaty 'etween 6kraine and t e "entral )owers in Brest%(itovsk on t e nig t of *e'ruary 94 898: =and 'eginning of *e'ruary 8E4 898:?.V l!ann =Ger!anyMs Secretary of State for *oreign $ffairs? and @asil &adoslavov =)ri!e Minister of Bulgaria? Signing of t e )eace Treaty of Brest%(itovsk during t e nig t 'etween *e'ruary 9 and 8E4 898:. Sitting in t e !iddle fro! t e left< "ount 3ttokar "zernin =*oreign Minister of $ustria%Hungary?4 &ic ard von .
( 8lone "unman9 and 5ussian :ewish assassin named Sholom Schwart2bard assassinated Symon Petliura in Paris on 6ay 7.iev 3ffensive of t e )olis %Soviet +ar. T e )olis ar!y4 reinforced 'y )etliuraMs re!aining troo#s =an esti!ated two divisions?4 attacked .ile of t e 6krainian )eo#leNs &e#u'lic4 during t e .General $ntoni (istowski =left? !eets wit 6krainian nationalist Sy!on )etliura =rig t?4 ead of t e govern!ent%in%e. General 0Wzef )iXsudski of )oland =center? !eets wit 6krainian nationalist Sy!on )etliura =rig t and far rig t? in .iev4 6kraine in May 89DE during t e ongoing )olis %Soviet +ar.iev on May I4 89DE.in 89DE.iev in 0une 89DE. 197<# . T e Soviet &ed $r!y ca#tured .
iev early in Marc . $s as 'een said4 t e cultural leaders of .ozaks.+raine 'y Mic ael Hrus evsky =#u'lis ed in 8978?4 #. GD8 . 7DD%7DH FThe $ussian $e/olution and the 0iberation o( .uality and freedo! for e.#ression and develo#!ent #roved futile.FT e li!itation of 6krainian autono!y in t e Het!an state of eastern 6kraine was an o!inous sign for t e w ole country4 for t e cultural center ever since t e !iddle of t e seventeent century ad 'een at . )eters'urg ad 'een rena!ed. Moreover4 during t e seventeent century (viv was losing econo!ic ground 'ecause of s ort%sig ted )olis econo!ic #olicies4 and wit econo!ic decline t e energy of t e 6krainian #atriots was weakened. T ere were several 6krainians in contact wit t e co!!anding officers of one of t e regi!ents w ic took t e initiative4 and 6krainian soldiers and working!en #layed a leading #art in t e actual revolt. )olis !unici#al govern!ent did not ad!it t e #artici#ation of 6krainians and a!#ered t eir econo!ic and co!!ercial freedo!4 and none of t e 6krainian co!#laints to t e central govern!ent 'roug t any relief. +it t e advent of de#ression4 t e !ore energetic and active 6krainians left (viv and Galicia and !oved into eastern 6kraine to 2oin t e .iev and a 6krainian national organ of govern!ent was set u# under t e na!e of Ft e 6krainian "entral "ouncilJ =6krainska "entralna &ada?.iev t e center of 6krainian life4 w ile (viv and t e rest of Galicia4 a'andoned 'y t e !ost energetic #eo#le4 'egan to lose t eir for!er cultural significance. In 6kraine t e in a'itants received wit 2oy t e news of t e downfall of t e &o!anovs as tidings of an event destined to 'ring a'out t e e!anci#ation of t eir fat erland. !elnitsky te!#orarily i!#roved conditions in eastern 6kraine and attracted large nu!'ers of #eo#le to !ove t ere. In t e second #art of t e seventeent century t e 6krainian national !ove!ent lost its significance even !ore ra#idly4 in #art 'ecause . T ese #eo#le4 owever4 'eca!e )olonized4 as did t e towns#eo#le of (viv4 and all t eir efforts to gain #olitical e.teent century was t e city of (viv wit its 'rot er ood4 w ic gat ered a'out itself and gave organization to not only t e 6krainian towns#eo#le of (viv 'ut to t e 6krainian in a'itants of all eastern Galicia as well.iev led to a general cultural decline.tre!ely difficult.iev during t e t ird decade of t e seventeent century ca!e c iefly fro! (viv4 and it was t ey w o !ade .J – A History o( . >nce they were !olitically se!arated the two !arts of U&raine drifted further and further a!art the western section remainin" sub1ect to Polish influences while the eastern fell under the im!ress of 5ussia# $he sub1ection of the U&rainian Gree& >rthodo+ Church to the Patriarch of 6oscow which was accom!lished a"ainst the will of the U&rainian cler"y and !eo!le severed the connection between the dioceses of eastern and western U&raine and enabled Poland to force Catholicism u!on the U&rainians with "reater ease while the 5ussification of U&rainian schools and literature in eastern U&raine raised a barrier a"ainst the western !ortion of the country / in #ro#ortion as t e sources of cultural i!#ulse weakened and dried u# in western 6kraine4 its se#aration fro! .+raine" &ussian o##ression of 6kraine always reac ed a ig #oint during t e cele'ration of S evc enko Ms na!e day4 and #ersecutions were unusually severe w en t e revolution of *e'ruary DG =Marc 8E?4 898I4Lsuddenly 'roke out in )etrograd4 as St. T e "entral &ada4 as it was co!!only known4 was an asse!'lyYJ – A History o( . $n old organization of 6krainian )rogressives4 w ic ad acted in secret 'efore t is ti!e4 now 'roug t its #rogra! into t e o#en and 'egan to organize a new 6krainian govern!ent in . T e (viv 'rot er ood lost its i!#ortance/ and its c ief glory4 t e sc ool4 declined in t e !iddle decades of t e seventeent century4 after w ic t e !ain activity of t e 'rot er ood consisted in t e #u'lis ing of " urc 'ooks4 es#ecially liturgies4 w ic it #rovided to all eastern 6kraine.iev. $s its #u'lications #rovided t e c ief source of inco!e for t e 'rot er ood4 w ic t erefore #laced a ig value u#on t is activity and es#ecially u#on its !ono#oly of #u'lication of 'ooks for t e " urc 4 it #er!itted no ot er 6krainian #resses to o#en in (viv. It as 'een noted t at t e cultural center of western 6kraine at t e end of t e si. T e 6krainian co!!unity in )etrograd #layed an i!#ortant #art in t e u#rising. *ro! ere education and culture ad gone out to su##ly t e needs of re!ote sections of 6kraine4 es#ecially t at #art w ic was under t e rule of )oland. $he !artitionin" of U&raine in 1<<) between Poland and 5ussia had dealt a deadly blow to U&rainian life by se!aratin" =iev from western U&raine and this act had !rovo&ed the U&rainians to fury a"ainst 5ussia for her betrayal in dividin" their country with Poland# $lt oug t ey atte!#ted 'y every !eans at t eir co!!and to #reserve t eir cultural and national life4 t ey found t is e.+raine 'y Mic ael Hrus evsky =#u'lis ed in 8978?4 " a#ter TTI@ =6krainian Inde#endence?4 #. "o!!unications were esta'lis ed wit all t e #olitical grou#s in .
In Galicia4 w ere t e $ustrian govern!ent ad #ersecuted t e #ro%&ussian faction4 t e )oles saw an o##ortunity to accuse t e 6krainians of !any cri!es4 and w en ostilities actually 'egan t e )olis officials in Galicia took advantage of t e war e!ergency to attack t e 6krainian intellectuals. #riests. G87%G8I . )ro i'itive activity of t is kind reac ed its zenit early in 898I4 a few weeks 'efore t e Marc revolution and t e downfall of t e &o!anov dynasty4 w en t e &ussian govern!ent issued a secret order to t e #rinters in .as#erated t e )olis and &ussian ene!ies of 6kraine4 w o waited i!#atiently for an o##ortunity to #ut an end to t e !ove!ent.FThe 1irst World War" T e !arked develo#!ent of 6krainian nationalis! in #rewar ti!es4 'ot in $ustrian and &ussian 6kraine4 e.iling t e leaders4 es#ecially !en of #ro!inence4 on !ere sus#icion4 and even e. T ey e. T e &ussian ad!inistration in Galicia4 w ose official advisers were 6krainian renegades and w ose unofficial advisers were )oles4 !aintained t at t e )oles s ould ave s#ecial national rig ts in Galicia4 w ile t e 6krainians and t e 0ews s ould not 'e favored 'ut s ould 'e o'liged to acce#t t e &ussian language and culture4 a declaration to t is effect 'eing !ade 'y Bo'rinsky during is visit to &ussia in t e s#ring of 898G4 after t e last &ussian victory in Galicia and t e ca#ture of )ere!ys l4 w en it a##eared certain t at Galicia would 'e anne. ol!4 )idlias e4 @olynia4 and )odolia4 w ere t e &ussian !ilitary aut orities atte!#ted to re!ove t e 6krainian in a'itants 'y force into t e interior of &ussia. + en t e Ger!an ar!y later advanced toward t e &ussian 'order4 again it was 6krainians w o 'ore t e 'runt of t e suffering4 es#ecially in t e #rovinces of . + en t e &ussians were co!#elled to retreat fro! t e su'%"ar#at ian region4 t ey took wit t e! all t e in a'itants t ey could gat er/ and !any ot ers4 fearing )olis #ersecution4 also de#arted 'efore t e Hungarian and Ger!an ar!ies arrived. In &ussia e.+raine 'y Mic ael Hrus evsky =#u'lis ed in 8978?4 " a#ter TTI@ =6krainian Inde#endence?4 #.ed Bosnia in 89E:. T ere were instances w ere insane and deaf !utes were seized4 F'roug t to account4J and e. Many t ousands of #easants allured 'y t e glowing #ro!ises of t e &ussians voluntarily acco!#anied t e &ussian ar!y to &ussia. 6nder t e #retense of co!'ating t e &usso# iles4 t e )oles arrested ot er 6krainians as well4 i!#risoning and e.ed to &ussia.iev registering fifteen t ousand cases4 'ut a fraction of t e total. To evade t e censors i# t ere4 editors4 aut ors4 and #u'lis ers atte!#ted to !ove to ot er cities4 'ut everyw ere !et wit t e o##osition of t e officials4 t eir #u'lications 'eing eit er #ro i'ited outrig t or #laced under restrictions4 t e censor in 3dessa4 for instance4 de!anding t at t e aut or su'!it t ree co#ies of t e !anuscri#t 'efore #rinting4 under t reat of confiscation of t e #rinted !atter and #adlocking of t e #ress/ t is #rocedure was even !ore ar!ful t an o#en censors i# 'ecause it wasted ti!e4 energy4 and !oney4 and in t e end ruined t e #u'lis er. 6kraine ad not undergone suc a de#o#ulation since t e Fgreat evictionJ of t e 8>IENs.ecuting a few wit out trial. #riests were sent to take t eir #laces4 w ile suc #riests as dared to face t e &ussian invasion were #ressed to acce#t t e 3rt odo. $he 5ussian !lans for destruction were bad enou"h but the manner in which they were e+ecuted was even worse# 5ussian officials later admitted that durin" their occu!ation of Galicia the country had fallen into the hands of scoundrel officials sent in by the 5ussian "overnment who too& advanta"e of war conditions to conduct themselves lawlessly !lunderin" the homes of the inhabitants abusin" the U&rainian and :ewish !o!ulace and wrec&in" the U&rainian cultural or"ani2ations# ?n some !laces U&rainian cler"y scientists and other intellectuals were e+!elled from their homes and communities# $his was done in a ty!ically barbarous manner !eo!le bein" sei2ed as they were and wherever they were found with com!lete disre"ard for human ri"hts men and women children and invalids ali&e bein" e+iled to Siberia# T e lives of an incredi'le nu!'er of u!an 'eings were t us u#rooted4 one of t e relief co!!ittees in .#ected suc an o##ortunity to arise in t e event of war 'etween $ustria and &ussia4 ostile to eac ot er ever since $ustria ad anne. While 5ussia was ma&in" deliberate and s&ilful attem!ts to stifle the U&rainian movement in 5ussian U&raine she was ma&in" efforts from the time of her invasion of the !rovince in 191@ to destroy the U&rainian culture in Galicia by sheer force# Several wee&s after the 5ussians ca!tured %viv they set u! a 5ussian administration under Count (# G# *obrins&y who be"an systematically to li. (t the very be"innin" of the war all U&rainian !ublications of a !olitical character were su!!ressed and lar"e numbers of U&rainian leaders arrested and sent into e+ile# T e censors i# in . *efore its downfall the 5ussian "overnment dis!layed its com!lete stu!idity its intention clearly bein" to destroy the U&rainians as a nation by destroyin" their culture and their educated leader shi! and by de!o!ulatin" their country and coloni2in" it with Poles throu"h whom it was to be controlled# J – A History o( .iev to #rint not ing in t e 6krainian language.tre!e reactionaries4 intensely dis#leased 'y 6krainian #rogress4 t reatened t at in case of war t ey would ang every 6krainian4 !eanw ile a##ealing to t e govern!ent to su##ress t e advance of nationalis!. ?n 5ussian U&raine at the be"innin" of the war the 5ussian "overnment !re!ared and !ut into effect a !lan of systematic !ersecution of the U&rainian leaders its activity in this res!ect becomin" more drastic after 5ussia had ca!tured %viv the ca!ital of Galicia# (ll enemies of the U&rainians now had some assurance of bein" able to !ut an end to the U&rainian movement by destroyin" the source of its cultural "rowth in Galicia and the motto of the 5ussian administration became 8death to U&rainianism#9 )rior to t e war t e govern!ent ad not followed t e advice of t e o'scurantist anti%6krainian forces4 'ut it now took t e offensive.iled to Si'eria in #lace of ot ers w o ad succeeded in 'ri'ing t e &ussian officials. 6krainian Galicia was co!#letely desolated 'y t e &ussian occu#ation of 8987%8G.iev. fait / t e officials also #ersuaded t e #eo#le to #etition for 3rt odo.azan or )er!4 or 'eyond t e 6ral Mountains. (awsuits were instituted against innocent 6krainian aut ors in order co!#letely to su##ress t e 6krainian #u'lications in . )eo#le and livestock died on t e way4 and trains were 2a!!ed wit innocent victi!s trans#orted to .iev under t e direction of old ene!ies of t e 6krainians #roclai!ed t at it would #er!it no 6krainian #u'lications w atever unless t ey were written in t e &ussian ort ogra# y4 alt oug t is act was an illegal a##lication of t e law of 8:I>4 w ic ad su##ressed 6krainian news#a#ers only.uidate all U&rainian "ains thus far made# (t the very outset he su!!ressed all U&rainian news!a!ers closed the libraries and readin" rooms and dissolved the U&rainian societies0 the ne+t ste! was to arrest and e+ile to Siberia all 8dan"erous9 and 8sus!ected9 authors# $he use of the U&rainian lan"ua"e was forbidden in schools and "overnment# Ste!s were ta&en to abolish the local Uniate Catholic Church and to force the acce!tance of the 5ussian >rthodo+ Church# + en 6krainian 6niate #riests could not 'e found4 !any 'eing in e.ile or in flig t4 3rt odo.
'ol! s ould not 'e given to t e new )oland4 and t at a 6krainian stat s ould 'e created out of t e 6krainian districts of Galicia and Bukovina.uered 6krainian districts. It #rovided t at w ile Ger!any would dis#ose of t e for!er &ussian #rovinces of )oland4 $ustrian )oland would continue to re!ain in t e ands of $ustria.#lained t at t e #rovince was to 'eco!e virtually as inde#endent as t e )olis kingdo! newly restored under Ger!an #rotection. Galicia would not 'e divided4 as 6krainians ad o#ed4 into se#arate 6krainian =eastern? and )olis =western? #arts4 'ut would 'e governed as a unit4 w ic in #ractice !eant t at it would 'e ruled 'y )oles and t at t e 6krainian in a'itants would ave no direct recourse to t e $ustrian govern!ent. It was officially e. organized in 898G4 and t e 6nion for t e (i'eration of 6kraine ad #resented to t e $ustrian govern!ent a de!and t at t e 6krainian districts con. $ FGeneral 6krainian "ouncilJ = 6ahalna .uered fro! &ussia s ould 'e allowed to constitute a se#arate 6krainian state4 t at t e #rovince of . T is arrange!ent dealt a deadly 'low to t e as#irations of t e 6krainians in Galicia4 es#ecially to t ose leaders w o ad re!ained loyal to $ustria during t e war and ad o#ed in t is !anner to dis#rove )olis accusations of treason and to 'e rewarded 'y freedo! fro! )olis control.#lanation. $ll t e 6krainian #etitions in 'e alf of Galicia4 suffering under t e corru#t &ussian rule4 were filed away. + en Sazonov4 t e !inister of foreign affairs4 declared 'efore t e &ussian du!a in 898G t at t e 6krainian !ove!ent was 'eing su##orted 'y Ger!an !oney4 none of t e 6krainian LalliesL #resent dared to raise a #rotest against t is #atent lie. T e du!a4 owever4 was dis!issed 'efore action could 'e taken4 and consideration of t e 6krainian #ro'le! was #ost#oned. Meanw ile4 t e li'eral leader Struve and ot er ene!ies astened to take advantage of t e war co!#letely to destroy t e 6krainians as a se#arate #eo#le.ile t e 6krainians fro! Galicia were left under t e control of )oles4 in order t at t ey !ig t feel t eir L'rot erly andL in distant Si'eria.isting conditions it was not safe to o##ose &ussian autocracy 'ecause of suc FinsignificantJ acts as t e govern!entMs assault on t e 6krainians. To a certain #oint t e 6krainians of Galicia ad followed t eir leaders i#4 es#ecially at t e o#ening of t e war. Meeting wit strong o##osition fro! t e )oles4 w o 'ad great influence over t e !ilitary aut orities t ese de!ands ad 'roug t no results/ 'ut in s#ite of t is disa##oint!ent t e 6krainian states!en ad atte!#ted to encourage t eir #eo#le 'y assuring t e! t at 'etter arrange!ents would 'e !ade after t e war4 'asing t eir o#es on t e #ro!ises of t e #re!ier4 Sturgk 4 and t e !oderating influence of t e Ger!an govern!ent over $ustria.+rains+a $ada5.FT e 6krainian e. + en Ger!any and $ustria 2ointly declared t e inde#endence of )oland on 3cto'er DH =-ove!'er G?4 l98>4 t e $ustrian E!#eror *rancis 0ose# II instructed is c ancellor to #re#are a constitution for Galicia #roviding for t e 'roadest #ossi'le autono!y. T e 6krainian e!igrants fro! &ussia w o ad co!e to live in Galicia after t e unsuccessful &ussian revolution of 89EG were of t e sa!e o#inion and ad organized in8987 in @ienna a F6nion for t e (i'eration of 6kraineJ 23oyu4 )i4/olennia . Even in e. G8:%GD8 .J – A History o( . In t e dark our for &ussia w en er ar!y was co!#elled to evacuate Galicia a few &ussians realized t at t e acts of re#ression ad not succeeded in destroying t e 6krainian !ove!ent 'ut ad reacted against t e interests of &ussia erself4 and during t e s ort session of t e du!a on 0uly 894 898G4 t e govern!ent was severely criticized 'y Miliukov for its ars ness in Galicia and 'ecause it ad Fre2ected our native 6krainian #eo#le and 'roug t disgrace u#on t e idea t at t e war was foug t for freedo!. T e &ussian govern!ent for'ade 6krainian c ildren to 'e ke#t a#art in se#arate grou#s and refused to #er!it t e esta'lis !ent of 6krainian sc ools4 alt oug suc a #rivilege was granted to t e )oles4 (etts4 (it uanians4 and ot er nationalities.+raine 'y Mic ael Hrus evsky =#u'lis ed in 8978?4 " a#ter TTI@ =6krainian Inde#endence?4 #. $he U&rainians in s!ite of the threat of !ersecution a"ain !resented as a minimum demand !ermission to use the U&rainian lan"ua"e in the schools# In 898G t e newly organized &ussian #olitical )rogressive 'loc4 alt oug fearing to include t ese 6krainian de!ands in its #rogra!4 recognized t e necessity of Fallowing 6krainian #u'licationsJ and of Finvestigating i!!ediately cases of t e in a'itants of Galicia w o ad 'een arrestedJ and were languis ing in &ussian #risons. T e new $ustrian #olicy regarding Galicia o#ened t e eyes of 6krainian leaders4 owever4 and t ey finally realized t at $ustria ad again deceived t e!. T ey ad for!ed 6krainian volunteer regi!ents4 known as 3icho/i 3triltsi. so!ew at on t e order of t e )olis legions4 w ic undertook to take c arge of organizing t e con. $fter lengt y 'argaining 'etween $ustria and Ger!any regarding t e future status of )oland4 Ger!any gained a'solute control of t is country 'y e. (lthou"h the 5ussian "overnment continued its o!!ression of U&rainian nationalism for a year and a half lon"er even the 5ussian Pro"ressives never raised their voices in !rotest# While the 5ussian "overnment was ma&in" efforts to destroy the U&rainian movement in 5ussia 4 a new t reat a##eared to t e 6krainians in Galicia. Even t e deat of t e old $ustrian e!#eror and t e accession of anot er did not #ro!ise any relief for t e 6krainians in Galicia4 to w o! only t e &ussian revolution of 898I gave an indication of 'etter days to co!e. Even friends of t e 6krainians eld t e o#inion t at under t e e.iles were not #er!itted to organize t e!selves into war co!!ittees or to aid t e suffering4 nor was anyone #er!itted to 'ring assistance.J T e govern!ent was asked for an e. (ocal 6krainian #atriots ad urged t eir followers to su##ort $ustria in er struggle against &ussia4 in t e o#e t at a victory over &ussian des#otis! would end in li'eration for 6kraine. T e 6krainians of &ussia w o ad coo#erated wit t e &ussian li'erals now soug t t eir el#4 'ut in vain4 and under t e #ressure of t e govern!ent t ere a##eared to 'e co!#lete Funity of t oug tJ in all &ussian circles.+rainy5 wit t e intention of creating a 6krainian state out of t e 6krainian districts seized 'y t e Ger!an ar!ies/ t ey #lanned to give courses in 6krainian citizens i# to all 6krainian soldiers fro! t e &ussian ar!y w o were taken 'y $ustria.#elling General Brusilov in t e su!!er of 898G4 and t e arrange!ent agreed u#on 'etween $ustria and Ger!any could 'e #ut into effect.
+it t e &ussian e!#ire in a state of anarc y4 t e su'2ect #eo#les were all declaring t eir inde#endence4 #artly 'ecause t ey could not for! a federation a#art fro! &ussia4 t e largest #otential !e!'er. T e )rovisional Govern!ent fell as t e result of an u#rising in )etrograd led 'y t e Bols eviks4 w o in turn organized a new ad!inistration 'y F)eo#leMs "o!!issars4J w ic neit er t e #eo#le nor t e ar!y were #re#ared to su##ort. T e earlier #lan of a federated &ussia was now co!#letely discarded. T e &ada finally 'eca!e convinced t at t e #rocla!ation of t e inde#endence of a 6krainian re#u'lic !ust 'e !ade wit out delay 'ut t at it !ust disclose t e de!ocratic and socialist c aracter of t e resurrected 6krainian state.t attacked t e govern!ent finances 'y #reventing t e sending of &ussian !oney to 6kraine4 t us forcing t e 6krainians to asten t e coinage of t eir own !oney.ozaks to return o!e fro! t e front t roug 6kraine4 the *olshevi& Peo!le's Commissars at the end of Aovember formally declared war on U&raine# $he *olshevi&s accused the U&rainian "overnment of counterrevolutionary activity of an alliance with General =aledin the head of the . 6kraine4 too4 was o'liged to safeguard er #olitical destiny4 and in suc a c aotic ti!e t e only safety lay in a strong and inde#endent state ood.%#risoners of war4 students of t e !ilitary acade!ies4 and ot ers/ 'ut t ey failed co!#letely4 for t eir intrigues were disclosed and t e re#resentatives of t e old regi!e and t eir associates were forced out of . *inally t e Bols eviks collected &ussian troo#s fro! t e front and sent t e! into 6kraine to dis'and t e "entral &ada. Because t e 6krainian govern!ent would not #er!it t e #assage of Bols evik detac !ents across t e country to t e Don4 'ut allowed t e Don . T e only way to create it was to lay a strong foundation4 since t e General Secretariat could not re!ain sus#ended in air as t e organ of a govern!ent w ic did not e.iev was instructed to investigate t ese two 'odies and to take #unitive !easures against t e!. T e General Secretariat itself ad to 'eco!e t e govern!ent of t e 6krainian state4 a #lan w ic a (egion "onvention su##orted in 3cto'er and w ic was revolved in !any de'ates at t e !eetings of t e "entral &ada.#lain t e #ur#ose of t e congress. T e #rocla!ation announced t e for!ation of a new 6krainian -ational &e#u'lic4 #laced a few li!itations u#on t e #rivate owners i# of land4 introduced t e eig t% our day and control over t e !eans of #roduction4 and ai!ed at 'ringing a'out a conclusion of t e war4 a!nesty to #olitical #risoners4 t e a'olition of ca#ital #unis !ent4 court and ad!inistrative refor!s4 and #ersonal !inority rig ts for t e non%6krainian in a'itants of 6kraine. T e Bols eviks t en decided to disru#t t e 6krainian govern!ent4 w ic t ey accused of 'eing 'ourgeois4 and de!anded t e su'!ission of t e "entral &ada. *or a long ti!e t e &ussian re#u'lic was in a state of anarc y4 t e #rovinces4 including *inland and 6kraine4 leading an inde#endent life and resisting t e Bols evik #ro#aganda w ic called for Fall #ower to t e soviets4J t at is4 to councils !ade u# of re#resentatives of la'or4 t e ar!y4 and t e #easants.+raine 'y Mic ael Hrus evsky =#u'lis ed in 8978?4 #.on =o2a&s and reco"nition of the soviet form of "overnment B "overnment by councils of soldiers wor&ers and !easants B in U&raine# Since acce!tance of these demands would have destroyed all U&rainian autonomy and !laced the country in incom!etent hands the U&rainian "overnment refused to com!ly whereu!on the *olshevi&s !roclaimed the U&rainian 5ada an assembly of reactionary ca!italistic factions and swam!ed the country with *olshevi& a"itators who s!read all manner of lies about the U&rainian authorities# T e Bols eviks ne.FT e &ussian coalition govern!ent ad recognized 6krainian autono!y 'ecause of t e circu!stances at t e ti!e and 'ecause it feared t e antirevolutionary activity of General .isting order4 a stroke w ic t e govern!ent warded off 'y calling a #easant convention for t e sa!e ti!e and #lace. In t e !eanti!e t e !e!'ers of t e General Secretariat were directed to a##ear at )etrograd to e. T e ca'inet esta'lis ed contacts wit t e re#resentatives of t e Social%De!ocrat and t e Social%&evolutionary #arties and wit t e! #re#ared t e T ird )rocla!ation to t e 6krainian #eo#le4 w ic was ado#ted 'y t e "entral &ada wit reservations4 and #u'lis ed on -ove!'er I =DE?4 898I. T e re#resentatives of t e )rovisional Govern!ent #resent in .#ectedly4 owever4 circu!stances again underwent a c ange.iev and its vicinity.iev in t e <first days of Dece!'er wit t e o'2ect of overt rowing t e e. In . T e #easant convention took a decided stand in su##ort of t e "entral &ada. T is was a s#lendid #rogra!4 and t e "entral &ada and General Secretariat did t eir 'est to fulfill at least a #art of it4 t e first ste# 'eing to old elections of re#resentatives to a )an%6krainian "ongress4 w ic was to 'uild t e state not on a revolutionary 'ut on a constitutional 'asis.J – A History o( .ozaks4 "zec e.iev accused t e "entral &ada of 'eing in alliance wit Bols evis! and took ste#s to destroy 'ot alike4 !aking use of . 6nder t ese circu!stances it was no easy task to create a single strong and aut oritative organ of govern!ent in t e country4 alt oug it was very necessary.ist and w ic ad no o#e of 'eing esta'lis ed. &esolutions #roviding for suc an aut ority were ado#ted 'y t e "entral &ada4 'ut t ey were not enoug .ornilov4 w ic ad al!ost overt rown t e govern!ent.on =o2a&s and of coo!eration with other reactionary factions and accordin"ly delivered an ultimatum demandin" !ermission from the U&rainian "overnment for their forces to march across the country 1oint action a"ainst the . GHE%GHH . $t t e close of 3cto'er t e govern!ent was in a des#erate situation4 caug t as it was 'etween two ostile ca!#s.#ression in t e T ird (egion "onvention4 w ic convened on 3cto'er DE4 and in t e autu!n session of t e "entral &ada. T is was a difficult task4 for t roug out t is #eriod 6kraine was in a state of anarc y. T e &ussian #rosecutor at . 6ne.iev and t e ot er larger cities civil war 'roke out and t reatened to result in co!#lete anarc y. T e eig t session of t e "entral &ada4 convoked in t e !iddle of Dece!'er4 revealed t e resolute will of t e #eo#le to defend t e aut ority of t e &ada and t e sovereignty of inde#endent 6kraine. *ut as soon as the dan"er !assed the =erens&y "overnment decided to withdraw U&rainian autonomy i"norin" the U&rainian administration and attem!tin" to rule U&raine without it# $he 5ussian Provisional Government a!!ointed hi"h commissioners for U&raine refused to "ive the U&rainian authorities material su!!ort i"nored their declarations and re!resentatives and ended by offerin" direct o!!osition to the wor& of the General Secretariat while the 5ussian senate a relic of the old autocracy desirin" to stress the fact that it still e+isted refused to !ublish the ?nstructions of the General Secretariat and thus de!rived them of le"al standin"# (t len"th =erens&y’s cabinet itself turned com!letely a"ainst the U&rainian "overnment# It soug t to utilize t e co!ing )an%6krainian "ongress to indict t e General Secretariat and t e "entral &ada. Si!ultaneously a Bols evik convention was called to !eet in . T is action on t e #art of t e &ussians aroused t e 6krainians w ose o##osition was given e. T e Bols evik govern!ent4 as soon as it ad assured itself of its #osition in &ussia4 dis#atc ed its ar!ies4 not to t e front to fig t against t e Ger!ans and $ustrians4 'ut to 6kraine to fig t against t e 6krainian govern!ent4 w ic was disar!ing all ostile forces and sending t e! out of t e country.
$t t e end of Dece!'er and early in 0anuary4 eastern 6kraine4 t e Black Sea region4 and suc cities as )oltava4 .iev itself t ere was continuous #ro#aganda against t e 6krainian govern!ent and against t e 6krainians in general w ic al!ost co!#letely de!oralized t e local 6krainian regi!ents t at not so long 'efore ad arrived eager to defend t eir country. To t e evils of econo!ic de#ression were added t ose of #olitical anarc y.ievan region and advanced on 6kraine fro! sout 4 east4 and nort .#lain to t e &ussian govern!ent t e #ro#osal for a )an%6krainian congress4 t e Bols eviks and e.J – A History o( .re!enc uk were in t e ands of t e Bols eviks4 w o #revented delivery of coal su##lies to t e . Events in . In . T ese Bols evik successes caused even t e 6krainian leaders to waver as t e &ussian Bols eviks #ro#ounded t eir syste! to t e 6krainian radicals4 atte!#ting to #rove t at Bols evis! was t e logical develo#!ent of t e #rogra! of t e socialists4 w o !ust ado#t t e Bols evik slogans if t ey did not wis to 'e wi#ed out 'y Bols evis!. *ro! t e 'eginning of t e revolution t e 6krainian #eo#le in all t eir conventions ad e. GHH%GH> FIn addition to t e 6krainian war wit Bols evis!4 6kraine continued to old t e front against t e "entral )owers.iev called anot er !eeting in .erenskyNs govern!ent4 t ey #ro!ised to 'ring t e war to a close4 and late in -ove!'er o#ened negotiations wit t e "entral )owers at Brest%(itovsk =Bereste?.ozaks as t ey were called4 eit er 2oined t e Bols eviks4 declared t e!selves neutral4 or si!#ly deserted t eir regi!ents and went o!e4 as did a large nu!'er at " rist!as. $s Bols evik agitation 'egan to take effect4 t e ar!y 'eca!e disorganized4 t e soldiers at t e front stole !ilitary su##lies4 deserted4 and on t eir way o!e #lundered everyt ing in t eir #at 4 w ile t e villages were occu#ied 'y anarc ist 'ands w ic gained t e su##ort of t e weak and terrorized t ose o##osed to t e!.+raine 'y Mic ael Hrus evsky =#u'lis ed in 8978?4 #. arkiv were #resent. Declaring t at t e "entral &ada did not re#resent t e will of t e 6krainian working #eo#le4 t e convention a##ealed to t e !asses to o##ose it. Bols evik #ro#aganda ad already 'een widely s#read since t e eig t session of t e "entral &ada4 at w ic t e e. $fter t is4 'ands of Bols evik soldiers and &ed Guards4 consisting of ar!ed la'orers and ot ers in t e service of t e Bols eviks4 instead of going on to t e Don to fig t against t e counterrevolutionists as t ey ad said t ey would do4 'egan to advance along t e railroads into t e eart of 6kraine4 carrying t eir #oisonous #ro#aganda to t e #rovinces of )oltava and .#ressed a desire for an i!!ediate ter!ination of t e war4 into w ic t ey ad 'een drawn against t eir will 'y tsarist &ussia.isting national govern!ent.#osed to invasion 'y t e Ger!ans and t e #eo#le were de!anding #eace.aterinoslav4 3dessa4 and . $ grou# of Bols eviks w o ad failed in t eir atte!#t to old t e convention in . + en t e Soviet delegates 'egan to dis#lay t eir inconsistency4 first declaring t eir readiness to sue for #eace and t en retreating into Bols evik # raseology4 t e "entral &ada aut orized its delegates at Brest%(itovsk to !ake a se#arate #eace wit t e "entral )owers4 regardless of w at t e &ussians !ig t do. T e 6krainian aut orities realized t e difficulty of t eir #osition4 and t e "entral &ada o#ed to transfer its aut ority to t e new ca'inet to 'e for!ed 0anuary 94 898:4 in accordance wit a *ourt )rocla!ation.tre!e Social &evolutionaries o#ing t at if t e 6krainian Social &evolutionaries gained control of t e govern!ent t ey would 'ring to a close t e &usso%6krainian war and #ut an end to anarc y in 6kraine.tre!e Social &evolutionaries fro! . T eir co!ing furt er encouraged local grou#s already incited 'y #ro#agandists4 t e local #o#ulation was terrorized4 and alt oug t e 6krainian garrison eld out for two days4 it finally ad to give in. T is effort to continue t e war was a great !istake on its #art4 as it not only destroyed gains won 'y t e revolution 'ut also endangered 6kraine. arkiv re#eated t e!selves in ot er cities/ as soon as t e Bols evik 'ands arrived4 various grou#s4 !ostly 0ewis and &ussian4 caused insurrections in t e cities and at stations along t e Z railroads. $s soon as t e Bols eviks ad overt rown .FIndependent . T ese events 'roug t uncertainty into 6krainian #olitics at a critical !o!ent. erson. T e #lundering and destruction of estates4 ware ouses4 and factories 'eca!e co!!on4 so t at t e wealt of t e country was dissi#ated and its #roductive forces weakened.+raine 'y Mic ael Hrus evsky =#u'lis ed in 8978?4 #. But t e 6krainian govern!ent ad no !ilitary su##lies wit w ic to o##ose t e "entral )owers4 and furt er!ore t e country was e. 1et 'ecause of t e war wit Bols evis! t e elections4 w ic were to ave 'een eld in Dece!'er 898I4 and decisions regarding all i!#ortant issues ad to 'e #ost#oned. 6nder t e influence of t eir #ro#aganda revolts 'roke out in t e 6krainian regi!ents newly organized or taken over 'y #atriots/ t e soldiers were told t at t e struggle was against t e ca#italistic "entral &ada and for t e socialization of 6kraine. arkiv on t e #retense of fig ting t eir way to t e Don and re!ained t ere.erensky4 ad not dared to !ake #eace wit t e "entral )owers4 'ut ad on t e contrary atte!#ted to assist t e $llies 'y olding t e eastern front. T e "entral &ada t erefore sent a delegation to Brest%(itovsk4 w ere it was to 2oin t e Soviet delegates in !aking a treaty of #eace. &evolutionary grou#s also went to )etrograd to e. arkiv4 w ere4 on Dece!'er 8H4 898I4 t ey set u# a Bols evik govern!ent for 6kraine in o##osition to t e e.+raine< During t e last alf of Dece!'er 898I4 t e #osition of 6kraine 'eca!e even !ore critical. Many 6krainian soldiers4 or . T e "entral &ada of t e 6krainian govern!ent4 w ic since t e ti!e of t e #rocla!ation of 6krainian inde#endence ad ai!ed at ending t e war4 decided to take #art in t is #eace conference. T ese efforts would ave ad a !usical%co!edy ending4 'ut unfortunately 'ands of &ussian Bols eviks !ade u# of soldiers and sailors and vaga'onds 'roke into .J – A History o( . T ey furt er called for t e election of a new "entral &ada at a convention of soviets to consist of de#uties of soldiers and workers4 and t e transference to t e local soviets of all local aut ority. 6ntil 6kraine #roclai!ed er inde#endence4 owever4 s e was una'le to !ake an a##earance in international #olitics as an inde#endent #olitical unit/ and !eanw ile t e &ussian govern!ent4 'ot under )rince (vov and under . GH>%GHI . T e $llied )owers%first *rance and t en England – w ic ad astened to recognize t e 6krainian -ational &e#u'lic atte!#ted to #ersuade t e 6krainian govern!ent not to !ake #eace wit t e "entral )owers4 #ro!ising 6kraine generous assistance if s e would continue to fig t against t e "entral )owers and t reatening er wit !any ills if s e signed a se#arate treaty.
F$!id t e endless factional and #arty discussions t at were eld in t e . ?n reality U&raine had been an inde!endent nation to some e+tent ever since the downfall of the =erens&y re"ime and more com!letely since the last session of the Central 5ada# $his inde!endence had been reco"ni2ed by the Central Powers and by the re!resentatives of the Council of Peo!le's Commissars at *rest/%itovs& on .iev at t is critical !o!ent in t e struggle for 6krainian freedo!.iev4 following t e declaration of 6krainian inde#endence cul!inated in an insurrection in .ecember FG C:anuary 17D 191) but it re. $ nu!'er of social refor!s were ordered in t e interests of t e la'oring #o#ulation4 in accordance wit t e general #rinci#les set fort 'y t e T ird )rocla!ation – 'y transfer of land to t e workers4 nationalization of t e forests4 waters4 and !ineral resources4 t e creation of work for t e une!#loyed4 t e introduction of !ono#olies in co!!erce in goods !ost needed 'y t e workers4 and control over 'ank credit. T e )rocla!ation was a##roved in its final for! and #u'lis ed 'y t e "entral &ada on 0anuary 88 =D7?4 898:4 alt oug t e date of 0anuary 9 =DD? was retained.+raine 'y Mic ael Hrus evsky =#u'lis ed in 8978?4 #. + en t e $llied )owers4 es#ecially t e *renc 4 sus#ected t at 6kraine !ig t 2oin Soviet &ussia4 t ey ad t reatened in case of se#arate #eace wit Ger!any to de#rive er of t e resources w ic t ey controlled wit in er 'orders. It was necessary4 t en4 for 6kraine to define er #olicy to t e foreign nations4 and t is was anot er reason for #roclai!ing t e inde#endence of t e 6krainian -ational &e#u'lic. T e de!o'ilization of t e ar!y was ordered4 to 'e acco!#anied 'y reconstruction of t e devastated areas4 alteration of t e factories and s o#s fro! a war to a #eace 'asis4 and various !easures for satisfying t e returning soldiers as to t eir #olitical rig ts.uarters of t e "entral &ada w ile . GHI%GH9 . $nd t is ostile attitude toward 6kraine4 w ic ad already !ade its a##earance wit suc force in t e co!!ercial centers and es#ecially in t e 6krainian ca#ital of .iev was 'eing 'esieged 'y t e Bols eviks4 it was decided at lengt 'y a !a2ority of t e !e!'ers to take a definite stand against Bols evis!.uired formal confirmation which was !rovided by the 'ourth Proclamation decided u!on on :anuary 9# ?t !roclaimed the U&rainian 5e!ublic 8an inde!endent and soverei"n !ower of the U&rainian !eo!le sub1ect to no other authority#9 T e General Secretariat was rena!ed a F"ouncil of )eo#leNs Ministers4MM and its first duties were stated to 'e t e co!#letion of t e #eace negotiations wit t e "entral )owers4 regardless of any o'2ections on t e #art of any section of t e for!er &ussian e!#ire4 and decisive action toward defense and clearing 6kraine of Bols eviks. T ere was so!e o##osition in 6kraine4 t ere 'eing a few 6krainians so enslaved to &ussian culture and govern!ent and so convinced of t e need of a united &ussia or t e traditional ty#e of federation t at t ey were dissatisfied 'y inde#endence even as a !et od of transition to federation.J – A History o( . T is was even !ore true of t e un% 6krainian 6krainians4 w o ad torn t e!selves free fro! t e 6krainian soil and considered t e!selves F&ussians4J of t e &ussians t e!selves4 and #articularly of t e 0ews4 w o failed to realize w ere t e real interests of t e 0ewis #o#ulation of 6kraine lay4 'ut #rotested against 'eing se#arated fro! t e 0ewis organizations of &ussia. >n :anuary 9 C77D 191E the date set for o!enin" the U&rainian Constitutional Convention the decision was ta&en to !roclaim the inde!endence of the U&rainian re!ublic in order to "ain a free hand in international and domestic affairs and to cut the "round from under 5ussian interference in the internal affairs of U&raine and ma&e it clear that the stru""le with the Council of Peo!le’s Commissars and the *olshevi& hands was a war a"ainst 5ussia’s attem!ts to destroy U&rainian inde!endence and not a conflict of !olitical ideas under cover of which real enemies could hide as neutrals# In t eory t e 6krainian grou#s still 'elieved t at federation was t e 'est for! of state life for t e future4 'ut the anti/ U&rainian forces were !reachin" federation with 5ussia merely in order to &ee! the 5ussian em!ire intact and to have an o!!ortunity to continue to o!!ress the non/5ussians as they had done in the !ast# $he su!!orters of federation were !romotin" moreover not only !olitical federation but com!lete unity of economy and all other functions B the same old 5ussian !olicy which had always ham!ered U&rainian !ro"ress# T e &ussian Soviet govern!ent ad dro##ed fro! its #rogra! t e slogan of Fself%deter!ination of nationalities4 even to co!#lete inde#endence4J and o#enly declared itself for a federation4 desiring on t is 'asis to unite t e 6krainian #roletariat wit t e &ussian.
J #oland" By far t e !ost serious 6krainian #ro'le! aside fro! t at of Soviet 6kraine was t e . $gain t e )oles refused to accede. *or a ti!e t e $llies refused to recognize t is decision regarding western 6kraine taken wit out t eir !ediation4 t e "ouncil of t e (eague declaring on *e'ruary DH4 89D84 t at FGalicia is 'eyond t e 'orders of )olandJ and t at Factually )oland is t e !ilitary occu#ant of Galicia4J 'ut neit er #arty to t e agree!ent #aid any attention. T e introduction of !ilitary conscri#tion of 6krainian in a'itants 'y t e )olis govern!ent !et wit strong o##osition. In Se#te!'er and 3cto'er it was finally fi. +it t e aid of funds sent 'y 6krainian%$!ericans4 a 6krainian "itizensM "o!!ittee was founded in (viv in 89D8 to #rovide relief for 6krainians in intern!ent ca!#s4 'ut in t e autu!n it was dissolved and its !e!'ers #laced under arrest. "onsent for t is action was o'tained 'y t e "zec s fro! t e $!erican &uska -ational &ada !eeting in Scranton4 )ennsylvania4 on -ove!'er 8:4 898:. Poland was thus confirmed in !ossession of the U&rainian districts not only of eastern Galicia but of all northwestern U&raine includin" =holm Polisia and Holynia# (bout F. GeorgeNs S. $s early as *e'ruary D:4 89894 an $llied co!!ission under General Bert el!y unsuccessfully !ade an effort to end t e )olis %6krainian conflict 'y suggesting ter!s of #eace/ is efforts were resu!ed 'y an Inter%$llied $r!istice "o!!ission under t e #residency of General Bot a4 w ic on May 8H drafted a )olis %6krainian de!arcation line4 re2ected 'y t e )oles4 owever. !er cent of Poland was com!osed of U&rainian territory# F)oland t us o'tained title to t is territory wit out aving to give anyt ing !ore t an a !oral #ledge in favor of autono!y. &e#ressive !easures of retaliation were taken 'y )oles in t e for! of terroristic acts.uestion of t e relations i# of western 6kraine to )oland4 involving a struggle 'etween )oland and t e 6krainians in w ic t e Su#re!e "ouncil of t e $llies 'eca!e an inter!ediary 'ut wit little desire to act. $fter t e $llies ad given t eir a##roval to t e )olis anne. + en a )olis census was taken in -ove!'er it was 'oycotted 'y t e 6krainians4 as were elections to t e )olis c a!'er of de#uties =Se2!? and t e senate.ile of t e +estern Division of t e 6krainian -ational &e#u'lic4 located in @ienna4 under Dr. 3n 0anuary DE4 89DE4 )oland took a long ste# toward a'sor#tion 'y a'olis ing t e autono!y of 6krainian Galicia and t e 6krainian organizations w ic ad e.J – A History o( . 3n Se#te!'er DG a 6krainian student na!ed Ste# en *edak atte!#ted to assassinate Mars al )ilsudski and Governor Gra'ski4 and soon afterward )oles 'o!'ed suc 6krainian institutions as t e 6niversity Student Ho!e and t e ead. T roug 89D8 and 89DD feeling a!ong t e 6krainians under )olis rule ran ig 4 t e s#ear ead of resistance 'eing t e 6krainian Military 3rganization =6+3?.ecutive co!!ittee of t e 6krainian -ational &ada4 eaded 'y Dr. T e 6krainian *ree 6niversity was transferred fro! @ienna to )rague. It was not until Marc 874 89DH4 t at t e "onference of $!'assadors re#resenting Great Britain4 *rance4 Italy4 and 0a#an !ade furt er resistance i!#ossi'le 'y recognizing t e frontiers of )oland as drawn u# in t e treaty of &iga and refusing to acce#t a #rotest 'y a delegation fro! t e 6krainian -ational &ada of western 6kraine w ic ad astened to )aris to register o'2ections. T e 6krainian Galician ar!y t en wit drew east of t e S'ruc . *inally4 in order to o'tain t e consent of t e $llies for t e anne. G>E%G>7 . In t e su!!er Metro#olitan $ndrew S e#titsky4 ead of t e 6krainian 6niate " urc 4 returned fro! a visit to t e 6nited States4 was #laced in confine!ent and eld fro! $ugust DD to 3cto'er G. )etrus evic .ed 'y er4 and e.uare in (viv4 0ulian &o!anc uk4 t e dean of 6krainian leaders4 ad!inistering to t e asse!'ly an oat t at t e 6krainian #eo#le would never renounce t eir rig ts to t e inde#endence of t eir native land.ui##ed 'y t e $llies4 su##osedly for use against t e Soviets4 'ut actually e!#loyed for an offensive against t e 6krainians.+raine 'y Mic ael Hrus evsky =#u'lis ed in 8978?4 #. Soon after4 General Haller arrived wit a )olis ar!y fro! *rance4 ar!ed and e. S ortly after4 on Dece!'er :4 t e fa!ous F"urzon (ineJ was #ro#osed as t e eastern 'oundary of )oland4 w ic would ave granted )oland a s!all 6krainian area.FT e 'reak%u# of $ustria Hungary also li'erated fro! Ha#s'urg rule t e alf%!illion 6krainians of "ar#at o%6kraine4 w o 'eca!e incor#orated 'y "zec oslovakia.ation of eastern Galicia4 w ic was still not fort co!ing4 t e )olis #arlia!ent #assed a law on 3cto'er D>4 89DD4 #roviding for li!ited autono!y for t e #rovinces =/oi/odates5 of (viv4 Terno#il4 and Stanislaviv4 a law w ic 4 owever4 was never really #ut into effect.uarters in (viv4 refused to 'e !ollified4 and on $ugust D: unani!ously declared t eir su##ort of t e govern!ent%in%e. T e very na!e was c anged fro! Eastern Galicia to Eastern (ittle )oland.ile was taken 'y $ndrew (evitsky.ually ineffective. Early in 89D7 )etlura !oved fro! )oland to *rance4 w ere e !ade is o!e until is assassination on May DG4 89D>4 w en is #lace as ead of t e 6krainian -ational &e#u'lic in e.ed as an MMautono!ous unit wit in t e "zec oslovak state. -o ste#s ave 'een taken to carry out t e unilateral #ro!ises !ade in t e autono!y law of Se#te!'er4 89DD4 and Eastern Galicia is still governed fro! +arsaw4J wrote &ay!ond (eslie Buell in 89H9.uarters of t e S evc enko Scientific Society. 3n -ove!'er 8G t e e. Eugene )etrus evic 4 #rotested to t e $llied Su#re!e "ouncil4 t e "ouncil of t e (eague of -ations4 and t e #re!iers of t e $llied govern!ents against !ass arrests of 6krainians 'y )olis aut orities4 and issued an a##eal addressed to t e conscience of t e entire civilized world. T e 6krainian #olitical #arties4 wit ead. T e only concession gained 'y t e 6krainians was a series of guarantees of !inority rig ts si!ilar to t ose given 'y &u!ania to t e 6krainians anne. T e nu!'er of 6krainians in )oland was su'2ect to wide variations in esti!ate4 de#ending u#on t e circu!stances under w ic t e count was !ade4 'eing #laced all t e way fro! four to seven !illions. In -ove!'er furt er atte!#ts at settle!ent were !ade 'y a #ro#osal of t e Su#re!e "ouncil t at )oland s ould e.ed 'y direct negotiations at &iga 'etween )oland4 Soviet &ussia4 and Soviet 6kraine.ation4 t e #osition of )etrus evic and t e govern!ent of western 6kraine 'eca!e untena'le in @ienna4 and 'ecause of )olis di#lo!atic #ressure4 t ey !oved first to )rague and t en to Berlin4 w ere t ey continued t eir activities c iefly in t e for! of #etitions addressed to t e (eague of -ations. T e 6krainians in "ar#at o%6kraine4 owever4 took a stand for union wit 6kraine and #u'lis ed a #rocla!ation to t is effect at &ust on 0anuary D84 8989/ 'ut on May G a -ational &ada of "ar#at o%6kraine declared itself in favor of incor#oration into "zec oslovakia w ic 'eca!e an acco!#lis ed fact in Se#te!'er 'y official action of t e "zec oslovak govern!ent4 "ar#at o%6kraine 'eing anne.isted under $ustrian rule t ere.ercise a !andate over eastern Galicia for a #eriod of twenty%five years4 at t e end of w ic ti!e a #le'iscite s ould 'e eld/ 'ut )oland flatly re2ected t is #ro#osal. $ great 6krainian de!onstration against t e decision of t e "onference of $!'assadors was eld in St. 3n 0une DG t e $llied Su#re!e "ouncil aut orized t e )oles to occu#y eastern Galicia as far as t e S'ruc &iver4 'ut on condition t at local autono!y and #olitical and religious freedo! 'e guaranteed t e in a'itants. Meanw ile t e )olis aut orities conducted !ass arrests and trials of 6krainian #artici#ants in t e )olis %6krainian war4 !any #ersons 'eing conde!ned to deat and large nu!'ers sent into concentration ca!#s at Sts alkova4 +adowice4 Brest%(itovsk4 Do!'ie4 and elsew ere. T e 'oundary esta'lis ed on t e S'ruc was 'roken 'y t e )olis %Soviet war of t e su!!er of 89DE4 'eing first overrun 'y t e )oles and t en 'y t e Bols eviks.
$ !a# of 6kraine fro! 898I%89DE. . 6kraine -ational &e#u'lic was esta'lis ed 'efore t e end of +orld +ar I.
$ !a# of )oland4 (it uania4 (atvia =(ivonia?4 Estonia4 and F#le'isciteJ territories =including (eague of -ations Territory? in 89DE .
Battle !a# of t e Estonian +ar of Inde#endence =Estonian%Soviet +ar? of 898:%89DE Estonian soldiers defend t eir country against Soviet &ussian invaders during t e Estonian +ar of Inde#endence. .
*ran+e in $%$%.T e Partition of t e )idd#e !ast 6ing *eisal of &yria (originally from He9a0) appears with Lawren+e of #ra ia (se+ond from right) and "uri al8&aid (se+ond from left) at the Paris Pea+e !onferen+e in -ersailles. 1 18%1 99 'y David *ro!kin? . =Source< A #eace to End All #eace" Creating the 7odern 7iddle East.
=Source< A #eace to End All #eace" Creating the 7odern 7iddle East 1 18%1 99 'y David *ro!kin? =Source< A #eace to End All #eace" Creating the 7odern 7iddle East 1 18%1 99 'y David *ro!kin? .
E. $ra'ia itself was under a nu!'er of s eiks4 of w ic t e c ief were Hussein in He2az and I'n%Saud in -e2d. T e fat er of t e two new kings4 Hussein4 was attacked 'y I'n%Saud of -e2d and forced to a'dicate in 89D7.? were under Britis !ilitary occu#ation. + ile no 'inding agree!ent was signed4 t e gist of t eir discussions was t at Britain would recognize t e inde#endence of t e $ra's if t ey revolted against Turkey. It was also envisaged t at western $natolia around S!yrna would go to Greece. $fter 89HD t is w ole area was known as Saudi $ra'ia. $ !ont later4 in Marc 898G4 Britain and *rance agreed to allow &ussia to anne.J – Tragedy and Hope 'y "arroll Kuigley4 #. + en Hussein did not o'tain t e concessions e e.urdistan4 $le. &ussia was to get "onstantino#le and t e Straits4 as well as nort eastern $natolia4 including t e Black Sea coast/ Italy was to get t e sout western coast of $natolia fro! S!yrna to $dalia/ *rance was to get !ost of eastern $natolia4 including Mersin4 $dana4 and "ilicia4 as well as .ile. $s early as *e'ruary 898G4 &ussia and *rance signed an agree!ent 'y w ic &ussia was given a free and in t e East in return for giving *rance a free and in t e +est.uently !ade 'y McMa on on several occasions after 89DD and !ost e.tended controversy as risen fro! t is division of areas4 t e c ief #oint at issue 'eing w et er t e state!ent as worded included )alestine in t e area w ic was granted to t e $ra's or in t e area w ic was reserved.andretta4 and Lt ose #ortions of Syria lying to t e west of t e districts of Da!ascus4 Ho!s4 Ha!a4 and $le##o4 Aw ic B cannot 'e said to 'e #urely $ra'. T e Britis 4 w o 'y t is ti!e were engaged in a rivalry =over #etroleu! resources and ot er issues? wit t e *renc 4 set *eisal u# as king in Ira.clusively after t e war.ed 'y I'n%Saud in 89D>.irkuk =including Bag dad and Basra?4 and !ost of t e )ersian Gulf coast of $ra'ia. T is connection ad 'een weakened 'y t e efforts to secularize t e 3tto!an state and 'y t e growt of Turkis nationalis! w ic called fort a s#irit of $ra'ic nationalis! as a reaction to it.L In addition4 $den was e.isting Britis agree!ents wit various local sultans along t e s ores of t e )ersian Gulf were to 'e !aintained4 and Hussein was to use Britis advisers e.cluded fro! )alestine in any #olitical role4 as well as ot er #oints4 a !eeting of t e Great )owers at San &e!o in $#ril 89DE set u# two *renc and two Britis !andates. under Britis #rotection =89D8? and #laced is 'rot er $'dulla in a si!ilar #osition as . T e $ra' territories re!ained under !ilitary occu#ation until t e legal esta'lis !ent of #eace wit Turkey in 89DH. *ro! t at #oint on4 e received a su'sidy of [DDG4EEE a !ont fro! Britain. Syria and (e'anon went to *rance4 w ile Ira. T e i!!ediate activities of t e Entente )owers4 owever4 were devoted to #lans to encourage t e $ra's to re'el against t e sultanMs aut ority or at least a'stain fro! su##orting is war efforts. S ortly afterward4 on May 8>4 898>4 an agree!ent4 known as t e Sykes%)icot agree!ent fro! t e na!es of t e c ief negotiators4 was signed 'etween &ussia4 *rance4 and Britain. (awrence4 known as F(awrence of $ra'ia4J w o ad 'een an arc aeologist in t e -ear East in 89874 ad not ing to do wit t e negotiations wit Hussein4 and did not 2oin t e revolt until 3cto'er 898>.uiry4 known as t e . T e $ra's4 w o were a co!#letely se#arate #eo#le fro! t e Turks4 s#eaking a Se!itic rat er t an a 6ral%$ltaic language and w o ad re!ained largely no!adic in t eir !ode of life w ile t e Turks ad 'eco!e al!ost co!#letely a #easant #eo#le4 were united to t e 3tto!an #eo#les 'y little !ore t an t eir co!!on allegiance to t e Musli! religion.cluded fro! t e area4 t at Syria%)alestine 'e 2oined to for! a single state wit *eisal as king4 t at t e Sionists 'e e. D7G%D7> F$s a result of is understanding of t e negotiations wit McMa on4 Hussein 'egan an $ra' revolt against Turkey on 0une G4 898>. T e resistance in Syria was crus ed 'y t e *renc 4 w o t en advanced to occu#yM t e interior of Syria and sent *eisal into e.ce#t $dana4 $le. and )alestine =including Trans2ordan? went to Britain. T ere were $ra' u#risings and great local unrest following t ese decisions. T is !eant t at &ussia could anne.ce#ted4 w ile Bag dad and Basra were to ave a Ls#ecial ad!inistration. E. T e Holy (and itself was to 'e internationalized.J – Tragedy and Hope 'y "arroll Kuigley4 #.ing of Trans2ordan =89DH?. T e c ances of success in t ese activities were increased 'y t e fact t at t e $ra'ian #ortions of t e 3tto!an E!#ire4 w ile no!inally su'2ect to t e sultan4 were already 'reaking u# into nu!erous #etty s# eres of aut ority4 so!e virtually inde#endent. It #artitioned t e 3tto!an E!#ire in suc a way t at little was left to t e Turks e. T e coast of Syria was under *renc !ilitary occu#ation4 w ile t e interior of Syria =including t e $le##o%Da!ascus railway line? and Trans2ordan were under an $ra' force led 'y E!ir *eisal4 t ird son of Hussein of Mecca.#ected at t e )aris )eace "onference of 89894 (awrence sickened of t e w ole affair and eventually c anged is na!e to S aw and tried to vanis fro! #u'lic view. t e Straits and "onstantino#le.andretta4 Syria4 and nort ern Meso#ota!ia4 including Mosul/ Britain was to get t e (evant fro! Gaza sout to t e &ed Sea4 Trans2ordan4 !ost of t e Syrian Desert4 all of Meso#ota!ia sout of .clude )alestine fro! $ra' ands was su'se.ing%"rane "o!!ission =8989?4 and a LGeneral Syrian "ongressL of $ra's fro! t e w ole *ertile "rescent reco!!ended t at *rance 'e e.ce#t t e area wit in DEE or DGE !iles of $nkara. T e fa!ous T. T e area covered 'y t e agree!ent included t ose #arts of t e 3tto!an E!#ire sout of t e HIt degree of latitude e.4 was negotiating wit I'n%Saud of -e2d4 and4 in an agree!ent of Dece!'er D>4 898G4 recognized is inde#endence in return for a #ro!ise of neutrality in t e war. "onstantino#le and 'lock t e !ove!ent for an inde#endent )oland4 w ile *rance could take $lsace%(orraine fro! Ger!any and set u# a new4 inde#endent state under *renc influence in t e & ineland. In 898G%898> t e Britis ig co!!issioner in Egy#t4 Sir Henry McMa on4 entered into corres#ondence wit t e S erif Hussein of Mecca.L T e rig ts of *rance in t e w ole area were reserved4 t e e. )alestine and Meso#ota!ia =now called Ira. + ile McMa on was negotiating wit Hussein4 t e Govern!ent of India4 t roug )ercy "o. Early in 898I Italy was added to t e settle!ent.F6ndou'tedly4 t e !ost nu!erous di#lo!atic agree!ents of t e warti!e #eriod were concerned wit t e dis#osition of t e 3tto!an E!#ire. His kingdo! of He2az was anne. T e inter#retation of t ese ter!s to e.#licitly in 89HI. D7:%D79 . $lt oug an $!erican co!!ission of in.
Hussein was so distressed w en e eard of it t at e asked for an e. Hogart 4 on 'e alf of t e Britis govern!ent4 t at L0ewis settle!ent in )alestine would only 'e allowed in so far as would 'e consistent wit t e #olitical and econo!ic freedo! of t e $ra' #o#ulation.J So!ew at si!ilar in tone was a 2oint $nglo%*renc Declaration of -ove!'er I4 898:4 2ust four days 'efore ostilities ended in t e war. T is !ove!ent4 w ic was !uc stronger in $ustria and Ger!any t an in Britain4 ad as#irations for creating in )alestine4 or #er a#s elsew ere4 so!e territory to w ic refugees fro! anti%Se!itic #ersecution or ot er 0ews could go to find Fa national o!e.isting non%0ewis co!!unities in )alestine4 or t e rig ts and #olitical status en2oyed 'y 0ews in any ot er country.#lanation4 and was assured 'y D. 3n t e ot er and4 certain facts are .J – Tragedy and Hope 'y "arroll Kuigley4 #. D7>%D7: .3T e ne. In answer to a re. T is is a difficult #ro'le! in view of t e inaccuracy and a!'iguity of t e wording of !ost of t ese docu!ents. Muc of t e controversy arises fro! t e 'elief t at it #ro!ised so!et ing to so!e'ody and t at t is #ro!ise was in conflict wit ot er #ro!ises4 nota'ly wit t e FMcMa on )ledgeJ to S erif Hussein.L T is reassurance a##arently was acce#ta'le to Hussein4 'ut dou'ts continued a!ong ot er $ra' leaders.J T ere ave 'een e.J BalfourNs letter said4 FHis Ma2estyNs Govern!ent view wit favor t e esta'lis !ent in )alestine of a national o!e for t e 0ewis #eo#le and will use t eir 'est endeavours to facilitate t e ac ieve!ent of t is o'2ect4 it 'eing clearly understood t at not ing s all 'e done w ic !ay #re2udice t e civil and religious rig ts of e.tended discussions of t e co!#ati'ility of t e various agree!ents and state!ents !ade 'y t e Great )owers regarding t e dis#osition of t e 3tto!an E!#ire after t e war. T e Balfour Declaration took t e for! of a letter fro! Britis *oreign Secretary $rt ur 0a!es Balfour to (ord &ot sc ild4 one of t e leading figures in t e Britis Sionist !ove!ent.uest fro! seven suc leaders4 on 0une 8>4 898:4 Britain gave a #u'lic answer w ic divided t e $ra' territories into t ree #arts< =a? t e $ra'ian #eninsula fro! $den to $ka'a =at t e ead of t e &ed Sea?4 w ere t e Fco!#lete and sovereign inde#endence of t e $ra'sL was recognized/ ='? t e area under Britis !ilitary occu#ation4 covering sout ern )alestine and sout ern Meso#ota!ia4 w ere Britain acce#ted t e #rinci#le t at govern!ent s ould 'e 'ased Fon t e consent of t e governedJ/ and =c? t e area still under Turkis control4 including Syria and nort ern Meso#ota!ia4 w ere Britain assu!ed t e o'ligation to strive for Ffreedo! and inde#endence.uently served to reduce t e stature of Britain in t e eyes of 'ot grou#s4 alt oug 'ot ad #reviously eld a ig er o#inion of Britis fairness and generosity t an of any ot er )ower/ lastly4 t e raising of false $ra' o#es and t e failure to reac any clear and onest understanding regarding Syria led to a long #eriod of conflict 'etween t e Syrians and t e *renc govern!ent4 w ic eld t e area as a !andate of t e (eague of -ations after 89DH.ercise of t e initiative and c oice of t e indigenous #o#ulations. T ere is a s ar# contrast 'etween t e i!#erialist avarice to 'e found in t e secret agree!ents like Sykes%)icot and t e altruistic tone of t e #u'licly issued state!ents/ t ere is also a s ar# contrast 'etween t e tenor of t e Britis negotiations wit t e 0ews and t ose wit t e $ra's regarding t e dis#osition of )alestine4 wit t e result t at 0ews and $ra's were eac 2ustified in 'elieving t at Britain would #ro!ote t eir conflicting #olitical a!'itions in t at area< t ese 'eliefs4 w et er 'ased on !isunderstanding or deli'erate dece#tion4 su'se. )ro'a'ly no docu!ent of t e warti!e #eriod4 e.ce#t +ilsonMs *ourteen )oints4 as given rise to !ore dis#utes t an t is 'rief state!ent of less t an eleven lines.isting grou#s in t e area.uite evident. It #ro!ised Ft e co!#lete and final li'eration of t e #eo#les w o ave for so long 'een o##ressed 'y t e Turk and t e setting u# of national govern!ents and ad!inistrations t at s all derive t eir aut ority fro! t e free e.t docu!ent concerned wit t e dis#osition of t e 3tto!an E!#ire was t e fa!ous FBalfour DeclarationJ of -ove!'er 898I.J It is to 'e noted t at t is was neit er an agree!ent nor a #ro!ise 'ut !erely a unilateral declaration4 t at it did not #ro!ise a 0ewis state in )alestine or even )alestine as a o!e for t e 0ews4 'ut !erely #ro#osed suc a o!e in )alestine4 and t at it reserved certain rig ts for t e e. G.
$%@E as (ewish migrants near y wat+h the demonstration.#n #ra demonstration against British o++upation and (ewish8Qionist immigration o++urs outside the 2amas+us )ate on Mar+h F.go7Cpi+turesCitemCmp+@EEIEEE?$JCPPCRsidS%aa+$d %%e+$I>$I>%M?%@fe e%$fEJI .lo+. (). Eri+ and Edith Matson Photograph !olle+tionCLi rary of !ongress) http'CCwww.
(awrence4 E!ir $'dulla 4 $ir Mars al Sir Geoffrey Sal!ond4 Sir Her'ert Sa!uel4 and Sir +ynd a! #ose for a grou# #ortrait at t e "airo "onference in 89D8.(eft to rig t< T.E. .
Palestine (/srael).Winston !hur+hill prepares to su 9ugate the Middle East on ehalf of the British Empire. and &udan. <he British go7ernment partitioned its +rown +olony of Palestine into two +olonies y $%@M1 the Palestine territory east of the (ordan . (ordan.i7er remained Palestine.emen). and /srael efore World War /. in+luding the territories of what are now /ra=. <rans9ordan ((ordan).i7er e+ame <rans9ordan while the Palestine territory west of the (ordan .ttoman Empire go7erned the Middle East. *ran+e su 9ugated Le anon and &yria while )reat Britain su 9ugated Mesopotamia (/ra=) and Palestine ((ordan and /srael). 6uwait. . )reat Britain and *ran+e +on=uered the #ra i+ part of the Middle East from the . <he .ttoman <urks during World War /. #den (. Mesopotamia (/ra=). &yria. )reat Britain su 9ugated the +rown +olonies of Egypt. Le anon. <he British go7ernment would install Emir # dullah as the figurehead of the 7assal state of <rans9ordan in $%@M.
)erman &outhwest #fri+a ("ami ia).wanda and Burundi.&e7en European +ountries +on=uered and o++upied most of the #fri+an +ontinent y $%$I. . )ermany would forfeit its #fri+an +olonies to Britain and *ran+e at the end of the Paris Pea+e !onferen+e. later <an0ania). Britain a+=uired )erman East #fri+a (<anganyika. and a portion of 6amerun (!ameroon) while Belgium a+=uired present8day .
then to &an . .ttoman Empire. $%@M. )reek refugees from &myrna (/0mir). <urkey was de+lared a . # few days after this pi+ture was taken.*all of the .epu li+ of <urkey.emo. His ody was uried in 2amas+us at the +ourtyard of the <ekke of &ultan &uleiman the Magnifi+ent.+to er @%. and the new Head of &tate e+ame President Mustafa 6emal #taturk. : <he <urkish War of /ndependen+e ($%$%8$%@@) The Final Days of the Ottoman Empire: &ultan -ahideddin (Mehmed -/) depart from the a+kdoor of the 2olma ahTe Pala+e in /stan ul (!onstantinople). where he e7entually died in $%@?. <urkey flee the +ity in $%@@ as they attempt to e7a+uate to )ree+e. $%@@. <he !reation of the . /taly. <urkey in "o7em er $%@@. the &ultan was deposed and eAiled (along with his son) on a British warship to Malta on "o7em er $>.epu li+ on .
e!al =Turkis ero of Galli#oli ca!#aign during +orld +ar I? reviews Turkis troo#s at t e out'reak of t e Greco% Turkis +ar =8989%89DD? in 8989. .T e Greek $r!y !arc in t e streets of S!yrna =Iz!ir? on May D4 8989 Mustafa .
Greeks living in western Turkey flee Turkey in 89DD. )rew and Bristol were mem ers of the !oun+il on *oreign . . )rew. &eated from left to right' #dmiral Mark Bristol. <he #meri+an delegation prepares to negotiate a treaty with <urkey at Lausanne. and Minister (oseph !.elations. &wit0erland in +ir+a $%@@8$%@M. #m assador !hild.
T e delegation of Turks w ic was sent to (ausanne4 Switzerland in 89DH to #artici#ate in t e (ausanne "onference. $ !a# of t e 3tto!an E!#ire and t e Middle East s ortly after t e FratificationJ of t e Treaty of Sevres . Is!et )as a a##ears in t e center.
T ere were t ree reasons for t e delay< =8? t e uncertainty a'out t e role of t e 6nited States4 w ic was e. "onvention of 0uly 89H>.urdistan4 losing $ra'ia4 Meso#ota!ia4 t e (evant4 western T race4 and so!e islands of t e $egean. T e Greeks and Italians4 wit $llied su##ort4 invaded Turkey and atte!#ted to force t e treaty of t e -ationalists4 'ut t ey were !uc weakened 'y dissension 'e ind t e fa]ade of Entente solidarity. DIG%DI> . T is gave Turkey full sovereignty over t e Straits4 including t e rig t to fortify t e!.#ressed war ai!s of t e $llies. T e *renc 'elieved t at greater econo!ic concessions could 'e o'tained fro! t e . 6nder t is last #rovision4 over 84DGE4EEE Greeks were re!oved fro! Turkey 'y 89HE. T e news t at t e 6nited States refused to #artici#ate in t e -ear East settle!ent !ade it #ossi'le to draw u# a treaty.e!al refused to acce#t it and set u# an insurgent govern!ent at $nkara. $fter 'uying off t e Italians and *renc wit econo!ic concessions4 t ey launc ed a counteroffensive against t e Greeks. T ere were no re#arations and no disar!a!ent4 e.ce#t t ose of 'elligerents if Turkey was at war.ce#t . It was signed 'y t e sultanNs govern!ent on $ugust DE4 89DE4 'ut t e -ationalists under Mustafa .e!alist govern!ent4 w ile t e Britis felt t at ric er #ros#ects were to 'e o'tained fro! t e sultan. 6nfortunately4 !ost of t ese ad 'een ur'an s o#kee#ers in Turkey and were settled as far!ers on t e un% os#ita'le soil of Macedonia. T e decline of Turkey4 w ic ad continued for four undred years4 was finally ended.J – Tragedy and Hope 'y "arroll Kuigley4 #.FT e Treaty of S\vres wit Turkey was t e last one !ade and t e only one never ratified.c ange wit Greece of Greek and Turkis !inorities 2udged on t e 'asis of !e!'ers i# in t e Greek 3rt odo. $lt oug England ca!e to t e rescue of t e Greeks4 it received no su##ort fro! t e ot er )owers4 w ile t e Turks ad t e su##ort of Soviet &ussia. $t t is critical !o!ent4 t e Do!inions4 in answer to "urzonNs telegra# ed a##eal4 refused to su##ort a war wit Turkey. Turkey acce#ted a !inorities treaty and agreed to a co!#ulsory e. By t is Treaty of (ausanne4 Turkey gave u# all non%Turkis territory e. T e ca#itulations were a'olis ed in return for a #ro!ise of 2udicial refor!. or Musli! religions. T e Turks destroyed t e Greeks4 'urned S!yrna and ca!e face%to%face wit t e Britis at " anak.ce#t t at t e Straits were de!ilitarized and were to 'e o#en to all s i#s e. T e Bulgarian #easants w o ad #reviously lived in Macedonia were uncere!oniously du!#ed into Bulgaria w ere t ey were tinder for t e s#arks of a revolutionary Bulgarian secret society called t e Internal Macedonian &evolutionary 3rganization =IM&3?4 w ose c ief !et od of #olitical action was assassination. T is was 'egun 'y t e Su#re!e "ouncil at its (ondon "onference of *e'ruary 89DE4 and continued at San &e!o in $#ril.e!al/ and =H? t e scandal caused 'y t e Bols evik #u'lication of t e secret treaties regarding t e 3tto!an E!#ire4 since t ese treaties contrasted so s ar#ly wit t e e.utch Shell# T e -ationalist forces !ade good use of t ese dissensions. $he $reaty of SIvres already in tatters had to be discarded# ( new conference at %ausanne in Aovember 1977 !roduced a moderate and ne"otiated treaty which was si"ned by the =emalist "overnment on :uly 7@ 197F# $his act ended in a formal way the 'irst World War# It also took a !ost vital ste# toward esta'lis ing a new Turkey w ic would serve as a #owerful force for #eace and sta'ility in t e -ear East. $s a result of t e rising tide of aggression in t e 89HENs4 t e clause regarding t e de!ilitarization of t e Straits was revoked at t e Montreu. ?n !articular the 'rench were !re!ared to su!!ort the claims of Standard >il to such concessions while the *ritish were !re!ared to su!!ort 5oyal/.#ected to acce#t control of t e Straits and a !andate for $r!enia4 t us for!ing a 'uffer against Soviet &ussia/ =D? t e insta'ility of t e Turkis govern!ent4 w ic was t reatened 'y a nationalist u#rising led 'y Mustafa .
Sog o!on Te lirian was ac.Mustafa . $taturk was t e founder and first )resident of t e &e#u'lic of Turkey fro! 3cto'er D94 89DH until is deat on -ove!'er 8E4 89H:. Grand Hi2ier 6ehmed $alat Pasha was assassinated by a 8lone "unman9 – Sog o!on Te lirian =rig t?4 an $r!enian revolutionary working on 'e alf of Britis intelligence – in t e t e " arlotten'urg district of Berlin on Marc 8G4 89D8. =) oto< Govern!ent of Turkey $rc ives? Me !ed Talat )as a =left?4 one of t e FT ree )as asJ4 was t e Turkis Minister of t e Interior =898H%898I? and Grand @izier of t e 3tto!an E!#ire =898I%898:?/ Me !ed Talat )as a fled "onstantino#le in a Ger!an su'!arine on -ove!'er H4 898: and !oved to Berlin.e!al $taturk =rig t?4 t e )resident of t e &e#u'lic of Turkey4 delivers a s#eec in Turkey in circa 89D7.uitted of !urder in a Ger!an court in 89D8. .
$ !a# of t e 3tto!an E!#ire .
$ !a# of t e Middle East. Great Britain controlled . . 3il is t e largest natural resource in t e Middle East/ !a2or oil fields are located in Ira.4 Saudi $ra'ia4 )ersian Gulf4 and "as#ian Sea =including areas near t e city of Baku?.4 0ordan4 Israel4 Egy#t4 and Sudan w ile *rance controlled (e'anon4 Syria4 and $lgeria.uwait4 Ira.
"olonel Sir Mark Sykes =left? and *rancois Georges%)icot .Sykes%)icot $gree!ent of 898> was a secret agree!ent esta'lis ed 'etween t e Britis and *renc govern!ents during +orld +ar I. T e secret agree!ent was na!ed after Britis Me!'er of )arlia!ent "olonel Sir Mark Sykes and *renc di#lo!at *rancois Georges% )icot. *rancois Georges%)icot once served as t e *renc "onsul General in Beirut =ca#ital of #resent%day (e'anon?.
)artition of t e Britis Mandate ="olony? of )alestine4 a for!er #rovince of t e 3tto!an E!#ire .
files. <urkey. (Photo' http'CChea7enawaits.+omC@EEFCEIChamasUwarEIE@.ttoman Empire at the end of World War /. and the Palestine Li eration .wordpress. <he 6urds were denied a nation of their own after *ran+e and the British Empire partitioned the . He0 ollah.rgani0ation (PL.9pg) . @EE> in the southeastern <urkish pro7in+e of &irnak at the <urkey8/ra= order.) ha7e waged guerilla war against the &tate of /srael.# 6urdish 7illage guard patrols on foot near 5ludere on . ()etty /mages) #ra terrorists su+h as the Hamas.+to er @M.
T is assassination would 'e used as a #rete. the &er ian patsy who assassinated #ustriaDs #r+hduke *ran0 *erdinand and his wife in &ara9e7o. Left' 2ragutin 2imitri9e7iV #pis.t to start +orld +ar I. !enter' <he seal of the Bla+k Hand (also known as 5nity or 2eath). $rc duke *ranz *erdinand of $ustria and is wife "ountess So# ie4 w o survived an assassination atte!#t earlier t at day w en a 89%year%old student na!ed -edel2ko ^a'rinovi_ t rew a and grenade into t eir car4 were traveling to a local os#ital in Sara2evo w en t ey were !ortally wounded 'y a Flone gun!anJ. the &er ian mastermind ehind the assassination of #ustriaDs #r+hduke *ran0 *erdinand. a &er ian se+ret so+iety founded in May $%$$ .*a#(an +Po%der . .eg-: The Rise and Fall of Yugoslavia 8?’m 1ust a !atsyJ9: 89%year%old Flone gun!anJ Gavrilo )rinci# =DG 0uly 8:97 – D: $#ril 898:?4 a $ustro%Hungarian%'orn Ser'ian nationalist4 assassinates $rc duke *ranz *erdinand of $ustria and is wife "ountess So# ie in Sara2evo =ca#ital of t e $ustro%Hungarian #rovince of Bosnia? on Sunday !orning4 0une D:4 8987.ight' )a7rilo Prin+ip.
#r+hduke *ran0 *erdinand of #ustria and his wife !ountess &ophie prepare to ride in a limousine in &ara9e7o moments efore they are mortally wounded. $%$I. )a7rilo Prin+ip is +aptured in &ara9e7o after assassinating #ustrian #r+hduke *ran+is *erdinand and his wife on (une @F. .
T e Ger!an ar!y ad #layed t e crucial role in t e Mregeneration of t e Ger!an nationM4 as #i:e&ont.. He could de!onstrate ow t e !ost insur!ounta'le task was in reality a s!all detail4 ow t e !ost dangerous undertaking was innocent and ar!lessM4 e. He ad drea!y eyes w ic stared far into t e distance.uestions of !orality4 and !any were rut less4 acco!#lis ed soldiers. T e $ustrian aut orities under t e relatively li'eral *inance Minister4 von Burian4 ad o'served t e growing loyalty of t e !erc ant class and townsfolk towards t e E!#ire. T e May 89EH cons#irators4 t e !urderers of . So4 alt oug its !ission was co!#ro!ised4 t e Black HandMs leaders i# was a'le to e. In 898E4 a #easant revolt in a "roat village of t e Bosanska . He too was raised in a Ser' #easant fa!ily in Eastern Hercegovina and ad studied in t e Mostar Gy&nasiu&* Gacinovic4 w o knew i! well4 wrote a fa!ous o'ituary of t e assassin4 3&rt :ednog hero:a =Deat of t e Hero?. Gavrilo )rinci# was a regular visitor at is grave to lay .M T e assassination atte!#t4 Gacinovic concluded o!inously4 was a ar'inger of Mnew #eo#le4 new Ser's w o will arise after t e great sins of t eir fat ersM.ra2ina occurred 2ust 'efore t e o#ening of t e new Bosnian Sa'or in Sara2evo4 an institution w ic for t e first ti!e would allow Musli!s4 Ser's and "roats so!e influence on t e decision% !aking #rocess in Bosnia.ert #ressure t roug its ig %#laced sy!#at izers4 t ere'y !aintaining a certain !ystery a'out its nature and ai!s. His look was fiery4 nervous . $s e eaded across t e . T e Black Hand ad t e resources and t e a'ility to !eddle in ig #olitics. He descri'ed Sera2ic as Myoung4 lit e and #ri!itive.. T ey relied on one !an4 (2u'o!ir "u#a%0ovanovic4 an ardent nationalist and co%founder of t e Black Hand4 to articulate any !ore literary version of t eir ideas.. $lt oug "u#a and Ga"inovic toget er for!ed a rickety 'ridge 'etween t e Black Hand and 1oung Bosnia4 t e !otives4 !et ods and !e!'ers of t e two organizations were very different.F3n H Marc 89884 t e seven founding !e!'ers of 6nification or Deat 4 known as t e Black Hand4 !et at an a#art!ent located a##ro#riately on Bosnia Street =since rena!ed Gavrilo )rinci# Street? in t e centre of Belgrade. T e reigning . General Mari2an @ardanin4 t e Military Governor of Bosnia4 was given t e onour of o#ening t e new Sa'or on 8G 0une. $s a student in Switzerland4 e ad co!e under t e influence of &ussian Social &evolutionaries w o ad encouraged is o'session wit individual terror and !artyrdo! as #olitical instru!ents. E. austive and convincing. It was i!#erative to !aintain secrecy4 for t e May "ou# of 89EH ad ensured t at t e aut orities were sensitive to t e !erest w iff of cons#iracy inside t e ar!y. $#is and is friends were eit er #oliticians or ar!y co!!anders. $not er !odel its !e!'ers e. $lt oug 1oung BosniaMs !e!'ers i# was #redo!inantly Ser'4 it also attracted an i!#ortant !inority of "roats and so!e Musli!s. T e e.ecutive "o!!ittee of t e Black Hand4 and it was not long 'efore e ad 'eco!e t e !otor of t e w ole o#eration. $nd w ile t e 1oung Bosnians regarded Ser'ia as t e #illar w ic eld u# t eir as#irations4 t ey recognized t e contri'ution w ic "roat students and Musli! sy!#at izers in Bosnia could !ake to t e !ove!ent for national li'eration.tre!ely tall4 t in4 wit a ig fore ead4 e AwasB a tireless worker and a resolute ascetic ..M "u#aMs !ost i!#ortant role was as editor of t e Black HandMs #i:e&ont. E!# asizing "u#aMs e.#ansion and consolidation of t e Ser'ian state t roug t e agency of !ilitaris!. 'ut e was . Its !e!'ers were disci#lined4 untrou'led 'y . "u#a%0ovanovic travelled t roug out all Ser'ian lands4 often on foot4 to learn !ore a'out t e regions and t eir #eo#le. founded4 ironically4 'y General von der Goltz4 t e !an w o would #re#are t e Turkis $r!y for its war against t e Balkan $lliance in 898D%8H. Sera2ic 'eca!e t e cult figure for all 1oung Bosnians. Its nationalis! was free fro! ideological 'aggage4 wedded instead to a !ilitaristic conce#t of t e state. "olonel Dragutin Di!itri2evic – $#is – ad agreed reluctantly to 2oin t e "entral E..e!#lary sense of self%sacrifice4 e called i! Mt e Mazzini of 1oung Ser'ia. T eir organization was treasona'le4 as its oat contradicted t eir duty as !ilitary officers to serve t eir king.s Berlin corres#ondent #ut it. T e corres#ondent even went so far as to advocate4 as $#isMs 'iogra# er says4 Mt at Ser'ia ado#t t e (eagueMs racist and !ilitarist a##roac 4 redolent of t e later Hitler 1out 4 to ac ieve its goal of national unificationM. $n $ustrian force confronted t e disorganized #easant re'els near t e town of Do'o2 as t ey fled towards t e Ser'ian 'order. But t e key to is !astery of cons#iracy and #olitical influence was is a'ility Mto old everyt ing in is ands w ile allowing even is !ost inti!ate friends to 'e infor!ed only of t at w ic affected t e! directlyM..ing $leksandar 3'renovic and Kueen Draga4 !ade u# t e core of t e Black Hand.istence of t e Black Hand was revealed wit in !ont s of its foundation4 'ut 'y t en its influence e. He advised t at Ser'ia follow Ger!anyMs e.tolled was Ger!an !ilitaris!. T e ar!y t en launc ed retaliatory raids t roug out t e region.aiserMs 'ridge in Sara2evo on t e way 'ack to is official residence4 Bogdan Sera2ic4 a twenty%four%year%old Ser'4 fired five s ots at i! =all of t e! wide of t eir target? 'efore turning is gun on i!self.tended into !ost 'ranc es of t e !ilitary and into !any govern!ent de#art!ents4 nota'ly t e *oreign Ministry. In deat 4 Sera2ic ins#ired would%'e assassins in "roatia4 Bosnia and Ser'ia.ra2ina s#read t roug out !ost of t e Ser' villages of t e region.#lained Stano2e Stano2evic4 one of $#isMs 'oldest critics inside t e cons#iracy. T e 1oung Bosnians were4 owever4 less successful in s#ecifying w at t e relations i# 'etween Ser'ia4 Ser's and ot er sout Slavs s ould 'e if Bosnia and "roatia were a'le to detac t e!selves fro! t e Ha's'urg E!#ire.. Since Ser'ian national interests coincided wit &ussian i!#erial interests after 89E:4 $#is forged close links wit &ussian consular staff4 in #articular t e !ilitary attac es.a!#le in creating t e (eague of Ger!an 1out 2<ung -eutschland Bund5. (ife aunted i!4 'ringing fog into is war!4 sunny soul. Its ulti!ate goal was t e creation of a greater Ser'ia4 w ic would include Macedonia4 Bosnia and "roatia and all t e Slavs w o lived t ere. MHis reasoning was always e. E!otionally 'ound to t e #easantry4 t e 1oung Bosnians considered social revolution a necessary corollary of national li'eration. He was divorced fro! us4 living contentedly in is own world .. Gacinovic4 w o was usually s#aring in is #raise of ot ers4 eld "u#a in t e ig est estee!. *ro! a #ractical #oint of view4 owever4 t e Black Hand could ardly woo Ger!any as a #otential ally 'ecause of BerlinMs relations i# wit @ienna4 t e scourge of Belgrade. @on Burian regarded !odest de!ocratic refor! as a way of integrating and e!'racing t e Ser' and Musli! elites.arad2ord2evic dynasty en2oyed no s#ecial #rotection fro! any future regicide. Intellectuals4 owever4 t ey were not % #atriotis! for t e! !eant t e e. w ose na!e underlined t e ideological de't t e organization owed to Italian nationalis!. T is s ort u#rising in t e .uiet and !elanc olic4 alone and free of #ersonal ca#rice .
ueen two !rime ministers and the commander in chief of the $ur&ish (rmy# Successful murders were dwarfed by the number of attem!ted assassinations# ?n retros!ect each individual act of terrorism seems to ta&e its !lace in the !attern of !olitical violence leadin" u! to 'ran2 'erdinand's assassination a &ind of crescendo# Ao other murder in history is !erceived to have tri""ered such calamitous events B world war im!erial colla!se socialist revolution# In t e interwar years alone4 one Ser'ian istorian clai!ed4 so!e H4EEE works were #u'lis ed around t e glo'e de'ating t e issue of war guilt4 starting wit t e assassination. In 898I4 ene!ies of $#is in Ser'iaMs govern!ent in e. During t e #roceedings4 e said e ad a##roved t e 1oung BosniansM #lan 'ecause e 'elieved *ranz *erdinand to 'e t e !oving s#irit 'e ind t e Military )arty in @ienna. $hese tenuous lin&s were renewed over a year later when $rif&o Grabe2 a youn" Serb from Pale near Sara1evo visited $an&osic and as&ed him to su!!ly some bombs and "uns for a secret o!eration in the *osnian ca!ital# (fter clearin" the matter with (!is $an&osic handed over four *rownin" revolvers and si+ bombs to the Koun" *osnian cons!irators# ?n the final fourteen years of the nineteenth century assassins around the world claimed the lives of ma1or !ublic fi"ures at an avera"e rate of one a year# $he victims included the President of 'rance the 6ayor of Chica"o the Prime 6inister of *ul"aria and the -m!ress of (ustria# (t the turn of the century however successful !olitical murders suddenly increased heraldin" the a"e of the assassin# 'rom 19GG to 191F forty heads of state !oliticians and di!lomats fell victim to the terrorist's bullet or bomb# (mon" the victims were four &in"s Ctwo from the *al&ans two from the %atin 6editerraneanD si+ !rime ministers three !residents Call from the (merican continent includin" William 6c=inley of the United StatesD and a host of ministers military "overnors and senior !olicemen# $wenty/ei"ht of the &illin"s were carried out in -uro!e# MT e entire series of assassinations and terrorist actsM4 reflected one 1ugoslav co!!unist during t e interwar #eriod4 Mfor!ed a #art4 al'eit an inevita'le one4 of t e #olitical reaction to t e i!#erialist #olicies of great #owers in t e colonies.flowers.ile in Salonika #ut i! on trial for !urder and treason.cruciating #ain 'ut leaving t e! alive and fully conscious for t e relentless 'eatings t ey received at t e ands of t e soldiers and #olice!en w o arrested t e!.idized4 causing t e! 'ot e. 3f course t e assassination ad #recisely t e o##osite effect fro! t at w ic $#is intended as Malive4 *ranz *erdinand ad acted as a 'rake u#on t e #ressures Ain $ustriaB for !ilitary action/ dead4 e 'eca!e t e #rete. D99%HEG .M By killing *ranz *erdinand4 t e 1oung Bosnians signed Ser'iaMs deat warrant.ro'atin AMinister of +arB4 and even *ranz 0ose# could give full rein to t eir conservative realis!. Several ca!e into contact wit t e Black Hand for t e first ti!e and two !e!'ers of its central e. Gavrilo )rinci# was also orrified 'y t e outco!e of is deed. *ranz *erdinandMs deat 4 $#is argued4 would ave reduced t e risk of $ustria declaring war on Ser'ia. He ad 'een ai!ing at t e Military Governor4 General 3skar )otiorek4 'ut a 'ystander ad tried to knock t e gun out of is and and t e 'ullet it t e Duc ess instead. But !ost4 like )rinci#4 were re2ected as 'eing too young or #uny.ecutive co!!ittee4 @o2in Tankosic4 t e guerrilla leader4 and &ade Malo'a'ic4 $#isMs #ersonal s#y in "roatia4 Bosnia and Montenegro4 cultivated friends i#s wit t ese ent usiastic revolutionaries fro! Mt e occu#ied Ser'ian landsM.uadrons of assassins ever assembled# $he most endurin" mystery surroundin" the assassination is not who did it or why but how they ever succeeded# $he *al&ans had re"istered an astonishin" number of assassinations which failed because the !er!etrators either lost their nerve or !roved to be !oor shots# $he mornin" which culminated in 'ran2 'erdinand's death was littered with misha!s# $he si+ cons!irators were e+citable teena"ers with no !ractical e+!erience of handlin" arms# 'our of the assassins were either too scared or too incom!etent to use their wea!ons# >ne Cabrinovic threw a bomb which missed its tar"et bouncin" off the bac& of 'ran2 'erdinand's car and woundin" a member of the entoura"e and !assers/by# Princi! himself had a clear shot at the (rchdu&e only because 'ran2 'erdinand's C2ech chauffeur who had never been to Sara1evo before missed the turnin" from (!!el Nuay and had to sto! and reverse ma&in" the (rchdu&e a sittin" tar"et for twenty seconds# $hat Princi! actually succeeded in shootin" 'ran2 'erdinand dead was nothin" short of a miracle# $fter firing t at s ot4 )rinci# let off a second4 w ic fatally wounded t e $rc dukeMs wife. He4 along wit "a'rinovic4 Me !ed Me !ed'asic4 Danilo Ilic4 Gacinovic and ot ers w o were involved in t e assassination of *ranz *erdinand in 89874 all co!!itted t e!selves at different ti!es to avenging Sera2icMs deat . Ket des!ite all the scholarshi! and considerable detective wor& the words of -dward Grey the *ritish 'orei"n Secretary in 191@ still hold true: 8$he world will !resumably never be told all that was behind the murder of the (rchdu&e 'ran2 'erdinand# Probably there is not and never was any one !erson who &new all there was to &now#9 ?t is &nown however that the si+ cons!irators L6ehmedbasic Cubrilovic Cabrinovic Cv1et&o Po!ovic Princi! and Grabe2 in that orderM who were lined u! alon" Sara1evo's (!!el Nuay by the 6il1ac&a river on 7E :une 191@ formed one of the most disor"ani2ed and ine+!erienced s.M With a mildly e+a""erated re!utation as the ca!ital of !olitical murder C5ussia was in fact the most dan"erous !lace to be a !olice or "overnment leaderD the *al&ans recorded ei"ht successful assassinations0 includin" two &in"s one . Bot "a'rinovic and )rinci# swallowed t e cyanide t ey ad 'een given 'y Ma2or Tankosic in Belgrade4 'ut t e #oison ad o. T e Ha's'urg E!#ire did colla#se4 alt oug )rinci# did not live to see itYJ – The Bal+ans" =ationalis&.t for war. So!e like Gacinovic4 w o #artici#ated in t e Montenegrin siege of Skutari4 saw sustained !ilitary action. 1!>8%1 'y Mis a Glenny4 #. + en war 'roke out 'etween t e Balkan $lliance and Turkey in 3cto'er 898D4 t e co!!unity of 1oung Bosnians strea!ed into Ser'ia to volunteer t eir services to t e Ser'ian ar!y and cetni+ 'ands. War and the Great #o'ers. In is a'sence4 "onrad AHotzendorfB4 . 0ust under t irty years later4 $dolf Hitler and t e Ger!an govern!ent used t e events of D: 0une 8987 as a 2ustification for t e +e r!ac tMs attack on Belgrade.
During is interrogation after t e assassination4 "a'rinovic revealed t at is grou# ad not intended to sto# wit t e !urders of *ranz *erdinand and General 3skar )otiorek4 t e !ilitary governor of Bosnia. D9:%D99 .#erienced #olice agent4 t e state #rosecutor de!anded deat 'y anging for fifty%t ree !en accused of co!!itting ig treason. " urc in Sara2evo4 even eld a s#ecial service to cele'rate t e event4 and asked Mall t e wors i##ers to kneel down and #ray for divine 'lessings for t e E!#eror *ranz 0osef and t e Ha's'urg dynasty.G. + en t e Ser'%"roat "oalition sued for li'el4 Dr. T e cons#iracy ad also sentenced to deat Metro#olitan (etica and t ree leading Ser' 'usiness!en and #oliticians fro! Sara2evo. &elying on t e testi!ony of an e. 1!>8%1 'y Mis a Glenny4 #.ce#t a grou# of 'oys fro! t e ig sc ool. -ationalist r etoric cla!ouring for war wit $ustria disa##eared fro! !ost news#a#ers. T ey stood fir!ly u#rig t a!ong t eir kneeling elders. 3n t e day in $ugust 89E: t at $e rent al announced in ca'inet is intention to anne. T e evidence was ri##ed to s reds 'y t e 'rilliant Sagre' lawyer4 Dr Hinkovic4 aided 'y an invalua'le intervention fro! T. War and the Great #o'ers. I!!ediately after t e anne. 3ne student4 -edel2ko "a'rinovic4 was in a #eculiarly awkward #osition as is fat er was a #rofessional s#y for t e $ustro%Hungarian #olice. $#art fro! leaving a #oor i!#ression on international #u'lic o#inion4 t e colla#se of t e two trials #roved 'eyond dou't t at4 contrary to $e rent alMs clai!s4 t ere was no Ser'ian%'acked cons#iracy in eit er "roatia or Bosnia.ation a!ong t e Ser' elite. In 89E:4 neit er t e #easantry nor t e landowners and t e !erc ants of Bosnia were sufficiently disadvantaged 'y t e anne. $e rent al 2ustified. 1!>8%1 'y Mis a Glenny4 #. T en4 as if t e Ha's'urg aut orities ad not yet sufficiently u!iliated t e!selves4 in Dece!'er 89E94 $e rent al #ersuaded a istorian attac ed to t e *oreign Ministry4 Dr. Evgeni2e (etica4 t e Metro#olitan of t e Ser'ian 3rt odo. D9I FBaron von $e rent al4 t e $ustrian *oreign Minister4 2ustified is decision to anne. T e anne. T e volunteer 'rigades were dis'anded4 and #lanned cetnik raids into Bosnia cancelled. *ried2ung was forced to retract t e allegations. It assu!ed t e t ree Bosnian fait s were engaged in a Ho''esian struggle wit one anot er.ation =very little was c anged 'y it inside t e #rovinces? to risk t eir liveli oods for a futile adventure. It e!erged t at t e docu!ents ad 'een forged 'y !e!'ers of t e Ha's'urg consular !ission in Belgrade.ation of Bosnia as a !eans to t rottle e!'ryonic terroris!4 In fact4 it created t e #ro'le!.J – The Bal+ans" =ationalis&.J – The Bal+ans" =ationalis&. T e 1oung Bosnians denounced t eir elders as colla'orators 'oug t off 'y t e colonial #ower. Bosnia and Hercegovina4 Hungarian #olice arrested leading Ser's in "roatia w o stood accused of 'eing in t e #ay of 3lo/ens+i:ug =Slav Sout ?4 a nationalist organization founded in Belgrade in 89EH.ation was t e increasingly influential elite of Ser'ian traders in t e towns4 es#ecially in Sara2evo4 'ut also in Ban2a (uka and Mostar. Masaryk.ually striking as a !anifestation of support for t e anne. MSo scandalous were t e #roceedingsM4 +ick a! Steed re#orted4 Mt at an outcry arose t roug out Euro#e . Indeed4 a!ong t e strongest 'ackers of anne.istence. T ere were in fact two distinct causes of violence in Bosnia fro! t e !id%nineteent century onwards % t e #easant revolt4 and t e resistance of t e elite to i!#erial centralization4 3tto!an or Ha's'urg. War and the Great #o'ers.M 1et t is #essi!istic vision of a #rovince trau!atized 'y relentless4 irrational violence was as inaccurate at t e 'eginning of t e twentiet century as it would 'e at t e end.M T is was t e first #u'lic #rotest of t e young intellectuals4 alt oug t e event was e. True to its word4 t e Ser'ian govern!ent ad soon all 'ut e. T e 2udges4 w o ad 'een c osen for t eir su'servience to t e Magyar #olitical aut orities4 eventually feared to #ronounce any deat sentence4 and inflicted only long ter!s of #enal servitude. T e u!iliating ulti!atu!4 w ic t e Ser'ian govern!ent was forced to acce#t under &ussian #ressure in Marc 89E94 included a #aragra# insisting t at t e -3 'e transfor!ed into a ar!less cultural organization4 w ic !ust cut its links to Ser's in Macedonia4 Bosnia and "roatia.tinguis ed t e fire w ic t e -3 ad generated in t e early days of its e. $nd alt oug t e leading Ser's4 Musli!s and "roats of Bosnia rat er welco!ed anne.F*osnia had a re!utation for violence# MIt was always our S#ainM4 la!ented 0ovan Skerlic4 Ser'iaMs leading turn%of%t e%century literary critic and a significant influence on t e 1oung Bosnians4 Mt e S#ain w ic was torn a#art 'y Moors4 0ews and #a#ists.. Bosnia and Hercegovina wit t e clai! t at Ser'ia was already using its network of secret agents and cons#iratorial cells to desta'ilize t e #rovinces.. But so!e of t e -3Ns !e!'ers4 es#ecially a s!all 'ut influential grou# of officers in t e !ilitary4 dee#ly resented w at t ey regarded as t e govern!entMs cowardice. Heinric *ried2ung4 to #u'lis a series of docu!ents w ic de!onstrated t at several #oliticians in "roatia4 including *rano Su#ilo4 ad 'een in recei#t of large su!s of !oney fro! t e Ser'ian govern!ent. -onet eless4 it would 'e anot er two years 'efore t ese !en decided to take #olicy into t eir own ands.ation4 it turned t e drea!y students of Sara2evo into a grou# of self%sacrificing fanatics.ation4 nationalists in Belgrade founded =arodna Odbrana =-3/ -ational Defence? to tre!endous #u'lic acclai!.M T e Ser's were eventually released. $ll went down e. "a'rinovicMs need to cleanse t e stain of is co!#ro!ised fat er was is #ri!ary !otive for #artici#ating in t e assassination of *ranz *erdinand.
#r+hduke *ran0 *erdinand of #ustria and his wife were assassinated on this street +orner in &ara9e7o. 6oso7o Li eration #rmy . in front of the 3Mu0e94 side of the museum uilding. on (une @F. $%$I. Bosnia.
*ren+h poli+e offi+ers apprehend the assassin of 6ing #leAander / of .ugosla7ia4 in $%@%.+to er %..ruCdi+.a+ademi+. $%MI. !roats and &lo7enes was renamed 3. Bulgarian terrorist -lado !herno0emski was the 3lone gunman4 who shot to death 6ing #leAander / of .ugosla7ia was fatally wounded during a state 7isit to Marseille.B/&) Prin+e Paul of .ugosla7ia after 6ing #leAander / of .ugosla7ia (left) rides with "a0i )ermanyDs di+tator #dolf Hitler in )ermany in $%M%.nsfCenwikiCME>MIM) . (/mage' K Hulton82euts+h !olle+tionC!.ugosla7ia1 -lado !herno0emski was killed y a *ren+h poli+e offi+er shortly after the assassination. 6ingdom of &er s. (Photo' http'CCen. *ran+e on .
(BettmannC!. Eisenhower (left) and .. . is wel+omed with a smile and a handshake y . (. $%?E./n . oth men addressed the 5nited "ations )eneral #ssem ly..B/&) .ugosla7ia for a one day offi+ial 7isit.ugosla7iaDs !ommunist di+tator (osip Bro0 <ito on 2ullesD arri7al on (uly $$.B/&) President 2wight 2.ugosla7ia for the first time. (BettmannC!. $%JJ at Brioni.ugosla7iaDs !ommunist di+tator Marshal (osip Bro0 <ito laugh together as they meet at the formerHs suite at the Waldorf8#storia Hotel in "ew . 5nited &tates &e+retary of &tate (ohn *oster 2ulles. Earlier.ork !ity on &eptem er @@.).
$%>J. .ugosla7iaDs !ommunist di+tator (osip Bro0 <ito during &tate 2inner held in Belgrade. $%>E.B/&) President )erald *ord leans o7er to +hat with . (BettmannC!. .B/&) ..ugosla7ia on &eptem er ME.ugosla7iaDs !ommunist di+tator (osip Bro0 <ito as "iAon re7iews the honor guard upon arri7al in Belgrade..ugosla7ia on #ugust M.President . (BettmannC!.i+hard "iAon is es+orted y .
.&. &enator <ed 6ennedy listens to . #meri+an 5.President (immy !arter and his wife .ugosla7iaDs di+tator (osip Bro0 <ito.osalyn !arter go to a party with .ugosla7iaDs di+tator (osip Bro0 <ito.
ugosla7iaDs !ommunist di+tator (osip Bro0 <ito in the Bri9uni islands.President (osip Bro0 <ito with Prime Minister Winston !hur+hill and #nthony Eden in London in the $%JEs. (Photo' )o7ernment of .ugosla7iaC&er ia) Eleanor . .ugosla7ia on (uly $?.oose7elt 7isits . .oose7elt Li raryC"ational #r+hi7es) . $%JM. (*ranklin 2. !roatia.
(&our+e' Between Worlds: The Making o !n !"erican #i e y Bill . $%%M.#meri+an pea+e negotiator and Wall &treet lawyer !yrus -an+e (right) meets with ..B/& &.&.ugosla7ia. (!.i+hardson walks with . !ongressman Bill .ugosla7iaDs President &lo odan Milose7i+ (left) in Paris on Mar+h $$.ugosla7iaDs President &lo odan Milose7i+ in .i+hardson) .)M#) 5.
ugosla7iaDs di+tator &lo odan Milose7i+. Left photo' 5nited &tates &e+retary of &tate Warren !hristopher (left) shakes hands with . &e+retary of &tate Madeline #l right appears with .ight photo' # histori+al meeting in Belgrade. with "#<. (5. &wit0erland on (une @.ugosla7ia and Milan Milutino7i+.5. *rom right to left' )eneral 6laus "aumann as !hairman "#<. &lo odan Milose7i+. #rmy) )eneral Wesley !lark. #meri+an en7oy . President of .8 &#!E5. $%%?. .i+hard Hol rooke meets with . (a7ier &olana.&.epresentati7e. .ugosla7iaDs di+tator &lo odan Milose7i+. Military !ommittee. President of &er ia.&. E5 High .ugosla7iaDs di+tator &lo odan Milose7i+ in )ene7a.
The other two ethnic groups in Bosnia.com/amazing-pictures-from-the-bosnian-war-20-years-later-2012-4?op=1 . (AP/Santiago Lyon) http://www. the Bosnian Serbs rejected the decision. however.ecember 1@ 199. 1992.*osnian War C6arch 1 1997B.D Bosnia-Herzegovina declared political independence through a referendum on February 29. supported the government's decision. the Muslims and the Croats.businessinsider.
De#art!ent of Defense # oto? .S.i!ately four !ont s after t e signing of t e Dayton )eace $ccord t at officially ended t e war in Bosnia. =6.ecutive "ouncil Building in Sara2evo4 Bosnia 'urns after s elling in t e s#ring of 899D.T e E. =) oto 'y Mik ail Evstafiev? $ view of Gr'avica4 a neig 'or ood in Sara2evo4 Bosnia on Marc 94 899> a##ro.
&e!ains of victi!s of t e Sre'renica Massacre =0uly 899G? w o died at t e ands of t e Ser'ian ar!y led 'y 1ugoslaviaNs )resident Slo'odan Milosevic =8978%DEE>?. .troo#s a##roac Sni#er $lley in Sara2evo4 Bosnia in -ove!'er 899G.-orwegian 6.
000 Muslim men and boys were massacred by Bosnian Serb army. . and an estimated 20. of genocide and crimes against humanity.000 Muslim women. A war crimes tribunal indicted Radovan Karadzic (left) and Ratko Mladic (right).An estimated 8. and elderly were expelled to Tuzla during the Srebrenica Massacre. children. the main Serbian instigators.
Ma# of !ilitary o#erations during t e Sre'renica Massacre in 0uly 899G. Green arrow !arks route of t e Bosnian colu!n .
and *ran9o <ud9man (. rear) at Wright8Patterson #ir *or+e Base near 2ayton.i+hard Hol rooke attended the $%%J Bilder erg Meetings in Quri+h. President of the .epu li+ of &er ia. (Photo' 5. #ssistant &e+retary of &tate .&. .hio on "o7em er @$. 2epartment of 2efense) &lo odan Milose7i+ (L). initialing a pea+e a++ord among their +ountries. . $%%J. for pea+e talks.epu li+ of Bosnia8Her0ego7ina. &wit0erland in (une $%%J. #li9a /0et ego7i+ (!). &e+retary of &tate Warren !hristopher (@nd right.&. .epu li+ of !roatia. Bosnia8Her0ego7ina. $%%J while waiting for a !8$ME Her+ules air+raft whi+h will fly the diplomats into &ara9e7o.&. wat+hed y 5. President of the .+to er M.). President of the .5.i+hard Hol rooke (left) and European en7oy !arl Bildt dis+uss up+oming e7ents on .
on "o7em er @$. .hio. <he talks ended the +onfli+t arising from the reakup of the . . (Photo' 5. $8@$.President &lo odan Milose7i+ of the *ederal . $%%J and formally signed in Paris.epu li+ of . on "o7em er @$. <he )eneral *ramework #greement for Pea+e in Bosnia and Her0ego7ina. *ran+e on 2e+em er $I. $%%J. <he 2ayton Pea+e #++ords ended the Bosnian War ($%%@8$%%J).epu li+ of Bosnia and Her0ego7ina.#.&.&. President #li9a /0et ego7i+ of the .#. $%%J. and President *ran9o <ud9man of the . . 5. <he 2ayton #++ords pa7ed the way for the signing of the final 3)eneral *ramework #greement for Pea+e in Bosnia and Her0ego7ina4 at the Elysee Pala+e in Paris on 2e+em er $I.S. a regular Bilder erg Meetings parti+ipant. #ir *or+e) Ser'iaNs )resident Slo'odan Milosevic =left? is greeted 'y 6.&. $ssistant Secretary of State &ic ard Hol'rooke after arriving at +rig t%)atterson $ir *orce Base near Dayton4 3 io4 on 3cto'er H84 899G.ugosla7ia. informally known as the 2ayton Pea+e #++ords.ugosla7ia.hio. $%%J1 &wedish en7oy !arl Bildt. is seated third from right. 5. <he Balkan ProAimity Pea+e <alks were +ondu+ted at Wright8Patterson #ir *or+e Base "o7. is a pea+e agreement that was +on+luded at Wright8Patterson #ir *or+e Base near 2ayton.epu li+ of . $%%J.epu li+ of !roatia sign the 2ayton Pea+e #++ords at Wright8Patterson #ir *or+e Base near 2ayton.
Bush 7isited the <ask *or+e *al+on soldiers to show support for the troops in 6oso7o. (5.) shakes hands with President of 6oso7o *atmir &e9diu (+enter) and Prime Minister of 6oso7o Hashim <ha+i (left) during a meeting in the . <he president signed the fis+al year @EE$ Emergen+y &upplemental #ppropriations legislation whi+h +ontains W$. E7ans. )eorge W.&. President )eorge W. Bush speaks to #meri+an soldiers and troops from other "#<. Bush is a mem er of &kull : Bones.ale 5ni7ersity. #rmy) 5. (Photo' #leA WongC)etty /mages "orth #meri+a) .&. !linton (. a se+ret so+iety at . <his was the first offi+ial 7isit of &e9diu and <ha+i to Washington after 6oso7o de+lared its independen+e.7al . @EE$. Bush (.% illion for military pay. 2. 5.&. 5. 2epartment of 2efense photo y &taff >. nations at !amp Bondsteel in the dispute territory of 6oso7o on (uly @I.&..President )eorge W.ffi+e of the White House in Washington. @EEF.#. enefits and health +are among other +ategories during his 7isit.!. on (uly @$.
osovo in early 8999 as DH et nic $l'anians are found dead.=osovo War C'ebruary 7E 199EB:une 71 1999D $ genocide occurs in Ser'ia%ad!inistered .osovo in DEEG . Et nic co!#osition of .
$%%% to dis+uss the +risis situation in 6oso7o. "#<. Belgium on Mar+h @@. photo) . ("#<. Wesley !lark (right). #rmy )en.i+hard Hol rooke (left). and 5.#meri+an spe+ial en7oy . the &upreme #llied !ommander of Europe.&. meet together at "#<. head=uarters in Brussels. &e+retary )eneral (a7ier &olana (+enter).
$%%%. (/mage' K .o ertC&ygmaC!.annis 6ontosC&ygmaC!or is) British and *ren+h soldiers se+ure their position in Pristina. air raid.Ministry of the /nterior is om ed in Belgrade.B/&) .ugosla7ia on (une $@.ugosla7ia on #pril @. 6oso7o.. . . (/mage' K Patri+k . $%%% following a "#<.
)resident Bill "linton =center? and 6. Secretary of State Madeleine $l'rig t =rig t?4 6. Secretary of Defense +illia! S.S. =) oto< -$T3? )resident Bill "linton =Dnd rig t?4 6. +esley "lark =left?4 t e Su#re!e $llied "o!!ander of Euro#e4 !eet wit -$T3 Secretary General 0avier Solana =rig t? at t e -$T3 ead.uarters in Brussels4 Belgiu! on May G4 8999. =) oto< -$T3? . S elton4 t e " air!an of t e 0oint " iefs of Staff4 !eet wit -$T3 Secretary General 0avier Solana =Hrd left? at t e -$T3 ead.S.S. "o en =7 t rig t?4 and 6. $r!y Gen.S. Henry H.uarters in Brussels4 Belgiu! on May G4 8999. $r!y Gen.
"#<. &e+retary of &tate Madeleine #l right laugh pri7ately. 5.&. 6o0aryn) . #ir *or+e )en. $%%%.alston su++eeded !lark as "#<.Hs top military +ommander in Europe.alston lea7e the &upreme Head=uarters #llied Powers Europe in Mons. (Photo y Linda 2. &e+retary8)eneral Lord ()eorge) . &upreme #llied !ommander of Europe. . Belgium on May M. for the +eremony where .5. Wesley 6.&. !lark (from left). "#<. 6oso7o War lasted from *e ruary @F. and 5.o ertson and 5. #rmy )en. President Bill !linton (left).&. $%%F to (une @$.&. @EEE. &e+retary8)eneral (a7ier &olana (+enter). (oseph W.
2. 2epartment of 2efense photo y .&. (5. )ates (+enter) es+orts 6oso7ar President *atmir &e9diu (left) and 6oso7ar Prime Minister Hashim <ha+i through an honor +ordon and into the Pentagon near Washington.!. &e+retary of &tate Madeleine #l right (left) greets 6oso7o Li eration #rmy (6L#) leader Hashim <ha+i (right) in $%%%.5.o ert M. &e+retary of 2efense . Ward) .. 2. )ates and his senior ad7isors met with the 6oso7ar leadership to dis+uss the new nationsH se+urity re=uirements.&. on (uly $F. @EEF.
@EEF.&.5. 2. &e+retary of &tate !ondolee00a . on (une @%. 6oso7o offi+ially e+ame a mem er of the /M* and the World Bank. on *riday. 5.!. (Photo' #leA WongC)etty /mages "orth #meri+a) . @EE%. (uly $F.!. 2eputy &e+retary of &tate (ames &tein erg (left) as Prime Minister of 6oso7o Hashim <ha+i (+enter) looks on during a signing +eremony at the &tate 2epartment in Washington.&. By signing the agreement. 2.i+e (+enter) pose in front of flags after holding a 9oint press a7aila ility with 6oso7o President *atmir &e9diu (left) and 6oso7o Prime Minister Hashim <ha+i (right) at the &tate 2epartment in Washington..#. (#P PhotoC)erald Her ert) President of 6oso7o *atmir &e9diu (right) hands #rti+les of #greement of /nternational Monetary *und (/M*) to 5.&.
osovoMs #ri!e !inister4 Has i! T a]i4 as 'een identified as one of t e L'iggest fis L in organised cri!e in is country4 according to western !ilitary intelligence re#orts leaked to t e Guardian. T e vote is widely e. ) otogra# < @aldrin T e!a25E)$ . .osovo war.uiry #u'lis ed last !ont 'y t e u!an rig ts ra##orteur Dick Marty.erted Lviolent controlL over t e eroin trade4 and a##eared to confir! concerns t at after t e conflict wit Ser'ia ended4 is inner circle oversaw a gang t at !urdered Ser' ca#tives to sell t eir kidneys on t e 'lack !arket.osovo 'ased on re#orts 'y western intelligence agencies and infor!ants.osovo (i'eration $r!y =.#ected to for!ally de!and an investigation into clai!s t at T a]i was t e ead of a L!afia%likeL network res#onsi'le for s!uggling wea#ons4 drugs and u!an organs during and after t e 899:%99 .H7 EST .osovoMs #ri!e !inister accused of cri!inal connections in secret -ato docu!ents leaked to t e Guardian By )aul (ewis T e Guardian4 Monday D7 0anuary DE88 8H.*3&L4 t ey #rovide detailed infor!ation a'out organised cri!inal networks in .&e#ort identifies Has i! T aci as M'ig fis M in organised cri!e . T e organ trafficking allegations were contained in an official in. His re#ort accused T a]i and several ot er senior figures w o o#erated in t e .#ected to 'e #assed. T e geogra# ical s#read of .osovo as aving links to t e $l'anian !afia4 stating t at e e. T ey also identify anot er senior ruling #olitician in .erts considera'le control over T a]i4 a for!er guerrilla leader.osovoMs cri!inal gangs is set out4 alongside details of alleged fa!ilial and 'usiness links. T e "ouncilMs of Euro#eMs #arlia!entary asse!'ly in Stras'ourg will de'ate MartyMs findings and vote on a resolution calling for cri!inal investigations. T e "ouncil of Euro#e is to!orrow e. Marked L6S$ .osovoMs govern!ent ave ad e. T e -ato docu!ents4 w ic are !arked LSecretL4 indicate t at t e 6S and ot er western #owers 'acking . T e re#ort also na!ed T a]i as aving e.osovoMs )ri!e Minister Has i! T aci identified in secret -$T3 re#orts as aving involve!ent in cri!inal underworld.($? of links to organised cri!e4 #ro!#ting a !a2or di#lo!atic crisis w en it was leaked to t e Guardian last !ont .tensive knowledge of its cri!inal connections for several years.
*3&4 t e -ato%led #eacekee#ing force res#onsi'le for security in . His govern!ent as dis!issed t e Marty re#ort as #art of a Ser'ian and &ussian cons#iracy to desta'ilise t e fledgling state. However4 in an interview wit t e !edia outlet Balkan Insig t last week e dis!issed t e Marty re#ort as L#oliticalL and designed to Ldiscredit t e . Haliti was unavaila'le for co!!ent. However4 t e latest leaked docu!ents were #roduced 'y . 3ne was a #olitical adversary w o was found Ldead 'y t e .osovo.L . Haliti also serves as a #olitical and financial adviser to t e #ri!e !inister 'ut4 according to t e docu!ents4 is argua'ly Lt e real 'ossL in t e relations i#.($ w o is now a close ally of t e #ri!e !inister and a senior #arlia!entarian in is ruling )D.osovo war in 89994 el#ing to #ut an end to a ca!#aign of et nic cleansing 'y Slo'odan MilosevicMs Ser'ian forces.($L. #arty. It was . LI t ink itMs a co!#etent investigating 'ody4L e said4 LItMs a Euro#ean investigation 'ody.($ infig ting is said to ave resulted in nu!erous killings. "iting 6S and -ato intelligence4 t e entry states Haliti is LlinkedL t e grisly !urder4 going on to state< L$li 6ka4 a re#orter in Tirana4 w o su##orted t e inde#endence !ove!ent 'ut criticised it in #rint.osovoMs official delegation to Stras'ourg to!orrow and as #layed a leading role in seeking to under!ine t e Marty re#ort in #u'lic. Descri'ing i! as Lt e #ower 'e ind Has i! T a]iL4 one re#ort states t at Haliti as strong ties wit t e $l'anian !afia and .*3& !ilitary forces t at intervened in t e .S i...osovo war in t e late 899Es4 #rofiting fro! t e fund #ersonally 'efore t e !oney dried u#. But e acce#ted t at t e "ouncil of Euro#e was likely to #ass a resolution triggering investigations 'y t e E6%'acked 2ustice !ission in t e country4 known as E6(ET. So too is T avit Haliti4 a for!er ead of logistics for t e . T a]i4 w o was re%elected #ri!e !inister last !ont 4 as 'een strongly 'acked 'y -ato #owers.L Haliti is also na!ed in t e re#ort 'y Marty4 w ic is understood to ave drawn on -ato intelligence assess!ents along wit re#orts fro! t e *BI and MIG. $ descri#tion of t e ot er sus#ected !urder – of a young 2ournalist in Tirana4 t e $l'anian ca#ital – also contains a reference to t e #ri!e !inister 'y na!e4 'ut does not ascri'e 'la!e. In t e docu!ents4 T a]i is identified as one of a triu!virate of L'iggest fis L in organised cri!inal circles. His roo!!ate at t e ti!e was Has i! T a]i.osovo 'orderL4 a##arently following a dis#ute wit Haliti. LI was not sur#rised 'y t e re#ort. L$s a result4 Haliti turned to organised cri!e on a grand scale4L t e re#orts state. Haliti uses a fake #ass#ort to travel a'road 'ecause e is 'lack%listed in several countries4 including t e 6S4 one re#ort states.osovo or $l'anian #olitics. MartyMs re#ort includes Haliti a!ong a list of close allies of T a]i said to ave ordered – and in so!e cases #ersonally overseen – Lassassinations4 detentions4 'eatings and interrogationsL during and i!!ediately after t e war. However4 t e -ato intelligence re#orts suggest t at 'e ind is role as a #ro!inent #olitician4 Haliti is also a senior organised cri!inal w o carries a "zec 9!! #istol and olds considera'le sway over t e #ri!e !inister. I t ink t at t ere is no #ossi'ility t at E6(ET investigation unit to 'e affected 'y .#ected to 'e a!ong . -ato said in a state!ent tonig t t at it ad instigated an Linternal investigationL into t e leaked docu!ents4 w ic are intelligence assess!ents #roduced around DEE74 s ortly 'efore tensions wit et nic Ser's fuelled riots in .#rotectorate fro! t e end of t e .osovo functioned as a 6. Haliti is linked to t e alleged inti!idation of #olitical o##onents in . It suggests t at Haliti L!ore or less ranL a fund for t e .osovoMs secret service4 known as .osovo. I ave followed t is issue for years and t e content of t e re#ort is #olitical4L e said.osovo and two sus#ected !urders dating 'ack to t e late 899Es4 w en . 6ka was 'rutally disfigured wit a 'ottle and screwdriver in 899I. T ey state t at e is L ig ly involved in #rostitution4 wea#ons and drugs s!ugglingL and used a otel in t e ca#ital4 )ristina4 as an o#erational 'ase. Haliti is e.osovo war until DEE:4 w en it for!ally declared inde#endence fro! Ser'ia.
His re#ort4 #u'lis ed last !ont 4 suggested t ere was evidence t at .osovoMs develo#!ent. (White House photo y Eri+ 2raper) . @EEF. and 6oso7o Prime Minister Hashim <ha+i.osovo4 and we look forward to t e coo#eration of our international #artners in ensuring t at cri!inality as no #lace in .($ killed ca#tives for t eir organs – #ro!#ted t e for!al in.co. L-evert eless4 t e #ri!e !inister as called for an investigation 'y E6(ET and as re#eatedly #ledged is full coo#eration to law enforce!ent aut orities on t ese scandalous and slanderous allegations. (uly @$.osovo was #ro!#ted 'y revelations 'y t e for!er c ief war cri!es #rosecutor at T e Hague4 "arla Del )onte4 w o said s e ad 'een #revented fro! #ro#erly investigating alleged atrocities co!!itted 'y t e . Her !ost s ocking disclosure – unconfir!ed re#orts t e .uiry into organ trafficking in . Source< tt#<55www. during a meeting Monday.osovo (i'eration $r!y.&es#onding to t e allegations in t e -$T3 intelligence re#orts tonig t4 a . +enter. left.osovo govern!ent s#okes!an said< LT ese are allegations t at ave circulated for over a decade4 !ost recently recycled in t e Dick Marty re#ort.($ co!!anders s!uggled ca#tives across t e 'order into .epu li+ of 6oso7o e+ame an independent state on *e ruary $>.osovo and arvested t e organs of a L andfulL of Ser's.osovo continues to su##ort t e strengt ening of t e rule of law in . His findings4 w ic will 'e su'2ect to a #arlia!entary asse!'ly vote to!orrow4 went furt er4 accusing .uiry 'y u!an rig ts ra##orteur Dick Marty. T ey are 'ased on earsay and intentional false Ser'ian intelligence. @EEF.osovo to reac t e )alace of Euro#e4 a grand 'uilding in Stras'ourg t at serves as t e ead. LT e govern!ent of .uk5world5DE8852an5D75 as i!%t aci%kosovo%organised%cri!e #meri+an President )eorge W.osovoMs #ri!e !inister and several ot er senior figures of involve!ent in organised cri!e over t e last decade.L 5oad to Strasbour" It as taken !ore t an two years for an in.uarters of t e "ouncil of Euro#e. <he .uiry into organ trafficking in . T e for!al in.guardian. Bush shakes hands with 6oso7o President *atmir &e9diu.
In 3cto'er 899I4 D2ukanovic was elected )resident of Montenegro.es!ite bein" 6ilosevic's first victims the (lbanians had received nothin"# (s lon" as they remained !assive the more radical (lbanians reasoned the outside world would i"nore them and the 6ilosevic re"ime could continue to deny (lbanian ri"hts and his shabby re"ime of re!ression would continue undisturbed# ?n s!rin" 199< the =%( was not an or"ani2ed force# ?ts members belon"ed to small cells and were drawn from the lar"e rural !o!ulation that had little !olitical influence in =osovo0 but by ta&in" u! terrorist methods the =%( laid down a challen"e to 5u"ova's leadershi!# $he tactics of armed confrontation would inevitably lead to re!risals by the Serbian security forces which in turn would boost su!!ort for the =%(# $ired of 5u"ova's a!!arent inaction many youn" (lbanians switched their alle"iance to the men with the "uns# . Ser'ian o##osition #arties argued t at t e 'oycott of Ser'ian elections el#ed Milosevic !aintain is gri# on t e country as t e Ser'ian !inority in . &ugovaMs #olicy of restraint ensured t at .osovo resulting in two furt er deat s – one of a #olice!an4 t e second of a fe!ale #risoner 'eing transferred to )ristinaMs !ain gaol. &ugovaMs !ove!ent 'oycotted all Ser'ian institutions. T e Euro#ean 6nion and t e 6nited States were awakening to t e #ossi'ility of war in t e #rovince. But #eace was acco!#anied 'y #olitical stagnation and t e continuing syste!atic re#ression of $l'anians.osovo4 t e Drenica valley.osovo4 t e deat toll !ounted on 'ot t e Ser'ian and $l'anian sides.($ w ose o#erations were concentrated on its strong old in west central . T e )ri!e Minister4 a young refor!er4 Milo D2ukanovic4 'uilt a 'road coalition #owered 'y t e growing resent!ent felt towards Milosevic and t e *ederal govern!ent. "ri!inal gangs filled t e #ower vacuu!4 unleas ing a reign of terror on t e civilian #o#ulation and looting t e wea#ons facilities of t e de!oralized $l'anian ar!y. 1et anot er develo#!ent s#urred t e conflict in . Muc of t is ardware found its way into .osovo ad finally decided t at enoug was enoug . In . T e . In t e ne.($?. Second4 +estern Euro#e and t e 6nited States ste##ed u# t eir involve!ent in t e conflict. $he =%( attac&s occurred five months after the si"nature of the .osovo4 8E #er cent of t e #rovinceMs #o#ulation4 delivered all t e #arlia!entary seats to Milosevic and is allies.osovo =(D.osovoMs unofficial govern!ent. billion to aid reconstruction# .es fro! t e . &ugovaMs su##ort was e''ing away in favour of t e . *irst4 t e . T roug out t e 1ugoslav crisis4 Milosevic ad counted on unswerving su##ort fro! Montenegro4 Ser'iaMs tiny sister re#u'lic in t e ru!# 1ugoslavia4 t e *&1.osovo4 I'ra i! &ugova4 . *ig ting 'roke out 'etween su##orters of Beris aMs De!ocratic )arty and t ose of t e Socialist )arty4 led 'y *atos -ano. Many Montenegrins4 owever4 considered t e wars in "roatia and Bosnia to 'e #urely Ser'ian affairs. 1ounger4 less #atient $l'anians 'eca!e frustrated wit t e &ugova strategy and i!!ediately after t e events of DD $#ril 899>4 one of &ugovaMs ars est critics in .F3n t e evening of Monday DD $#ril 899>4 a s!all grou# of Ser's were en2oying a drink at t e "akor cafU in Decani in western . T ese ad 'een sent fro! Tirana4 t e $l'anian ca#ital.t our4 t ere were t ree !ore attacks in a different #art of . T ree Ser's lay dead4 t e first !urder victi!s of t e . T e !oderate $l'anian leader in .i4 noted t at t e .shtria Cli&itare e ?oso/es – t e . T e govern!ent of t e rig t%wing )resident4 Sali Beris a4 colla#sed after t e failure of several uge #yra!id invest!ent sc e!es. $ section of t e $l'anian co!!unity in . T e Ser' offensive in Drenica ad t ree conse.ayton ("reement# $he =osovo (lbanians loo&ed northwards to Croatia and *osnia with envy# $hey observed that with the hel! of the international community the Serbs had been defeated com!letely in the former and !artially in the latter# ?n *osnia/ 4erce"ovina the international community had !led"ed O.tre!ists !ig t ave carried out t e s ootings to ratc et u# t e tension and worsen t e at!os# ere of fear in t e #rovince.osovo (i'eration $r!y =.osovo via t e western4 $l'anian areas of neig 'ouring Macedonia4 w ere su##ort for t e . D2ukanovicMs outs#oken criticis! of Milosevic and is war! relations wit t e +est irritated t e Ser'ian leader4 w o toyed wit t e idea of #rovoking civil war in t e re#u'lic to 'ring is rival down. 1et 'ecause of t e federation wit Ser'ia4 t e Montenegrins ad to endure sanctions and isolation in t e sa!e !easure as t e Ser's. *or t e first ti!e since 89:94 Milosevic was faced wit an o##onent w o could actually li!it is roo! for !anoeuvre.($ 'eca!e stronger 'y t e day4 as t ousands of young $l'anian !en swelled its ranks. 6acedonia was the most fra"ile of the new states to emer"e from the former Ku"oslavia less secure even than *osnia/4erce"ovina# Si+ty/five !er cent of its two million inhabitants are Slavs who are &nown to everybody e+ce!t the *ul"arians and Gree&s as 6acedonians# T e .osovo $l'anians were Mincreasingly vociferously accusing t eir leaders of 'etraying national interestsM. T ird4 regional sta'ility was unsettled 'y #olarizing Montenegrin society and increasing tension in neig 'ouring countries4 es#ecially $l'ania and Macedonia.urin" the first year of its e+istence the =%( failed to attract much attention outside =osovo and Serbia# With the su!!ort of the United Aations and 5ussia the West was en"a"ed in !uttin" the *osnian 1i"saw bac& to"ether a"ain# $his was difficult and e+as!eratin" wor&# (fter five years of vicious conflict in the former Ku"oslavia the West had tired of the *al&an tra"edy# $he death of a few Serbs in =osovo barely re"istered in di!lomatic cables and no "overnment was interested in !ursuin" the matter# $he !eace in *osnia de!ended on the "oodwill and coo!eration of Slobodan 6ilosevic# $his was not the time Western !oliticians thou"ht to o!en a Pandora's bo+ li&e =osovo# Ket the clash between (lbanian and Serb in =osovo should not have come as a sur!rise# (ll intelli"ence su""ested that at some !oint there would be a serious escalation of violence# (!ril 199< was that turnin" !oint# (nd true to form the international community turned a blind eye# In t e su!!er of 899I4 neig 'ouring $l'ania descended into c aos. T e Slavs of Montenegro4 w o s#eak a variant of Ser'o%"roat4 are divided 'etween t ose w o 'elieve t e!selves 'ound to Ser's et nically and istorically4 and t ose w o regard Montenegrin identity as se#arate.osovoY$t :<DG #!4 a grou# of !asked !en walked into t e cafU and o#ened fire indiscri!inately wit se!i%auto!atic wea#ons4 t rowing a grenade as t ey wit drew.($ was growing. &ugova and is )arty4 t e De!ocratic (eague of .uestioned t e aut enticity of t e clai!4 suggesting t at Ser'ian e. 3n T ursday G Marc 899:4 a large force of Ser'ian #olice launc ed an offensive in Drenica4 killing DD $l'anian fig ters and triggering a flig t of t e civilian #o#ulation towards @ucitrn.osovo re!ained #eaceful t roug out t e "roatian and Bosnian wars. During t e following !ont s4 t e BB" $l'anian service in (ondon received several fa.uences t at Milosevic ad al!ost certainly antici#ated. T e assault occurred t ree weeks 'efore elections called 'y &ugova to .? ad #ursued a #at of #eaceful resistance to t e rule of Belgrade since t e #rovinceMs autono!y ad 'een rescinded in 89:9.osovo. T ey sent delegations to investigate t e situation 'ut di#lo!acy consisted in warning 'ot sides against t e use of violence.($ clai!ing res#onsi'ility for t e attacks.osovo4 t e !averick #olitician4 $de! De!a.($Ms first !urders were not4 owever4 a Ser'%ins#ired #rovocation.
tensive autono!y fro! Belgrade was t e !ost t at t e international co!!unity would sanction for t e . In t e first week of t e 'o!'ing4 -$T3 leaders offered a string of !ore #recise goals t at left no'ody any wiser. 'rom the summer of 199E a variety of Western re!resentatives ho!ed to !ersuade the =%( to dro! its demand for inde!endence# $hey also had to convince 6ilosevic to acce!t the !resence of a A($> force in =osovo# Until the very last minute in 6arch 1999 they failed on both counts# (s Western di!lomacy faced total defeat the =%( chan"ed its mind at the Paris !eace tal&s acce!tin" autonomy in !lace of inde!endence# $he Serbian authorities a"reed with most of the !olitical !lan for autonomy but refused cate"orically to countenance a A($> !resence in their hallowed territory of =osovo# 6ilosevic had called A($>'s bluff# (s the Western defensive alliance a!!roached its . Inas!uc as Milosevic ad any war ai!s4 t e su'version of D2ukanovic was #ro'a'ly t e !ost i!#ortant of t e!.uarter of a !illion #eo#le ad 'een du!#ed on a region t e size of Tuscany. Bot D2ukanovic and Ser'iaMs de!ocratic o##osition4 w ic ad 'een gaining in strengt in t e two years #rior to t e . So!e worried t at w en Milosevic ad finis ed in Bosnia4 e would turn is attentions to Macedonia.Gth birthday celebrations in (!ril 1999 it was confronted with a distasteful dilemma# ?t must embar& u!on a war a"ainst a country of E million inhabitants or rene"e on its !ublic commitment to do so in the event of 6ilosevic refusin" what came to be &nown as the 5ambouillet a"reement# ?f A($> bac&ed down it would lose its vaunted 'credibility'# ?t had announced the bombin" and so it must "o ahead re"ardless of the conse.osovo crisis4 ave 'een weakened 'y t e -$T3 ca!#aign. *ar fro! deserting Milosevic4 as t e +est ad o#ed4 Ser's initially rallied 'e ind t eir #resident4 ena'ling i! to destroy !ost inde#endent !edia overnig t. His resolve to stand fir! e. T e Macedonians4 Greece warned4 ar'oured territorial as#irations on $egean Macedonia and its #ort of T essaloniki. It was as t oug t e #o#ulation of (ondon or -ew 1ork ad 'een increased 'y a . T e ca!#aign ai!ed variously to force Milosevic to acce#t t e )aris #eace deal/ to #revent a u!anitarian catastro# e in . But -$T3Ms astonis ing #u'lic ad!ission #rior to t e ca!#aign t at ground troo#s would 'e e.#osed t e uncertainty of +estern strategy. ?f the (lbanians and 6acedonians were to be"in fi"htin" the security interests of the country's four nei"hbours B (lbania Serbia *ul"aria and Greece B would be directly affected# War in 6acedonia would destabilise the southern *al&ans and ris& s!readin" conflict beyond the borders of the former Ku"oslavia# A($> Cthe United States in !articularD with its vital interests in the eastern 6editerranean could not tolerate this# $he conflict in =osovo threatened 6acedonia in two ways# $he =%('s !ro"ramme sou"ht inde!endence for =osovo / nothin" else would now satisfy the (lbanians# *ut an inde!endent =osovo would act as a !owerful ma"net on the 6acedonian (lbanians B throu"h the fo" (lbanians could for the first time ma&e out the contours of a Greater (lbania# 6ore immediate however was the effect that a lar"e e+odus of refu"ees from =osovo into 6acedonia would have on the country's fra"ile balance# 'or this reason Western "overnments refused to su!!ort the =%('s "oal of inde!endence# E. How t is tiny4 i!#overis ed and effectively unar!ed nation intended to invade Greece4 a !e!'er of 'ot -$T3 and t e E64 was never e. It will 'e !any years 'efore Macedonia !ay again 'e considered a sta'le country. T e influ.uarter overnig t/ as t oug over a . War and the Great #o'ers. (iving in t e co!#act territory of western Macedonia and in t e ca#ital Sko#2e4 t e $l'anians of Macedonia ad suffered worse treat!ent at t e ands of t e Macedonian co!!unist aut orities in t e 89IEs and 89:Es t an t e . of so !any $l'anians into Macedonia ad t e !ost severe conse. T e Ser's also c annelled tens of t ousands into Montenegro to encourage t e desta'ilization of MilosevicMs rival4 D2ukanovic. 1et -$T3 ad !ade no #rovisions for t is outco!e and soug t instead to #lace t e 'urden of co#ing wit a uge refugee #ro'le! entirely on Macedonia.osovo/ to degrade and destroy t e 1ugoslav ar!y/ to weaken MilosevicNs gri# on #ower/ and to sto# t e s#reading of conflict 'eyond .#lained. T e Macedonian state was weak and defenceless/ successive govern!ents ad no o#tion 'ut to coo#erate wit t e $l'anians to avoid re'ellion. His only wea#on of war was t e two !illion $l'anians in . T e ca!#aign severely under!ined Mile D2ukanovicMs old on #ower in Montenegro4 es#ecially since -$T3 li'erally 'o!'ed t e re#u'lic in an effort to destroy federal !ilitary installations. Macedonians t e!selves also feared t at Ser'ia and Milosevic would never reconcile t e!selves to losing t eir influence over Macedonia.uences# $he Penta"on however advised a"ainst an o!en/ended bombin" cam!ai"n without !ro!erly/defined war aims# So did senior -uro!ean di!lomats involved in *al&an affairs '$he only alternative to shootin" yourself in the foot ' Carl *ildt told White 4ouse staff ten days before the bombin" started 'is not to do it#' $he re!ly came bac&: 'Credibility#' Soon after the bombin" started on the evenin" of 7@ 6arch 1999 it became evident that the !osture of 'credibility' did not amount to a clear war aim# -$T3 leaders ad assu!ed t at Milosevic would ca#itulate wit in days of t e start of an air ca!#aign.#ected t e new govern!ent in Macedonia to de!onstrate greater res#ect for t eir rig ts. 1!>8%1 'y Mis a Glenny4 #.osovo $l'anians in Ser'ia. MacedoniaMs greatest #ro'le! was its large $l'anian !inority4 accounting for roug ly DG #er cent of t e #o#ulation. >GD%>G9 .uences. To t e credit of !ost $l'anian and Macedonian #oliticians4 t e two elites worked ard to find a !odus vivendi t at was not always to t e liking of t eir constituents.cluded fro! t e o#eration gave Milosevic an enor!ous tactical advantage.osovars. He lost no ti!e in directing undreds of t ousands of refugees into $l'ania4 Macedonia and Montenegro.osovo. 1ugoslav air defences were no !atc for -$T3 'o!'ers and cruise !issiles.ander t e Great. $ flood of 'i'lical #ro#ortions t reatened to drown Macedonia and $l'ania. Instead of #reventing a u!anitarian catastro# e4 -$T3Ms decision ad contri'uted !assively to a gat ering disaster. T ey e. 'rom the start of the cam!ai"n A($> leaders re!eatedly "ave assurances that it was fi"htin" 6ilosevic and his re"ime not the Serbian !eo!le# Ket their refusal to ris& their own troo!s in a "round war !referrin" instead to !ummel Serbia's economic infrastructure from the air and thereby causin" 'collateral dama"e' B that is civilian casualties B loo&ed to many li&e an act of "eneral !unishment# J – The Bal+ans" =ationalis&. But it did agree to guarantee t is autono!y wit t e #resence of a -$T3 #eace%kee#ing force.Bulgarian govern!ent refuses to recognise t e !odern identity of t e Macedonians4 insisting t at t ey are western Bulgarians. + en Macedonia 'eca!e inde#endent in 899D4 t e Greek govern!ent clai!ed t at t e very na!e4 Macedonia4 ad a Hellenic #edigree stretc ing 'ack to $le.osovo.
$ !a# of for!er 1ugoslavia .
osovo =roug ly 8E #er cent of t e #o#ulation? were su'2ected to syste!atic terroris! at t e ands of $l'anian MirredentistsM. Instead4 t e . )olicy was !ade 'y t e two elderly leaders. -o'ody felt t ey needed to esta'lis in detail ow t e new syste! was su##osed to work.osovo $l'anians and $l'ania #ro#er4 'ut t ey also ruled out t e rei!#osition of central control fro! Belgrade4 w ic so!e Ser' co!!unists were de!anding. T ere was indeed an e. Eac year4 t e govern!ent ad to find new loans !erely to finance t e interest re#ay!ents.osovo and @o2vodina? were do!inated 'y conservatives4 united in t e fig t against li'eralis!.osovo was not caused 'y Ser'ian re#ression< under t e 89I7 "onstitution .ue % leading eventually to terri'le confusion and corru#tion.osovo in t e early eig ties was eavy wit tension/ secret #olice!en were u'i.uitous.uired to deal wit a nu!'er of crises w ic rocked t e country in t e early 89:os.osovo ad gained an un#recedented !easure of self%govern!ent. Aeither A($> nor the Soviet Union were interested in the destabili2ation of Ku"oslavia and the most !owerful domestic institution holdin" the country to"ether was the 'ederal (rmy which althou"h dominated by Serbs in the officer cor!s had not yet been infected by Serbian nationalism# ?n the absence of overt nationalist a"itation the ma1ority of Slovenes Serbs and Croats had no reason to brin" down the federation# $hey did however face enormous !roblems in inter!retin" $ito's confused !olitical le"acy# + ile e and . Slovenia and "roatia renewed t eir criticis! of a syste! w ic saw a dis#ro#ortionate a!ount of t eir foreign earnings directed . T e s!all #rivate industries encouraged during t e refor! were cut 'ack in favour of t e large4 loss%!aking industial enter#rises c aracteristic of #lanned econo!ies. His funeral attracted govern!ent leaders fro! I DD states4 t e only a'sentee 'eing t e new $!erican )resident4 &onald &eagan. + at t e . T is distur'ance s#read t roug !any #arts of . It succeeded in doing so for little !ore t an five years and even t en it was at t e e. It was 'ased on a syste! of #olitical !usical c airs – senior #ositions would 'e rotated every year to #revent any single re#u'lic or #olitician fro! accu!ulating too !uc #ower.osovars.ardel2 =w o died in 89I9? were still alive4 t e !ec anis!s of t e 89I7 "onstitution were little !ore t an window dressing. $hey did not demand self/determination for the !rovince but they did call for the Socialist (utonomous Province of =osovo to become a re!ublic# $he disturbances were !ut down by the army and the !olice but this was a !roblem which could not be swe!t under the car!et usin" stron"arm tactics alone# $he federal authorities were now faced with a very delicate situation# $he call for a =osovo re!ublic set alarm bells rin"in" !articularly in Serbia and in 6acedonia where there was also a lar"e (lbanian minority# Grantin" =osovo re!ublican status would mean detachin" it from Serbia and concedin" that it had the ri"ht to secede from the federation# $he s!ecial !osition that =osovo held in Serbian mytholo"y meant that any move towards a re!ublican status for =osovo mi"ht tri""er a bac&lash of Serbian nationalism# T e federal aut orities decided to 'lock contacts 'etween t e .uality wit t e ot er nationalities in 1ugoslavia4 and t eir !ove!ent was4 in effect4 a late%flowering national revival.#ectations #rovoked 'y t e refor!4 1ugoslavia followed t e sa!e #at as )oland4 Hungary and &o!ania – it 'orrowed eavily on t e international !oney !arkets.ardel2 ad 'roug t t e econo!ic refor!s 'egun in 89>> to a alt. T ey 'ased t ese clai!s on t e nu!'ers of Ser's !oving fro! t e #rovince to Ser'ia #ro#er.osovars wanted was e.odus of Ser's in t e early eig ties4 'ut t ey were econo!ic !igrants4 not refugees. (ife was not easy4 'ut it was free fro! nationalist violence. *or t e first ti!e since t e war4 t e 1ugoslav aut orities granted . Initially t is #ro'le! was not so significant as t e leaders i# of t e eig t co!!unist #arties =fro! t e si. In t e less develo#ed #arts of 1ugoslavia% . Since t e Soviet invasion of $fg anistan t e #revious Dece!'er4 t e world ad 'een in t e gri# of a Second "old +ar. $ !inority of co!!unists in Ser'ia4 aided at ti!es 'y t e Belgrade !edia4 clai!ed t at t e Ser' and Montenegrin !inority in . Suc alar!ist views overlooked 1ugoslaviaMs geo%strategic #osition in t e early 89:Es/ t ey also assu!ed t at Tito was t e sole su##ort of 1ugoslaviaMs !ulti%et nic unity.ardel2 ad rei!#osed conservative #olicies at o!e and a'road.#ense of #ro#er continuity in govern!ent.osovo. But t e earlier rationalization #rogra!!e ad increased une!#loy!ent levels t roug out t e country. T e constitution in #rinci#le devolved #owers to t e federal units 'ut t e e. T e Soviet intervention4 owever4 led to an i!#rove!ent in 1ugoslaviaMs relations wit t e +est. $fter t e #urges in Ser'ia and "roatia in t e early I9IEs4 Tito and . T e stories of ra#e4 !urder and inti!idation were wit out foundation. To co!'at t is #ro'le! and in order to !eet t e !aterial e.osovo and assu!ed an o#enly #olitical c aracter. T e asse!'led dignitaries used t e occasion for intense negotiations.#losion in . T e e. -ews#a#ers4 acade!ic te. T e #olitical #ro'le! of . T ey also lacked t e i!agination re. In 89ID4 Tito and . $ t ird talking #oint at TitoMs funeral was 1ugoslaviaMs own #olitical sta'ility.osovo4 Macedonia4 Bosnia and sout ern Ser'ia – t e nu!'er of t ose wit out 2o's !ade u# DE #er cent of t e workforce.osovo coincided wit dee#ening econo!ic #ro'le!s in t e country as a w ole. T e first s ock to t e syste! ca!e in Marc 89:8 w en $l'anian students in )ristina rioted over #oor food at t eir university canteen. -onet eless4 t e local state a##aratus4 including t e #olice force4 was staffed !ainly 'y $l'anians4 and t ey ad no interest in #rovoking t e .F$fter a long s#ell in os#ital4 A0osi# BrozB Tito finally died in t e Slovene ca#ital4 (2u'l2ana on 7 May 89:E4 at t e age of eig ty%seven.osovo #arty =led after I9:> 'y a young $l'anian co!!unist4 $ze! @llasi? agreed to stifle any !anifestation of $l'anian nationalis! in t e #rovince.osovoMs $l'anians t e rig t to travel to $l'ania #ro#er.act relations i# 'etween t e centre of t e re#u'lics was o#a. 1ugoslavs of all nationalities went into de!onstrative !ourning4 'arely a'le to conceive ow t e country could govern itself wit out t eir stern grandfat er at t e el!. By 89:D4 1ugoslaviaMs de't stood at `8:.ts and sc ool'ooks #rinted in Tirana also 'eca!e availa'le in . re#u'lics and Ser'iaMs two autono!ous #rovinces4 . T e at!os# ere in . MIf Soviet troo#s could !ove across t eir 'order wit out international consultation or sanction4M an $!erican istorian as noted4 Mw at would #rotect 1ugoslavia if relations Awit t e SovietsB soured again so!e day QM +ar!er relations wit +estern Euro#e and t e 6nited States were also i!#ortant given 1ugoslaviaMs #arlous econo!ic situation.G 'illion. $rticles in t e western #ress #redicted t e i!!inent de!ise of 1ugoslavia and even a civil war 'etween its constituent nations. T is was now co!#ounded 'y t e return of undreds of t ousands of guest workers4 victi!s of t e recession of t e early 89IEs in +estern Euro#e.
1!>8%1 'y Mis a Glenny4 #. *oreign loans were contracted not only 'y t e 1ugoslav -ational Bank 'ut 'y t e re#u'lican 'anks as well so t at 1ugoslaviaMs inde'tedness was invaria'ly ig er t an official figures ad!itted.ation4 a grand total of 94GHH 'ureaucrats were running t e two #rovinces. $t t e ti!e of occu#ation in 8:I:4 2ust 8DE Musli!s ad!inistered Bosnia and Hercegovina. In for!ulating !acroecono!ic #olicy4 t e federal govern!ent ad to negotiate 'ot wit t e western 'anks and wit t e 'anks of t e si. &elin. T is el#ed to overco!e t e language 'arrier4 'ut it 'olstered t e "at olic #resence in Bosnia. Stadler ca!e wit t e e. during t e era of t e Dou'le EagleM. T e Musli!s of Mostar ad watc ed cultural centres4 sc ools and c urc es serving t e "at olic and 3rt odo. T e Musli!s4 w o under 3tto!an rules were solely res#onsi'le for governing Bosnia4 were o'liged to yield t eir gri# on t e ad!inistration straig taway. In a nu!'er of t e !ore dra!atic cases of conversion4 Stadler i!self gave sanctuary to Musli!s fleeing t eir co!!unity4 !ainly wo!en w o wis ed to !arry non%Musli!s. T e s#eed and zeal wit w ic t e new rulers set a'out !odernizing t e govern!ent of Bosnia confir!ed t ese fears. $ large nu!'er of t e new clerks4 #ost!en and station!asters ca!e fro! neig 'ouring "roatia. + en t e Ha's'urg aut orities atte!#ted to intervene wit t e $rc 'is o# on 'e alf of t e Musli!s4 Stadler re!ained stu''orn. >DD%>DG F*or t e Bosnian Musli!s4 AreligiousB conversions touc ed t e very eart of t eir identity.uis ing control of govern!ent was no great loss in itself and t e c ange undou'tedly 'enefited Bosnia – 'y 8:I: !eaningful ad!inistrative life ad all 'ut e. T e Ha's'urg aut orities were alert to t e i!#ortance of religion in Bosnia and4 wit in weeks of t e occu#ation4 tried to i!#ose tig t #olitical control on t e t ree c urc es. Men in neatly cut Euro#ean unifor!s 'randis ed t eir ink and sta!#s4 de!anding endless infor!ation a'out t e E!#ireNs new su'2ects/ #oking t eir noses into t e #rivate lives and a'its of fa!ilies w ose word until a few !ont s earlier ad 'een !ore #owerful ! Bosnia t an even t e SultanMs. T e sudden invasion of undreds u#on undreds of Ha's'urg 'ureaucrats ad a severe #syc ological i!#act on t e Musli!s.J – The Bal+ans" =ationalis&.#ress intention of ending t e #astoral !ono#oly of t e *ranciscan !onks in favour of t e !ore energetic 0esuits/ of enlisting t e clerical ierarc y in t e active service of @atican #olicy/ and of gat ering t e souls of a#ostates.istence4 'ased on TitoMs for!ula of M'rot er ood and unityM. co!!unities increasing in t eir city. Sna##ing orders in strange tongues4 t ey counted ouses and !easured roads4 or !ore fre. War and the Great #o'ers. So w en t e $ustro%Hungarian occu#iers !arc ed into Bosnia to announce t at all religious fait s would encefort 'e treated as e. 6ntil 8:I:4 t e Musli!s were t e ruling class of Bosnia%Hercegovina4 controlling t e #rovincesN feudal econo!y and sclerotic ad!inistration. But t eir fears were s ared 'y t e !a2ority of Musli!s4 classed as free #easants.#ired in t e #rovince. T e agas re#resented 'ut a tiny !inority4 8.into a Solidarity *und for t e develo#!ent of t e #oorer4 sout ern regions.acer'ated 'y 1ugoslaviaMs i!#enetra'le 'anking syste!. BosniaMs feudal structures furt er e!# asized t e i!#ortance of t e c urc es as ar'iters of !oral and social . T e devolved 'anking syste! also encouraged corru#tion wit in t e re#u'lics4 on a uge scale.. *or different #olitical and econo!ic reasons4 t en4 1ugoslaviaMs govern!ent was under siege in t e !id%89:Es fro! its constituent #arts. During t e 8:9Es4 a war of words 'roke out in Hercegovina 'etween t e #ro#agandists of Greater "roatia and Greater Ser'ia.. re#u'lics.uently land u#on w ic roads and railways would soon 'e 'uilt/ t ey #ut u# signs on 'uildings and signs on streets in foreign languages.uestions. But t e Dou'le Eagle 'uilt its nest in every town and in every village. T ey warned t at t e arrival of t e $ustro%Hungarians would swiftly 'e followed 'y t e li'eration of t e " ristian #easants4 t e last serfs in Euro#e4 w o would t en 'e at li'erty to co!#ete wit t eir Musli! counter#arts for land. T e @atican willingly gave its #er!ission for t e esta'lis !ent of an arc 'is o#ric in Bosnia4 and so in t e wake of t e 'ureaucrats t ere followed a crusading #riest ood ty#ified 'y t e leading cleric4 0osi# Stadler4 w o 'eca!e t e first $rc 'is o# of @r 'osna Aold "roat na!e for Sara2evoB. )o#ular !istrust of t e federal and re#u'lican aut orities 'egan to grow 'y 89:>/ une!#loy!ent and strikes ad 'eco!e ende!ic. T e de't crisis was e. T irty years later4 w en $ustria turned its occu#ation into anne. T e #syc ological distress occasioned 'y t ese c anges was Ma !a2or cause of Musli! e!igration to Istan'ul and ot er #arts of t e 3tto!an E!#ire . War and the Great #o'ers. T e case of *ata 3!anovic #roved one conversion too !any.G #er cent4 of t e Musli! #o#ulation. To t e Musli!s it si!#ly looked as if t e govern!ent was turning a 'lind eye to t e "at olic " urc Ms #roselytizing activities.ual4 t e Musli! landowners4 t e agas4 feared t at t eir #ower and indeed t eir cultural world were a'out to disa##ear. T ey anded out letters telling young !en to re#ort for !ilitary service/ t ey indulged in futile ad!inistrative rituals a'out w ic w ole novels ave 'een written/ and everyw ere t ey ung #ortraits of His I!#erial and &oyal Hig ness4 *ranz 0ose# I. Su##orted 'y t e +est4 t e !ilitary and4 wit growing reluctance4 'y #u'lic o#inion4 it continued its #recarious e. T is ad little to do wit #iety and everyt ing to do wit #olitics. 1!>8%1 'y Mis a Glenny4 #. $ny atte!#t 'y t e federal aut orities to interfere wit re#u'lican financial arrange!ents was fiercely resisted. T eir #rivileges were guaranteed 'y t e #ri!acy of Isla! wit in t e 3tto!an E!#ire.J – The Bal+ans" =ationalis&. D>:%D>9 . $ll t is contri'uted to w at a distinguis ed istorian of Bosnia as called a Mwides#read sense of alienation and fear a!ong t e Bosnian Musli!sM.
(anguages4 #eo#les4 and #olitical divisions of Euro#e4 8:8G%8987 .
Ger!an and Italian occu#ation of 1ugoslavia during +orld +ar II .
aiser +il el! IIMs ent usias! for war was fired 'y a ig ly c arged nationalis! and facilitated 'y an i!!ense econo!ic #otential.. T e generals w o !ars alled gigantic ar!ies ad never conceived of !ilitary action on t is scale/ undreds of t ousands of young !en #aid for t e ine.. -onet eless4 control of t e rail route t roug Ser'ia was of e.M $he 'irst World War went on so lon" because of this central contest between *ritain and Germany# + et er Britain 'ears greater res#onsi'ility for t e conflict 'ecause it atte!#ted to e. Tsar -ic olas II was united wit +il el! and *ranz 0ose# ! is love of autocracy and is loat ing of #arlia!ents. But t at t e $nglo%Ger!an conflict was at t e eart of t e *irst +orld +ar is no longer an issue. T e Entente and t e "entral )owers insisted t at t eir res#ective allies in t e Balkans would ave to tailor t eir local war ai!s to t ese i!#erial goals. a deter!ined atte!#t to esta'lis itself at t e very least as an i!#erial #ower and4 if #ossi'le4 t e leading great #ower. Initially4 'ot t e Entente and t e "entral )owers a##eared reluctant to o#en a new front in t e sout ern Balkans. &o!ania and Bulgaria allowed t e #assage of Ger!an war !aterials for Turkey at t e 'eginning of t e conflict. Ger!any 'elonged4 wit Italy4 to t e so%called /erspdtete =ationen =late%co!ing nations?4 w ic soug t to co!#ensate for t eir delayed arrival in t e ga!e of i!#erialis!. )eters'urgMs need to control t e Straits directly contradicted Ger!anyMs ai! of do!inating Turkey. During t e five !ont s of t e 'attle of @erdun in 898>4 for e. T is was war 'eyond all co!#re ension or recognition. 1et &ussia allied itself wit re#u'lican *rance and li'eral Britain wit out esitation. Ger!anyMs Weltpoliti+ was an i!#licit t reat to t e ege!ony of Great Britain4 w ic at t e turn of t e century was still t e #re%e!inent i!#erial #ower.. we' of relations i#s 'etween and wit in t e two 'locs4 t e Entente and t e "entral )owers. &educing t e events of t e *irst +orld +ar to an inevita'le conse.uence of i!#erialist co!#etition is neit er original nor es#ecially revealing. T e de!ands of t e Ger!an nation for #ower and #restige4 not only in Euro#e4 'ut t roug out t e world4 ave increased ra#idly.urt &iezler4 " ancellor Bet !ann%HollwegMs senior adviser4M and for t ese new !asses food !ust 'e found4 or4 w at a!ounts to t e sa!e4 work .#lanation t at as !asked t e co!#le. T e Ha's'urgs intended to eli!inate Ser'ia as a desta'ilizing influence on t e Slavs of t e E!#ire w ile Ger!any was keen to see t e country su'dued for strategic reasons.uite i!#ossi'le.clude Ger!any syste!atically fro! all i!#erial s#oils4 or w et er t e cause of war lay #ri!arily wit Ger!anyMs 'rutis a!'ition4 re!ains o#en to dis#ute. Most Balkan countries4 es#ecially Ser'ia4 Turkey4 Bulgaria and &o!ania4 were o#elessly tangled in t e we'.M It was t is #us for glo'al influence w ic turned Bis!arckMs cautious foreign #olicy on its ead.tending its influence in t e Balkans 'y s!as ing $ustria% Hungary and taking Istan'ul. T e Turkis relations i# wit Ger!any4 w ic +il el! II ad diligently nurtured in t e 8:9Es4 ad 'een furt ered 'y t e coo#eration 'etween senior $eichs'ehr officers and t e Turkis general staff during t e Balkan +ars. T e #o#ulation of Mt e young Ger!an E!#ire .. . of #eo#les wit disdain. Strategic issues everyw ere took #recedence over ideological affinities in defining t e relations i#s 'etween t e ot er !a2or co!'atants and Britain and Ger!any.on average !ore t an a undred s ells a !inuteM.. T e !istrust of de!ocracy s ared 'y Ho enzollern and &o!anov was not sufficient to overco!e t e conflict of interest over t e Straits. $nd yet t e survival of t e Ha's'urg E!#ire was crucial for Ger!anyMs Weltpoliti+ 'ecause it was t e strategic ste##ing stone to BerlinMs #ri!ary i!#erialist goals4 Turkey4 Meso#ota!ia and Bag dad.ce#tional i!#ortance to t e Ger!an !ilitary. S#eaking wit t e $!erican a!'assador to (ondon at t e very 'eginning of t e war4 Sir Edward Grey4 t e *oreign Secretary4 s#elt out t e c allenge t at Ger!any #osed< MT e issue for us is t at4 if Ger!any wins4 s e will do!inate *rance/ t e inde#endence of Belgiu!4 Holland4 Den!ark4 and #er a#s of -orway and Sweden4 will 'e a !ere s adow/ t eir se#arate e. St. Istan'ul and t e Straits eld t e key to do!ination of t e Middle East4 t e region full of oil fields and strategic waterways4 'ut t e course of t e war in t e Balkans was dictated 'y t e great #owersM !uc narrower struggle for control of t e Straits.a!#le4 M!ore t an twenty%t ree !illion s ells were fired 'y t e two contending ar!ies A*renc and Ger!anB. T e fate of t e sout Slavs4 t e relations i# 'etween Transylvania and &o!ania4 t e ulti!ate size of Bulgaria4 t e Macedonian Kuestion and finally Greek%Turkis relations were all #rofoundly influenced 'y t e need of Britain4 Ger!any and &ussia to control access to t e Black Sea fro! t e Mediterranean.istence as nations will 'e a fiction/ all t eir ar'ours will 'e at Ger!anyMs dis#osal/ s e will do!inate t e w ole of +estern Euro#e4 and t is will !ake our #osition . Suc was t e danger #osed 'y Ger!anyMs growing a!'ition t at (ondon eventually concluded agree!ents wit *rance and &ussia4 its traditional i!#erialist ene!y4 des#ite t e fact t at Britain was still involved in serious dis#utes wit t e two =es#ecially &ussia? in various #arts of t e world. In late 898H and early 89874 owever4 t e leaders i# in t e 3tto!an E!#ire sent several .ist as a first class State under suc circu!stances. T e $ustrian attack on Ser'ia in late 0uly 8987 served two #ur#oses. grows annually 'y :EE4EEE%9EE4EEE #eo#leM4 argued .#erience of t eir !ilitary c iefs. T e Sout ern *ront ad o#ened. Ser'ia was t e only ostile territory 'locking t e Ger!ansM rail route fro! Berlin to Bag dad. +il el! II and *ranz 0ose# I were4 it is true4 'ot dee#ly conservative and ostile to de!ocracy4 'ut as a zealous nationalist +il el! looked u#on $ustria%HungaryMs cos!o#olitan !i. By 8987 t e Ger!an &eic was #re#ared to sacrifice t e 'ones of any nu!'er of )o!eranian grenadiers for its Macedonian and Turkis #olicies. But 'y late 3cto'er 89874 t e Ger!an !ilitary ad decided t at #rovoking &ussia in t e sout would cause &ussia logistical #ro'le!s on t e Eastern *ront w ere4 after early losses4 t e Tsarist forces were now driving t e Ha's'urg ar!y dee# into $ustrian territory.FIn 89874 i!#erialist rivalry cele'rated its zenit 'y #ersuading all t e Eurasian e!#ires to divert t eir enor!ous econo!ic and tec nological resources into one vast industrial conglo!erate of deat . T e ot er great #owers w o went to war in 8987 did so for very different reasons< $ustria%Hungary 'elieved it necessary in order to survive as a great #ower/ *rance went to war 'ecause it was attacked 'y Ger!any =once at war4 *rance naturally o#ed to avenge its defeat at Ger!an ands in 8:IE and restore t e territories of $lsace%(orraine4 'ut )aris would never ave initiated a war for t is?/ &ussia went to war #ri!arily in t e o#e of e. -ot only4 Mis t is insufficientM4 as one 1ugoslav istorian as noted4 Mit is a truis! w ic offers no clues as to w y #easants4 'elonging to different c urc es4 were fig ting one anot er !any !iles fro! t e front line on so!e Balkan ills as t oug it was t eir warM? It is an e. +e could not e. T is was underlined in Se#te!'er I987 w en t e &o!anian govern!ent e!# asized its neutral status 'y 'locking Ger!an trans#orts across its territory. Sailing under a Turkis flag 'ut co!!anded 'y Ger!ans4 t e 'attle cruiser Goeben and t e lig t cruiser Breslau received t e order fro! Enver )as a4 t e #ro%Ger!an Minister of Defence4 to 'o!'ard &ussian s i#s ar'oured in t e "ri!ea. T e road to Turkey was 'locked/ t e Ger!an ig co!!and now devoted considera'le attention to t e esta'lis !ent of a land link wit Turkey. *ro! t e 8:9Es4 Ger!any develo#ed its Weltpoliti+..
%. To 'egin wit 4 Bulgaria4 &o!ania and Greece were content to sit on t e fence and o'serve t e fortunes of war 'efore deciding w et er to declare t eir sy!#at ies. To ensure t at Ser'ian defences could 'e 'reac ed4 t e Ger!ans #laced one of t eir a'lest co!!anders4 *ield Mars al $ugust von Mackensen4 in co!!and of an e.istence was t reatened 'y Ger!any and $ustria4 no Balkan country ad an o'vious ally.osovo deserve great res#ect4 even in t is century of suffering. ?t may not have been the first world war des!ite the !resence of colonials in the *ritish and 'rench armies0 and indeed at the start when (ustria bombarded *el"rade and launched its invasion of Serbia it was &nown briefly as the $hird *al&an War# T is conflict was soon swallowed 'y t e wider war on t e +estern and Eastern *ronts 'ut t e war in t e Balkans re!ained an awkward ano!aly. T is frozen Mar!y of wrat sM4 as one of its soldiers du''ed it4 was of course easy #rey for t e $l'anian villagers w o #arado. $lt oug Bulgaria was t us inclined to alliance wit Ger!any4 Berlin ad to e. S ould t e Ser'ian ar!y esta'lis a !odern istorical !yt 'y !aking a last stand against t e ene!y coalition on . 0oining eit er of t e great%#ower syste!s ad its disadvantages4 and fortunes on t e 'attlefield !eant t at t e gravitational force of 'ot 'locs c anged daily. But t e soldiers w o atte!#ted to reac t e island refuge of "orfu fro! .J – The Bal+ans" =ationalis&. $s t e crisis dee#ened4 'ot t e Entente and t e "entral )owers diverted ever greater resources to #ersuading t e young Balkan #owers to 2oin t eir alliances. +it in t ree days4 Belgrade was taken and t e Ser'ian ar!y was strea!ing sout wards towards .cessive usage of 'ot . T e issue of t e Straits did not feature #ro!inently in t e di#lo!acy w ic led to t e war4 'ut as soon as t e fig ting ad 'egun in Belgiu!4 *rance and )oland t e strategic focus of t e struggle in sout ern Euro#e s ifted . t e $ccursed Mountains4 t at se#arate .uickly to Istan'ul and t e Straits and ence t e Balkans as a w ole.ragu2evac and -is. War and the Great #o'ers. +it t e e. But once Sofia was #ersuaded4 t e Ger!an Hig "o!!and was deter!ined t at $ustriaMs !ilitary inco!#etence would not foul u# t eir #lans again. Bot t e Entente and t e "entral )owers 'egan to e. War and the Great #o'ers. +it in Euro#e troo#s of different nationalities fig ting under t e flags of !ultinational e!#ires so!eti!es ca!ouflaged t e force of nationalis! w ic lay 'e ind !uc of t e fig ting. T ese regional goals4 owever4 often clas ed wit t e overarc ing tactics of a great%#ower ally. In early -ove!'er4 t e Ser'ian ar!y successfully retreated to . 1!>8%1 'y Mis a Glenny4 #.osovo.en4 'efore setting off on a terri'le trek across #ro+leti:e.clear signals to Britain and *rance t at it was eager to coo#erate and o#ed to avoid closer ties wit t e "entral )owers. T e c ief co!'atants ere4 owever4 foug t under Euro#ean flags% Britis 4 Turkis and Ger!an. T e &ussian !ilitary was not as cos!o#olitan as t e $ustrian 'ut it included large nu!'ers of non% &ussians fro! Euro#e4 t e "aucasus and $sia. Meso#ota!ia4 t e $ra' region of t e cru!'ling 3tto!an E!#ire4 was t e only !ain 'attlefront in t e *irst +orld +ar w ic was geogra# ically clearly outside Euro#e. Ser'ia was t e first to discover t is4 as soon as war ad 'roken out/ Turkey4 Bulgaria and &o!ania were to learn t e sa!e lesson.ce#tion of Ser'ia4 w ose very e. HE:%H8D FIn 3cto'er 898G4 t e Bulgarians #re#ared to avenge t e!selves for t e #erceived 'etrayal 'y t e Ser's during t e Second Balkan +ar. *ut the (lbanians were also ta&in" their reven"e on the Serbs for the atrocities committed a"ainst the =osovar and 6acedonian (lbanians durin" the 'irst *al&an War# 'ratricidal war between the offs!rin" states of the >ttoman -m!ire had be"un in earnest only three years !rior to these "hastly events# Ket it had set in motion a series of disturbin" conflicts between *ul"ar Serb (lbanian Gree& and $ur& in which demo"ra!hic historical confessional racist and economic claims were mercilessly !itted a"ainst one another# J – The Bal+ans" =ationalis&. 1!>8%1 'y Mis a Glenny4 #.#anded Ger!an and $ustro%Hungarian force w ic renewed t e 'o!'ard!ent of Belgrade on > 3cto'er 898G.ing )etar4 w o ad foug t in t e Bosnian 6#rising of 8:IG &ado!ir )utnik4 t e des#erately ill co!!ander in c ief4 and t e )ri!e Minister4 -ikola )asic. *rance was at t is stage too #reoccu#ied wit defending its own territory to worry unduly a'out a t eatre of war w ic ad not o#ened as yet.#end considera'le di#lo!atic effort to secure t e agree!ent. Herois! and fortitude are c ea# words in t e Balkans and t e Ser's are #rone to e. But at t e out'reak of war4 Britain did not consider t e Balkans or t e Straits to 'e a t eatre of war and4 in any case4 its co!!it!ent in t at #art of t e world was to &ussia4 #resu!ed to 'e TurkeyMs i!#laca'le foe.osovo )ol2e4 t e *ield of Black'irds4 w ere t e Ser'ian !edieval kingdo! ad colla#sed in 8H:9 in t e central event of Ser'ian national !yt ologyQ &ecognizing t is as a gesture of #oetic futility4 t e four Ser' leaders ordered undreds of t ousands of soldiers and refugees to destroy all eavy wea#onry and !unitions4 gat er u# t ousands of $ustrian #risoners4 and undreds of orse and o.ert #ressure on Sofia4 Buc arest and $t ens to enter t e war. Besides t e ferocity of t e weat er4 t e Ser's faced arass!ent fro! $l'anian raiders. (arge nu!'ers of Ser's and Italians served under t e Ha's'urg colours against t e ar!ies of Ser'ia and Italy4 w ile &o!anians fro! Transylvania #artici#ated in t e 2oint Ger!an%$ustro%Hungarian offensive against &o!ania. )rince &egent $leksandar ad to decide u#on a course of action in consultation wit a trio of se#tuagenarians – is fat er e. T e attraction for a s!all Balkan country in declaring war lay in t e #ossi'ility of furt ering its regional goals4 not in t e fact t at it #articularly sy!#at ized wit its ally. HH7%HHG .ically en2oyed one of t eir !ost co!forta'le winters t at year.osovo and $l'ania4 as t e snow 'egan to fall. *ive days later4 t e Bulgarian ar!y crossed into Macedonia and sout ern Ser'ia w ile $ustrian troo#s started !arc ing fro! Dal!atia.
+orld +ar I< Euro#ean4 Turkis 4 O $frican T eaters # British tren+h near the #l ert8Bapaume road at . .7illers8la8Boisselle. (Photo' /mperial War Museum. . (uly $%$? during the Battle of the &omme. <he use of armored tanks and +hemi+al weapons egan during World War /. )reat Britain) # British armored tank appears in the Western *ront during World War /.7er $? million soldiers and +i7ilians died during World War /.
Harle! Hellfig ters Grou# )ortrait.co!5!!a.!i.cf!QgoRforu!. =) oto< tt#<55www. During t e $r!enian Genocide4 several undred $r!enian villagers !ade refuge on t e Musa Mountain4 and resisted a DE4EEE strong Turkis ar!y for GE days in 898G.#ostsOforu!RDOt readRDEG8ED>O#ageRI? T e Martyrs of Musa Dag . .ed!artialarts. de Guerre for t eir gallantry in action #ose for a grou# #ortrait in 8989. $!erican soldiers of t e H>9t Infantry &egi!ent =8Gt -ew 1ork -ational Guard &egi!ent4 infor!ally known as FHarle! Hellfig tersJ? w o won t e "roi.
Saint%6lric 4 Haut%& in4 *rance is located 8G !iles west of Basel4 Switzerland and Mul ouse4 *rance. . *renc soldiers stand in a trenc near front%line o'servation #ost at Hirtz'ac 4 Haut%& in4 *rance4 located 8E !iles west of Basel4 Switzerland4 on 0une 8>4 898I.Senegalese soldiers fro! t e *renc colony of Senegal #ose for a # otogra# at Saint%6lric 4 Haut%& in4 *rance on 0une 8>4 898I.
$%M%)) .ussia the pre7ious day. in+luding #ustrian8 orn artist and +ommunity organi0er #dolf Hitler. $%$I. (&our+e' *rom Paul EttighoferDs ook Tannenberg$ %ine !r"ee wird &u Tode "arschiert ()Ytersloh. $%$I after the /mperial )erman go7ernment in Berlin de+lared war on . $FIF until his death in -ienna on "o7em er @$.)erman +iti0ens.ight' Emperor *ran0 (oseph / of #ustria8Hungary. ruled #ustria8Hungary from 2e+em er @. Peters urg. $%$I. )ermany on #ugust @.aymond Poin+arX during a offi+ial meeting in &t.ussia on (uly @$. . +ele rate in Muni+h. who egan World War / y issuing an ultimatum and later de+lared war on &er ia on (uly @F.ussia (right) re+ei7es *ren+h President . . Left photo' !0ar "i+holas // of . $%$?.
. $ total of 847G9 Britis sailors were killed in action t at day.T e Ger!an 6%9 su'!arine =a'ove? sank H Britis cruisers = Abou+ir4 Cressy and Hogue? in t e -ort Sea on Se#te!'er DD4 8987. =Bain -ews Service? Ger!an soldiers !arc t roug )lace &ogier in Brussels4 Belgiu! in 8987.
Britis and *renc #olitical and !ilitary leaders confer during +orld +ar I. =T e I!#erial +ar Museu!? .ing George @ of Great Britain4 Mars al *erdinand *oc of t e *renc ar!y4 and *ield Mars al Sir Douglas Haig of t e Britis ar!y. (eft to rig t< Mars al 0ose# 0offre of t e *renc ar!y4 &ay!ond )oincare =)resident of *rance4 898H%89DE?4 .
.ing George @ of Great Britain ins#ects troo#s of t e Britis E. .T e 'irst *attle of the 6arne occurred at t e Marne &iver near )aris4 *rance fro! Se#te!'er G%8D4 8987.#editionary *orce during +orld +ar I. T e $llied victory at t e *irst Battle of t e Marne would force t e I!#erial Ger!an ar!y to a'andon t e Sc lieffen )lan and settle for a virtual stale!ate via trenc warfare.
Britis @ickers !ac ine gun crew wears )H%ty#e anti%gas el!ets near 3villers during t e Battle of t e So!!e in 0uly 898>. *renc officers review t eir 'attle #lans in an underground 'unker in nort ern *rance during +orld +ar I. .
#ustralian infantrymen wear &mall BoA ,espirators (&B,), also known as a gas mask, during the <hird Battle of ;pres in Belgium on &eptem er @>, $%$>. <he soldiers are from the IJth Battalion, #ustralian Ith 2i7ision at )arter Point near Qonne eke, ;pres se+tor. (Photo y !aptain *rank Hurley)
Ger!an infantry!en attack t e *renc ar!y at t e Battle of @erdun on Marc 8G4 898>. Battle of @erdun in *rance lasted fro! *e'ruary D84 898> until Dece!'er 8:4 898>. =) oto< tt#<55www.!i.ed!artialarts.co!5!!a.cf!QgoRforu!.#ostsOforu!RDOt readRDEG8ED>O#ageRD?
$ *renc assault on Ger!an #ositions in " a!#agne4 *rance in 898I. =) oto< -ational $rc ives56.S. De#art!ent of Defense4 De#art!ent of t e $r!y4 3ffice of t e " ief Signal 3fficer?
Britis 'atteries #ound t e Ger!an lines in t e +estern *ront in 898I =International *il! Service?
Britis troo#s 'linded 'y tear gas await treat!ent at an $dvanced Dressing Station near Bet une during t e Battle of Estaires on 8E $#ril 898:4 #art of t e Ger!an offensive in *landers. =I!#erial +ar Museu!?
#meri+an soldiers fire their ma+hine guns in the #rgonne *orest during the Meuse8#rgonne .ffensi7e, a series of attles that lasted from &eptem er @?, $%$F until "o7em er $$, $%$F. (Photo' "ational #r+hi7es)
Left photo' #n airplane dogfight takes pla+e in Belgium during World War /. ,ight photo' # +olonial *ren+h #fri+an soldier (+enter) appears with a group of *ren+h soldiers in a tren+h during World War /.
Ger!an artillery unit taking a direct it during +orld +ar I.$llied soldiers4 including Britis and $!erican soldiers4 e. =6)I ) oto? .a!ine t e wounds of a Ger!an soldier at a first%aid station in t e +estern *ront in *rance on Se#te!'er 8D4 898:.
=-ational $rc ives? 1oung Ger!an #risoners%of%war are seen rela.ing and t inking a'out t eir future.+ounded $!erican soldiers on a truck watc Ger!an #risoners%of%war !arc in a single file so!ew ere in t e +estern *ront in 898:. =) oto< I!#erial +ar Museu!4 (ondon? .
$ long line of Ger!an #risoners near $!iens are escorted 'y a andful of $ustralian guards in $ugust 898:4 s ortly after t e conclusion of t e Battle of $!iens =:–8D $ugust 898:?. =) oto< I!#erial +ar Museu!4 (ondon? .
Mussolini 'eca!e #ri!e !inister in 89DD and led Italy into +orld +ar II 'y declaring war on Britain and *rance in 0une 897E.ual to a'out `94>EE today. T e Guardian news#a#er re#orted +ednesday t at )eter Martland of "a!'ridge 6niversity discovered t at Mussolini was #aid 8EE #ounds a week 'y Britain in 898I a e.uoted Martland as saying.!sn. LT e last t ing Britain wanted were #ro%#eace strikes 'ringing t e factories in Milan to a alt. Martland found !ore details in HoareMs #a#ers4 including t at Mussolini also sent Italian ar!y veterans to 'eat u# #eace #rotesters in Milan4 a dry run for is fascist 'lacks irt units.!sn'c.co!5id5HHH8D79H5ns5worldPnews%euro#e5 . In 898I4 t e future Italian dictator was editor of t e Il )o#olo dMItalia news#a#er4 w ic ca!#aigned to kee# Italy on t e $llied side in t e war. T e salary detail also was in istorian " risto# er $ndrewMs newly #u'lis ed istory of t e Britis intelligence agency MIG4 to w ic Martland contri'uted. Source< tt#<55www. It was a lot of !oney to #ay a !an w o was a 2ournalist at t e ti!e4 'ut co!#ared to t e 7 !illion #ounds Britain was s#ending on t e war every day4 it was #etty cas 4L T e Guardian . T e late Sa!uel Hoare4 in c arge of Britis agents in &o!e at t at ti!e4 revealed in is !e!oirs GG years go t at Mussolini was a #aid agent.=$ssociated )ress? – $ istorian says Benito Mussolini4 w o declared war on Britain at t e start of +orld +ar II4 was well #aid as a Britis agent during +orld +ar I. =Ti!e (ife # oto? Mussolini #aid well as Britis agent in ++I Future fascist dictator reportedly ra ed in !"#$$$ a %ee as a spy 3cto'er 874 DEE9 =$ssociated )ress? (3-D3.Benito Mussolini wears #a2a!as and leans on crutc es after getting wounded during is service as a cor#oral in t e 87t Bersaglieri &egi!ent of t e Italian ar!y during +orld +ar I.
<op #llied +ommanders in World War / meet in *ran+e in $%$>. *ren+h )eneral Henri Petain.ingdo! of Ser'ia4 Ger!an E!#ire4 and &ussian E!#ire . and #meri+an #rmy )eneral (ohn (. (Photo' MansellC<ime : Life Pi+turesC)etty /mages) *lags of t e "entral )owers4 left to rig t< *lag of t e $ustro%Hungarian E!#ire4 +ar Ensign of t e Ger!an E!#ire fro! 89EH to 89894 and *lag of t e 3tto!an E!#ire *lags of Euro#ean !onarc ies in 89874 left to rig t< . *rom left to right. Pershing. British )eneral 2ouglas Haig. o7erall #llied +ommander )eneral *erdinand *o+h of *ran+e.
3cto'er 874 898G< Bulgaria declares war on Ser'ia 3cto'er 8G4 898G< T e 6nited .Ma# of t e +estern *ront in 8987 Ti!eline of declarations of war in 8987 and 898G< 0uly D:4 8987< $ustria%Hungary declares war against Ser'ia $ugust 84 8987< Ger!any declares war against &ussia $ugust H4 8987< Ger!any declares war against *rance/ *rance declares war against Ger!any $ugust 74 8987< Ger!any declares war against Belgiu!/ Great Britain declares war against Ger!any $ugust >4 8987< $ustria%Hungary declares war against &ussia/ Ser'ia declares war against Ger!any $ugust I4 8987< &ussia declares war against Ger!any $ugust :4 8987< Montenegro declares war against $ustria%Hungary $ugust 94 8987< $ustria%Hungary declares war against Montenegro/ Montenegro declares against Ger!any $ugust 8H4 8987< Great Britain declares war against $ustria/ *rance declares war against $ustria $ugust DH4 8987< 0a#an declares war against Ger!any $ugust DI4 8987< $ustria%Hungary declares war against 0a#an $ugust D:4 8987< $ustria%Hungary declares war against Belgiu! Se#te!'er G%8D4 8987< *irst Battle of t e Marne =*rance? -ove!'er H4 8987< &ussia declares war against Turkey -ove!'er G4 8987< Great Britain declares war against Turkey/ *rance declares war against Turkey -ove!'er DH4 8987< Turkey A3tto!an E!#ireB declares war A2i adB against $llies Dece!'er D4 8987< Ser'ia declares war against Turkey May DH4 898G< Italy declares war on $ustria%Hungary.ingdo! of Great Britain declares war on Bulgaria. . 3cto'er 894 898G< Italy and &ussia declare war on Bulgaria. 3cto'er 8>4 898G< *rance declares war on Bulgaria.
*e ruary I. "o7em er @>. May $E. &eptem er F. London Pa+t etween the Entente and /taly May >.+to er @>. $%$J' <he &iege of 6ut. $%$J' Battle of Bolimo7.ttomans egins. . *irst )erman use of +hemi+al weapons.+to er ?.ussian lines in the L7i7 area. $%$J' <he &e+ond Battle of .pres in Belgium ends in a stalemate. /t will +ontinue until #pril $@. (uly %. .ussians at (aros\aw. $%$J' &e+ond Battle of the Masurian Lakes. $%$J' !0ar "i+holas // of . L7i7 is again in #ustrian hands. Mesopotamia (/ra=) y the . <he . $%$J' <he #ustro8Hungarians re8enter L7i7 (5kraine). personally assuming that position. (anuary @FZ*e ruary M. is o++upied y &outh #fri+an troops.ussia remo7es )rand 2uke "i+holas "ikolaye7i+h as !ommander8in8!hief of the . $%$J' *irst Qeppelin raid on )reat Britain. $%$J' &er ia is in7aded y )ermany.ussian offensi7e in the !arpathians egins. (anuary $%. #ugust J. $%$J' <he . $%$J' Ma+kensen reaks again through the . #ugust ?Z#ugust @%.ussian [ #rmy is defeated. $%$J' )ermany egins su marine warfare against mer+hant 7essels.ffensi7e ends. #pril @J. $%$J' <he )erman for+es in &outh8West #fri+a surrender. . $%$J' Battle of &ari Bair. *e ruary $%. May $@. $%$J' British and *ren+h na7al atta+k on the 2ardanelles.ffensi7e. with the help of British and /talian troops. #ustria8Hungary and Bulgaria. *e ruary >Z*e ruary @@. $%$J' <he &er ian army +ollapses and retreats to #driati+ &ea. #pril @@ZMay @J. <he )orli+e8<arn]w .ussian #rmy. sets up a Balkan *ront.ttomans fail to +apture the &ue0 !anal. (une @@. (une @>. Last and unsu++essful attempt y the British army to sei0e the )allipoli peninsula (<urkey). $%$J' <he )ermans o++upy -ilnius. <he )allipoli !ampaign egins. $%$J' <roops from Hungary rout the . &eptem er $%. (anuary M$. $%$J' <he )ermans o++upy Warsaw (Poland). also known as the #ugust . $%$J' Windhoek. $%$J' # *ren+h army lands in &alonika ()ree+e) and. where they are e7a+uated y /talian and *ren+h "a7ies. 2e+em er >. +apital of )erman &outh8West #fri+a. $%$J' <he British liner #usitania is sunk y a )erman 58 oat.Ma# of t e +estern *ront in 898G%898> &a'or E(ents in )*)+: (anuary @. $%$J' <he . $%$J' #llied for+es land on )allipoli.
$%$?' <he )ermans o++upy Bu+harest. (uly $. whi+h +apitulates.omania enters the war on the EntenteHs side. dies and is su++eeded y !harles /. $%$?' )erman 'a"erun (!ameroon) surrenders. #ugust @%. is assassinated.ffensi7e in . &eptem er ?. $%$?' *ran+is (oseph /. #ugust @>. $%$?' !ons+ription introdu+ed in the 5nited 6ingdom y the Military &er7i+e #+t.e7olt in He9a0 (pro7in+e of Me++a and Medina) egins. British use armored tanks for the first time in history. &eptem er $J. $%$?' Paul 7on Hinden urg repla+es Eri+h 7on *alkenhayn as )erman !hief of &taff. . (anuary %. "o7em er @$. May $JZ(une $E.Ma# of t e +estern *ront in 898I &a'or E(ents in )*)": (anuary FZ(anuary $?. $%$?' Battle of (utland etween BritainHs )rand *leet and )ermanyHs +ochsee lotte. $%$?' <he )allipoli !ampaign ends in an #llied defeat and an . 2e+em er JZ2e+em er >. . $%$?' <he Brusilo7 . (une I. Her army is defeated in a few weeks. *e ruary @$. #pril @%.ussiaHs Xminen+e grise. (une J. 2e+em er @%. $%$?' Easter . *e ruary @F. $%$?' 5nited 6ingdom' Prime Minister Henry #s=uith resigns and is su++eeded y 2a7id Lloyd )eorge. $%$?' /taly de+lares war on )ermany. . $%$?' Battle of *lers8!our+elette (last offensi7e of Battle of the &omme).ising y /rish re els against the 5nited 6ingdom. $%$?' <he Battle of -erdun egins. $%$?' <he Brusilo7 . 2e+em er ?.ttomans. $%$?' Battle of . #pril @M.omani. $%$?' #ustro8Hungarian offensi7e against Montenegro. May M$Z(une $. $%$?' <he Battle of the &omme egins. . $%$?' #ustro8Hungarian Stra ex(edition in <rentino. Mar+h $.ussian su++ess. $%$?' <he British for+es under siege at 6ut surrender to the .ussia egins. $%$?' )ermany resumes unrestri+ted su marine warfare.ttoman <urkish 7i+tory. &eptem er @E. . $%$?' )rigori . "o7em er $F.ffensi7e ends with a su stantial .omania.ttoman atta+k on the British in the &inai peninsula fails. $%$?' <he Battle of the &omme ends with enormous +asualties and no winner. (anuary @>. $%$?' <he #ra . $%$?' <he !entral Powers +reate a unified +ommand. #ugust MZ#ugust J. Emperor of #ustria and 6ing of Hungary.asputin.
$%$F' !0ar "i+holas // of .ffensi7e.Ma# of t e +estern *ront in 898: &a'or E(ents in )*). $%$F' #ustria8Hungary signs the armisti+e with /taly. $%$F' Meuse8#rgonne . (uly $>. $%$F' <he /talian army routs the #ustro8Hungarian army at the Battle of -ittorio -eneto.ugosla7 independen+e pro+laimed. $%$F' <reaty of Bu+harest etween . "o7em er $E. 2e+em er I. *ighting ends in the East #fri+an <heater when )eneral 7on Lettow8 -or e+k agrees a +ease8fire on hearing of )ermanyHs surrender. . President Woodrow Wilson outlines his *ourteen Points. $%$F' <he .: (anuary F.+to er @%. "o7em er $$. "o7em er M.m. $%$F' )ermany signs the #rmisti+e of !ompiGgne. Mar+h M.ttoman Empire.ussia and his family are eAe+uted y the Bolshe7iks in . )erman sailors of +ochsee lotte mutiny. *ighting ends at $$ a. $%$F' . . $%$F' Wilhelm )roener repla+es Eri+h Ludendorff as Hinden urgHs deputy.ussian +ommunist Leon <rotsky signs the pea+e treaty with )ermany at Brest8Lito7sk. effe+ti7e "o7em er I. $%$F.+to er @IZ"o7em er I. $%$F' <he British army +aptures (eri+ho (Palestine) from the . $%$F' *ren+h Marshall *erdinand *o+h is appointed &upreme !ommander of all #llied for+es.ussia. $%$F' 6aiser Wilhelm // of )ermany a di+ates his throne1 )erman repu li+ is pro+laimed.&. $%$F' 5. &eptem er ME. May >. "o7em er $@. . $%$F' <he British army enters 2amas+us (&yria). the final phase of the Hundred 2ays . $%$F' Emperor !harles / of #ustria8Hungary a di+ates his throne. "o7em er $I.+to er @E. $%$F' . *ran+e at ? a. $%$F' !0e+hoslo7akia pro+laimed a repu li+.ttoman Empire signs the #rmisti+e of Mudros. $%$F' #ustria pro+laimed a repu li+. &eptem er @?Z"o7em er $$. $%$F' )ermany suspends su marine warfare. "o7em er %. *e ruary @$. .+to er $. Mar+h @?.m. . . $%$F' Bulgaria signs an armisti+e with the #llies.ffensi7e and of World War /.omania and the !entral Powers1 the treaty was ne7er ratified.+to er ME.
=) oto< *lickr? T e &ussian "ossacks lea# out of a trenc and attack t e Ger!an ar!y during +orld +ar I.ecuting Ser'ian #easants.$ustro%Hungarian troo#s e. T e war in t e Balkans was #articularly savage owing to age%old rivalries 'etween t e Balkan countries. In 898G4 after so!e costly skir!is es4 t e $ustro%Hungarian ar!y4 su##orted 'y Ger!any and Bulgaria !anaged to occu#y Ser'ia and e. In turn4 t e $ustro%Hungarians retaliated in !uc t e sa!e fas ion4 only wit a defeated ar!y4 it was t e Ser'ian civilians w o 'ore t e 'runt of t eir re#risals. Ser'ia alone ad foug t two wars i!!ediately #rior to t e Great +ar. .act its revenge against t e Ser's for t e eavy losses t e Ser'ian ar!y inflicted t e #revious year. In t e $ustro%Hungarian $r!y4 ru!ors were a'ound of atrocities co!!itted 'y civilians and civilian irregulars on soldiers< !utilations of t e wounded and attacks fro! a!'us 'y civilians4 including wo!en.
&ussian soldiers surrender to t e Ger!an ar!y at Tannen'erg in $ugust 8987. 3rtels'urg4 East )russia was 'urned 'y t e &ussian ar!y in 8987. .
$%$F. #dolf Hitler was gassed y the British army in the tren+hes of Belgium near .# group of )erman soldiers. (Photo' 5nderwood : 5nderwoodC"ational #r+hi7es) .pres on the night of .+to er $M. (Photo' )erman *ederal #r+hi7es) Blindfolded and in a kneeling position. in+luding #dolf Hitler (seated. right. wearing a mousta+he). pose for a group portrait during World War /. patrioti+ &er s in &er ia near the #ustrian lines were arranged in a semi8+ir+le and ruthlessly shot at a +ommand y soldiers of the #ustro8Hungarian army in +ir+a $%$>.
fifth from left).iga. $%$> after +apturing the +ity of .rgani0ation in $%$>. Lat7ia (part of .iga from the . <he /mperial )erman army o++upied .Polish guerilla fighter (]0ef Pilsudski ($F?>8$%MJ.ussian Empire) on &eptem er M.iga (Lat7ia) and Warsaw (Poland) during World War /. who would later ser7e as Prime Minister and President of Poland.ussian army. . appears with &upreme !ommand of Polish Military . )erman army offi+ers +ele rate in .
Eastern *ront in Se#te!'er 8987 .
Eastern *ront =&ussian *ront? in 898I .
=) oto< tt#<55www.net5foru!s5s owt read. Elo Sa!'o served in t e 'and of t e (ife Guard Hussar &egi!enti and later in t e 7t "avalry &egi!ent of t e &eic swe r and was awarded t e Ger!an Iron "ross 8st "lass and Ger!an Iron "ross Dnd "lass.Ger!an Military "a!#aigns in "olonial $frica during +orld +ar I $frican%'orn I!#erial Ger!an $r!y soldier Elo Sa!'o =center? #oses for a grou# #ortrait wit is fellow Ger!an soldiers.# #Q8G>9:H%I!#erial%Ger!an%ar!y%in%East%$frica%=early%DEt % century?5#age>? .!ilitary# otos.
phpR$J?%FM8/mperial8)erman8army8in8East8#fri+a8(early8@Eth8+entury)CpageJ) !olonial )erman soldiers in #fri+a. in+luding a nati7e #fri+an soldier (standing. (Photo' http'CCwww.netCforumsCshowthread. se+ond from left) pose for a group portrait during World War /.militaryphotos.militaryphotos. (Photo' http'CCwww.# )erman army offi+er (left) appears with a group of )erman8trained +olonial #fri+an soldiers (askaris) in eastern #fri+a during World War /.phpR$J?%FM8/mperial8)erman8army8in8East8#fri+a8(early8@Eth8+entury)Cpage?) .netCforumsCshowthread.
=)ainting< -ational Museu! of Tanzania? .netCforumsCshowthread.)erman +olonial soldiers engage in re+onnaissan+e in eastern #fri+a during World War /.militaryphotos. (Photo' http'CCwww.phpR$J?%FM8/mperial8)erman8army8in8East8#fri+a8(early8@Eth8+entury)CpageJ) I!#erial Ger!any $r!y General )aul E!il von (ettow%@or'eck surrenders is forces to t e Britis at $'ercon =#resent%day M'ala? in -ort ern & odesia in -ove!'er 898:.
$ !a# of t e East $frican T eater during +orld +ar I .
=) oto< tt#<55www. Mustafa .e!al =later $taturk4 fourt fro! left? a##ears wit officers of t e $nafarta Grou#4 of w ic e was given co!!and at Galli#oli =a #eninsula near "onstantino#le? in $ugust 898G.Me!orial of $nzac "ove4 co!!e!orating t e loss of t ousands of 3tto!an Turkis and $-S$" =$ustralian%-ew Sealand%"anada? soldiers in t e Galli#oli "a!#aign in 898G.e!al $taturk was t e founder and first )resident of t e &e#u'lic of Turkey fro! 3cto'er D94 89DH until is deat on -ove!'er 8E4 89H:.gov.anzacsite. Turkis $r!y "olonel Mustafa . t!l? .au5Dvisiting5touranzac88.
. $ Britis ar!y !edic looks for !edicine and 'andages fro! a kit attac ed to a Britis dog in circa 898> during +orld +ar I.#editionary *orces cele'rate )assover Seder in )aris4 *rance in $#ril 8989.$!erican soldiers of t e 0ewis fait in t e $!erican E.
>EE #meri+an soldiers and millions of soldiers of 7arious nationalities died during World War /1 may they rest in pea+e.7er $$?.#rlington "ational !emetery in #rlington. -irginia . .
To!' of t e 6nknown Soldier .
Since the middle classes of -uro!ean society with their ban& savin"s chec&in" de!osits mort"a"es insurance and bond holdin"s were the creditor class they were in1ured and even ruined by the wartime inflation# ?n Germany Poland 4un"ary and 5ussia where the inflation went so far that the monetary unit became com!letely valueless by 197@ the middle classes were lar"ely destroyed and their members were driven to . $lso4 t e c anges were !uc greater in o'2ective facts and in t e organization of society t an t ey were in !enMs ideas of t ese facts or organization. 3n all fronts in t e w ole war al!ost 8H4EEE4EEE !en in t e various ar!ed forces died fro! wounds and disease. In t e Ger!an attack of Marc 898:4 >D divisions wit 74GEE eavy guns and 84EEE #lanes were urled on a front only 7G !iles wide. !ont s. Since govern!ents tried to reduce t e su##ly of consu!ersM goods w ile increasing t e su##ly of t e ot er two #roducts4 t e #ro'le! of rising #rices =inflation? 'eca!e acute.#ected for 'ot sides and were i!#ressed u#on t e! only gradually. Inflation indicates not only an increase in t e #rices of goods 'ut also a decrease in t e value of !oney =since it will 'uy less goods?. It first 'eca!e clear in regard to consu!#tion of su##lies4 es#ecially a!!unition4 and in t e #ro'le! of ow to #ay for t ese su##lies. !ont s were . T ese two #ro'le!s4 inflation and #u'lic de't4 continued to grow4 even after t e fig ting sto##ed4 'ecause of t e continued disru#tion of econo!ic life and t e need to #ay for #ast activities.F$he 'irst World War was a catastro!he of such ma"nitude that even today the ima"ination has some difficulty "ras!in" it# In t e year 898>4 in two 'attles =@erdun and t e So!!e? casualties of over 84IEE4EEE were suffered 'y 'ot sides. It was as if t e c anges were too ra#id for !enMs !inds to acce#t t e!4 or4 w at is !ore likely4 t at !en4 seeing t e great c anges w ic were occurring on all sides4 recognized t e!4 'ut assu!ed t at t ey were !erely te!#orary warti!e a'errations4 and t at4 w en #eace ca!e4 t ey would #ass away and everyone could go 'ack to t e slow4 #leasant world of 898H.#enditures of !en and wealt at rates like t ese re. T is #oint of view4 w ic do!inated t e t inking of t e 89DEMs4 was wides#read and very dangerous. By Lfinancial resourcesL t ey !eant t e gold reserves of t e various nations. 3'viously4 e. austed in si.#erts w o4 w ile greatly underesti!ating t e cost of fig ting4 were confident t at t e financial resources of all states would 'e e.ed%!oney de't less of a 'urden? 'ut in2ures creditors ='y reducing t e value of t eir savings and credits?. In 0uly 89874 t e !ilitary !en were confident t at a decision would 'e reac ed in si. T is 'elief was su##orted 'y t e financial e.uired a tre!endous !o'ilization of resources t roug out t e world4 and could not fail to ave far%reac ing effects on t e #atterns of t oug t and !odes of action of #eo#le forced to undergo suc a strain. $hese were clearly limited0 all the Great Powers were on the "old standard under which ban& notes and !a!er money could be converted into "old on demand# 4owever each country sus!ended the "old standard at the outbrea& of war# $his removed the automatic limitation on the su!!ly of !a!er money# $hen each country !roceeded to !ay for the war by borrowin" from the ban&s# $he ban&s created the money which they lent by merely "ivin" the "overnment a de!osit of any si2e a"ainst which the "overnment could draw chec&s# $he ban&s were no lon"er limited in the amount of credit they could create because they no lon"er had to !ay out "old for chec&s on demand# $hus the creation of money in the form of credit by the ban&s was limited only by the demands of its borrowers# Aaturally as "overnments borrowed to !ay for their needs !rivate businesses borrowed in order to be able to fill the "overnment's orders# $he "old which could no lon"er be demanded merely rested in the vaults e+ce!t where some of it was e+!orted to !ay for su!!lies from neutral countries or from fellow belli"erents# (s a result the !ercenta"e of outstandin" ban& notes covered by "old reserves steadily fell and the !ercenta"e of ban& credit covered by either "old or ban& notes fell even further# Aaturally when the su!!ly of money was increased in this fashion faster than the su!!ly of "oods !rices rose because a lar"er su!!ly of money was com!etin" for a smaller su!!ly of "oods# $his effect was made worse by the fact that the su!!ly of "oods tended to be reduced by wartime destruction# )eo#le received !oney for !aking ca#ital goods4 consu!ersM goods4 and !unitions4 'ut t ey could s#end t eir !oney only to 'uy consu!ersM goods4 since ca#ital goods and !unitions were not offered for sale. It 'enefits de'tors ='y !aking a fi. In t e artillery 'arrage w ic o#ened t e *renc attack on " e!in des Da!es in $#ril 898I4 884EEE4EEE s ells were fired on a HE%!ile front in 8E days. $ccordingly4 #eo#le in an inflation seek to get goods and to get rid of !oney. T en4 'y acting as if t is facade were reality4 and 'y neglecting t e !alad2usted reality w ic was !oving 'eneat it4 t e #eo#le of t e 89DENs drifted in a ectic world of unreality until t e world de#ression of 89D9%89HG4 and t e international crises w ic followed4 tore away t e facade and s owed t e orri'le4 long%neglected reality 'eneat it. Some states were destroyed or !ermanently cri!!led# $here were !rofound modifications in finance in economic life in social relations in intellectual outloo& and in emotional !atterns# Aevertheless two facts should be reco"ni2ed# $he war brou"ht nothin" really new into the world0 rat er it s#ed u# #rocesses of c ange w ic ad 'een going on for a considera'le #eriod and would ave continued anyway4 wit t e result t at c anges w ic would ave taken #lace over a #eriod of t irty or even fifty years in #eaceti!e were 'roug t a'out in five years during t e war. It as 'een esti!ated 'y t e "arnegie Endow!ent for International )eace t at t e war destroyed over `7EE4EEE4EEE4EEE of #ro#erty at a ti!e w en t e value of every o'2ect in *rance and Belgiu! was not wort over `IG4EEE4EEE4EEE. T us inflation increases #roduction and #urc ases for consu!#tion or oarding4 'ut it reduces saving or creation of ca#ital. !ont s 'ecause t eir !ilitary #lans and t e e. 3nly in t e #eriod 89DE%89DG did t ese two sto# increasing in !ost countries4 and t ey re!ained #ro'le!s long after t at. T e !agnitude of t e war and t e fact t at it !ig t last for !ore t an si.a!#les of 8:>> and 8:IE indicated an i!!ediate decision.uite une. $t t e sa!e ti!e t e #ro'le! of #u'lic de't 'eca!e steadily worse 'ecause govern!ents were financing suc a large #art of t eir activities 'y 'ank credit. T ree !ont s later4 on an 88%!ile front at )assc endaele4 t e Britis fired 74DGE4EEE s ells costing [DD4EEE4EEE in a #reli!inary 'arrage4 and lost 7EE4EEE !en in t e ensuing infantry assault. In t eir efforts to go 'ack to 898H4 !en refused to recognize t at t e warti!e c anges were !ore or less #er!anent4 and4 instead of trying to solve t e #ro'le!s arising fro! t ese c anges4 set u# a false facade of #retense4 #ainted to look like 898H4 to cover u# t e great c anges w ic ad taken #lace.
uality closer t an #reviously to t at of !en4 o'taining for t e! t e rig t to vote in so!e countries4 t e rig t to own or dis#ose of #ro#erty in ot er !ore 'ackward ones4 c anging t e a##earance and costu!e of wo!en 'y suc innovations as s orter skirts4 s orter air4 less frills4 and generally a drastic reduction in t e a!ount of clot ing t ey wore. T is fre.es4 'ringing wo!en u# to a level of social4 legal4 and #olitical e. Situations such as these made it necessary for "overnments to intervene directly in the economic !rocess to secure those results which could not be obtained by the free !rice system or to reduce those evil effects which emer"ed from wartime disru!tion# $hey a!!ealed to the !atriotism of manufacturers to ma&e thin"s that were needed rather than thin"s which were !rofitable or to the !atriotism of consumers to !ut their money into "overnment bonds rather than into "oods in short su!!ly# $hey be"an to build "overnment/owned !lants for war !roduction either usin" them for such !ur!oses themselves or leasin" them out to !rivate manufacturers at attractive terms# $hey be"an to ration consumers' "oods which were in short su!!ly li&e articles of food# $hey be"an to mono!oli2e essential raw materials and allot them to manufacturers who had war contracts rather than allow them to flow where !rices were hi"hest# $he materials so treated were "enerally fuels steel rubber co!!er wool cotton nitrates and such althou"h they varied from country to country de!endin" u!on the su!!ly# Governments be"an to re"ulate im!orts and e+!orts in order to ensure that necessary materials stayed in the country and above all did not "o to enemy states# $his led to the *ritish bloc&ade of -uro!e the rationin" of e+!orts to neutrals and com!licated ne"otiations to see that "oods in neutral countries were not re/e+!orted to enemy countries# *ribery bar"ainin" and even force came into these ne"otiations as w en t e Britis set .J – Tragedy and Hope 'y "arroll Kuigley4 )art G4 " a#ter 87 =T e Ho!e *ront4 8987%898:? . Shi!!in" and railroad trans!ortation had to be ta&en over almost com!letely in most countries in order to ensure that the inade. T e econo!ic effects of t e war were !ore co!#licated.ury nature4 like w ite cotton s irts for la'orers. T e ig wages and s ortage of la'or 'roug t into t e la'or !arket !any #ersons w o would not ave 'een in it in #eaceti!e4 suc as old #ersons4 yout s4 clergy4 and4 a'ove all4 wo!en. Generally4 t e rig t to leave an essential 2o' was restricted4 and eventually #eo#le were directed into essential 2o's fro! nonessential activities. T ere were general registrations of !en in !ost countries4 at first as #art of t e draft of !en for !ilitary service4 'ut later to control services in essential activities.cess of #urc asing #ower in t e ands of consu!ers caused a great rise in de!and for goods of a se!i%lu. In warti!e4 owever4 govern!ents ad to ave certain s#ecific goods for !ilitary #ur#oses/ t ey tried to get t ese goods #roduced 'y !aking t e! !ore #rofita'le t an non!ilitary goods using t e sa!e resources4 'ut t ey were not always successful. In *rance and Italy4 w ere t e inflation went so far t at t e franc or fire was reduced #er!anently to one%fift of its #rewar value4 t e atred of t e in2ured !iddle classes was directed against t e #arlia!entary regi!e w ic ad functioned 'ot during and after t e war and against t e working class w ic t ey felt ad #rofited 'y t eir !isfortunes.uotas on t e i!#orts of Holland 'ased on t e figures for #rewar years or cut down necessary s i#!ents of Britis coal to Sweden until t ey o'tained t e concessions t ey wis ed regarding sales of Swedis goods to Ger!any. Even in t ese countries4 #rices rose 'y DEE to HEE #ercent4 w ile #u'lic de'ts rose a'out 84EEE #ercent.des!eration or at least to an almost !sycho!athic hatred of the form of "overnment or the social class that they believed to be res!onsible for their !li"ht# Since t e last stages of inflation w ic dealt t e fatal 'low to t e !iddle classes occurred after t e war rat er t an during it =in 89DH in Ger!any?4 t is atred was directed against t e #arlia!entary govern!ents w ic were functioning after 898: rat er t an against t e !onarc ical govern!ents w ic functioned in 8987%898:. T is flow of wo!en fro! o!es into factories or ot er services ad t e !ost #rofound effects on social life and !odes of living4 revolutionizing t e relations of t e se. $ccordingly4 t e govern!ents 'egan to intervene in la'or #ro'le!s4 seeking to avoid strikes 'ut also to direct t e flow of la'or to !ore essential activities.uently !ade it !ore #rofita'le for !anufacturers to use cotton for !aking s irts to sell at ig #rices t an to use it to !ake e. T e e.#losives.a!#le4 to !anufacture t ose goods w ic were !ost #rofita'le rat er t an to t ose goods w ic were !ost servicea'le or socially 'eneficial4 or in 'est taste. T ese t ings were not true in Britain or t e 6nited States4 w ere t e inflation was 'roug t under control and t e !onetary unit restored to !ost of its #rewar value.uate s!ace for car"o and frei"ht would be used as effectively as !ossible that loadin" and unloadin" would be s!eeded u! and that "oods essential to the war effort would be shi!!ed earlier and faster than less essential "oods# %abor had to be re"ulated and directed into essential activities# $he ra!id rise in !rices led to demands for raises in wa"es# $his led to a "rowth and stren"thenin" of labor unions and increasin" threats of stri&es# $here was no "uarantee that the wa"es of essential wor&ers would "o u! faster than the wa"es of nonessential wor&ers# Certainly the wa"es of soldiers who were the most essential of all went u! very little# T us t ere was no guarantee t at la'or4 if left solely to t e influence of wage levels4 as was usual 'efore 89874 would flow to t e occu#ations w ere it was !ost urgently needed. 5esources of all &inds includin" land labor and raw materials had to be diverted from !eacetime !ur!oses to wartime !roduction0 or in some cases resources !reviously not used at all had to be brou"ht into the !roductive system# Before t e war4 t e allot!ent of resources to #roduction ad 'een !ade 'y t e auto!atic #rocesses of t e #rice syste!/ la'or and raw !aterials going4 for e.
<here are others in Europe too whose sa re rattling presages war. *ran+e and . and our statesmen and diplomats ha7e the temerity to say that war is not in the making. frightened nights. <he mad dogs of Europe are on the loose. /t is +ondu+ted for the enefit of the 7ery few.EEE. /n the . <hen our 7ery generous international ankers were finan+ing (apan. /t is the only one international in s+ope. with his rearming )ermany and his +onstant demands for more and more arms.ugosla7iaP +ompli+ated matters. / elie7e. to e sure. if they are 7i+torious. 2epression and all its attendant miseries. Herr Hitler. *or a great many years. #t least @$. his great fleet of planes. "ewly pla+ed gra7estones. "ow the trend is to poison us against the (apanese. *ran+e only re+ently in+reased the term of military ser7i+e for its youth from a year to eighteen months. R.C1ET W#. His re+ent stand at the side of Hungary in the latterHs dispute with (ugosla7ia showed that. . we ki+ked out our old friends the . as a soldier. / had a suspi+ion that war was a ra+ket1 not until / retired to +i7il life did / fully reali0e it. long itter enemies.+$& IS $ &$". . Ba+k8 reaking taAation for generations and generations. How many other war millionaires falsified their taA returns no one knows. as they are today. easily the most profita le. . / must fa+e it and speak out.ET By S!edley Darlington Butler4 Ma2or General of t e 6nited States Marine "or#s =&etired? Chapter One: -.ussians and a+ked (apan.EEE men eing trained to e dan+ersR "ot in /taly.EEE new millionaires and illionaires were made in the 5nited &tates during the World War.nd abo(e all# Fascism# the more it considers and obser(es the future and the de(elopment of humanity 3uite apart from political considerations of the moment# belie(es neither in the possibility nor the utility of perpetual peace444 -ar alone brings up to its highest tension all human energy and puts the stamp of nobility upon the people %ho ha(e the courage to meet it42 5ndou tedly Mussolini means eAa+tly what he says.ussia met and agreed to stand side y side. .ut of war a few people make huge fortunes. their dispute o7er the Polish !orridor. when .ut of war nations a+=uire additional territory. He.ussia and (apan fought. &o was !0e+hoslo7akia.nly the other day. /taly and #ustria hurried to make a similar agreement. #nd what is this illR <his ill renders a horri le a++ounting. /t is possi ly the oldest. HellHs ells^ #re these IE. said' 2. Mangled odies. as something that is not what it seems to the ma9ority of the people. /taly was ready to 9ump in. <he assassination of 6ing #leAander of (ugosla7ia O. is a ra+ket. <he general pu li+ shoulders the ill. nations are +amping in their arms. His well8trained army. Poland and )ermany +ast sheepHs eyes at ea+h other. at the eApense of the 7ery many. Premier Mussolini knows what they are eing trained for. How many of these war millionaires shouldered a rifleR How many of them dug a tren+hR How many of them knew what it meant to go hungry in a rat8infested dug8outR How many of them spent sleepless. <hey 9ust take it. is frank enough to speak out. What does . du+king shells and shrapnel and ma+hine gun ulletsR How many of them parried a ayonet thrust of an enemyR How many of them were wounded or killed in attleR .rient the maneu7ering is more adroit. is an e=ual if not greater mena+e to pea+e. Broken hearts and homes. #ll of them are looking ahead to war.EEE men under arms in the world today. <his newly a+=uired territory promptly is eAploited y the few Z the selfsame few who wrung dollars out of lood in the war. #gain they are +hoosing sides. # ra+ket is est des+ri ed. apparently.EEE. /n the World War O/P a mere handful garnered the profits of the +onfli+t. <here are IE. "ot the people Z not those who fight and pay and die Z only those who foment wars and remain safely at home to profit.N the pu li+ation of the !arnegie Endowment for /nternational Pea+e. /t always has een. and e7en his na7y are ready for war Z anAious for it. "ow that / see the international war +louds gathering. <hat many admitted their huge lood gains in their in+ome taA returns. surely the most 7i+ious.nly a small NinsideN group knows what it is a out. &hattered minds. were almost at ea+h otherHs throats.es. E+onomi+ insta ility. But *ran+e was waiting. at least. Ba+k in $%EI. #nd the hurried mo ili0ation of his troops on the #ustrian order after the assassination of 2ollfuss showed it too. sooner or later. (ugosla7ia and Hungary. /t is the only one in whi+h the profits are re+koned in dollars and the losses in li7es. forgetting for the non+e Oone uni=ue o++asionP. all o7er.R /0 . /l 2u+e in N/nternational !on+iliation.
and sometimes twel7e per+ent. #n in+rease in profits of more than %JE per +ent. "ow letHs look at their a7erage yearly profit during the war years.f +ourse. <hen we e+ame Ninternationally minded. and the profits of normal times were pretty good. and e7en eighteen hundred per +ent Z the sky is the limit.EEE.EEE. .EEE. <hen. our national de t had 9umped to o7er W@J. <herefore. we ran a little ehind year for year. ut the +ost of operations is always transferred to the people Z who do not profit.EEE. /t wasnHt mu+h.EEE a year^ . eight. We are paying it.EEE. #ll that traffi+ will ear. their wi7es and their sweetheartsR What does it profit their +hildrenR What does it profit anyone eA+ept the 7ery few to whom war means huge profitsR . Meat pa+kers.EEE. But what does it profit the men who are killedR What does it profit their mothers and sisters. <hen +ame the war.EEE. Munitions makers. one hundred.EEE.EEE. Well.EEE a year.N We forgot. 2id their profits 9ump Z or did they let 5n+le &am in for a argainR Well. Bankers. siAty.r sa7ed the world for demo+ra+yR . like loyal +iti0ens. and Nwe must all put our shoulders to the wheel. ut the du Ponts managed to get along on it.N We went to war. Millions and illions of dollars would e piled up. has +ost the 5nited &tates some WJ@. #t the end of the World War period. as a dire+t result of our fiddling in international affairs. But war8time profits Z ah^ that is another matter Z twenty. or to prote+t these pri7ate in7estments of less than W@EE. and our +hildrenHs +hildren pro a ly still will e paying the +ost of that war. <hat means WIEE to e7ery #meri+an man.EEE. . $%$I to $%$F. #nd. and +hild. their $%$E8$%$I yearly earnings a7eraged W?. <hey would fare well. <he normal profits of a usiness +on+ern in the 5nited &tates are siA.es.ur trade with !hina is a out W%E. like ootlegging and other underworld ra+kets. /t would ha7e een far +heaper (not to say safer) for the a7erage #meri+an who pays the ills to stay out of foreign entanglements.r the Philippine /slandsR We ha7e spent a out W?EE. Why shouldnHt theyR /t pays high di7idends. our +hildren will pay it. their $%$I8$%$F a7erage was WI%.r somethingR How did they do in the warR <hey were a patrioti+ +orporation.N ut the profits 9ump and leap and skyro+ket Z and are safely po+keted. and that foreign trade might well ha7e een ours without the wars. . rather our rief parti+ipation in it.EEE. hundreds of thousands of li7es of #meri+ans.EEE. Well. Manufa+turers.ur total fa7ora le trade alan+e during the twenty8fi7e8year period was a out W@I. for this loss. they are getting ready for another war.1E0 T5E PROF/T06 <he World War. #t that time our national de t was a little more than W$. /t is dressed into spee+hes a out patriotism.EEE.EEE. Bethlehem &teel promptly turned to munitions making. lo7e of +ountry. 5ntil $F%F we didnHt own a it of territory outside the mainland of "orth #meri+a. the a7erage earnings of the du Ponts for the period $%$E to $%$I were W?. C5. on a purely ookkeeping asis. &hip uilders. or shunted aside. . we would e all stirred up to hate (apan and go to war Z a war that might well +ost us tens of illions of dollars.EEE. 5n+le &am has the money.EEE. it isnHt put that +rudely in war time.EEE. to sa7e that !hina trade of a out W%E. LetHs get it.EEE a year.es. By a few.EEE.EEE.the Nopen doorN poli+y to !hina mean to usR .EEE.EEE in the Philippines in thirty8fi7e years and we (our ankers and industrialists and spe+ulators) ha7e pri7ate in7estments there of less than W@EE. ten. #nd we ha7enHt paid the de t yet. *or a 7ery few this ra+ket. We a+=uired outside territory. and many more hundreds of thousands of physi+ally maimed and mentally un alan+ed men.EEE in the Philippines. We forgot )eorge WashingtonHs warning a out Nentangling allian+es.EEE. three hundred. *ifty8 eight million dollars a year profit we find^ "early ten times that of normal times. the powder people Z didnHt one of them testify efore a &enate +ommittee re+ently that their powder won the warR . and what does it profit the nationR <ake our own +ase. &pe+ulators.PTER T-O: -5O &. <ake one of our little steel +ompanies that patrioti+ally shunted aside the making of rails and girders and ridges to manufa+ture war materials. woman. *igure it out.f +ourse. . the ad7i+e of the *ather of our +ountry.EEE. LetHs 9ust take a few eAamples' <ake our friends the du Ponts. rings fan+y profits. there would e a +ompensating profit Z fortunes would e made.EEE.
My regiment during the war had only one pair to a soldier. <ake the shoe people.EEE was re+orded. I% steel plants.EEE. <here was still lots of leather left. for instan+e. /nternational "i+kel !ompany Z and you +anHt ha7e a war without ni+kel Z showed an in+rease in profits from a mere a7erage of WI. and more. to a soldier. LetHs take leather.EEE. they also sold to the enemy. @J%. #nd their profits were as se+ret as they were immense. a small in+rease of $. <here are still others.EEE. !onsidering the profits of $@@ meat pa+kers.EEE.EEE.EEE yearly.EEE. But hereHs how some of the other patrioti+ industrialists and spe+ulators +hiseled their way into war profits.EEE a year to W>M. e+ause those little se+rets ne7er e+ome pu li+ Z e7en efore a &enate in7estigatory ody. &ome of these shoes pro a ly are still in eAisten+e.EEE a year for the three years efore the war. LetHs look at something else. in $%$? !entral Leather returned a profit of W$J.JEE.EEE. &o the leather people sold your 5n+le &am hundreds of thousands of M+!lellan saddles for the +a7alry.EEE pairs left o7er.EEE per year. so IE. /t rings usiness with a normal profits. Being partnerships rather than in+orporated organi0ations.EEE.EEE mos=uito nets for the use of the soldiers o7erseas. But there wasnHt any #meri+an +a7alry o7erseas^ &ome ody had to get rid of this leather.IFE. "ot adR #n in+rease of more than $.EEE.EEE per year during the $%$E8$%$I period.r.MEE.EEE.efining !ompany a7eraged W@. Eight pairs. <hey sold your 5n+le &am @E. .EEE.EEE.EEE. they sold 5n+le &am MJ.EEE. !ame the war. <he !hi+ago pa+kers dou led and tripled their earnings. <he total yearly a7erage profits of the pre8war period $%$E8$%$I were W$M>. #meri+an &ugar . But they arenHt the only ones. (umped to an a7erage of W@$. Profits re+orded and po+keted. @%% garment makers. But when the war was o7er 5n+le &am has a matter of @J. <he normal earnings during the fi7e8year period prior to the war were W$EJ. *or instan+e the +oal +ompanies made etween $EE per +ent and >. <hen along +ame the war.$?>. <hat always does well in war times.$EE per +ent. reporting on +orporate earnings and go7ernment re7enues. #nd we pro a ly ha7e those yet.EEE a year. <he a7erage yearly profits for this group skyro+keted to WIEF.. #nd let us not forget the ankers who finan+ed the great war.EEE. . they do not ha7e to report to sto+kholders. Bought Z and paid for.EEE.EEE. # little in+rease in profits of approAimately @EE per +ent. #7erage of WJ. /n $%$? a profit of W?.EEE. letHs take 5nited &tates &teel. 2uring the war years $%$I8$%$F profits leaped to WMI.EEE a year. like the munitions manufa+turers and armament makers. Well. Well. <hat was approAimately W$. LetHs group these fi7e. <he &iAty8*ifth !ongress.EEE. not one of these mos=uito nets e7er got to *ran+e^ #nyhow. Listen to &enate 2o+ument "o.EEE yearly profits for the war period. <hatHs all. &ome ody had to make a profit in it Z so we had a lot of M+!lellan saddles. But they did well y 5n+le &am too. howe7er. with three smaller +ompanies.r 5tah !opper. # little +opper.EEE pairs of ho nailed ser7i+e shoes. #lso some ody had a lot of mos=uito netting. <he )eneral !hemi+al !ompany a7eraged a profit for the three years efore the war of a little o7er WFEE. perhaps. / suppose the oys were eApe+ted to put it o7er them as they tried to sleep in muddy tren+hes Z one hand s+rat+hing +ooties on their a+ks and the other making passes at s+urrying rats. and the profits 9umped to W$@. "ot ad. *or the three8year period efore the war the total profits of !entral Leather !ompany were WM. <hey were good shoes. Perhaps. and MIE +oal produ+ers during the war. #na+onda.EEE soldiers.EEE a year.EEE. a leap of $. <he a7erage yearly profit for the period $%$I8$%$F was W@IE. /f anyone had the +ream of the profits it was the ankers. *or instan+e. $JM +otton manufa+turers. Profits under @J per +ent were eA+eptional.EEE.EEE additional yards of mos=uito netting were sold to 5n+le &am. "ot ad. *or a dollar is a dollar whether it +omes from )ermany or from *ran+e. 2oes war payR /t paid them.EEE.EEE.FJ? per +ent on their +apital sto+k during the war. #7erage yearly earnings during the pre8war years $%$E8$%$I of W$E. <here were I.IEE per +ent.>EE per +ent.EEE. <hey like war. How the ankers made their millions and their illions / do not know. <here you ha7e some of the steel and powder earnings. <hey made huge profits on sales a road to our allies. these thoughtful manufa+turers wanted to make sure that no soldier would e without his mos=uito net. <hen along +ame the war and up went the profits.
they were 7ery ni+e wren+hes. the losses of those who fight the war. <here were lots of rilliant ideas for profit making during the war. When the #rmisti+e was signed it was indeed a sad low to the wren+h manufa+turer. $EE.EE and sold them a+k at WFI or WF? to the ankers.<here were pretty good profits in mos=uito netting in those days. We paid for them.EEE in profits. <he &enate ("ye) +ommittee pro e of the munitions industry and its wartime profits. or perhaps MEE per +ent. E7en so.EEE profits is not to e snee0ed at. that says not more than $@ per +ent of a regiment shall e wounded in attle. Possi ly the profits of MEE and ?EE and $. .EEE.f +ourse. though. the enterprising mos=uito netting manufa+turers would ha7e sold your 5n+le &am a +ouple of +onsignments of mos=uitoes to plant in *ran+e so that more mos=uito netting would e in order. "ow they are eing s+rapped e+ause the regulations ha7e +hanged the +ontents. <he War 2epartment suddenly de+ides it has a wonderful plan to spring. . #irplane and engine manufa+turers felt they.r to limit the loss of life.EEE illionaires and millionaires got that way.EEE. <hat is the one that holds the tur ines at "iagara *alls.ne has pro a ly seen a pi+ture of #ndy (a+kson riding in a u+k oard.EEE. <his W$?. #nd some ody po+keted the profits. nor should they e7en ride on horse a+k.EEE. . We paid the ankers their profits when we ought Li erty Bonds at W$EE. MEE. <o what eAtent isnHt suggested.JEE and $. <he ship uilders felt they should +ome in on some of it. #pparently. the plan does not +all for any limitation of losses Z that is.f this sum. too. the wren+hes were put on freight +ars and shunted all around the 5nited &tates in an effort to find a use for them. $. some ?. e7er got into a attle in *ran+e. #nd it went to a 7ery few.EEE u+k oards were sold to 5n+le &am for the use of +olonels^ "ot one of them was used.EEE.EEE sets of e=uipment Z knapsa+ks and the things that go to fill them Z +rammed warehouses on this side. 5ndershirts for soldiers +ost $I_ O+entsP to make and un+le &am paid ME_ to IE_ ea+h for them Z a ni+e little profit for the undershirt manufa+turer. <he only trou le was that there was only one nut e7er made that was large enough for these wren+hes. (ust the same the manufa+turers made their little profit of ME. Why.70 T5E 8/9906 Who pro7ides the profits Z these ni+e little profits of @E. when the war was o7er some I.EEE.EEE. WM%. after 5n+le &am had ought them and the manufa+turer had po+keted the profit.EEE.EEE was eApended in the a+tual war itself. <he &tate 2epartment has een studying Nfor some timeN methods of keeping out of war. or one arm. Well. the +ommittee +annot e othered with su+h trifling matters. <he #dministration names a +ommittee Z with the War and "a7y 2epartments a ly represented under the +hairmanship of a Wall &treet spe+ulator Z to limit profits in war time. hardly has s+rat+hed the surfa+e. &ome of the ships were all right. C5. He was 9ust a out to make some nuts to fit the wren+hes. out of the illion dollars worth ordered. too.PTER T5REE: -5O P. too. $EE. . if the war had lasted 9ust a little longer. #s far as / ha7e een a le to as+ertain there is nothing in the s+heme to limit a soldier to the loss of ut one eye. <hen he planned to sell these. But the manufa+turers +olle+ted their wartime profits on them Z and they will do it all o7er again the neAt time. /t is =uite a tidy sum. Why notR E7ery ody else was getting theirs. &o W$. More than WM. or motor. <hey uilt a lot of ships that made a lot of profit. <here is nothing in this s+heme.?EE per +ent of those who turned lood into gold in the World War would e limited to some smaller figure.ne 7ery 7ersatile patriot sold 5n+le &am twel7e do0en IF8in+h wren+hes. should get their 9ust profits out of this war. or to limit his wounds to one or two or three. <his eApenditure yielded W$?. / suppose.EEE worth of them were made of wood and wouldnHt float^ <he seams opened up Z and they sank. <hat is how the @$.EEE. . /t has een estimated y statisti+ians and e+onomists and resear+hers that the war +ost your 5n+le &am WJ@. despite its sensational dis+losures. howe7er.h. or that not more than > per +ent in a di7ision shall e killed. Well. e7en if there were no mos=uitoes in *ran+e.FEE per +entR We all pay them Z in taAation. .EEE.EEE worth. apparently.EEE. #nd the sto+king manufa+turer and the uniform manufa+turers and the +ap manufa+turers and the steel helmet manufa+turers Z all got theirs. &till another had the rilliant idea that +olonels shouldnHt ride in automo iles. But W?MJ.EEE. But the u+k oard manufa+turer got his war profit.EEE Z +ount them if you li7e long enough Z was spent y 5n+le &am in uilding airplane engines that ne7er left the ground^ "ot one plane. Hmmm.EEE.EEE. to your 5n+le &am. <hese .EEE. it has had some effe+t.
they were entirely +hanged.N "o one mentioned to them. <he ankers ought them. &o mu+h for the mentally and physi+ally wounded Z they are paying now their share of the war profits. ut the soldier +ouldnHt... . /n the go7ernment hospital in Marion.to please the same )od. the looks on their fa+es^ Physi+ally. of these fine young oys are e7entually destroyed. &o we s+attered them a out without any Nthree8minuteN or NLi erty LoanN spee+hes or parades. they are gone. too Z they paid with heart reaks when they tore themsel7es away from their firesides and their families to don the uniform of 5n+le &am Z on whi+h a profit had een made. that their going and their dying would . <he 7ery a le +hief surgeon at the go7ernment hospital1 at Milwaukee.FEE of the li7ing dead. mentally. in the midst of whi+h / am at the time of this writing. kill. <he ankers +ontrol the se+urity marts. But donHt forget Z the soldier paid part of the dollars and +ents ill too. We didnHt need them any more.@EE for an enlistment. $. 2uring the !i7il War they were paid onuses. <hey were made to feel ashamed if they didnHt 9oin the army. 7isit the #meri+an +emeteries on the attlefields a road.h. /n them are a total of a out JE. <his was the Nwar to end all wars. With few eA+eptions our +lergymen 9oined in the +lamor to kill. But the others paid.EEE destroyed men Z men who were the pi+k of the nation eighteen years ago. <he go7ernment. <hen it was found that we +ould redu+e the +ost of wars y taking all the pri0e money and keeping it. efore they went into ser7i+e. Many. <he tremendous eA+itement of the war.they positi7ely hunger for them. e+ause the oys liked to e de+orated. 5ntil the !i7il War there were no medals. #fter the !i7il War no new medals were issued until the &panish8#meri+an War. <hatHs a part of the ill. /t was easy for them to depress the pri+e of these onds. in many instan+es. Boys with a normal 7iewpoint were taken out of the fields and offi+es and fa+tories and +lassrooms and put into the ranks.. We used them for a +ouple of years and trained them to think nothing at all of killing or of eing killed. e+ause they +ould not make that final Na out fa+eN alone. <he paid for it in the tren+hes where they shot and were shot1 where they were hungry for days at a time1 where they slept in the mud and the +old and in the rain Z with the moans and shrieks of the dying for a horri le lulla y.. /n the World War. too many. / ha7e 7isited eighteen go7ernment hospitals for 7eterans. sans OwithoutP mass psy+hology. )od is on our side. <here are thousands and thousands of these +ases.n a tour of the +ountry. <hen soldiers +ouldnHt argain for their la or. <hen all of us Z the people Z got frightened and sold the onds at WFI or WF?.N &o y de7eloping the "apoleoni+ system Z the medal usiness Z the go7ernment learned it +ould get soldiers for less money. 5p to and in+luding the &panish8#meri+an War. <hey were put shoulder to shoulder and. /n the &panish8#meri+an War they ga7e pri0e money.. <hen. we had a pri0e system. <hey paid another part in the training +amps where they were regimented and drilled while others took their 9o s and their pla+es in the li7es of their +ommunities. <hat was a part of the general propaganda. told me that mortality among 7eterans is three times as great as among those who stayed at home. we dis+harged them and told them to make another Na out fa+eN ^ <his time they had to do their own read9ustment. /ndiana. But the soldier pays the iggest part of the ill. paid as high as W$. through mass psy+hology.ankers +olle+ted W$EE plus. <hen these same ankers stimulated a oom and go7ernment onds went to par Z and a o7e. Beautiful ideals were painted for our oys who were sent out to die. they were supposed to. #nd in )ermany. E7eryone else +ould argain. <hese already ha7e een mentally destroyed. /t made enlistments easier. as they mar+hed away. N#ll men are enamored of de+orations. we used propaganda to make the oys a++ept +ons+ription. <hen the ankers +olle+ted their profits. kill. they are in good shape1 mentally.N <his was the Nwar to make the world safe for demo+ra+y. <here they were remolded1 they were made o7er1 they were made to Na out fa+eN1 to regard murder as the order of the day. and soldiers and sailors fought for money. the sudden +utting off of that eA+itement Z the young oys +ouldnHt stand it. sans offi+ersH aid and ad7i+e and sans nation8wide propaganda. <hen the !ongressional Medal of Honor was handed out. ut +ons+ripting OdraftingP the soldier anyway. where there are M. &o mu+h for the dead Z they ha7e paid their part of the war profits. the soldiers all got their share Z at least..it is His will that the )ermans e killed. and more and more are +oming in all the time.r 7isit any of the 7eteranHs hospitals in the 5nited &tates. the good pastors +alled upon the )ermans to kill the allies. . "apoleon on+e said. suddenly. /f you donHt elie7e this. &o 7i+ious was this war propaganda that e7en )od was rought into it.FEE of these oys are in pens^ *i7e hundred of them in a arra+ks with steel ars and wires all around outside the uildings and on the por+hes. <o kill the )ermans. . /t was a simple manipulation. uilt up to make people war +ons+ious and murder +ons+ious. or states. <hese oys donHt e7en look like human eings. When we +aptured any 7essels.
. the most +rowning insolen+e of all Z he was 7irtually la+k9a+ked into paying for his own ammunition. #t nights. eat +anned willy (when they +ould get it) and kill and kill and kill. we ga7e them the large salary of WME a month. all right. /t +an e smashed effe+ti7ely only y taking the profit out of war. too. <hen we made him pay what amounted to a++ident insuran+e Z something the employer pays for in an enlightened state Z and that +ost him W? a month.es. ought Li erty Bonds and +ontri uted to the profit of the ankers after the #rmisti+e in the ho+us8po+us of manipulated Li erty Bond pri+es. his mother. "o one told them that the ships on whi+h they were going to +ross might e torpedoed y su marines uilt with 5nited &tates patents. "o one told these #meri+an soldiers that they might e shot down y ullets made y their own rothers here. But wait^ Half of that wage (9ust a little more than a ri7eter in a shipyard or a la orer in a munitions fa+tory safe at home made in a day) was promptly taken from him to support his dependents.TO 0&. there will e no war. it was de+ided to make them help pay for the war.mean huge war profits. Most soldiers got no money at all on pay days. <he only way to smash this ra+ket is to +ons+ript +apital and industry and la or efore the nations manhood +an e +ons+ripted.. <he soldiers are^ )i7e +apital and industry and la or thirty days to think it o7er and you will find.PTER FO:R: 5O. all presidents. gi7e up their 9o s. all dire+tors. His family pays too. # few profit Z and the many pay. <hat will smash the war ra+ket Z that and nothing else.ou +anHt eliminate it y pea+e parleys at )ene7a. so that they would not e+ome a +harge upon his +ommunity. they suffer. <hey arenHt sleeping in muddy tren+hes. too. He had less than W% a month left.ne month efore the )o7ernment +an +ons+ript the young men of the nation Z it must +ons+ript +apital and industry and la or. C5. and all generals and all admirals and all offi+ers and all politi+ians and all go7ernment offi+e holders Z e7eryone in the nation e restri+ted to a total monthly in+ome not to eA+eed that paid to the soldier in the tren+hes^ Let all these kings and ty+oons and masters of usiness and all those workers in industry and all our senators and go7ernors and ma9ors pay half of their monthly WME wage to their families and pay war risk insuran+e and uy Li erty Bonds. lie in swampy tren+hes.EEE. #ll they had to do for this munifi+ent sum was to lea7e their dear ones ehind.es. all ankers Z yes. his rothers.ou +anHt end it y disarmament +onferen+es. <hey arenHt hungry. ha7ing stuffed patriotism down their throats. y that time.C1ET. . his wife. <hen.N <hus. #nd e7en now the families of the wounded men and of the mentally roken and those who ne7er were a le to read9ust themsel7es are still suffering and still paying.and e killed. his sisters. and they. . WELL. . and food y eing made to uy Li erty Bonds. the soldier pays the greater part of the ill. #s he suffers. all managers. #nd the soldiers ought a out W@. e +ons+ripted Z to get WME a month. itHs a ra+ket. Let the workers in these plants get the same wages Z all the workers. too. <hey were 9ust told it was to e a Nglorious ad7enture.. <hey pay it in the same heart8 reak that he does. as he lay in the tren+hes and wat+hed shrapnel urst a out him. Let the offi+ers and the dire+tors and the high8powered eAe+uti7es of our armament fa+tories and our munitions makers and our ship uilders and our airplane uilders and the manufa+turers of all the other things that pro7ide profit in war time as well as the ankers and the spe+ulators. they suffered too Z as mu+h as and e7en sometimes more than he. <hey. We made them uy Li erty Bonds at W$EE and then we ought them a+k Z when they +ame a+k from the war and +ouldnHt find work Z at WFI and WF?. or minus a leg or with his mind roken.EEE worth of these onds^ . the same wage as the lads in the tren+hes get. they lay home in their eds and tossed sleeplessly Z his father. . +ontri uted their dollars to the profits of the munitions makers and ankers and ship uilders and the manufa+turers and the spe+ulators made. &o. +lothing. Why shouldnHt theyR <hey arenHt running any risk of eing killed or of ha7ing their odies mangled or their minds shattered. When he returned home minus an eye. his sons. But there is a way to stop it. and his daughters.05 T5/0 R. all eAe+uti7es.EEE. Well8meaning ut impra+ti+al groups +anHt wipe it out y resolutions.
/n most. <hey ne7er would e +alled upon to shoulder arms Z to sleep in a tren+h and to e shot. <he swi7el8+hair admirals of Washington (and there are always a lot of them) are 7ery adroit lo yists.N . it +an e seen. <o summari0e' <hree steps must e taken to smash the war ra+ket. you must own property. no. <hen they egin to +ry for a larger na7y.h. / know the people do not want war. . #lmost any day.EEE. <here would ha7e een no war with &pain with its attendant loss of life. We ha7e a tremendous +oastline on the Pa+ifi+.nly those who would e +alled upon to risk their li7es for their +ountry should ha7e the pri7ilege of 7oting to determine whether the nation should go to war.ur nation +annot start an offensi7e war if its ships +anHt go further than @EE miles from the +oastline. *or defense purposes only. Many of our states ha7e restri+tions on those permitted to 7ote.R. huh. <here wouldnHt e 7ery mu+h sense in ha7ing a >?8year8old president of a munitions fa+tory or the flat8footed head of an international anking firm or the +ross8eyed manager of a uniform manufa+turing plant Z all of whom see 7isions of tremendous profits in the e7ent of war Z 7oting on whether the nation should go to war or not. . *or whatR <o fight the enemyR . for defense purposes. these admirals will tell you. Had that een the law in $F%F the Maine would ne7er ha7e gone to Ha7ana Har or. <hose who +ould pass and who would therefore e +alled upon to ear arms in the e7ent of war would e eligi le to 7ote in a limited ple is+ite. y law.N . and not that of the profiteers. . *or defense. /t would e a simple matter ea+h year for the men +oming of military age to register in their +ommunities as they did in the draft during the World War and e eAamined physi+ally. *irst of all.May e / am a little too optimisti+. Woodrow Wilson was re8ele+ted president in $%$? on a platform that he had Nkept us out of warN and on the implied promise that he would Nkeep us out of war. no. We must take the profit out of war. <he Pa+ifi+ is a great ig o+ean. in+identally. yes. <hey donHt shout that NWe need a lot of attleships to war on this nation or that nation. <he ships of our na7y. C5.h. &o +apital wonHt permit the taking of the profit out of war until the people Z those who do the suffering and still pay the pri+e Z make up their minds that those they ele+t to offi+e shall do their idding. should e spe+ifi+ally limited. (ust like that. it is ne+essary to e a le to read and write efore you may 7ote. they announ+e maneu7ers in the Pa+ifi+. to within @EE miles of our +oastline. no. <he maneu7ers will e two thousand. perhaps e7en thirty8fi7e hundred miles. of +ourse will e pleased eyond eApression to see the united &tates fleet so +lose to "ipponHs shores. . #nother step ne+essary in this fight to smash the war ra+ket is the limited ple is+ite to determine whether a war should e de+lared. off the +oast.EEE people.et. they let it e known that #meri+a is mena+ed y a great na7al power. #nd they are smart. fi7e months later he asked !ongress to de+lare war on )ermany. ut there is no use in saying we +annot e pushed into another war. / am not a fool as to elie7e that war is a thing of the past. !apital still has some say. Will the maneu7ers e off the +oast. the (apanese fleet playing at war games off Los #ngeles. the great fleet of this supposed enemy will strike suddenly and annihilate $@J. <hen. <here is ample pre+edent for restri+ting the 7oting to those affe+ted. # ple is+ite not of all the 7oters ut merely of those who would e +alled upon to do the fighting and dying. &he ne7er would ha7e een lown up. Looking a+k. We must permit the youth of the land who would ear arms to de+ide whether or not there should e war. . Planes might e permitted to go as far as JEE miles from the +oast for purposes of re+onnaissan+e. #nd the army should ne7er lea7e the territorial limits of our nation. #t ea+h session of !ongress the =uestion of further na7al appropriations +omes up. <hey should e the ones to ha7e the power to de+ide Z and not a !ongress few of whose mem ers are within the age limit and fewer still of whom are in physi+al +ondition to ear arms. a proud people. /n some. two or three hundred milesR . # third step in this usiness of smashing the war ra+ket is to make +ertain that our military for+es are truly for+es for defense only.h my. <wo hundred miles is ample. in the opinion of eAperts.PTER F/<E: TO 5E99 -/T5 -.h no. We must limit our military for+es to home defense purposes. <he (apanese. E7en as pleased as would e the residents of !alifornia were they to dimly dis+ern through the morning mist. 5h.nly those who must suffer should ha7e the right to 7ote.
will e fought not with attleships. <hey see to it that these +onferen+es do not disarm or seriously limit armaments. we ha7e had disarmament +onferen+es and limitations of arms +onferen+es. &tripped of its diplomati+ language. #nd at all these +onferen+es. "o general wants to e without a +ommand. /t will e fought with deadly +hemi+als and gases.N Well. <hey donHt mean a thing. ships will +ontinue to e uilt. this is what he told the President and his group' N<here is no use kidding oursel7es any longer. lurking in the a+kground ut all8powerful.. are the sinister agents of those who profit y war. . "o admiral wants to e without a ship. <hey +annot e for limitations of arms. We now owe you (#meri+an ankers. or had radio een a7aila le to road+ast the pro+eedings./n that fi7e8month inter7al the people had not een asked whether they had +hanged their minds. 9ust the same. #meri+an eAporters) fi7e or siA illion dollars. #nd the soldiers. the world has less of demo+ra+y than it had then..es.EEE young men who put on uniforms and mar+hed or sailed away were not asked whether they wanted to go forth to suffer and die. #meri+a ne7er would ha7e entered the World War. if it were possi le. E7en this. <he head of the +ommission spoke./ say. and had the press een in7ited to e present at that +onferen+e. for the manufa+turer must make their war profits too.. TO HELL WITH WAR! . must wear uniforms. has een a++omplished to assure us that the World War was really the war to end all wars. #nd what happensR <he professional soldiers and sailors donHt want to disarm. . By putting them to this useful 9o .ussia or )ermany or England or *ran+e or /taly or #ustria li7e under demo+ra+ies or monar+hiesR Whether they are *as+ists or !ommunistsR .N Had se+re+y een outlawed as far as war negotiations were +on+erned. &e+retly ea+h nation is studying and perfe+ting newer and ghastlier means of annihilating its foes wholesale.. <he +hief aim of any power at any of these +onferen+es has not een to a+hie7e disarmament to pre7ent war ut rather to get more armament for itself and less for any potential foe. *ran+e and /taly. not with rifles and not with ma+hine guns. <hen what +aused our go7ernment to +hange its mind so suddenlyR Money. <here is only one way to disarm with any sem lan+e of pra+ti+a ility.and )ermany wonHt.ur pro lem is to preser7e our own demo+ra+y. was shrouded in utmost se+re+y. We send our professional soldiers and our sailors and our politi+ians and our diplomats to these +onferen+es. e7ery war plane. #n allied +ommission. <he I. <he neAt war. <hat is for all nations to get together and s+rap e7ery ship. we +an all make more money out of pea+e than we +an out of war Z e7en the munitions makers. e7ery tank. <hey are not for disarmament. #nd guns still will e manufa+tured and powder and rifles will e made. what usiness is it of ours whether . But 7i+tory or defeat will e determined y the skill and ingenuity of our s+ientists. for the ship uilders must make their profits. #meri+an manufa+turers. e7ery rifle. <he President summoned a group of ad7isers.. Besides. +ame o7er shortly efore the war de+laration and +alled on the President.. /f we put them to work making poison gas and more and more fiendish me+hani+al and eAplosi7e instruments of destru+tion.es. &o. /f we lose (and without the help of the 5nited &tates we must lose) we. But this +onferen+e. e7ery gun. #meri+an munitions makers. England. like all war dis+ussions. for the munitions makers must make their huge profits. eighteen years after. they will ha7e no time for the +onstru+ti7e 9o of uilding greater prosperity for all peoples. +annot pay a+k this money. it may e re+alled. Both mean men without 9o s. #nd 7ery little. . a++ording to eAperts.EEE. if anything. When our oys were sent off to war they were told it was a Nwar to make the world safe for demo+ra+yN and a Nwar to end all wars. of +ourse.ne has 9ust failed1 the results of another ha7e een nullified. would not e enough. #meri+an spe+ulators. <he +ause of the allies is lost. &o. not y artillery.
T ere are only two t ings we s ould fig t for.4 0uly HE4 8::8/ Died at -aval Hos#ital4 ) iladel# ia4 0une D84 897E +illia! ). (ooking 'ack on it4 I feel t at I could ave given $l "a#one a few ints. T is is ty#ical wit everyone in t e !ilitary service. I served in all co!!issioned ranks fro! Second (ieutenant to Ma2or%General. E%!ail< w#lH87bya oo.```````` E.co! . 84 89H8 3n leave of a'sence to act as director of De#art!ent of Safety4 ) iladel# ia4 89HD/ (ecturer 89HENs4 &e#u'lican "andidate for Senate4 89HD Born +est " ester4 )a. I el#ed !ake Haiti and "u'a a decent #lace for t e -ational "ity Bank 'oys to collect revenues in.ico4 89874 and for ca#ture of *t. It is conducted for t e 'enefit of t e very few at t e e.e!'ourg "ity4 Boston4 ) iladel# ia4 -ew 1ork "ity4 +as ington D. I s#ent t irty% t ree years and four !ont s in active !ilitary service as a !e!'er of t is countryMs !ost agile !ilitary force4 t e Marine "or#s.S. It as its Lfinger !enL to #oint out ene!ies4 its L!uscle !enL to destroy ene!ies4 its L'rain !enL to #lan war #re#arations4 and a LBig BossL Su#er%-ationalistic%"a#italis!. In s ort4 I was a racketeer4 a gangster for ca#italis!. I el#ed #urify -icaragua for t e international 'anking ouse of Brown Brot ers in 89E9%898D.4 Balti!ore4 " icago4 San *rancisco4 San Diego4 Seattle4 Denver4 Dallas4 -ew Haven ="onnecticut?4 1ale 6niversity4 Harvard 6niversity4 )rinceton 6niversity4 "olu!'ia 6niversity4 Bucking a! )alace4 Britis )arlia!ent4 &eic stag4 Grand "anyon4 Swiss $l#s4 and t e & ine &iver valley. 3ne is t e defense of our o!es and t e ot er is t e Bill of &ig ts.uate defense at t e coastline and not ing else. 3nly a s!all inside grou# knows w at it is a'out. &iviere4 Haiti4 898I Distinguis ed service !edal4 89894 &etired 3ct. I 'elieve in ade.". I wouldnMt go to war again as I ave done to #rotect so!e lousy invest!ent of t e 'ankers. T e trou'le wit $!erica is t at w en t e dollar only earns > #ercent over ere4 t en it gets restless and goes overseas to get 8EE #ercent. T en t e flag follows t e dollar and t e soldiers follow t e flag. I sus#ected I was 2ust #art of a racket at t e ti!e. (itynski served in t e 6. (itynski was de#loyed to Ira. Butler4 6SM" =retired? *io"ra!hical Summary of Smedley . I o#erated on t ree continents. T ere isnMt a trick in t e racketeering 'ag t at t e !ilitary gang is 'lind to. $nd during t at #eriod4 I s#ent !ost of !y ti!e 'eing a ig class !uscle% !an for Big Business4 for +all Street and for t e Bankers. I el#ed in t e ra#ing of alf a dozen "entral $!erican re#u'lics for t e 'enefits of +all Street. Trut fulness co!#els !e to. S!edley D. Gen. +ar for any ot er reason is si!#ly a racket. In " ina I el#ed to see to it t at Standard 3il went its way un!olested. My !ental faculties re!ained in sus#ended ani!ation w ile I o'eyed t e orders of ig er%u#s.arlin"ton *utler: Ma2or General – 6nited States Marine "or#s A&etiredB $warded two "ongressional !edals of Honor4 for ca#ture of @era "ruz4 Me. T e record of racketeering is long. $r!y fro! DEE8 to DEE7 as a soldier in t e *irst $r!ored Division in Ger!any =8%8 "$@4 Budingen?/ +illia! ).cer#t in 89HH 'y Gen. $ racket is 'est descri'ed4 I 'elieve4 as so!et ing t at is not w at it see!s to t e !a2ority of #eo#le. It !ay see! odd for !e4 a !ilitary !an to ado#t suc a co!#arison.#ense of t e !asses. He lived in "restview4 *lorida for several years and lived at 1okota $ir Base4 0a#an near Tokyo fro! 89:I to 899H. =near Bag dad? fro! $#ril DEEH to 0uly DEE7. S!edley Butler +ar is 2ust a racket. -ow I a! sure of it. I el#ed !ake Me.ico4 es#ecially Ta!#ico4 safe for $!erican oil interests in 8987. I 'roug t lig t to t e Do!inican &e#u'lic for $!erican sugar interests in 898>. If a nation co!es over ere to fig t4 t en weMll fig t. Ma2. T e 'est e could do was to o#erate is racket in t ree districts. He as traveled to !any cities and #laces4 including Tokyo4 (ondon4 )aris4 &o!e4 Berlin4 @ienna4 Munic 4 "ologne4 *rankfurt4 Milan4 @enice4 (u. (itynski $B36T THE $6TH3&< +illia! ). (ike all t e !e!'ers of t e !ilitary #rofession4 I never ad a t oug t of !y own until I left t e service. During t ose years4 I ad4 as t e 'oys in t e 'ack roo! would say4 a swell racket.