VIETNAM WAR

Organized Crime?
Part 1: Colonization & Partition

By William P. Litynski

From the Grassy Knoll in Saigon:

Lone Gunman or Patsy?
The Assassination of South Vietnam’s President go !inh !iem on o"em#er $% 1&'(

Ngo Dinh Diem, President of South Vietnam and a devout Roman Catholi , !as assassinated in Saigon, South Vietnam on November 2, 1963.

,They started on me -ith . go !inh/ !iem% you remem#er0 1e -as 2orru3t and he ought to #e 4illed0 So we killed him. We all got together and got a goddamn bunch of thugs and we went in and assassinated him. o-% -e’"e really had no 3oliti2al sta#ility sin2e then05 6 70S0 President )yndon *aines +ohnson% in a ta3e8re2orded 2on"ersation 9Sour2e: :outu#e;
)yndon *aines +ohnson

"ohn #. $ennedy, President of the %nited States and a devout Roman Catholi , and his !ife "a kie $ennedy ride in a motor ade in Dallas, &e'as, %nited States of (meri a on November 22, 1963, moments )efore President $ennedy !as assassinated.

Left to right* +enry Ca)ot Lodge "r. ,%.S. (m)assador to South Vietnam-, Dean Rusk ,%.S. Se retary of State-, Lyndon Baines "ohnson ,President of the %nited States-, Ro)ert . Namara ,%.S. Se retary of Defense-, and /eorge W. Ball ,%nder %.S. Se retary of State- meet 0rivately on November 23, 1963. ,Photo* Ce il Stoughton1Lyndon B. "ohnson Presidential Li)rary-

)yndon *aines +ohnson on the Vietnam <ar: =n 1is >-n <ords

)yndon *aines +ohnson President of the 7nited States 91&'(81&'&; ,The 2onfused nature of this 2onfli2t 2annot mas4 the fa2t that it is the ne- fa2e of an old enemy0 >"er this -ar 88 and all Asia 88 is another reality: the dee3ening shado- of Communist China0 The rulers in 1anoi are urged on #y Pe4ing0 This is a regime -hi2h has destroyed freedom in Ti#et% -hi2h has atta24ed =ndia% and has #een 2ondemned #y the 7nited ations for aggression in Korea0 =t is a nation -hi2h is hel3ing the for2es of "iolen2e in almost e"ery 2ontinent0 The 2ontest in Vietnam is 3art of a -ider 3attern of aggressi"e 3ur3oses0 <hy are these realities our 2on2ern? Why are we in South Vietnam? We are there because we have a promise to keep. Since !"# every $merican President has offered support to the people of South Vietnam. We have helped to build% and we have helped to defend. &hus% over many years% we have made a national pledge to help South Vietnam defend its independence. $nd ' intend to keep that promise. &o dishonor that pledge% to abandon this small and brave nation to its enemies% and to the terror that must follow% would be an unforgivable wrong. We are also there to strengthen world order. Around the glo#e% from *erlin to Thailand% are 3eo3le -hose -ell8#eing rests% in 3art% on the #elief that they 2an 2ount on us if they are atta24ed0 To lea"e Vietnam to its fate -ould sha4e the 2onfiden2e of all these 3eo3le in the "alue of an Ameri2an 2ommitment and in the "alue of Ameri2a@s -ord0 The result -ould #e in2reased unrest and insta#ility% and e"en -ider -ar0 <e are also there #e2ause there are great sta4es in the #alan2e0 )et no one thin4 for a moment that retreat from Vietnam -ould #ring an end to 2onfli2t0 The #attle -ould #e rene-ed in one 2ountry and then another0 The 2entral lesson of our time is that the a33etite of aggression is ne"er satisfied0 To -ithdra- from one #attlefield means only to 3re3are for the neAt0 <e must say in southeast Asia 88 as -e did in Buro3e 88 in the -ords of the *i#le: C1itherto shalt thou 2ome% #ut no further0CD And -e do this to 2on"in2e the leaders of orth Vietnam 88 and all -ho see4 to share their 2onEuest 88 of a "ery sim3le fa2t: We will not be defeated. We will not grow tired. We will not withdraw% either openly or under the cloak of a meaningless agreement.5 6 70S0 President )yndon *aines +ohnson% in his Address at Johns Hopkins University: Peace Without Conquest % $pril (% !)" ,= -ill tell you the more% = Fust stayed a-a4e last night thin4ing of this thing .Vietnam <ar/% and the more that ' think of it ' don*t know what in the hell% it looks like to me that we*re getting into another +orea. 't ,ust worries the hell out of me. ' don*t see what we can ever hope to get out of there with once we*re committed. = #elie"e the Chinese Communists are 2oming into it0 = don@t thin4 that -e 2an fight them 1G%GGG miles a-ay from home and e"er get any-here in that area0 ' don*t think it*s worth fighting for and ' don*t think we can get out. $nd it*s ,ust the biggest damn mess that ' ever saw D And -hat in the hell am = ordering them out there for? What in the hell is Vietnam worth to me? What is Laos worth to me? What is it worth to this country? <e@"e got a treaty #ut hell% e"ery#ody else has got a treaty out there% and they@re not doing a thing a#out itD >f 2ourse% if you start running from the Communists% they may Fust 2hase you right into your o-n 4it2henD 't*s damn easy to get into a war% but if it*s going to be awful hard to ever e-tricate yourself if you get in. 5 6 70S0 President )yndon *aines +ohnson% .ay /(% !)#% in a ta3e8re2orded tele3hone 2on"ersation -ith ational Se2urity Ad"isor H2George *undy

Vi2e President )yndon *aines +ohnson 9left; meets -ith South Vietnam’s President go !inh !iem in Saigon% South Vietnam in Hay 1&'10 9Photo: Vietnam: A History #y Stanley Karno-;

(B2%& &+3 (%&+2R* William P. Litynski served in the %.S. (rmy from Se0tem)er 45567Novem)er 4558, 0rimarily in the #irst (rmored Division in /ermany ,(0a he &roo0, 676 C(V, Budingen-9 he !as de0loyed to :ra; ,near Baghdad- from (0ril 455< until "uly 4558. +e attended Crestvie! +igh S hool in Crestvie!, #lorida from 6==>74555 and graduated in 4555. +e lived at ?okota (ir Base, "a0an ,%.S. (ir #or e )ase near &okyo- from 6=@A7 6==<. ,+is mother is from "a0an, and his grandfather !as drafted t!i e )y the :m0erial "a0anese Navy during World War ::.- William P. Litynski has traveled e'tensively and has visited &okyo, London, Paris, Rome, Berlin, Vienna, Brussels, Lu'em)ourg City, .uni h, #rankfurt am .ain, Ne! ?ork City, Washington D.C., Boston, Philadel0hia, Chi ago, Seattle, and Dallas. ,37mail* !0l<68Byahoo. om-

Vietnam War: Organized Crime?

Fren2h General +a2Eues8Phili33e )e2ler2 9left;% 1o Chi Hinh 92enter;% and Fren2h Commissioner +ean Sainteny 9right; share a toast in 1anoi% Fren2h =ndo2hina on Har2h 1I% 1&J'0 1o Chi Hinh signed an agreement that allo-ed the Fren2h army to o22u3y Vietnam 9Fren2h =ndo2hina; as -ell as the 2ities of Saigon and 1anoi0 9Photo: htt3:KKindo2hinefran2aise0Aooit02omKtI(8)8A22ord8du8'8mars81&J'0htm; The ,<ar in Vietnam5 9also 4no-n as ,Southern Lesistan2e <ar5; o22urred #et-een the Fren2h and *ritish armies and the Viet Hinh guerillas from Se3tem#er 1(% 1&JI to Har2h (G% 1&J'0 The Fren2h =ndo2hina <ar lasted from !e2em#er 1&% 1&J' to August 1% 1&IJ0 Fren2h =ndo2hina -as di"ided into t-o military distri2ts for a short time in 1&JI and 1&J' follo-ing the end of <orld <ar ==M all areas south of the 1'th Parallel -ere administered #y the *ritish army 9from =ndia; and Fren2h army and all areas north of the 1' th Parallel -ere administered #y the Le3u#li2 of China0 The Fren2h regained 2ontrol o"er Saigon #y Se3tem#er $(% 1&JIM Viet Hinh guerillas #egan fighting against the Fren2h o22u3ation army% *ritish8=ndian o22u3ation army% and =m3erial +a3anese ,o22u3ation5 army stationed in Saigon shortly after-ards0 The Viet Hinh guerillas 9later 4no-n as Viet Cong; engaged in arson% sa#otage% looting% and murder in Saigon and atta24ed the do24s% 2ity mar4ets% and the main air3ort 9Tan Son hut; in Saigon freEuently in 1&JI and 1&J'0

0a1i German War 2riminals who were $live and Well during the Vietnam War

/rand (dmiral $arl DoenitC (September 16, 1891December 24, 1980) Commander7in7Chief of the /erman Navy D$riegsmarineE ,6=8<76=8F-

#ield .arshal 3ri h von .anstein (November 24, 1887– June 9, 1973) Commander of LV: PanCer Cor0s ,6=86-

Rudolf +ess (Apr ! 26, 1894Au"u#t 17, 1987) De0uty #uhrer of NaCi /ermany ,6=<<76=86-

2tto SkorCeny (June 12, 1908Ju!$ %, 197%) NaCi SS Commando

(l)ert S0eer (&'rc( 19, 190%September 1, 1981) .inister of (rmaments and War Produ tion ,6=8476=8F-9 +itlerGs 0ersonal ar hite t

#ranC von Pa0en ()ctober 29, 1879&'$ 2, 1969) Chan ellor of /ermany ,6=<4-9 Vi e Chan ellor of /ermany ,6=<<76=<8-9 /erman (m)assador to (ustria ,6=<876=<@-9 /erman (m)assador to &urkey ,6=<=76=88-

+Halmar S ha ht (J'nu'r$ 22, 1877June 3, 1970) President of the Rei hs)ank D entral )ank of /ermanyE ,6=4<76=<5, 6=<<76=<=-

#ield .arshal 3rhard .il h (&'rc( 30, 1892J'nu'r$ 2%, 1972) Luft!affe offi er9 former Chairman of Lufthansa9 N'* +'rt$ member o, Je- #( .e#cent

Baldur von S hira h (&'$ 9, 1907Au"u#t 8, 1974) /auleiter of Vienna ,6=8576=8F-9 +ead of the +itler7"ugend D+itler ?outhE ,6=<676=85-

Nikolaus I$lausJ Bar)ie ()ctober 2%, 1913September 2%, 1991) IBut herJ of Lyon, #ran e

,Peo3le as4 me -ho my heroes are0 = ha"e only one 6 1itler0 ' admire 3itler because he has pulled his country together when it was in a terrible state in the early thirties. *ut the situation here is so des3erate no- that one man -ould not #e enough0 We need four or five 3itlers in Vietnam.5 6 General guyen Cao Ky% Prime Hinister of the Le3u#li2 of Vietnam% in an inter"ie- -ith the London Sunday Mirror% +uly 1(% 1&'I

Partners of Bro!n Brothers +arriman K Co. )anking firm in do!nto!n .anhattan ,Ne! ?ork City- ,from left to right-* 3. Roland +arriman, former %.S. Senator Pres ott S. Bush, $night Woolley, and former %.S. Se retary of Defense Ro)ert (. Lovett meet 0rivately at the Bro!n Brothers +arriman K Co. offi e in Ne! ?ork City on "uly 4@, 6=>8. &he staged /ulf of &onkin in ident o urred during the first !eek of (ugust 6=>8. (ll four men !ere mem)ers of Skull K Bones, a se ret so iety lo ated at ?ale %niversity. Pres ott S. Bush !as a dire tor of %nion Banking Cor0oration, a )ank that a e0ted money from NaCi /erman finan ier #ritC &hyssen.

.adame Ngo Dinh Nhu e'er ises her right to )ear arms and fires a .<@ 0istol at a firing range in South Vietnam in "une 6=>4. ,Photo* Larry Burro!s1 &ime Life-

Chairman of the "oint Chiefs of Staff /en. .a'!ell D. &aylor ,left-, %.S. (m)assador to South Vietnam +enry Ca)ot Lodge "r. , enter-, and Se retary of Defense Ro)ert . Namara laugh during a meeting in South Vietnam in September 1963. South VietnamGs President Ngo Dinh Diem !ould )e assassinated in Saigon on Novem)er 4, 6=><. President "ohn #. $ennedy !ould )e assassinated on Novem)er 44, 6=><. What e'a tly !ere these three men laughing a)outL ,Photo* Swords and Plowshares )y /en. .a'!ell D. &aylor ,6=A4--

+enry Ca)ot Lodge "r. ,left-, the %.S. (m)assador to South Vietnam, greets C:( s0y and retired (ir #or e .aH. /en. 3d!ard /. Lansdale in Saigon, South Vietnam. Both men !ere mem)ers of the Coun il on #oreign Relations, a 0rivate organiCation in Ne! ?ork City !here 0rominent men ,and later !omen- meet )ehind losed doors to dis uss foreign affairs. What e'a tly !ere these t!o men laughing a)outL ,Photo* Edward Lansdale: The Unquiet American )y Ce il B. Currey-

South VietnamGs /eneral Nguyen Ngo Loan ,left-, South VietnamGs Chief of National Poli e, e'e utes Viet Cong terrorist and sus0e ted hild7killer Ca0tain Nguyen Van Lem ,right- in Saigon during the &et 2ffensive on #e)ruary 6, 6=>@. /eneral Loan !ould later move to Virginia after the Vietnam War9 /eneral Loan died of an er in Virginia in 6==@. ,Photo* 3ddie (dams, (sso iated Press1Wide World Photos-

,Politi2al 3o-er gro-s out of the #arrel of a gun05 6 Hao Tse8tung 91N&(81&O';% Chairman of Communist China

Vi tims of the .y Lai .assa re. &he .y Lai .assa re took 0la e in .y Lai, South Vietnam on .ar h 6>, 6=>@, killing F58 Vietnamese men, !omen, and hildren. ( ording to (le'ander Co k)urn and "effrey St. Clair in their )ook Whiteout, the .y Lai .assa re !as 0art of a C:( overt o0eration alled 20eration Phoeni'. ,Photo )y Ronald L. +ae)erle-

$ent State .assa re* #our (meri an ollege students !ere murdered in )road daylight )y mem)ers of the 2hio National /uard at $ent State %niversity in $ent, 2hio on .ay 8, 6=A5.

Kent State Hassa2re 6 Hay J% 1&OG

Kent State Hassa2re 6 Hay J% 1&OG

(meri an soldiers a!ait medi al assistan e in South Vietnam on 2 to)er F, 6=>>. ,Photo* Larry Burro!s1&ime Life-

(meri an soldiers eva uate !ounded omrades )y stret her to a near)y heli o0ter on a muddy road during Vietnam War in South Vietnam in 6=>=. ,Photo* Larry Burro!s1&ime Life-

(meri an .arines aid a !ounded omrade during intense )attle for +ill 8@8 as 0art of 20eration Prairie )eing ondu ted near the De7.ilitariCed Mone ,D.M- in South Vietnam in 2 to)er 6=>> during the Vietnam War. ,Photo* Larry Burro!s1&ime Life :mages-

Ameri2an soldiers load -ounded onto an 7181! C1ueyC heli2o3ter #eing e"a2uated from 1ill NOI 1I miles south-est of !a4 To% South Vietnam during the Vietnam <ar on o"em#er $$% 1&'O0 9Photo: Alfred *atung#a2alKTime )ife;

South Vietnamese infantrymen -arily mo"ing 3ast hut they set a#laze after they found it held 2ommunist literature during the Vietnam <ar0 9)arry *urro-sKTime )ife;

(n (meri an soldier !alks 0ast a )urning hut as a Viet Cong )ase am0 is tor hed near .y &ho, Vietnam on (0ril F, 6=>@. ,%.S. De0artment of Defense-

%.S. .arine troo0s advan e a ross a ri e 0addy to!ard enemy 0ositions during o0eration NLien $it78G near Chu Lai, Vietnam during the Vietnam War in ir a 6=>A. ,Photo )y +ulton (r hive1/etty :mages-

As the se2ond 3hase of o3eration ,Thayer%5 the 1st Air Ca"alry !i"ision 9airmo#ile; 2arries out o3eration ,=r"ing5 in the area $I miles north of Pui hon -hi2h lies JGG miles north8northeast of Saigon0 The 1st Air Ca"alry -as gi"en the mission of 2learing a mountain range -here an estimated t-o #attalions of orth Vietnam regulars -ere su33osed to #e massing an atta24 on 1ammond Airstri30 Troo3s of ,A5 Com3any 2he24 houses during a 3atrol on ' >2to#er 1&''0 9Photo: )a-ren2e +0 Sulli"an% SPCI% Photogra3herK ational Ar2hi"es;

A 70S0 ri"er#oat 9Qi33o monitor; de3loying na3alm during the Vietnam <ar0 970S0 a"al <ar College Huseum;

>3eration Lolling Thunder% Flying under radar 2ontrol -ith a *8'' !estroyer% Air For2e F81GI Thunder2hief 3ilots #om# a military target through lo- 2louds o"er the southern 3anhandle of orth Vietnam on +une 1J% 1&''0 9Photo #y )t0 Col0 Ce2il +0 Poss% $Gth TLS on LF81G1C% 7SAF;

!efoliation Hission in Vietnam0 A 70S0 Army 7181! heli2o3ter from the (('th A"iation Com3any s3rays a defoliation agent on agri2ultural land in the He4ong !elta on +uly $'% 1&'&0 9Photo: *rian K0 Grigs#y% SPCI% Photogra3herK ational Ar2hi"es;

!efoliant s3ray run% 3art of >3eration Lan2h 1and% during the Vietnam <ar #y 7C81$(* Provider air2raft 9Photo: 70S0 Air For2e;
,The Fungles of South Vietnam -ere ideally suited for 3ro"iding enemy 2o"er for the guerilla ta2ti2s em3loyed #y troo3s #attling South Vietnamese% Ameri2an% and other allied for2es during the Vietnam <ar0 To offset am#ush atta24s and 3rote2t allied for2es% the 70S0 military sought to defoliate 2om#at areas #y de"elo3ing and using the her#i2ide Agent >range0 70S0 military resear2h de"elo3ed Agent >range% and the 3rodu2t -as formulated #ased on eAa2ting military s3e2ifi2ations0 Com3anies su33lying Agent >range to the go"ernment in2luded The !o- Chemi2al Com3any% Honsanto Com3any% 1er2ules =n20% !iamond Shamro24 Chemi2als Com3any% 7niroyal =n20% Thom3son Chemi2al and T81 Agri2ulture and utrition Com3any0 Pu#li2 2on2ern o"er Agent >range has 2entered not o"er the 3rodu2t itself% #ut an una"oida#le #y83rodu2t that -as 3resent in only tra2e le"els of one of the 3rodu2t@s ingredients0 The una"oida#le tra2e #y83rodu2t -as the dioAin 2om3ound $%(%O%N8TC!!05 Sour2e: htt3:KK---0do-02omK2ommitmentsKde#atesKagentorangeKindeA0htm

Cor3orate s3onsors of 2hemi2al -arfare in VietnamM !illon Anderson% a former ational Se2urity Ad"isor under President !-ight !0 Bisenho-er% -as a dire2tor of Honsanto0

( na0alm strike eru0ts in a fire)all near %.S. troo0s on 0atrol in South Vietnam in 6=>> during the Vietnam War. &he %.S. military, under the Ileadershi0J of President Lyndon B. "ohnson, Se retary of Defense Ro)ert . Namara, National Se urity (dvisor . /eorge Bundy, and (verell +arriman, dro00ed more than <<@,555 tons of na0alm ,Hellied gasoline- on Vietnam and killed more than 4 million Vietnamese, in luding ivilians, !omen, and hildren, during eight years of !ar. ,(sso iated Press Photo-

Smoke )illo!s as a luster of that hed huts is )om)ed !ith na0alm in Viet ong territory in South Vietnam in 6=>> during Vietnam War. ,Photo* Larry Burro!s1&ime Life-

A des2endant and "i2tim of Agent >range 2hemi2al defoliant

)eft 3hoto: guyen Ruan Hinh% age '% rests in his #ed at the ,Pea2e Village5 of Tu !u hos3ital in 1o Chi Hinh City 9Saigon; on Hay $I% $GGO0 A22ording to hos3ital staff% the #oy is suffering from 3hysi2al deformities sus3e2ted to ha"e #een 2aused #y his 3arents’ eA3osure to dioAin in the 2hemi2al defoliant Agent >range0 9!a"id GuttenfelderKAsso2iated Press; Light 3hoto: A disfigured Vietnamese girl is one of many Vietnamese 2hildren that 2ontinue to suffer from the side effe2ts of Agent >range0 Hany Vietnamese 3eo3le and Vietnam <ar "eterans suffer from the 3hysi2al and 3sy2hologi2al effe2ts of Agent >range0

/rieving !ido! ry over 0lasti )ag ontaining remains of her hus)and re ently found in mass grave in +ue, South Vietnam in (0ril 6=>=. +er hus)and !as killed during the &et 2ffensive that o urred in #e)ruary 6=>@. ,Photo* Larry Burro!s1&ime Life :mages-

70S0 President )yndon *0 +ohnson 9right; meets -ith Federal Leser"e Chairman <illiam H2Chesney Hartin +r0 9se2ond from left;% Assistant Se2retary of Commer2e for B2onomi2 Affairs !r0 Andre- F0 *rimmer 9third from right;% and 7nder Se2retary of State George <0 *all 9se2ond from right; during a *alan2e of Payments Heeting in the Ca#inet Loom at the <hite 1ouse in <ashington% !0C0% 70S0A0 on Se3tem#er $G% 1&'I0 9Photo: :oi2hi L0 >4amotoK)yndon *0 +ohnson Presidential )i#rary;

Ameri2an ational !e#t !uring the Fren2h =ndo2hina <ar 91&JI81&IJ; and Vietnam <ar 91&'J81&O(;: +une (G% 1&JO 8 S$IN%$N'%(N(%1GN0'O +une (G% 1&IO 8 S$OG%I$O%1O1%N&'0J( +une (G% 1&'O 8 S($'%$$G%&(O%O&J0IJ +une (G% 1&JN 8 S$I$%$&$%$J'%I1$0&& +une (G% 1&IN 8 S$O'%(J(%$1O%OJI0N1 +une (G% 1&'N 8 S(JO%ION%JG'%J$I0NN +une (G% 1&J& 8 S$I$%OOG%(I&%N'G0(( +une (G% 1&I& 8 S$NJ%OGI%&GO%GON0$$ +une (G% 1&'& 8 S(I(%O$G%$I(%NJ10J1 +une (G% 1&IG 8 S$IO%(IO%(I$%(I10GJ +une (G% 1&'G 8 S$N'%((G%O'G%NJN0(O +une (G% 1&OG 8 S(OG%&1N%OG'%&J&0&( +une $&% 1&I1 8 S$II%$$1%&O'%N1J0&( +une (G% 1&'1 8 S$NN%&OG%&(N%'1G0GI +une (G% 1&O1 8 S(&N%1$&%OJJ%JII0IJ +une (G% 1&I$ 8 S$I&%1GI%1ON%ONI0J( +une (G% 1&'$ 8 S$&N%$GG%N$$%O$G0NO +une (G% 1&O$ 8 SJ$O%$'G%J'G%&JG0IG +une (G% 1&I( 8 S$''%GO1%G'1%'(N0IO +une (G% 1&'( 8 S(GI%NI&%'($%&&'0J1 +une (G% 1&O( 8 SJIN%1J1%'GI%(1$0G& +une (G% 1&IJ 8 S$O1%$I&%I&&%1GN0J' +une (G% 1&'J 8 S(11%O1$%N&&%$IO0(G +une (G% 1&OJ 8 SJOI%GI&%N1I%O(10II +une (G% 1&II 8 S$OJ%(OJ%$$$%NG$0'$ +une (G% 1&'I 8 S(1O%$O(%N&N%&N(0'J +une (G% 1&OI 8 SI((%1N&%GGG%GGG0GGT +une (G% 1&I' 8 S$O$%OIG%N1(%'J&0($ +une (G% 1&'' 8 S(1&%&GO%GNO%O&I0JN +une (G% 1&O' 8 S'$G%J((%GGG%GGG0GGT
ote: TLounded to Hillions0 =n2ludes legal tender notes% gold and sil"er 2ertifi2ates% et20 The first fis2al year for the 70S0 Go"ernment started +an0 1% 1ON&0 Congress 2hanged the #eginning of the fis2al year from +an0 1 to +ul0 1 in 1NJ$% and finally from +ul0 1 to >2t0 1 in 1&OO -here it remains today0 To find more histori2al information% "isit The Pu#li2 !e#t 1istori2al =nformation ar2hi"es0

Sour2e: htt3:KK---0treasurydire2t0go"Kgo"tKre3ortsK3dKhistde#tKhistde#tUhistoJ0htm

Order Out Of Chaos: Sku ! "ones and Vietnam War

&he 2rder of Skull K Bones is a se ret so iety at ?ale %niversity. &he 2rder of Skull K Bones is also kno!n as the IBrotherhood of Death.J Skull K Bones initiation rituals allegedly in lude individuals resting naked in a offin and revealing their se' life to 68 fello! Bonesmen. ,Sour e* Secrets of the Tomb: Skull and Bones, the !" Lea#ue, and the $idden Paths of Power )y (le'andra Ro))ins-

/0n po! t c#, not( n" ('ppen# b$ 'cc .ent1 0, t ('ppen#, $ou c'n bet t -'# p!'nne. t('t -'$12 – 3r'n4! n De!'no 5oo#eve!t
T=H L7SSBLT: :ou #oth -ere mem#ers of S4ull and *ones% a se2ret so2iety at :ale0 <hat does that tell us? S40. 5630 +47789 0ot much% because it:s a secret. V Meet the Press on *C% August (1% $GG( T=H L7SSBLT: :ou -ere #oth in S4ull and *ones% the se2ret so2iety0 P74S';40& G467G4 W. <=S39 't:s so secret we can:t talk about it. V Meet the Press on *C% Fe#ruary O% $GGJ

Prominent .em)ers of Skull K Bones during the Vietnam War

5obert A1 6ovett B.(. ?ale 6=6@ Partner of Bro!n Brothers +arriman K Co. ,6=<67 6=85, 6=8>76=8A, 6=8=7 6=F5, 6=F<76=@>-

+re#cott S1 7u#( B.(. ?ale 6=6A Partner of Bro!n Brothers +arriman K Co. ,6=<676=A4-

81 Avere!! 9'rr m'n B.(. ?ale 6=6< %.S. Negotiator at the Paris Pea e Conferen e on Vietnam ,6=>@76=>=-

&c:eor"e 7un.$ B.(. ?ale 6=85 National Se urity (dvisor ,6=>676=>>-

8 !! 'm +1 7un.$ B.(. ?ale 6=<= (sst. Se retary of State for 3ast (sian and Pa ifi (ffairs ,6=>876=>=-

9enr$ 51 6uce B.(. ?ale 6=45 3ditor7in7Chief of Time magaCine ,6=4<76=>8-

9enr$ Jo(n 9e n* 00 B.(. ?ale 6=<6 Chairman of +.". +einC Co. ,6=F=76=@A-

Jo(n 91 ;(',ee B.(. ?ale 6=8A Se retary of the Navy ,6=>=76=A4-

+otter Ste-'rt B.(. ?ale 6=<A "usti e of the %.S. Su0reme Court ,6=F@76=@6-

;('r!e# &1 Spo,,or. B.(. ?ale 6=48 .em)er of Davis, Polk K Ward!ell Dla! firmE ,6=8576=F5, 6=F476=A<-

<(om'# /6u.2 A#(!e$ B.(. ?ale 6=8@ %.S. Congressman ,D72hio, 6=FF76=@6-

8 !! 'm S1 &oor(e'. Jr1 B.(. ?ale 6=8F %.S. Congressman ,D7Penn., 6=F=76=@6-

Jo(n S(erm'n ;ooper B.(. ?ale 6=4< %.S. Senator ,R7 $entu ky, 6=8>76=8=, 6=F476=FF, 6=F>76=A<-

Jon't('n 71 7 n"('m B.(. ?ale 6=<> %.S. Congressman ,D7Ne! ?ork, 6=>F76=@<-

:eor"e 9181 7u#( B.(. ?ale 6=8@ %.S. Congressman ,R7&e'as, 6=>A76=A6-

=1 5o!'n. 9'rr m'n B.(. ?ale 6=6A Chairman of (meri an Red Cross ,6=F876=A<-

8 !! 'm 31 7uc4!e$ Jr1 B.(. ?ale 6=F5 3ditor7in7Chief of %ational &e!iew magaCine ,6=FF76==5-

8 !! 'm S1 ;o,, n Jr1 B.(. ?ale 6=8= Cha0lain of ?ale %niversity ,6=F@76=A>-

7'rr$ >ort( 'n B.(. ?ale 6=86 Dire tor of the "oint %.S. Pu)li (ffairs 2ffi e in Saigon ,6=>876=>@-

Jo(n 3orbe# ?err$ B.(. ?ale 6=>> (nti7Vietnam War Protester and #ormer %.S. Navy 2ffi er

>We need four or five 3itlers in Vietnam.? 6 Gen0 guyen Cao Ky

&he &om), offi ial head;uarters of &he 2rder of Skull K Bones, is lo ated at ?ale %niversity on +igh Street in Ne! +aven, Conne ti ut, %.S.(.

?ale %niversity in Ne! +aven, Conne ti ut, %.S.(.

Hem#ers of S4ull & *ones during the Vietnam <ar
Lyndon B. "ohnson (dministration ,6=><76=>=. /eorge Bundy ,SKB 6=85- O National Se urity (dvisor ,6=>676=>>William P. Bundy ,SKB 6=<=- O (ssistant Se retary of Defense for :nternational Se urity (ffairs ,6=><76=>8-9 (ssistant Se retary of State for 3ast (sian and Pa ifi (ffairs ,6=>876=>=W. (verell +arriman ,SKB 6=6<- O %nder Se retary of State for Politi al (ffairs ,6=><76=>F-9 (m)assador at Large ,6=>F76=>=-9 %.S. Negotiator at the Paris Pea e Conferen e on Vietnam ,6=>@76=>=&o!nsend +oo0es ,SKB 6=88- O %nder Se retary of the (ir #or e ,6=>A76=>=Peter 2. (. Sol)ert ,SKB 6=86- O De0uty (ssistant Se retary of Defense for :nternational Se urity (ffairs ,6=><76=>FRi hard C. Steadman ,SKB 6=FF- O De0uty (ssistant Se retary of Defense for 3ast (sia and Pa ifi (ffairs ,6=>>76=>=/as0ard dG(ndelot Belin ,SKB 6=<=- O /eneral Counsel of the %.S. De0artment of the &reasury ,6=>476=>FWilliam +. 2rri k "r. ,SKB 6=<A- O (ssistant %.S. (ttorney /eneral for (ntitrust Division ,6=><76=>F+arold +o!e :: ,SKB 6=85- O %.S. Commissioner of 3du ation ,6=>F76=>@"ames ". Wads!orth ,SKB 6=4A- O .em)er of #ederal Communi ations Commission ,6=>F76=>=David Cam0ion ( heson ,SKB 6=8<- O %.S. (ttorney for the Distri t of Colum)ia ,6=>676=>F-9 S0e ial (ssistant to the Se retary of the &reasury ,6=>F76=>A"onathan B. Bingham ,SKB 6=<>- O %.S. Re0resentative to the %nited Nations 3 onomi and So ial Coun il ,6=><76=>8Barry Morthian ,SKB 6=86- O Chief %.S. S0okesman and Dire tor of the "oint %.S. Pu)li (ffairs 2ffi e in Saigon ,6=>876=>@Ni'on (dministration ,6=>=76=A8/eorge +.W. Bush ,SKB 6=8@- O %.S. Re0resentative to the %nited Nations ,6=A676=A<Charles S. Whitehouse ,SKB 6=8A- O %.S. (m)assador to Laos ,6=A<76=AF-9 De0uty (m)assador to South Vietnam ,6=A476=A<"ohn +. Chafee ,SKB 6=8A- O Se retary of the Navy ,6=>=76=A4Winston Lord ,SKB 6=F=- O Dire tor of State De0artment Poli y Planning Staff ,6=A<76=AAWilliam +. Donaldson ,SKB 6=F<- O %nder Se retary of State for Se urity (ssistan e ,6=A<76=A8Raymond $. Pri e "r. ,SKB 6=F6- O S0e ial (ssistant to the President ,6=>=-9 S0e ial Consultant to the President ,6=A8"onathan C. Rose ,SKB 6=><- O S0e ial (ssistant to the President ,6=A576=A4-9 /eneral Counsel of Coun il on :nternational 3 onomi Poli y ,6=A476=A8David DeWitt Domini k ,SKB 6=>5- O Commissioner of #ederal Water Puality (dministration DDe0t. of the :nteriorE ,6=>=76=A6-9 (ssistant 3nvironmental Prote tion (gen y (dministrator for +aCardous .aterials Control ,6=A676=A<Ri hard (nthony .oore ,SKB 6=<>- O S0e ial Counsel to the President of the %nited States ,6=A676=A8Politi ians and "udges Potter Ste!art ,SKB 6=<A- O (sso iate "usti e of the %.S. Su0reme Court ,6=F@76=@6"ohn Sherman Coo0er ,SKB 6=4<, Re0u)li an Party7$entu ky- O %.S. Senator ,6=8>76=8=9 6=F476=FF9 6=F>76=A<"ames L. Bu kley ,SKB 6=88, Conservative Party7Ne! ?ork- O %.S. Senator ,6=A676=AA&homas William Ludlo! ILudJ (shley ,SKB 6=8@, Demo rati Party72hio- O %.S. Congressman ,6=FF76=@6William S. .oorhead "r. ,SKB 6=8F, Demo rati Party7Pennsylvania- O %.S. Congressman ,6=F=76=@6"onathan Bre!ster Bingham ,SKB 6=<>, Demo rati Party7Ne! ?ork- O %.S. Congressman ,6=>F76=@</eorge +.W. Bush ,SKB 6=8@, Re0u)li an Party7&e'as- O %.S. Congressman ,6=>A76=A67u# ne##men 'n. =@ecut ve# . /eorge Bundy ,SKB 6=85- O President of #ord #oundation ,6=>>76=A=+arold +o!e :: ,SKB 6=85- O Vi e President of #ord #oundation ,6=A676=@6+enry R. Lu e ,SKB 6=45- O 3ditor7in7Chief of &ime, :n . ,6=4<76=>8-9 founder of Time, Life, and 'ortune magaCines William #. Bu kley, "r. ,SKB 6=F5- O 3ditor7in7Chief of %ational &e!iew magaCine ,6=FF76==5Barry Morthian ,B.(. 6=869 SKB 6=86- O Vi e President of &ime, :n . ,6=>=76=A=William Sloane Coffin "r. ,SKB 6=8=- O Cha0lain of ?ale %niversity ,6=F@76=A>"ose0h Ri hardson Dil!orth ,SKB 6=<@- O Chairman of the )oard of Ro kefeller Center, :n . ,6=>>76=@4+enry "ohn +einC :: ,SKB 6=<6- O Chairman of the )oard of +.". +einC Com0any ,6=F=76=@A/eorge +er)ert Walker "r. ,B.(. 6=4A, SKB 6=4A- O Partner of /.+. Walker K Co. Dinvestment om0anyE ,6=4=76=A8Charles .. S0offord ,SKB 6=48- O .em)er of Davis, Polk K Ward!ell Dla! firm in Ne! ?ork CityE ,6=8576=F5, 6=F476=A<3d!ard Rogers Ward!ell ,SKB 6=4A- O .em)er of Davis, Polk K Ward!ell Dla! firm in Ne! ?ork CityE ,6=8>7 .6=A4Peter 2.(. Sol)ert ,SKB 6=86- O Partner of Davis, Polk K Ward!ell Dla! firm in Ne! ?ork CityE ,6=FA76=@=William 3ldred "a kson ,SKB 6=86- O Partner of .il)ank, &!eed, +adley K . Cloy Dla! firm in Ne! ?ork CityE ,6=F876==="ohn Baker "essu0 ,SKB 6=84- O Partner of Winthro0, Stimson, Putnam K Ro)erts Dla! firm in Ne! ?ork CityE ,6=F=76==<3ndi ott Pea)ody Davison ,SKB 6=8F- O Partner of Winthro0, Stimson, Putnam K Ro)erts Dla! firm in Ne! ?ork CityE ,6=F=76=@5+arold +. +ealy "r. ,SKB 6=8<- O Partner of De)evoise K Plim0ton Dla! firm in Ne! ?ork CityE ,6=F=76=@=+'rtner# o, 7ro-n 7rot(er# 9'rr m'n A ;o1 ( ntern't on'! b'n4 n Ne- Bor4 ; t$) W. (verell +arriman ,SKB 6=6<- O Partner ,6=<676=8>-9 Limited Partner ,6=8>76=@>3. Roland +arriman ,SKB 6=6A- O Partner ,6=<676=A@-9 Chairman of (meri an Red Cross ,6=F876=A<Pres ott S. Bush ,SKB 6=6A- O Partner ,6=<676=A4-9 %.S. Senator ,6=F476=><$night Woolley ,SKB 6=6A- O Partner ,6=<676=@4Ro)ert (. Lovett ,SKB 6=6@- O Partner ,6=<676=85, 6=8>76=8A, 6=8=76=F5, 6=F<76=@>-9 Se retary of Defense ,6=F676=F<Ste0hen ?. +ord ,SKB 6=46- O Partner ,6=8F76=@6/ranger $. Costikyan ,SKB 6=4=- O Partner ,6=>=76==@"ohn Be k!ith .adden ,SKB 6=86- O Partner ,6=FF76=@@Walter +. Bro!n ,SKB 6=8FW- O Partner ,6=>@7L-

War Criminals or Damn Yankees?
B'!e Cn ver# t$ :r'.u'te# A ;ounc ! on 3ore "n 5e!'t on# &ember# .ur n" t(e D etn'm 8'r

8'!t 81 5o#toB.(. ?ale 6=<> National Se urity (dvisor ,6=>>76=>=-

St'n!e$ 51 5e#or B.(. ?ale 6=<= Se retary of the (rmy ,6=>F76=A6-

=!!#-ort( 7un4er B.(. ?ale 6=6> %.S. (m)assador to South Vietnam ,6=>A76=A<-

8 !! 'm &c;1 &'rt n Jr1 B.(. ?ale 6=4@ Chairman of the #ederal Reserve ,6=F676=A5-

A!,re. 9'$e# B.(. ?ale 6=<5 President of the #ederal Reserve Bank of Ne! ?ork ,6=F>76=AF-

&c:eor"e 7un.$ B.(. ?ale 6=85 National Se urity (dvisor ,6=>676=>>-9 President of #ord #oundation ,6=>>76=A=-

8 !! 'm +1 7un.$ B.(. ?ale 6=<= (sst. Se retary of State for 3ast (sian and Pa ifi (ffairs ,6=>876=>=-

81 Avere!! 9'rr m'n B.(. ?ale 6=6< %.S. Negotiator at the Paris Pea e Conferen e on Vietnam ,6=>@76=>=-

=1 5o!'n. 9'rr m'n B.(. ?ale 6=6A Chairman of (meri an Red Cross ,6=F876=A<-

9enr$ 51 6uce B.(. ?ale 6=45 3ditor7in7Chief of Time magaCine ,6=4<76=>8-

Jo(n S(erm'n ;ooper B.(. ?ale 6=4< %.S. Senator ,R7$entu ky, 6=8>76=8=, 6=F476=FF, 6=F>76=A<-

;('r!e# &1 Spo,,or. B.(. ?ale 6=48 .em)er of Davis, Polk K Ward!ell Dla! firmE ,6=857 6=F5, 6=F476=A<-

<o-n#en. 81 9oope# B.(. ?ale 6=88 %nder Se retary of the (ir #or e ,6=>A76=>=-

?n "(t 8oo!!e$ B.(. ?ale 6=6A Partner of Bro!n Brothers +arriman K Co. D)ankE ,6=<676=@4-

9enr$ Jo(n 9e n* 00 B.(. ?ale 6=<6 Chairman of the )oard of +.". +einC Com0any ,6=F=76=@A-

81 Stu'rt S$m n"ton B.(. ?ale 6=4< %.S. Senator ,D7.issouri, 6=F<76=A>-

;$ru# 51 D'nce B.(. ?ale 6=<= De0uty Se retary of Defense ,6=>876=>A-

? n"m'n 7re-#ter Jr1 B.(. ?ale 6=86 President of ?ale %niversity ,6=><76=AA-

:eor"e S1 &oore B.S. ?ale 6=4A Chairman of the )oard of #irst National City Bank of Ne! ?ork ,6=>A76=A5-

J1 0r- n & !!er B.(. ?ale 6=<6 Chairman of the )oard of Cummins 3ngine Co. ,6=F676=AA-

)t(er +rom nent B'!e Cn ver# t$ :r'.u'te#

Chester Bo!les B.(. ?ale 6=48 %.S. (m)assador to :ndia ,6=F676=F<, 6=><76=>=-

Winthro0 /. Bro!n B.(. ?ale 6=4= %.S. (m)assador to Laos ,6=>476=>8-9 %.S. (m)assador to South $orea ,6=>876=>A-

R. Sargent Shriver "r. B.(. ?ale 6=<@ %.S. (m)assador to #ran e ,6=>@76=A5-

.arshall /reen B.(. ?ale 6=<= %.S. (m)assador to :ndonesia ,6=>F76=>=-

Charles S. Whitehouse B.(. ?ale 6=8A %.S. (m)assador to Laos ,6=A<76=AF-

"ohn +. Chafee B.(. ?ale 6=8A Se retary of the Navy ,6=>=76=A4-

"ohn V. Lindsay B.(. ?ale 6=88 .ayor of Ne! ?ork City ,6=>>76=A<-

Douglas .a (rthur :: B.(. ?ale 6=<6 %.S. (m)assador to (ustria ,6=>A76=>=-9 %.S. (m)assador to :ran ,6=>=76=A4-

3ugene V. Rosto! B.(. ?ale 6=<< %nder Se retary of State for Politi al (ffairs ,6=>>76=>=-

/eorge +.W. Bush B.(. ?ale 6=8@ %.S. Congressman ,R7&e'as, 6=>A76=A6-

Phili0 L. /eyelin B.(. ?ale 6=88 3ditorial Page 3ditor of The Washin#ton Post ,6=>@76=A=-

Ri hard .. Bissell "r. B.(. ?ale 6=<4 De0uty C:( Dire tor for Plans ,6=F=76=>4-

Cord .eyer "r. B.(. ?ale 6=8< (ssistant De0uty C:( Dire tor of Plans ,6=>A76=A<-

"ames "esus (ngleton B.(. ?ale 6=86 Chief of C:( Counterintelligen e Staff ,6=F876=A8-

"ohn $. "essu0 B.(. ?ale 6=4@ Chief 3ditorial Writer of Life magaCine ,6=F676=>=-

+arold +o!e :: B.(. ?ale 6=85 %.S. Commissioner of 3du ation ,6=>F76=>@-

Caryl P. +askins Ph.B. ?ale 6=<5 President of Carnegie :nstitution of Washington ,6=F>76=A6-

Dean /. ( heson B.(. ?ale 6=6F .em)er of Covington K Burling Dla! firmE ,6=F<76=A6-

Ros!ell L. /il0atri B.(. ?ale 6=4@ Partner of Cravath, S!aine K .oore Dla! firmE ,6=F<76=>6, 6=>876=AA-

Lloyd N. Cutler B.(. ?ale 6=<> Partner of Wilmer Cutler Pi kering ,6=>476=A=, 6=@676==5-

"ames S. Ro kefeller B.(. ?ale 6=48 Chairman of National City Bank of Ne! ?ork ,Citi)ank- ,6=F=76=>A-

Ni holas #. Brady B.(. ?ale 6=F4 Vi e President of Dillon, Read K Co. ,6=>676=A6-

"ose0h #. Cullman ::: B.(. ?ale 6=<F Chairman of the )oard and C32 of Phili0 .orris Com0any ,6=>A76=A@-

". Ri hardson Dil!orth B.(. ?ale 6=<@ Chairman of the )oard of Ro kefeller Center, :n . ,6=>>76=@4-

"uan &erry &ri00e Ph.B. ?ale 6=46 Chairman and C32 of Pan (meri an World (ir!ays, :n . ,6=>876=>@-

&hruston B. .orton B.(. ?ale 6=4= %.S. Senator ,Re0u)li an7$entu ky, 6=FA76=>@-9 )rother of Rogers C.B. .orton

Rogers C.B. .orton B.(. ?ale 6=<A %.S. Congressman ,Re0u)li an7.aryland, 6=><76=A6-

Peter +. Domini k B.(. ?ale 6=<A %.S. Senator ,Re0u)li an7Colorado, 6=><76=AF-

William Pro'mire B.(. ?ale 6=<@ %.S. Senator ,Demo rat7Wis onsin, 6=FA76=@=-

Ro)ert &aft, "r. B.(. ?ale 6=<= %.S. Congressman ,Re0u)li an72hio, 6=><7 6=>F, 6=>A76=A6-

"onathan B. Bingham B.(. ?ale 6=<> %.S. Congressman ,Demo rat7Ne! ?ork, 6=>F76=@<-

&homas ILudJ (shley B.(. ?ale 6=8@ %.S. Congressman ,Demo rat72hio, 6=FF76=@6-

William S. .ailliard B.(. ?ale 6=<= %.S. Congressman ,Re0u)li an7California, 6=F<76=A8-

William S. .oorhead "r. B.(. ?ale 6=8F %.S. Congressman ,Demo rat7Pennsylvania, 6=F=76=@6-

Donald "ay :r!in B.(. ?ale 6=F6 %.S. Congressman ,Demo rat7Conne ti ut, 6=F=76=>6, 6=>F76=>=-

Bayless .anning B.(. ?ale 6=8< Dean of Stanford La! S hool ,6=>876=A6-

(,rthur- Doak Barnett B.(. ?ale 6=84 Professor of Politi al S ien e at Colum)ia %niversity ,6=>676=>=-

William W. S ranton B.(. ?ale 6=<= /overnor of Pennsylvania ,6=><76=>A-

William /ra!n .illiken B.(. ?ale 6=8> /overnor of .i higan ,6=>=76=@<-9 Lieutenant /overnor of .i higan ,6=>F76=>=-

Ri hard B. 2gilvie B.(. ?ale 6=8A /overnor of :llinois ,6=>=76=A<-9 Sheriff of Cook County, :llinois ,6=><76=>A-

?ale %niversity /raduates and &heir 2

u0ation during the Vietnam War ,6=>876=A<-

/overnment 2ffi ials* Q3lls!orth Bunker ,B.(. 6=6>- O %.S. (m)assador to South Vietnam ,(0ril 4@, 6=>A7.ay 66, 6=A<QStanley R. Resor ,B.(. 6=<=, LL.B. 6=8>, SK$ 6=<=- O Se retary of the (rmy ,"uly 4, 6=>F7"une <5, 6=A6QWalt W. Rosto! ,B.(. 6=<>, Ph.D. 6=85- O National Se urity (dvisor ,6=>>76=>=-9 Counselor of the State De0artment ,6=>676=>>QW. (verell +arriman ,B.(. 6=6<9 SKB 6=6<- O %.S. Negotiator at the Paris Pea e Conferen e on Vietnam ,6=>@76=>=-9 %nder Se retary of State for Politi al (ffairs ,6=><76=>F-9 (m)assador at Large ,6=>F76=>=QCyrus R. Van e ,B.(. 6=<=9 LL.B. 6=84, SK$ 6=<=- O %.S. Negotiator at the Paris Pea e Conferen e on Vietnam ,6=>@76=>=-9 De0uty Se retary of Defense ,6=>876=>A-9 Se retary of the (rmy ,6=>476=>8QWilliam P. Bundy ,B.(. 6=<=9 SKB 6=<=- O (ssistant Se retary of State for 3ast (sian and Pa ifi (ffairs ,6=>F76=>=-9 (ssistant Se retary of Defense for :nternational Se urity (ffairs ,6=><76=>8-9 C:( agent ,6=F676=>6Q3ugene V. Rosto! ,B.(. 6=<<- O %nder Se retary of State for Politi al (ffairs ,6=>>76=>=&haddeus R. Beal "r. ,B.(. 6=<=, SK$ 6=<=- O %nder Se retary of the (rmy ,6=>=76=A6-9 President of +arvard &rust Co. DBostonE ,6=FA76=>=QPaul C. Warnke ,B.(. 6=86- O (ssistant Se retary of Defense for :nternational Se urity (ffairs ,6=>A76=>=3ugene .. Mu kert ,B.(. 6=<<, LL.B. 6=<A- O Se retary of the (ir #or e ,"anuary 4<, 6=>67Se0tem)er <5, 6=>F-9 Partner of Mu kert, S outt K Rasen)urger Dla! firm in Washington, D.C.E ,6=>A76=@@QNorman S. Paul ,B.(. 6=85- O %nder Se retary of the (ir #or e ,6=>F76=>A-9 C:( agent ,6=FF76=>5Q&o!nsend +oo0es ,B.(. 6=889 SKB 6=88- O %nder Se retary of the (ir #or e ,6=>A76=>="ohn .. Steadman ,B.(. 6=F4, SKB 6=F4- O /eneral Counsel of the De0artment of the (ir #or e ,6=>@76=A5-9 S0e ial (ssistant to the Se retary of Defense ,6=>F76=>@Q"ohn +. Chafee ,B.(. 6=8A9 SKB 6=8A- O Se retary of the Navy ,"anuary <6, 6=>=7.ay 8, 6=A4-9 /overnor of Rhode :sland ,6=><76=>="ames "esus (ngleton ,B.(. 6=86- O Chief of C:( Counterintelligen e Staff ,6=F876=A8+ugh &erry Cunningham ,B.(. 6=<8, SKB 6=<8- O Dire tor of &raining at the Central :ntelligen e (gen y ,6=>=76=A<QPorter ". /oss ,B.(. 6=>5- O C:( landestine servi es offi er ,6=>476=A6QCord .eyer "r. ,B.(. 6=8<- O (ssistant De0uty C:( Dire tor of Plans ,6=>A76=A<Sherman $ent ,Ph.B. 6=4>, Ph.D. 6=<<- O (ssistant Dire tor of Central :ntelligen e (gen y ,6=F576=>A3l)ridge Dur)ro! ,Ph.B. 6=4>- O %.S. (m)assador to South Vietnam ,6=FA76=>6/eorge . .urtrie /odley ,B.(. 6=<=- O %.S. (m)assador to Laos ,6=>=76=A<-9 De0uty (ssistant Se retary of State for 3ast (sian and Pa ifi (ffairs ,6=>@76=>=QCharles S. Whitehouse ,B.(. 6=8A9 SKB 6=8A- O %.S. (m)assador to Laos ,6=A<76=AF-9 %.S. (m)assador to &hailand ,6=AF76=A@.arshall /reen ,B.(. 6=<=- O %.S. (m)assador to :ndonesia ,6=>F76=>=-9 (ssistant Se retary of State for 3ast (sian and Pa ifi (ffairs ,6=>=76=A<-9 %.S. Consul7/eneral in +ong $ong ,6=>676=><-9 De0uty (ssistant Se retary of State for #ar 3astern (ffairs ,6=><76=>FQDouglas .a (rthur :: ,B.(. 6=<6- O (ssistant Se retary of State for Congressional Relations ,6=>F76=>A-9 %.S. (m)assador to (ustria ,6=>A7 6=>=-9 %.S. (m)assador to :ran ,6=>=76=A4QWilliam B. .a om)er "r. ,B.(. 6=8<- O (sst. Se . of State for Congressional Relations ,6=>A76=>=-9 %.S. (m)assador to &urkey ,6=A<76=AAQChester Bo!les ,B.(. 6=48- O %.S. (m)assador to :ndia ,6=><76=>=$enneth #ranCheim :: ,B.(. 6=8@- O %.S. (m)assador to Ne! Mealand ,6=>=76=A4QWinthro0 /. Bro!n ,B.(. 6=4=9 LL.B. 6=<4, SK$ 6=4=- O %.S. (m)assador to South $orea ,(ugust 68, 6=>87"une 65, 6=>A-9 %.S. (m)assador to Laos ,6=>476=>8-9 De0uty (ssistant Se retary of State for 3ast (sian and Pa ifi (ffairs ,6=>@76=A4QR. Sargent Shriver "r. ,B.(. 6=<@9 LL.B. 6=869 SK$ 6=<@- O %.S. (m)assador to #ran e ,.ay 4F, 6=>@7.ar h 4F, 6=A5-9 Dire tor of Pea e Cor0s ,6=>676=>>Raymond Ri hard /uest ,B.(. 6=<6, SK$ 6=<6- O %.S. (m)assador to :reland ,(0ril 4@, 6=>F7"une A, 6=>@S0en er .athe!s $ing ,B.(. 6=85- O %.S. (m)assador to /uyana ,6=>=76=A8-9 De0uty :ns0e tor /eneral of %.S. De0t. of State ,6=>876=>=Q&homas 2. 3nders ,B.(. 6=F<, SK$ 6=F<- O De0uty Chief of .ission to Cam)odia ,6=A676=A<-9 Charge dG(ffaires of Cam)odia ,6=A<76=A8Ro)ert #. Wagner "r. ,B.(. 6=<<, SK$ 6=<<- O %.S. (m)assador to S0ain ,"uly 8, 6=>@7.ar h A, 6=>=-9 .ayor of Ne! ?ork City ,6=F876=>F". /raham Parsons ,B.(. 6=4=- O %.S. (m)assador to S!eden ,6=>676=>A-9 Senior #oreign Servi e :ns0e tor, %.S. State De0t. ,6=>A76=>=(l)ert William Sherer, "r. ,B.(. 6=<@- O %.S. (m)assador to &ogo ,6=>A76=A5+omer .. Byington, "r. ,B.(. 6=<5- O %.S. (m)assador to .alaya D.alaysiaE ,6=FA76=>6-9 %.S. Consul /eneral in Na0les, :taly ,6=>47 .6=A4Q"ose0h N. /reene "r. ,B.(. 6=86- O De0uty Chief of .ission at the %.S. 3m)assy in Ne! Delhi, :ndia ,6=><76=>@-9 De0uty Chief of .ission at the %.S. 3m)assy in London, /reat Britain ,6=A576=A6Ri hard /aron "ohnson ,B.(. 6=8>- O De0uty Chief of .ission at the %.S. 3m)assy in Sofia, Bulgaria ,6=>A76=A5David Cameron Cuthell ,B.(. 6=84- O De0uty Chief of .ission at the %.S. 3m)assy in (nkara, &urkey ,6=A576=A4Steuart L. Pittman ,B.(. 6=86- O (ssistant Se retary of Defense for Civil Defense ,6=>676=>8QRi hard C. Steadman ,B.(. 6=FF, SKB 6=FF- O De0uty (ssistant Se retary of Defense for 3ast (sian and Pa ifi (ffairs ,6=>>76=>=Q+e!son (. Ryan ,B.(. 6=8>- O De0uty Dire tor of %.S. :nformation (gen y ,6=>>76=>=-9 %.S. (m)assador to +onduras ,6=>=76=A<Q"ames ". Wads!orth ,B.(. 6=4A9 SKB 6=4A- O .em)er of #ederal Communi ations Commission ,6=>F76=>=(rthur "oy Dra0er ,B.(. 6=<A, SKB 6=<A- O Chief of .edi ine at %.S. Naval +os0ital in 2akland ,6=>676=>>Q"ohn .. Cates "r. ,B.(. 6=<>, ".D. 6=<=- O Counselor of the %.S. .ission to the %nited Nations ,6=><76=A5QWilliam ". "orden ,B.(. 6=8A- O Senior .em)er of the National Se urity Coun il staff ,6=>>76=>@, 6=A476=A8-9 mem)er of the (meri an delegation to the Vietnam Pea e &alks in Paris ,6=>@76=>=QLa!ren e C. . Puade ,B.(. 6=F5- O (ssistant Se retary of Commer e ,6=>A76=>=-9 President and C32 of Pro on :n or0orated ,6=>=76=AFQWinston Lord ,B.(. 6=F=, SKB 6=F=- O .em)er of the National Se urity Coun il staff ,6=>=76=A<-9 .em)er of the Poli y Planning Staff in :nternational Se urity (ffairs at the %.S. De0artment of Defense ,6=>A76=>=Q"ohn D. Negro0onte ,B.(. 6=>5- O Se ond Se retary at the %.S. 3m)assy in Saigon, South Vietnam ,6=>876=>@-9 .em)er of the National Se urity Coun il staff ,6=A576=A<-9 .em)er of the (meri an Delegation to the Vietnam Pea e &alks in Paris ,6=>@76=>=William Co!les +amilton ,B.(. 6=8A, ..(. 6=8=, Ph.D. 6=FF- O De0uty Dire tor for #ar 3ast Region, :nternational Se urity (ffairs, %.S. De0artment of Defense ,6=>876=>>-9 Country Dire tor for Laos, %.S. De0artment of State ,6=>>76=>A-9 Counselor for Politi al (ffairs at %.S. 3m)assy in Bangkok, &hailand ,6=>A76=A5-9 .inister at the %.S. 3m)assy in .anila, Phili00ines ,6=A676=A<+arry 3.&. &hayer ,B.(. 6=F6- O De0uty Dire tor of the 2ffi e of (sian Communist (ffairs at the %.S. State De0artment ,6=>@76=A5-9 De0uty Prin i0al Counselor to the %.S. .ission to the %nited Nations ,6=A676=AF-9 Dire tor of the 2ffi e of the Peo0leGs Re0u)li of China and .ongolia (ffairs at the %.S. State De0artment ,6=A>76=A=-

.ark B. Le!is ,B.(. 6=8A- O Chairman of &elevision &ask #or e, %.S. :nformation (gen y ,6=>=76=A5QWilliam .atson Roth ,B.(. 6=<=- O S0e ial Re0resentative for &rade Negotiations ,6=>A76=>=-9 De0uty S0e ial Re0resentative for &rade Negotiations ,6=><76=>>QWilliam S. /aud ,B.(. 6=4=, LL.B. 6=<6- O (dministrator of %.S. (gen y for :nternational Develo0ment ,6=>>76=>=Leonard Story Martman ,B.(. 6=8@- O S0e ial (ssistant to the President of the %nited States ,6=>=-9 /eneral Counsel of Small Business (dministration ,6=>=76=A5-9 Se retary of 3astman $odak Co. D0hotogra0hyE ,6=A<7 .6=@5-9 (ttorney of 3astman $odak Co. ,6=>876=>@"ames Pomeroy +endri k ,B.(. 6=4<- O De0uty (ssistant Se retary of the &reasury ,6=>476=>=-9 Vi e President of :N&3RP2L ,6=>@76=>=Q"ohn Sherman Coo0er ,B.(. 6=4<9 SKB 6=4<- O %.S. Senator ,Re0u)li an7$entu ky, 6=8>76=8=9 6=F476=FF9 6=F>76=A<QW. Stuart Symington ,B.(. 6=4<- O %.S. Senator ,Demo rat7.issouri, 6=F<76=A>&hruston B. .orton ,B.(. 6=4=- O %.S. Senator ,Re0u)li an7$entu ky, "anuary <, 6=FA7De em)er 6>, 6=>@William Pro'mire ,B.(. 6=<@- O %.S. Senator ,Demo rat7Wis onsin, 6=FA76=@=Peter +. Domini k ,B.(. 6=<A, SK$ 6=<A- O %.S. Senator ,Re0u)li an7Colorado, 6=><76=AFQ"ames L. Bu kley ,B.(. 6=88, LL.B. 6=8=, SKB 6=88- O %.S. Senator ,Conservative Party7Ne! ?ork, 6=A676=AA"ohn /. Beall "r. ,B.(. 6=F5- O %.S. Senator ,Re0u)li an7.aryland, 6=A676=AA-9 %.S. Congressman ,Re0u)li an7.aryland, 6=>=76=A6QLo!ell P. Wei ker ,B.(. 6=F<- O %.S. Senator ,Re0u)li an7Conne ti ut, 6=A676=@=-9 %.S. Congressman ,R7Conne ti ut, 6=>=76=A6"ohn V. &unney ,B.(. 6=F>- O %.S. Senator ,Demo rat7California, 6=A676=AA-9 %.S. Congressman ,Demo rat7California, 6=>F76=A6Ro)ert &aft, "r. ,B.(. 6=<=- O %.S. Senator ,Re0u)li an72hio, 6=A676=A>-9 %.S. Congressman ,Re0u)li an72hio, 6=><76=>F, 6=>A76=A6"ohn "arman ,B.(. 6=<A- O %.S. Congressman ,Demo rat1Re0u)li an72klahoma, 6=F676=AAWilliam S. .ailliard ,B.(. 6=<=- O %.S. Congressman ,Re0u)li an7California, 6=F<76=A8&homas William Ludlo! ILudJ (shley ,B.(. 6=8@, SKB 6=8@- O %.S. Congressman ,Demo rat72hio, 6=FF76=@6William S. .oorhead "r. ,B.(. 6=8F, SKB 6=8F- O %.S. Congressman ,Demo rat7Pennsylvania, 6=F=76=@6Donald "ay :r!in ,B.(. 6=F6, LL.B. 6=F8- O %.S. Congressman ,D7Conn., 6=F=76=>6, 6=>F76=>=-9 .ayor of Nor!alk, Conne ti ut ,6=A676=AFRogers C.B. .orton ,B.(. 6=<A- O %.S. Congressman ,Re0u)li an7.aryland, 6=><76=A6-9 %.S. Se retary of the :nterior ,6=A676=AFQ2gden Rogers Reid ,B.(. 6=8=- O %.S. Congressman ,Re0u)li an1Demo rat7Ne! ?ork, 6=><76=AFQ"onathan Bre!ster Bingham ,B.(. 6=<>, SKB 6=<>- O %.S. Congressman ,Demo rat7Ne! ?ork, 6=>F76=@<Phili0 3d!ard Ru00e ,B.(. 6=8@- O %.S. Congressman ,Re0u)li an7.i higan, 6=>A76=A=Q/eorge +.W. Bush ,B.(. 6=8@9 SKB 6=8@- O %.S. Congressman ,R7&e'as, 6=>A76=A6-9 %.S. Re0resentative to %nited Nations ,6=A676=A<"ames Wads!orth Symington ,B.(. 6=F5- O %.S. Congressman ,Demo rat7.issouri, 6=>=76=AA-9 Chief of Proto ol for White +ouse ,6=>>7>@Ro)ert La!ren e Coughlin ,B.(. 6=F5- O %.S. Congressman ,Re0u)li an7Pennsylvania, 6=>=76==<-9 Pennsylvania State Senator ,6=>A76=>=Q+enry "ohn +einC ::: ,B.(. 6=>5- O %.S. Congressman ,Re0u)li an7Pennsylvania, 6=A676=AAQLeslie ,Les- (s0in ,B.(. 6=>5- O %.S. Congressman ,Demo rat7Wis onsin, 6=A676==<Potter Ste!art ,B.(. 6=<A, LL.B. 6=86, SKB 6=<A- O "usti e of the %.S. Su0reme Court ,6=F@76=@6"ohn "ose0h Smith ,B.(. 6=4F, LL.B. 6=4A- O "udge of the %.S. Court of (00eals for the Se ond Cir uit ,6=>576=A6Ro)ert P. (nderson ,B.(. 6=4A- O "udge of the %.S. Court of (00eals for the Se ond Cir uit ,6=>876=A6/erhard (. /esell ,B.(. 6=<4- O "udge of the %.S. Distri t Court for the Distri t of Colum)ia ,6=>A76==<Charles +enry &enney ,B.(. 6=<<, LL.B. 6=<>, SK$ 6=<<- O "udge of the %.S. Distri t Court for the Southern Distri t of Ne! ?ork ,6=><76=A=Ro)ert C. Mam0ano ,B.(. 6=F69 LL.B. 6=F8- O "udge of the %.S. Distri t Court for the Distri t of Conne ti ut ,6=>876=AA(le'ander +arvey :: ,B.(., 6=8A- O "udge of the %.S. Distri t Court for the Distri t of .aryland ,6=>>76==6+enry PutCel "r. ,B.(. 6=<F, LL.B. 6=<@- O %.S. Su0reme Court Re0orter of De isions ,6=>876=A=/il)ert Stroud .erritt "r. ,B.(. 6=FA- O %.S. (ttorney for the .iddle Distri t of &ennessee ,6=>>76=>=William Charles Lee ,B.(. 6=F=- O %.S. (ttorney for the Northern Distri t of :ndiana ,6=A576=A<William /ra!n .illiken ,B.(. 6=8>- O /overnor of .i higan ,6=>=76=@<-9 Lieutenant /overnor of .i higan ,6=>F76=>=Ri hard B. 2gilvie ,B.(. 6=8A- O /overnor of :llinois ,6=>=76=A<-9 Sheriff of Cook County DChi agoE, :llinois ,6=><76=>AQWilliam W. S ranton ,B.(. 6=<=, ".D. 6=8>- O /overnor of Pennsylvania ,6=><76=>AQ"ohn V. Lindsay ,B.(. 6=88, SK$ 6=88- O .ayor of Ne! ?ork City ,6=>>76=A<Ro)ert W. S!eet ,B.(. 6=889 LL.B. 6=8@- O De0uty .ayor of Ne! ?ork City ,6=>>76=>=-9 Partner of Skadden, (r0s, Slate, .eagher K #lom Dla! firm in Ne! ?ork CityE ,6=A576=AAPete Wilson ,B.(. 6=F>- O .ayor of San Diego, California ,6=A676=@<-9 .em)er of the California (ssem)ly ,6=>>76=A6+o!ard S. Cullman ,B.(. 6=6<- O Chairman of Port of Ne! ?ork (uthority ,6=8F7FF-9 Commissioner of Port of Ne! ?ork (uthority ,6=4A76=A4Ne!ton :van Steers, "r. ,B.(. 6=<=9 ".D. 6=8@- O .aryland State :nsuran e Commissioner ,6=>A76=A53ri van Cortlandt Stevenson ,B.(. 6=8A9 LL.B. 6=F5- O /eneral Counsel of Pea e Cor0s ,6=>>76=>@Bankers* QWilliam . Chesney .artin "r. ,B.(. 6=4@- O Chairman of the #ederal Reserve ,(0ril 4, 6=F67"anuary <6, 6=A5Q(lfred +ayes ,B.(. 6=<5- O President of the #ederal Reserve Bank of Ne! ?ork ,(ugust 6, 6=F>7(ugust 6, 6=AF-9 Chairman of the 3 onomi Clu) of Ne! ?ork ,6=>F76=>>"ames Stillman Ro kefeller ,B.(. 6=48, SK$ 6=48- O Chairman of the )oard of National City Bank of Ne! ?ork DCiti)ankE ,6=F=76=>AQ/eorge S. .oore ,B.S. 6=4A- O Chairman of the )oard of National City Bank of Ne! ?ork DCiti)ankE ,6=>A76=A5Q+er)ert P. Patterson ,B.S. 6=8@- O 3'e utive Vi e President ,6=>F76=>=- and President ,6=>=76=A4- of Chase .anhattan Bank Pres ott S. Bush ,B.(. 6=6A9 SKB 6=6A- O Partner of Bro!n Brothers +arriman K Co. ,6=<676=A4-9 %.S. Senator ,6=F476=><Q$night Woolley ,B.(. 6=6A9 SKB 6=6A- O Partner of Bro!n Brothers +arriman K Co. ,6=<676=@4QRo)ert (. Lovett ,B.(. 6=6@, SKB 6=6@- O Partner of Bro!n Brothers +arriman K Co. ,6=F<76=@>-9 %.S. Se retary of Defense ,6=F676=F<Ste0hen ?. +ord ,B.(. 6=46, SKB 6=46- O Partner of Bro!n Brothers +arriman K Co. ,6=8F76=@6Q&homas . Can e ,B.(. 6=4F- O Partner of Bro!n Brothers +arriman K Co. ,6=8F76=A=.oreau Delano Bro!n ,B.(. 6=4>- O Partner of Bro!n Brothers +arriman K Co. ,6=<=76=A8"ohn Be k!ith .adden ,B.(. 6=86, SKB 6=86- O Partner of Bro!n Brothers +arriman K Co. ,6=FF76=@@QR.L. :reland ::: ,B.(. 6=84- O Partner of Bro!n Brothers +arriman K Co. ,6=>57 .6==8Ro)ert Lehman ,B.(. 6=6<- O Partner of Lehman Brothers ,6=4F76=>="ose0h (l)ert &homas ,B.(. 6=4@, SK$ 6=4@- O Partner of Lehman Brothers ,6=<A76=AAQ"ohn .. S hiff ,B.(. 6=4F- O Partner of $uhn, Loe) K Co. ,6=<676=AA-

Q(rthur /. (lts hul ,B.(. 6=8<- O Partner of /oldman, Sa hs K Co. ,6=F=76=AAQ/rinnell .orris ,B.(. 6=<4- O Vi e Chairman of Bank of Ne! ?ork ,6=>>76=>@-9 President of 3m0ire &rust Co. ,6=><76=>>Q"ohn :. +o!ell ,B.(. 6=<=- O former Chairman of the )oard of ". +enry S hroder Banking Cor0. Q(lfred Brittain ::: ,B.(. 6=8F- O President of BankerGs &rust Co. ,6=>>76=AFLe!is ())ot La0ham ,B.(. 6=<6, SKB 6=<6- O Vi e Chairman of Bankers &rust Co. ,6=>>76=A8QCharles 3d!in Lord ,B.(. 6=8=, SKB 6=8=- O Chairman of the )oard of (llied Bank :nternational ,6=>@76=A>Van e Van Dine ,B.(. 6=8=, SKB 6=8=- O Partner of .organ Stanley K Co. ,6=><76=AFDean Witter "r. ,B.(. 6=88, SKB 6=88- O Partner of Dean Witter K Co. ,6=8>76=A5QNi holas #. Brady ,B.(. 6=F4- O President and C32 of Dillon, Read K Co. ,6=A676=@4-9 Vi e President of Dillon, Read K Co. ,6=>676=A6QRi hard P. Cooley ,B.S. 6=88- O President and C32 of Wells #argo Bank ,6=>>76=A=William Redmond Cross "r. ,B.(. 6=86, SKB 6=86- O Senior Vi e President of .organ /uaranty &rust Co. ,6=>876=A<QRo)ert Van Cleef Lindsay ,B.(. 6=8=- O Vi e President ,6=>576=>=- and Senior Vi e President ,6=>=76=A>- of .organ /uaranty &rust Co. Q3van /. /al)raith ,B.(. 6=F59 SKB 6=F5- O Vi e President of .organ /uaranty &rust Co. ,6=>676=>=-9 Chairman of Bankers &rust :nternational ,6=>=76=AFQDaniel P. Davison ,B.(. 6=8=, SKB 6=8=- O Vi e President of .organ /uaranty &rust Co. ,6=>676=A<Charles Welles Buek ,B.(. 6=<<- O President ,6=>476=A8- and Chairman ,6=A876=A>- of %.S. &rust Co. of Ne! ?ork /eorge +arold Pfau "r. ,B.S. 6=8@, SKB 6=8@- O .em)er of White Weld K Co. :n . DSan #ran is o )ran hE ,6=FA76=A@Wil)ur Louis Ross "r. ,B.(. 6=F=- O President of #aulkner, Da!kins and Sullivan Se urities Cor0. DNe! ?ork CityE ,6=>876=A>Q+arry P. Barrand "r. ,B.(. 6=88- O 3'e utive Vi e President of )anking de0artment at .anufa turers +anover &rust Co. ,6=>>76=A5QRoger D. Stone ,B.(. 6=FF- O Vi e Pres. of :nternational De0t. at Chase .anhattan Bank ,6=A576=A8-9 (sst. to Pres. of &ime, :n . ,6=>@7A5Charles B. "ohnson ,B.(. 6=F8- O Chairman of the )oard of #ranklin Resour es, :n . Dno! alled #ranklin &em0leton :nvestmentsE ,6=>=70res."a ;ues Ral0h StunCi ,B.(. 6=84- O 3'e utive Vi e President of Continental Bank :nternational DNe! ?ork CityE ,6=>476=>@-9 Vi e Chairman of (llied Bank :nternational DNe! ?ork CityE ,6=>@76=A<Roger Conant Damon ,B.(. 6=4=- O Chairman and C32 of #irst National Bank of Boston ,6=>>76=A6-9 President of #irst National Bank of Boston ,6=F=76=>>-9 dire tor of Raytheon #rank Wells . Ca)e ,B.(. 6=4F- O Chairman of the )oard of National Commer ial Bank K &rust Co. D(l)any, Ne! ?orkE ,6=>876=A<3liot /. #it h ,B.(. 6=6@- O President of .arine National 3' hange Bank of .il!aukee ,6=8476==4#rederi (ugustus Potts ,B.(. 6=4>- O Chairman of the )oard of Philadel0hia National Bank ,6=>876=>=/ardner Domini k Stout ,B.(. 6=4>- O Partner of Domini k K Domini k Dinvestment firm in Ne! ?ork CityE ,6=4>76=>@QWilliam #rederi k .a hold ,Ph.B. 6=4A- O Partner of Dre'el K Co. Dinvestment )ank in Philadel0hiaE ,6=8=76=>>-9 Vi e President of Dre'el +arriman Ri0ley, :n . DPhiladel0hiaE ,6=>>76=A4Bradford (rnold Warner ,B.(. 6=<4- O Senior Vi e President of Belgian7(meri an Bank K &rust Co. ,6=>476=>@-9 Senior Vi e President of 3uro0ean7(meri an Bank K &rust Co. ,6=>@76=AFRi hard (m)ler Liggett ,Ph.B. 6=4F- O Chairman of the )oard of #irst National Bank of &am0a D#loridaE ,6=FF7 .6=A4Samuel &or)itt Castleman ,B.(. 6=8<- O Senior Vi e President Wa hovia Bank K &rust Co. DWinston7Salem, NCE ,6=F@76=>@-9 Senior Vi e President of (meri an Se urity K &rust Co. DWashington, D.C.E ,6=>@76=A63ugene +ale (dams ,B.(. 6=<8- O Class ( Dire tor of the #ederal Reserve Bank of $ansas City ,6=>876=>=-9 President of :nternational &rust Com0any DDenverE ,6=F676=F@-9 President ,6=F=76=A<- and Chairman ,6=A<76=AA- of the #irst National Bank of Denver 3d!ard Byron Smith ,B.(. 6=<4- O Class ( Dire tor of the #ederal Reserve Bank of Chi ago ,6=A576=AF-9 President of Northern &rust Com0any DChi agoE ,6=FA76=><-9 Chairman of the )oard of Northern &rust Com0any DChi agoE ,6=><76=A@"ames +enry +iggins ,B.(. 6=<=- O Vi e President ,6=F876=>F-, Senior Vi e President ,6=>F76=>@-, 3'e utive Vi e President ,6=>@76=A6-, President ,6=A676=A8-, and Chairman and C32 ,6=A876=@6- of .ellon National Bank K &rust Co. DPitts)urghE David "ames Lau) ,B.(. 6=<4- O President of .arine .idland &rust Co. D)ank in Buffalo, Ne! ?orkE ,6=>@76=A43verett Ware Smith ,B.S. 6=<>- O Senior Vi e President ,6=F=76=>8- and Vi e Chairman ,6=>876=>@- of Ne! 3ngland .er hants National Bank DBostonE "ohn 3d!ard Dri k ,B.S. 6=<8- O 3'e utive Vi e President ,6=>F76=>=- and President ,6=>=76=A8- of #irst National Bank of Chi ago Ro)ert "ames Le!is ,B.(. 6=46- O Partner of 3sta)rook K Co. DNe! ?ork CityE ,6=<676=>@-9 Limited Partner of Clark, Dodge K Co. ,6=>@7 6=A8-9 .em)er of the Board of /overnors of the Ne! ?ork Sto k 3' hange ,6=>576=>>Brooks Banker ,B.(. 6=F4, LL.B. +arvard 6=FA- O 3'e utive Vi e President ,6=>@76=A>-, Vi e President ,6=>>76=>@- and &reasurer ,6=>87 6=>>, 6=>@76=A4- of (meri an 3'0ress Com0any Pomeroy Day ,B.(. 6=4@9 LL.B. 6=<6- O Chairman of the )oard ,6=>>76=A5- and President ,6=>676=>>- of Conne ti ut Bank K &rust Co. 3d!ard . Crady /aillard ,B.(. 6=6=- O Chairman of the )oard of %nion K Ne! +aven &rust Co. ,6=><76=>@Donald Roderi k Welles ,B.(. 6=4A- O Senior Vi e President of Wilmington &rust Co. D)ank in Wilmington, Dela!areE ,6=F@76=>=3rnest Patton ,B.(. 6=45- O Chairman of the )oard of Peo0les National Bank D/reenville, South CarolinaE ,6=8@76=>=Burt Russell Shurly "r. ,B.(. 6=<8- O Vi e President of Detroit Bank K &rust Co. DDetroit, .i higanE ,6=F676=A5#red /eorge &heuer ,B.(. 6=8=- O 3'e utive Vi e President of Sagina! ,.i higan- Savings K Loan (sso iation ,6=>F76=A5-9 President of Sagina! ,.i higan- Savings K Loan (sso iation ,6=A67 .6=AABusinessmen* "ose0h #. Cullman ::: ,B.(. 6=<F- O Chairman of the )oard and C32 of Phili0 .orris Com0any Di.e. .arl)oro igarettesE ,6=>A76=A@Q+enry "ohn +einC :: ,B.(. 6=<6, SKB 6=<6- O Chairman of the )oard of +.". +einC Com0any Di.e. +.". +einC ket hu0E ,6=F=76=@AQ". :r!in .iller ,B.(. 6=<6- O Chairman of the )oard of Cummins 3ngine Co. ,6=F676=AAQ"ames +. Binger ,B.(. 6=<@- O Chairman of the )oard and C32 of +oney!ell, :n . ,6=>F76=A@Q"uan &erry &ri00e ,Ph.B. 6=46- O Chairman and C32 of Pan (meri an World (ir!ays, :n . ,6=>876=>@+. .ansfield +orner ,B.S. 6=4>- O Chairman and C32 of %nited (ir raft Cor0oration ,6=F>76=@<Ste!art Sha! Cort ,B.(. 6=<8- O President ,6=><76=A6- and Chairman and C32 ,6=A676=@5- of Bethlehem Steel Cor0. Q"ose0h Ri hardson Dil!orth ,B.(. 6=<@, LL.B. 6=84, SKB 6=<@- O Chairman of the )oard of Ro kefeller Center, :n . ,6=>>76=@4QRo)ert S. :ngersoll ,B.S. 6=<A- O Chairman and C32 of Borg7Warner Cor0. ,6=>676=A4-9 %.S. (m)assador to "a0an ,6=A476=A<-9 President of &he 3 onomi Clu) of Chi ago ,6=>A76=>=Q"ohn 3. Bier!irth ,B.(. 6=6A- O Chairman and C32 of National Distillers K Chemi al Cor0. ,6=F@76=A5QRo)ert /uthrie Page ,B.(. 6=44, SKB 6=44- O Chairman of the )oard of Phel0s Dodge Cor0oration ,6=>A76=A5"ohn +an o k Daniels ,B.(. 6=8<, SKB 6=8<- O Chairman of the )oard of (r her7Daniels7.idland Co. ,6=>A76=A4-

/aylord Donnelley ,B.(. 6=<6, SKB 6=<6- O Chairman of the )oard of R.R. Donnelley K Sons Co. DChi agoE ,6=>876=AF-9 &rustee of %niversity of Chi ago ,6=8A76=@5/ordon /rand, "r. ,B.(. 6=<@, SK$ 6=<@- O Chairman ,6=>>76=>A- and President and C32 ,6=>F76=A4- of 2lin .athieson Chemi al Cor0. Do!ning Bland "enks ,B.S. 6=<A- O Chairman ,6=A476=@<- and President ,6=>676=A4- of .issouri Pa ifi Railroad DSt. LouisE9 Chairman of the )oard of &e'as K Pa ifi Railroad ,6=>@7 .6=A>-9 Chairman of the )oard of Chi ago K 3astern :llinois Railroad ,6=>=7 .6=A>"ohn Shedd Reed ,B.S. 6=<=- O President ,6=>A7A@-, C32 ,6=>@7@4-, and Chairman ,6=A<76=@<- of (t hison, &o0eka and Santa #e Rail!ay +enry Stuart +arrison ,B.(. 6=<4- O President and Chief 3'e utive 2ffi er of Cleveland7Cliffs :ron Co. ,6=>676=AAQ"ose0h Peter /ra e, "r. ,B.(. 6=<>, SK$ 6=<>- O President and C32 of W.R. /ra e K Co. ,6=8F76=@6+ora e +avemeyer, "r. ,B.(. 6=<>, SK$ 6=<>- O President ,6=8@76=>>- and Chairman ,6=>>76=>@- of National Sugar Refining Co. DN?CE $em0ton Dunn ,B.S. 6=<6- O Chairman of the )oard ,6=><76=>=- and C32 ,6=FA76=>=- of (meri an Brake Shoe Co. DNe! ?ork CityE &homas .ellon 3vans ,B.S. 6=<6- O Chairman and C32 of Crane Co. D0a0er om0anyE ,6=F=76=@8Charles Denston Di key, "r. ,B.(. 6=85, SK$ 6=85- O President of S ott Pa0er Co. ,6=>=76=A=#rederi k /lade Wa ker "r. ,B.(. 6=85- O Chairman of the )oard and President of (mm o &ools, :n . DNorth Chi ago, :llinoisE ,6=8@76=@AQWilliam +. IBillJ Donaldson ,B.(. 6=F<, SKB 6=F<- O Chairman and C32 of Donaldson, Lufkin K "enrette, :n . DNe! ?ork CityE ,6=F=76=A<2l ott D. Smith ,B.(. 6=4=- O Chairman of the )oard of (etna Life K Casualty Cos. Dinsuran e om0anyE ,6=><7 .6=A4&homas 3ugene LoveHoy "r. ,Ph.B. 6=4@- O Chairman of the )oard and C32 of .anhattan Life :nsuran e Co. ,6=>>76=AAQPer y Chu)) :: ,Ph.B. 6=<6- O Chairman of the )oard of #ederal :nsuran e Co. ,6=>876=A5Ro)ert L. . Neil "r. ,B.S. 6=<>- O Chairman of the )oard of Petroleum La)oratories, :n . DPhiladel0hiaE ,6=>@7 .6=A5-9 Chairman of the )oard of . Neil La)oratories ,6=F>76=>8Q+oyt (mmidon ,B.(. 6=<4- O Vi e Chairman of Port (uthority of Ne! ?ork ,6=A576=A4-9 Chairman and C32 of %.S. &rust Co. ,6=>476=A8Q(rthur $. Watson ,B.(. 6=84- O Chairman of :B. World &rade Cor0oration ,6=><76=A5-9 %.S. (m)assador to #ran e ,6=A576=A4Q.al olm (. .a :ntyre ,B.(. 6=4=- O President of Chemi al Division of .artin .arietta Cor0. ,6=>F76=A4-9 %nder Se . of (ir #or e ,6=FA7F=QRi hard .. Bissell "r. ,B.(. 6=<4, Ph.D. 6=<=- O Dire tor of .arketing and 3 onomi Planning at %nited (ir raft Cor0. ,6=>876=A8Daniel Cro! Searle ,B.S. 6=F5- O President of /.D. Searle K Co. D hemi al om0anyE ,6=>>76=AAQBrooks . Cormi k ,B.(. 6=85- O President of :nternational +arvester Com0any ,6=>@76=AAQ+enry B. S ha ht ,B.S. 6=F>- O Vi e President of Cummins 3ngine Co. ,6=>876=>=-9 President of Cummins 3ngine Co. ,6=>=76=AAQ"ohn C. Bier!irth ,B.(. 6=8A- O Vi e President ,6=F@76=>=- and 3'e utive Vi e President ,6=>=76=A4- of National Distillers K Chemi al Cor0. QWilliam W. Boes henstein ,B.S. 6=F5- O 3'e utive Vi e President of 2!ens7Corning #i)erglass Cor0. ,6=>A76=A6Q&homas Wright Russell "r. ,B.(. 6=<=- O President ,6=>@76=A5- and Chairman and C32 ,6=A5- of (meri an Brake Shoe Co. D()e' Cor0.E C. William Verity "r. ,B.(. 6=<=- O President and C32 ,6=>F76=A6- and Chairman of the )oard ,6=A676=@4- of (rm o Steel Com0any 3d!ard #oster S!ift <rd ,B.(. 6=8F, SK$ 6=8F- O 3'e utive Vi e President of S!ift K Co. Dmeat 0a king om0anyE ,6=>876=AFWilmot #it h Wheeler "r. ,B.(. 6=8F, SK$ 6=8F- O Chairman and C32 of (meri an Chain K Ca)le Co., :n . DNe! ?ork CityE ,6=>A76=A>QRi hard L. /el) ,B.(. 6=8F- O President of Bristol7.yers Co. ,6=>A76=A>QDavid L. Luke ::: ,B.(. 6=8F- O President ,6=>476=@5- and C32 ,6=><76=@@- of Westva o Cor0. D0a0er om0anyE David Livingston #ran is ,B.(. 6=<A- O Chairman of the )oard of Prin ess Coals, :n . ,6=><76=>@&e umseh Sherman #it h ,B.S. 6=<6- O Chairman of the )oard of Washington Steel Cor0. DPennsylvaniaE ,6=8F76=>="ames /. #o' "r. ,B.S. 6=4>- O President of (llied Chemi al Cor0. ,6=F=7 .6=A4Louis S. Roths hild ,Ph.B. 6=45- O President of &rans0ort 3;uities Cor0oration ,6=F@76=>6, 6=>F76=@8Louis #rederi k Polk "r. ,B.S. 6=F8- O President and C32 of .etro7/old!yn .ayer, :n . ,6=>@76=>=-9 Com0troller of /eneral .ills ,6=>67>@"ohn C. Dun an ,B.(. 6=84- O 3'e utive Vi e President of W.R. /ra e K Co. ,6=>876=A5/ilfry Ward ,B.S. 6=4@, Bohemian /rove- O Vi e President of (meri an Brake Shoe Co. D()e' Cor0.E ,6=FA76=A5William (dams Dun)ar ,B.(. 6=4=- O Com0troller ,6=F>76=>>- and &reasurer ,6=>>76=>=- of /eneral Reinsuran e Cor0. DNe! ?ork CityE Clive Runnells ,B.(. 6=8@- O Vi e President of Commer e #und, :n . D+ouston, &e'asE ,6=>57 .6=A4"ohn David $irkland ,B.(. 6=FF, LL.B. 6=F@- O Vi e President ,6=>A76=A<- and 3'e utive Vi e President ,6=A<76=A@- of PennCoil Co. William Ro)ert 2rth!ein "r. ,B.(. 6=<@- O former Vi e President of . Donnell Douglas Cor0oration , ir a 6=>5s"ohn Digney Leary ,B.(. 6=<<, LL.B. 6=<>- O Vi e President for Personnel at Chrysler Cor0. ,6=F@76=><-9 Vi e President for (dministration at Chrysler Cor0. ,6=><76=A8-9 dire tor of Chrysler Cor0. ,6=F=76=A8"ohn (m)rose #ord ,B.(. 6=86- O Vi e President for Pu)li Relations at Chrysler Cor0. ,6=><7 .6=A8Ro)ert %0Hohn Red0ath "r. ,B.(. 6=4@- O life under!riter for La!yers .ortgage Co. DNe! ?ork CityE ,6=<<76=@A#red Rollin White "r. ,B.(. 6=<F- O Senior Vi e President of 2gle)ay Norton Co. DCleveland, 2hioE ,6=F=76=A@QPhili0 C. "essu0 "r. ,B.(. 6=8=- O Chief Legal 2ffi er and Se retary of :n o 3uro0e Ltd. DLondonE ,6=>@76=A4-9 President and .anaging Dire tor of P.&. :nternational Ni kel :ndonesia D"akartaE ,6=A476=A@Samuel Reid Sut0hin ,B.(. 6=<8- O Chairman of Beveridge Pa0er Co. D:ndiana0olisE ,6=F@76=>=Ri hard Sutton Bull "r. ,B.(. 6=8@, ".D. 6=F6- O Chairman of the )oard of Bradner Central Co. DChi agoE ,6=>>7 .6==5+ora e Reynolds .oorhead ,Ph.B. 6=4=, SK$ 6=4=- O &reasurer of /ulf 2il Cor0. ,6=8@7 .6=A4"ose0h 3lliott .u kley ,B.(. 6=<5- O 3'e utive Vi e President of .artin .arietta Cor0. DNe! ?ork CityE ,6=>>76=A<"ohn Ward Sea)ury ,B.S. 6=8<- O Vi e President of .arsh K . Lennan, :n . DChi agoE ,6=F>76=A>/eorge &. #ren h ,B.(. 6=<<- O Senior Vi e President of Deere K Co. ,6=><76=>@Ro)ert Cushing Winters ,B.(. 6=F<- O Vi e President for a tuary at Prudential :nsuran e Co. of (meri a ,6=>=76=AF#ran is #itC Randol0h ,B.(. 6=66, SKB 6=66- O Senior Partner of "KW Seligman K Co. ,6=8576=A</eorge +er)ert Walker "r. ,B.(. 6=4A, SKB 6=4A- O /eneral Partner of /.+. Walker K Co. Dfirm in Ne! ?ork CityE ,6=4=76=A8/eorge +er)ert Walker ::: ,B.(. 6=F<, SKB 6=F<- O /eneral Partner of /.+. Walker K Co. ,6=>676=A8"onathan ". Bush ,B.(. 6=F<, SKB 6=F<- O /eneral Partner of /.+. Walker K Co. ,6=>576=A5"ohn Davo k Warren ,B.(. 6=4A, SKB 6=4A- O /eneral Partner of /.+. Walker K Co. Dfirm in Ne! ?ork CityE ,6=8876=A8"ohn C. #arrar ,B.(. 6=6@, SKB 6=6@- O Chairman of the )oard of #arrar, Straus K /irou' D0u)lishing firm in Ne! ?ork CityE ,6=8>76=A8"ohn Warner #ield ,B.(. 6=<A, SKB 6=<A- O President and C32 of Warna o, :n . ,6=FA76=A8#rank (. S0role ,B.(. 6=84, SKB 6=84- O Vi e President of Bristol7.yers Co. ,6=>F76=A<QWilliam +. Dra0er ::: ,B.(. 6=F5, SKB 6=F5- O #ounder and /eneral Partner of Sutter +ill Ventures Dfirm in Palo (lto, CaliforniaE ,6=>F76=@6Russell W. .eyer "r. ,B.(. 6=F8, SKB 6=F8- O President and C32 of /rumman (meri a (viation Cor0. DCleveland, 2hioE ,6=>>76=A8Ro)ert +aigh /o! ,B.(. 6=FF, SKB 6=FF- O President of Ma0ata D2ilE Cor0. ,6=>876=A5.organ +ovey +arris "r. ,B.(. 6=F8- O Vi e President of White Weld K Co. :n . DLos (ngeles )ran hE ,6=>F76=A6+arold +. +ines "r. ,B.(. 6=8@- O Vi e President and 3'e utive Vi e President of .arsh and . Lennan, :n . Chi ago ,6=>=76=A=-

$enneth +. +annan ,B.(. 6=<<, LL.B. 6=<>- O 3'e utive Vi e President ,6=F>76=>=- and Vi e Chairman ,6=>=76=A6- of %nion Car)ide Cor0oration9 Class C Dire tor and De0uty Chairman of the #ederal Reserve Bank of Ne! ?ork ,6=>>76=>@#ritC Carleton +yde "r. ,B.(. 6=<<- O President of Revere Co00er K Brass, :n . Dmetal manufa turing in Ne! ?ork CityE ,6=>F76=A6(lfred White Van Sinderen ,B.(. 6=8F- O President ,6=>A76=@4- and Chairman ,6=@476=@F- of Southern Ne! 3ngland &ele0hone Com0any +enry Waters &aft ,B.(. 6=8A- O &reasurer ,6=>476=>>-, Vi e President ,6=>>76=>=-, and 3'e . Vi e Pres. ,6=>=76=A<- of Bristol7.yers Co. +enry White /adsden ,B.S. 6=<<- O President ,6=>F76=A6- and Chairman and C32 ,6=A676=A>- of .er k K Co., :n . D0harma euti al firmE William (le'ander $irk0atri k ,B.(. 6=88- O Controller ,6=>576=>@-, Vi e President for #inan e ,6=>@76=A<-, and Vi e President for (dministration ,6=A<76=A=- of (llegheny Ludlum :ndustries, :n . Dsteel om0any in Pitts)urghE Reuel 3d!ard Warriner ,B.(. 6=<<- O Vi e President for sales at (meri an .etal Clima', :n . ,6=F876=>@-9 Vi e President for ni kel 0roHe t at (meri an .etal Clima', :n . ,6=>@76=A4"ames Barton 3lliott ,B.(. 6=<F- O Se retary of (meri an Sugar Co. DNe! ?ork CityE ,6=FF76=>FRo)ert /eorge Wiese ,B.(. 6=4F- O Partner of S udder, Stevens K Clark Dinvestment firm in BostonE ,6=<>76=A@Sidney Walter Dean "r. ,B.(. 6=4>- O President of Ventures Develo0ment Co. DNe! ?ork CityE ,6=>67 .6==ACros)y Wells ,B.(. 6=8>- O Legal 2ffi er for :nternational Ni kel Co, :n . DNe! ?ork CityE ,6=>676=A<Ro)ert #or)es Niven ,B.(. 6=<4- O Se retary of %nion 2il Co. ,6=8A76=A4-9 .em)er of the Bohemian Clu) in San #ran is o #rank (. Sherer ,B.(. 6=<4- O 3'e utive Vi e President of :nter0u)li /rou0 of Com0anies, :n . DNe! ?ork CityE ,6=>676=>A( &homas &aylor ,B.(. 6=<4- O dire tor of #ord .otor Co. , . 6=>F-9 former Chairman of Delte :nternational Cor0oration (llen Ledyard Lindley ,B.(. 6=<4- O Vi e President and &reasurer ,6=F476=>6-9 Senior Vi e President ,6=>676=>A-, 3'e utive Vi e President ,6=>A76=A4-, and Vi e Chairman ,6=A476=A@- of .utual Life :nsuran e Co. of Ne! ?ork "ohn Denis "ose0h .oore ,B.(. 6=<4, LL.B. 6=<F- O Vi e President of W.R. /ra e K Co. ,6=F476=>=-9 %.S. (m)assador to :reland ,6=>=7 6=AF-9 Vi e Chairman of the Coun il of the (meri as ,6=>876=>=+enry +ollo!ay S udder ,B.(. 6=6A- O President ,6=FA76=>5- and Vi e Chairman of ,6=>57 .6=A5- of :nternational Standard 3le tri Cor0. DNe! ?ork CityE (le'ander Coutts Ste!art ,B.(. 6=8F- O &reasurer of Collins K (ltman Cor0. Dte'tile om0any in Ne! ?ork CityE ,6=>576=>>-9 Vi e President for finan e of Collins K (ltman Cor0. ,6=>>76=A=William .. Day ,B.(. 6=4A- O President ,6=F>76=>@- and Chairman of the )oard and C32 ,6=>@- of .i higan Bell &ele0hone Co. DDetroitE "ohn ..$. Davis ,B.(. 6=4=- O President of Conne iti ut Printers :n . D+artford, Conne ti utE ,6=F47 .6=A4Ri hard C. Doane ,B.(. 6=6=- O Chairman of the )oard ,6=>676=>A- and President ,6=F876=F=- of :nternational Pa0er Co. DNe! ?ork CityE #rank Courtenay Dodd ,B.(. 6@=A- O Chairman of the )oard of Dodd, .ead K Co., :n . D0u)lishing om0any in Ne! ?ork CityE ,6=8476=>@3d!ard +o!ard Dodd "r. ,B.(. 6=4@- O Chairman of the )oard of Dodd, .ead K Co., :n . D0u)lishing om0any in Ne! ?ork CityE ,6=>>76=A>-9 President of Dodd, .ead K Co., :n . D0u)lishing om0any in Ne! ?ork CityE ,6=F<76=FA-9 Chairman of the editorial )oard of Dodd, .ead K Co., :n . D0u)lishing om0any in Ne! ?ork CityE ,6=FA76=>>Ross Randol0h .illhiser ,B.(. 6=86- O 3'e utive Vi e President for .arketing at Phili0 .orris, :n . ,6=>F76=>>-9 President of Phili0 .orris %.S.(. ,6=>>76=A<-9 President of Phili0 .orris, :n . ,6=A<76=A@-9 Vi e Chairman of Phili0 .orris, :n . ,6=A@76=@F-9 .em)er of the )oard of dire tors of Phili0 .orris, :n . Di.e. .arl)oro igarettesE ,6=><76=@A-9 0risoner7of7!ar during World War :: , a0tured )y the NaCisLa!yers* QCharles .. S0offord ,B.(. 6=489 SKB 6=48- O .em)er of Davis, Polk K Ward!ell Dla! firm in Ne! ?ork CityE ,6=8576=F5, 6=F476=A<Charles +astings Willard ,B.(. 6=4>, SKB 6=4>- O Partner of Davis, Polk K Ward!ell ,6=F576=A<3d!ard Rogers Ward!ell ,B.(. 6=4A, SKB 6=4A- O .em)er of Davis, Polk K Ward!ell ,6=8>7 .6=A4QSamuel +aCard /illes0ie "r. ,B.(. 6=<4, LL.B. 6=<>, SKB 6=<4- O .em)er of Davis, Polk K Ward!ell ,6=8@74566.orton #earey ,B.(. 6=<F9 LL.B. 6=<@, SK$ 6=<F- O .em)er of Davis, Polk K Ward!ell ,6=F67 .6=A8QPeter 2.(. Sol)ert ,B.(. 6=86, SKB 6=86- O Partner of Davis, Polk K Ward!ell ,6=FA76=><, 6=>F76=@=3d!ard Snover Reid ::: ,B.(. 6=F6, SKB 6=F6- O Partner of Davis, Polk K Ward!ell ,6=>876==FRo)ert B. #iske, "r. ,B.(. 6=F4- O Partner of Davis, Polk K Ward!ell ,6=>870resentQ3li Whitney De)evoise ,B.(. 6=46- O Partner of De)evoise K Plim0ton Dla! firm in Ne! ?ork CityE ,6=<676==5Q/eorge N. Lindsay ,B.(. 6=86- O Partner of De)evoise K Plim0ton ,6=FF76==5Q+arold +. +ealy "r. ,B.(. 6=8<, SKB 6=8<- O Partner of De)evoise K Plim0ton ,6=F=76=@=QRo)ert B. von .ehren ,B.(. 6=8<- O Partner of De)evoise K Plim0ton ,6=FA76==<QWilliam B. .atteson ,B.(. 6=F5- O Partner of De)evoise K Plim0ton ,6=>676==@/eorge B. (dams ,B.(. 6=F4- O Partner of De)evoise K Plim0ton ,6=>>76==AQ/eorge Ro)erts ,B.(. 6=5F, LL.B. +arvard 6=5@- O Partner of Winthro0, Stimson, Putnam K Ro)erts Dla! firm in Ne! ?ork CityE ,6=6876=>@"ames William +usted ,B.(. 6=6@- O Partner of Winthro0, Stimson, Putnam K Ro)erts ,6=<576=>="ohn Baker "essu0 ,B.(. 6=84, SKB 6=84- O Partner of Winthro0, Stimson, Putnam K Ro)erts ,6=F=76==<3ndi ott Pea)ody Davison ,B.(. 6=8F, SKB 6=8F- O Partner of Winthro0, Stimson, Putnam K Ro)erts ,6=F=76=@5Chaun ey Bre!ster /arver ,B.(. 6=5@, SK$ 6=5@- O Partner of Shearman K Sterling Dla! firm in Ne! ?ork CityE ,6=6A76=A<QRo)ert +untington $night ,B.(. 6=85- O Partner of Shearman K Sterling ,6=FF76=F@, 6=>476=@FWilliam Ro kefeller ,B.(. 6=85- O Partner of Shearman K Sterling ,6=FA76==5Ri hard S. Storrs ,B.(. 6=<4- O Partner of Sullivan K Crom!ell Dla! firm in Ne! ?ork CityE ,6=8F76=@5Ste0hen $. West ,B.(. 6=F5- O Partner of Sullivan K Crom!ell ,6=>876==AQRos!ell L. /il0atri ,B.(. 6=4@, LL.B. 6=<6- O Partner of Cravath, S!aine K .oore ,6=F<76=>6, 6=>876=AA-9 De0uty Se retary of Defense ,6=>676=>8-9 Chairman of the #ederal Reserve Bank of Ne! ?ork ,6=A476=AFDaniel /leason &enney "r. ,B.(. 6=<F, LL.B. 6=<@, SK$ 6=<F- O Partner of .il)ank, &!eed, +adley K . Cloy ,6=8@7 .6=@<QWilliam 3ldred "a kson ,B.(. 6=86, SKB 6=86- O Partner of .il)ank, &!eed, +adley K . Cloy ,6=F876===(llen 3varts #oster ,B.(. 6=5>- O Partner of Lord, Day K Lord Dla! firm in Ne! ?ork CityE ,6=6=7 .6=A5Sherman Bald!in ,B.(. 6=6=, SKB 6=6=- O .em)er of Lord, Day K Lord ,6=4=76=>=Louis .elville Loe) ,B.(. 6=6=- O Partner of Lord, Day K Lord ,6=8@76=A4-9 /eneral Counsel of &he Ne! ?ork &imes Co. ,6=8@76=>A"ohn Dorsey /arrison ,B.(. 6=<6, LL.B. 6=<8- O .em)er of Lord, Day K Lord ,6=8<76=@5/arrard Wood /lenn ,B.(. 6=<<, SK$ 6=<<- O Partner of Lord, Day K Lord ,6=8@76=F8, 6=F@7 .6=A8Charles R. Walker ::: ,B.(. 6=F6, LL.B. 6=F8- O .em)er of Lord, Day K Lord ,6=F>76==8"ohn (r her /ifford ,B.(. 6=44, SK$ 6=44- O Partner of White K Case Dla! firm in Ne! ?ork CityE ,6=<A76=A4Q(lfred 2gden ,B.(. 6=<4, SKB 6=<4- O Partner of (le'ander K /reen Dla! firm in Ne! ?ork CityE ,6=FF76=AF-

Q.anuel R. (ngulo ,B.(. 6=<=- O Partner of Curtis, .allet7Prevost, Colt K .osle Dla! firm in Ne! ?ork CityE ,6=>67 .6==<(llen Skinner +u))ard ,B.(. 6=66, SK$ 6=66- O Partner of +ughes, +u))ard K Reed Dla! firm in Ne! ?ork CityE ,6=<A76=@6Q2rville +. S hell, "r. ,B.(. 6=<5- O Partner of +ughes, +u))ard K Reed ,6=8476=@A&homas &ha her ,B.(. 6=<@9 LL.B. 6=84, SK$ 6=<@- O Partner of Patterson, Belkna0 K We)) Dla! firm in Ne! ?ork CityE ,6=>876=@8Donald S ha0iro ,B.(. 6=889 LL.B. 6=8=- O Partner of Barrett, Smith, S ha0iro, Simon K (rmstrong Dla! firm in Ne! ?ork CityE ,6=FF76=@@Ro)ert &odd Lang ,B.(. 6=8F- O Partner of Weil, /otshal K .anges Dla! firm in Ne! ?ork CityE ,6=F>70resent"ohn Carey ,B.(. 6=8A, SKB 6=8FW- O Partner of Coudert Brothers Dla! firm in Ne! ?ork CityE ,6=>676=@AQDonald +. Rivkin ,B.(. 6=8@9 ".D. 6=F4- O .em)er of Rivkin, Sherman and Levy Dla! firm in Ne! ?ork CityE ,6=F=76=@8Paul C. Lam)ert ,B.(. 6=F5, SKB 6=F5- O Partner of Breed, ())ott K .organ Dla! firm in Ne! ?ork CityE ,6=>>76==5C. Di kerman Williams ,B.(. 6=44, LL.B. 6=48- O Partner of Baker, Nelson, Williams K .it hell Dla! firm in Ne! ?ork CityE ,6=>476=A8+arris "ohn (shton ,B.(. 6=F8- O Partner of LoveHoy, Wasson, Lundgren K (shton Dla! firm in Ne! ?ork CityE ,6=>876=AF3than (. +it h o k ,B.(. 6=<6, SK$ 6=<6- O Partner of We)ster, Sheffield, #leis hmann, +it h o k K Brookfield DNe! ?ork CityE ,6=>676=@<#rank +er)ert Prem "r. ,B.(. 6=F<- O Partner of Whitman K Ransom Dla! firm in Ne! ?ork CityE ,6=>A76==<Sidney Wetmore Davidson ,B.(. 6=6>9 ".D. 6=6@- O .em)er of Davidson, Da!son K Clark Dla! firm in Ne! ?ork CityE ,6=8=76=A8Q"erome S. +ess ,B.(. 6=5<- O .em)er of +ardin, +ess K 3der Dla! firm in Ne! ?ork CityE ,6=5A76=A5-9 .em)er of +ardin, +ess K SuareC Dla! firm in .e'i o CityE ,6=4676=A5QDean /. ( heson ,B.(. 6=6F9 SK$ 6=6F- O .em)er of Covington K Burling Dla! firm in Washington, D.C.E ,6=F<76=A6-9 fmr. %.S. Se of State QLloyd N. Cutler ,B.(. 6=<>- O Partner of Wilmer Cutler Pi kering Dla! firm in Washington, D.C.E ,6=>476=A=, 6=@676==5"ohn D. +a!ke "r. ,B.(. 6=F8- O Partner of (rnold K Porter Dla! firm in Washington, D.C.E ,6=>A76=AF, 6=A@76==F, 455870resent+. Ste!art Dunn "r. ,B.(. 6=F6- O Partner of :vins, Philli0s K Barker Dla! firm in Washington, D.C.E ,6=>47 .4554Roger Ro)) ,B.(. 6=4@, LL.B. 6=<6- O Partner of Ro)), Porter, $istler K Parkinson Dla! firm in Washington, D.C.E ,6=F676=>=&homas .. De)evoise ,B.(. 6=F5- O Partner of De)evoise K Li)erman Dla! firm in Washington, D.C.E ,6=>F76=A8.ar ien "en kes ,B.(. 6=46, SKB 6=46- O .em)er of Choate, +all K Ste!art Dla! firm in BostonE ,6=4A76=A6.ar us .orton ,B.(. 6=6>- O .em)er of +ale, Sanderson, Byrnes K .orton Dla! firm in BostonE ,6=4A7 .6=@5Ri hard Wellington . Laren ,B.(. 6=<=9 LL.B. 6=84- O .em)er of Chad!ell, $e k, $ayser, Ruggles K . Laren Dla! firm in Chi agoE ,6=F57 6=>=-9 (ssistant %.S. (ttorney /eneral for (ntitrust Division ,6=>=76=A4.errill She0ard ,B.(.6=4F- O Partner of Po0e, Ballard, $ennedy, She0ard K #o!le Dla! firm in Chi agoE ,6=<>7 .6=@>Norman Waite ,B.(. 6=4A9 LL.B. +arvard 6=<5- O Partner of S hiff +ardin K Waite Dla! firm in Chi agoE ,6=857 .6=A>/eorge #rederi k Baer (00el ,B.(. 6=48, SKB 6=48- O Partner of &o!nsend, 3lliott K .unson Dla! firm in Philadel0hiaE ,6=<@76=A5Ri hard Langsdorf Levy ,B.(. 6=<<- O Partner of Dil!orth, Pa'son, $alish, $ohn K Levy Dla! firm in Philadel0hiaE ,6=8=7 .6=A>"ose0h .artin "r. ,B.(. 6=<>9 LL.B. 6=<=- O Partner of Pettit K .artin Dla! firm in San #ran is oE ,6=FF76=A5, 6=A<76==F-9 /eneral Counsel of #ederal &rade Commission ,6=A576=A6-9 %.S. Re0resentative to the Disarmament Conferen e D/eneva, S!itCerlandE ,6=A676=A>"ames #. $irkham ,B.(. 6=F8- O Partner of Pills)ury, .adison K Sutro Dla! firm in San #ran is oE ,6=>>7 .6==>-9 mem)er of Bohemian Clu) Ro)ert P. +astings ,B.(. 6=<<- O Partner of Paul, +astings, "anofsky K Walker Dla! firm in Los (ngelesE ,6=8>76=@6QRi hard 3d!in Sher!ood ,B.(. 6=8=- O Partner of 2G.elveny K .yers Dla! firm in Los (ngelesE ,6=>876==<-9 Chairman of Planned Parenthood1World Po0ulation Los (ngeles ,6=A676=AFSte0hen +arding +art ,B.(. 6=4=- O Partner of +olland K +art Dla! firm in DenverE ,6=8A7 .6=A@-9 Colorado State Senator ,6=<=76=8<Ri hard .arden Davis ,B.(. 6=<<, SKB 6=<<- O Partner of Davis, /raham K Stu))s Dla! firm in DenverE ,6=<A7 .6=@4Donald Wright +oagland ,B.(. 6=84, SKB 6=8<- O Partner of Davis, /raham K Stu))s Dla! firm in DenverE ,6=F676=><, 6=>>76=@ADavid 3verett Wagoner ,B.(. 6=F5- O Partner of Perkins K Coie Dla! firm in SeattleE ,6=FA76==>Cornelius 3. Lom)ardi "r. ,B.(. 6=8=- O .em)er of Bla k!ell, Sanders, .atheny, Weary K Lom)ardi Dla! firm in $ansas CityE ,6=FA76==4+enry Corni k Coke ,B.(. 6=4>, LL.B. 6=4=, SKB 6=4>- O .em)er of Coke K Coke Dla! firm in Dallas, &e'asE ,6=<576=AA/eorge Denegre ,B.(. 6=8<- O Partner of "ones, Walker, Wea hter, Poievent, Carrere K Denegre Dla! firm in Ne! 2rleansE ,6=F47455@"ohn Wesley Warrington ,B.(. 6=<>- O Partner of /raydon, +ead K Rit hey Dla! firm in Cin innatiE ,6=F676=@="ohn +erron .ore ,B.(. 6=48- O Partner of &aft, Stettinius K+ollister Dla! firm in Cin innatiE ,6=<F76=A5Seth Chase &aft ,B.(. 6=8<, LL.B. 6=8@- O Partner of Partner of "ones, Day, Reavis K Pogue Dla! firm in Cleveland, 2hioE ,6=F=7 .6=@8+o!ard &allmadge #oulkes ,B.(. 6=66- O Partner of Wi kham, Borgelt, Skogstad and Po!ell Dla! firm in .il!aukeeE ,6=6<76=A<Ri hard Woolsey Cutler ,B.(. 6=<@9 LL.B. 6=86- O Partner of Puarles K Brady Dla! firm in .il!aukeeE ,6=F876=@ALu ius #ranklin Ro)inson "r. ,B.(. 6=6@- O Partner of Ro)inson, Ro)inson KCole Dla! firm in +artford, Conne ti utE ,6=4F7 .6=@4"ohn Cald!ell Parsons ,B.(. 6=449 LL.B. 6=4>- O Partner of Ro)inson, Ro)inson K Cole Dla! firm in +artford, Conne ti utE ,6=<676=A<"ames Wayne Coo0er ,B.(. 6=4>9 LL.B. 6=4=- O Partner of &yler, Coo0er, /rant, Bo!erman K $eefe Dla! firm in Ne! +aven, Conne ti utE ,6=<F76=@=Bayard 3!ing ,B.(. 6=<@- O Partner of &illinghast, Collins K /raham Dla! firm in Providen e, Rhode :slandE ,6=8=7 .6=@8Ri hard #ran is Corroon ,B.(. 6=<F- O Partner of Potter, (nderson K Corroon Dla! firm in Wilmington, Dela!areE ,6=8>76=A@Q.al olm W. .artin ,B.(. 6=<<- O Partner of Pe0er, .artin, "ensen, .ai hel K +etlage Dla! firm in St. LouisE ,6=8674558-9 .em)er ,6=>F7 6=AA- and President ,6=>=76=A6- of St. Louis D.issouriE Board of 3du ation9 )rother of #ederal Reserve Chairman William . C. .artin "r. "ames .urdo k #ulton ,B.S. 6=<F, LL.B. 6=<@- O /eneral Counsel ,6=>676=A8- and Se retary ,6=A576=A>- of .er k K Co. D0harma euti alE David C. ( heson ,B.(. 6=84, SKB 6=8<- O /eneral Counsel of Communi ations Satellite Cor0. ,6=>A76=A8QBrooks &homas ,B.(. 6=F<- O /eneral Counsel of +ar0er K Ro!, Pu)lishing, :n . ,6=>@76=A<"ames C. /oodale ,B.(. 6=FF- O /eneral Counsel of &he Ne! ?ork &imes Co. ,6=>A76=A<Burke .arshall ,B.(. 6=8<, LL.B. 6=F6- O Vi e President and /eneral Counsel of :B. Cor0. ,6=>F76=>=-9 (ssistant %.S. (ttorney /eneral for Civil Rights Division ,6=>676=>F-9 Professor of La! and De0uty Dean of ?ale La! S hool ,6=A576=A>/eorge (lfred Ranney ,B.(. 6=<8, LL.B. 6=<=, SKB 6=<8- O Vi e President and /eneral Counsel of :nland Steel Co. DChi agoE ,6=>476=>@"ohn S. "ohnson ,B.(. 6=F4, LL.B. 6=FF- O Vi e President, Se retary, and /eneral Counsel of Warna o :n . ,6=A576=AAStanley Burton #euer ,B.(. 6=F59 LL.B. 6=F<- O Vi e President and /eneral Counsel of Stude)aker7Worthington, :n . ,6=>@76=A6-9 Vi e President and /eneral Counsel of /(# Cor0. ,6=A676=A8-9 Vi e President and /eneral Counsel of .etro7/old!yn7.ayer :n . ,6=A876=@5Norman Bristol ,B.(. 6=88- O Se retary ,6=>576=A@-, /eneral Counsel ,6=>876=A@-, and Senior Vi e President ,6=>@76=AF- of $ellogg Co. +amlett +arrison ,B.(. 6=<4- O /eneral Counsel ,6=<=76=A5- and 3'e utive Vi e President ,6=8476=A5- of &rinity %niversal :nsuran e Co. DDallas, &e'asE Stanley 3lliot Mimmerman ,B.(. 6=<=9 ".D. +arvard 6=8>- O /eneral Counsel ,6=>476=A6- and Se retary ,6=>876=A6- of W.&. /rant Co. Dvariety store in Ne! ?ork CityE

"ournalists* Q+enry R. Lu e ,B.(. 6=459 SKB 6=45- O 3ditor7in7Chief of &ime, :n . ,6=4<76=>8-9 founder of Time, Life, and 'ortune magaCines +enry Lu e ::: ,B.(. 6=8F- O Pu)lisher of Time magaCine ,6=>=76=A4-9 Pu)lisher of 'ortune magaCine ,6=>@76=>=Q"ohn $. "essu0 ,B.(. 6=4@- O Chief 3ditorial Writer of Life magaCine ,6=F676=>=QRal0h D. Paine "r. ,B.(. 6=4=, SKB 6=4=- O Pu)lisher of 'ortune magaCine ,6=F<76=>AQ+ugh D.S. /reen!ay ,B.(. 6=F@, SK$ 6=F@- O Corres0ondent for Time magaCine in Saigon ,6=>A76=>@- and Bangkok ,6=>@76=A5QRo)ert C. Christo0her ,B.(. 6=8@- O #oreign 3ditor ,6=><76=>=- and 3'e utive 3ditor ,6=>=76=A4- of %ewsweek magaCine QWilliam #. Bu kley, "r. ,B.(. 6=F59 SKB 6=F5- O 3ditor7in7Chief of %ational &e!iew magaCine ,6=FF76==5Q"ohn +ay Whitney ,B.(. 6=4>9 SK$ 6=4>- O Pu)lisher and 3ditor7in7Chief of %ew (ork $erald Tribune ,6=>676=>>QPhili0 L. /eyelin ,B.(. 6=88- O 3ditorial Page 3ditor of The Washin#ton Post ,6=>@76=A=-9 Di0lomati orres0ondent of The Wall Street )ournal ,6=>576=>AQDavid $ruidenier ,B.(. 6=8>- O President and Pu)lisher of *es +oines &e#ister and Tribune ,6=A676=A@QRo)ert B. Sem0le "r. ,B.(. 6=F=- O White +ouse orres0ondent for The %ew (ork Times ,6=>@76=A4QPeter B. /rose ,B.(. 6=FA- O .os o! Bureau Chief ,6=>F76=>A- and di0lomati orres0ondent ,6=>A76=A5- for The %ew (ork Times 3ri D!ight Pa e ,B.(. 6=FA- O .em)er of the staff of The %ew (ork Times ,6=>F74558Ro)ert /reeley $aiser ,B.(. 6=>8- O Corres0ondent of Saigon Bureau DVietnamE at The Washin#ton Post ,6=>=76=A5-9 Bureau Chief of .os o! Bureau at The Washin#ton Post ,6=A676=A8-9 son of former %.S. (m)assador to +ungary Phili0 .. $aiser Ri hard /erard Valeriani ,B.(. 6=F<- O Corres0ondent for NBC7&V Ne!s in Washington, D.C. ,6=>876=@<"ames David (t!ater ,B.(. 6=F5- O Senior 3ditor of Saturda" E!enin# Post ,6=>>76=>=-9 S0e ial (ssistant to the President ,6=>=76=A5Ste!art ".2. (lso0 ,B.(. 6=<>- O Washington 3ditor of Saturda" E!enin# Post ,6=>476=>@-9 Columnist for %ewsweek magaCine ,6=>@76=A8"a k Rohe +o!ard ,B.(. 6=<4- O President of S ri00s7+o!ard Ne!s0a0ers ,6=F<76=AF-9 dire tor of &rans World (:rlines9 .em)er of the Bohemian Clu) in San #ran is o and Pilgrims So iety in Ne! ?ork City QDonald .al olm Wilson ,B.(. 6=8@- O Chief #ar 3astern Corres0ondent for Life magaCine ,6=F<76=F>-9 Chief Washington Corres0ondent for Life magaCine ,6=F>76=>5-9 De0uty Dire tor of %.S. :nformation (gen y ,6=>676=>F-9 /eneral .anager of &ime7Life :nternational ,6=>F7 6=>@-9 (sso iate Pu)lisher of Life magaCine ,6=>@76=>=-9 Vi e President for or0orate and 0u)li affairs, &ime, :n . ,6=>=76=@6Daniel "ose0h .ahoney "r. ,B.(. 6=F5- O President of Dayton Ne!s0a0ers, :n . DDayton, 2hioE ,6=>@7 .6=A@QDavid (. Laventhol ,B.(. 6=FA- O (ssistant .anaging 3ditor of The Washin#ton Post ,6=>>76=>=2rganiCation 3'e utives* Q3. Roland +arriman ,B.(. 6=6A9 SKB 6=6A- O Chairman of (meri an Red Cross ,6=F876=A<-9 Chairman of the )oard of %nion Pa ifi Railroad Co. ,6=8>76=>=-9 Partner of Bro!n Brothers +arriman K Co. ,6=<676=A@Q. /eorge Bundy ,B.(. 6=859 SKB 6=85- O President of #ord #oundation ,6=>>76=A=-9 National Se urity (dvisor ,6=>676=>>Q.a' #. .illikan ,B.S. 6=<F- O President of World Pea e #oundation ,6=F>76=>=-9 (ssistant Dire tor of C:( ,6=F676=F4Ro)ert .. +ut hins ,B.(. 6=46- O Chairman ,6=F=76=A8- and President ,6=AF76=AA- of the Center for the Study of Demo rati :nstitutions QCaryl P. +askins ,Ph.B. 6=<5- O President of Carnegie :nstitution of Washington ,6=F>76=A6Q(lfred Brunson .a Chesney ::: ,B.(. 6=<6- O President of &he (meri an So iety of :nternational La! ,6=>876=>>QBayless .anning ,B.(. 6=8<- O President of the Coun il on #oreign Relations ,6=A676=AA-9 Dean of Stanford La! S hool ,6=>876=A6Q#rank (lts hul ,B.(. 6=5@- O Vi e President of the Coun il on #oreign Relations ,6=F676=A6.orris +adley ,B.(. 6=6>, SKB 6=6>- O Chairman of Carnegie Cor0oration of Ne! ?ork ,6=FF76=>>Q#rederi k Sheffield ,B.(. 6=48, SK$ 6=48- O Chairman of Carnegie Cor0oration of Ne! ?ork ,6=>>76=A63rnest Brooks, "r. ,B.(. 6=<5, SK$ 6=<5- O President of 2ld Dominion #oundation DNe! ?ork CityE ,6=F>76=>=Q". Puigg Ne!ton "r. ,B.(. 6=<<, LL.B. 6=<>, SKB 6=<<- O President of &he Common!ealth #und ,6=><76=AF+arold +o!e :: ,B.(. 6=859 SKB 6=85- O Vi e President of #ord #oundation ,6=A676=@6-9 %.S. Commissioner of 3du ation ,6=>F76=>@QRoger /. $ennedy ,B.(. 6=8=- O Vi e President for #inan ial (ffairs at #ord #oundation ,6=A576=A=Walter "ames . Nerney ,B.S. 6=8A- O President of Blue Cross (sso iation Din Chi agoE ,6=>676=AAQ/eorge W. RathHens ,B.S. 6=8>- O Dire tor of !ea0ons systems evaluation division at the :nstitute of Defense (nalyses ,6=>F76=>@Q/ustave +. Shu)ert ,B.(. 6=8@- O Vi e President for Domesti Programs of Rand Cor0. ,6=>@76=AFS ott (dams ,B.(. 6=<5- O De0uty Dire tor of National Li)rary of .edi ine DWashington, D.C.E ,6=>576=>=3verett Smith ,B.(. 6=6F- O President of (meri an Bi)le So iety ,6=>476=>A"eremiah .il)ank "r. ,B.(. 6=84- O #inan e Chairman of Re0u)li an National Committee ,6=>=76=A4, 6=AF76=AA#rank C. Bro0hy ,B.(. 6=6A- O .em)er of the national oun il of "ohn Bir h So iety ,6=>676=A@-9 President, Bank of Douglas D(riC.E ,6=<F7FF"onathan /oodhue Sherman ,B.(. 6=4=- O Protestant 30is o0al Bisho0 for the 30is o0al Dio ese of Long :sland ,6=>>76=AACollege (dministrators* Q$ingman Bre!ster "r. ,B.(. 6=86- O President of ?ale %niversity ,6=><76=AACharles +enry &aylor "r. ,B.(. 6=F5, ..(. 6=F4, Ph.D. 6=FF, SK$ 6=F5- O Provost of ?ale %niversity ,6=>876=A4Reu)en (. +olden ,B.(. 6=85, SKB 6=85- O Se retary of ?ale %niversity ,6=F<76=A6"ohn 3d!in 3 klund ,B.(. 6=<@, SKB 6=<@- O &reasurer of ?ale %niversity ,6=>>76=A@William Sloane Coffin "r. ,B.(. 6=8=9 SKB 6=8=- O Cha0lain of ?ale %niversity ,6=F@76=A>-9 C:( agent ,6=F576=F<Ray LorenCo +effner, "r. ,B.(. 6=8F, SK$ 6=8F- O President of Bro!n %niversity ,6=>>76=>=QDouglas .. $night ,B.(. 6=84- O President of Duke %niversity ,6=><76=>=Philli0 Raymond Shriver ,B.(. 6=8<- O President of .iami %niversity D2hioE ,6=>F76=@6+omer D. Ba))idge, "r. ,B.(. 6=8F, Ph.D. 6=F<, SK$ 6=8>- O President of the %niversity of Conne ti ut ,6=>476=A4&homas Cor!in .endenhall :: ,B.(. 6=<4, Ph.D. 6=<@- O President of Smith College ,6=F=76=AFRi hard Daniel Weigle ,B.(. 6=<6, Ph.D. 6=<=- O President of St. "ohnGs College D(nna0olis, .arylandE ,6=8=76=@5"ohn (rthur Logan "r. ,B.(. 6=8=, Ph.D. 6=F8- O President of +ollins College DRoanoke, VirginiaE ,6=>676=AF+arold B. Whiteman, "r. ,B.(. 6=869 Ph.D. 6=F@, SK$ 6=86- O President of S!eet Briar College DVirginiaE ,6=A676=@<-9 Vi e Chan ellor of Ne! ?ork %niversity ,6=>=76=A6-9 Professor of +istory at Ne! ?ork %niversity ,6=>>76=A6#enton $eyes ,B.(. 6=<A, Ph.D. 6=84- O President of Coker College D+artsville, South CarolinaE ,6=>576=>@Q+arvey Brooks ,B.(. 6=<A- O Dean of 3ngineering and (00lied Physi s at +arvard %niversity ,6=FA76=AFProsser /ifford ,B.(. 6=F6, SK$ 6=F6- O Dean of #a ulty at (mherst College ,6=>A76=A=QWilliam D. Carmi hael ,B.(. 6=F5- O Dean of /raduate S hool of Business and Pu)li (dministration at Cornell %niversity ,6=>476=>@-

"ose0h +erman &aggart ,Ph.B. 6=48- O Dean of /raduate S hool of Business (dministration at Ne! ?ork %niversity ,6=F=76=A5College Professors* Q"ohn N. +aCard ,B.(. 6=<5- O Professor of Pu)li La! at Colum)ia %niversity ,6=8>76=AAQWilliam L. Cary ,B.(. 6=<6- O Professor of La! at Colum)ia %niversity ,6=FF76=@<Q+enry L. Ro)erts ,B.(. 6=<@- O Professor of +istory at Colum)ia %niversity ,6=F>76=>A-9 Professor of +istory at Dartmouth College ,6=>A7A4Q(. Doak Barnett ,B.(. 6=84- O Professor of Politi al S ien e at Colum)ia %niversity ,6=>676=>=Willis Livingston .esier Reese ,B.(. 6=<F9 LL.B. 6=<@- O Charles 3vans +ughes Professor of La! at Colum)ia %niversity ,6=8>76=@6(llen &ra y +aCen ,B.(. 6=4A, Ph.D. 6=<F- O Professor of 3nglish at Colum)ia %niversity ,6=8@76=A6/rant /ilmore ,B.(. 6=<6, Ph.D. 6=<>, LL.B. 6=84- O Professor of La! at ?ale %niversity ,6=8>76=>F-9 Professor of La! at %niversity of Chi ago ,6=>F76=A<-9 Sterling Professor of La! at ?ale %niversity ,6=A<76=A@&homas :r!in 3merson ,B.(. 6=4@, LL.B. 6=<6- O Professor of La! at ?ale La! S hool ,6=8>76=A>Ral0h Shar0 Bro!n "r. ,B.(. 6=<F9 LL.B. 6=<=- O Professor of La! at ?ale La! S hool ,6=F<7 .6==@-9 (sso iate Dean of ?ale La! S hool ,6=>F76=A5"an /inter Deuts h ,B.(. 6=FF9 Ph.D. 6=>49 LL.B. 6=>4, SK$ 6=FF- O Professor of La! at ?ale %niversity ,6=>@74558Ral0h $. Winter "r. ,B.(. 6=FA9 LL.B. 6=>5- O Professor of La! at ?ale %niversity ,6=>@76=@4William "ay Willis ,B.S. 6=F8, Ph.D. 6=F@- O Professor of Physi s at ?ale %niversity ,6=>87 .6=A4Le!is Book!alter Ward ,B.(. 6=<5, Ph.D. 6=<8- O Professor of Business Resear h at +arvard %niversity ,6=F=76=A8QSamuel P. +untington ,B.(. 6=8>- O Professor of /overnment at +arvard %niversity ,6=>47455@Q"erome (. Cohen ,B.(. 6=F69 ".D. 6=FF- O "eremiah ". Smith Professor of La! at +arvard %niversity ,6=>876=@6+enry Larkin &errie "r. ,B.(. 6=8<- O Professor of 3nglish at Dartmouth College ,6=F=76=@>Ri hard Whitney Sterling ,B.(. 6=84, ..(. 6=8A, Ph.D. 6=F>- O Professor of /overnment at Dartmouth College ,6=>47 .6=@ALyman B. S0itCer "r. ,B.(. 6=<F, SKB 6=<F- O Charles (. ?oung Professor of (stronomy at Prin eton %niversity ,6=F476=@4Charles (. Barker ,B.(. 6=4>, Ph.D. 6=<4- O Professor of (meri an +istory at "ohns +o0kins %niversity ,6=8F76=A4#ran is 3. Rourke ,B.(. 6=8A, ..(. 6=8@- O Professor of Politi al S ien e at "ohns +o0kins %niversity ,6=>676==<3lias Lyn h Rivers ,B.(. 6=8@9 ..(. 6=F59 Ph.D. 6=F4- O Professor of S0anish at "ohns +o0kins %niversity ,6=>876=A@Bert #ranklin /reen "r. ,B.(. 6=8=- O Professor of Psy hology at "ohns +o0kins %niversity ,6=>=76==@(rthur Stuart Pitt ,B.(. 6=<F, ..(. 6=<A, Ph.D. 6=<=- O Professor of 3nglish at %.S. Naval ( ademy ,6=F876=A@Bernard Ce il Cohen ,B.(. 6=8@9 ..(. 6=F59 Ph.D. 6=F4- O Professor of Politi al S ien e at %niversity of Wis onsin D.adisonE ,6=><76==53d!ard V. /uli k ,B.(. 6=<A, ..(. 6=84, Ph.D. 6=8A- O Prof. of 3uro0ean +istory and #ar 3astern +istory at Wellesley College ,6=>67 .6=A>BenHamin . Lane S0o k ,B.(. 6=4F, SK$ 6=4F- O Professor of Child Develo0ment at Western Reserve %niversity DClevelandE ,6=FF76=>A3verard .ott Williams ,B.S. 6=<>, Ph.D. 6=<=- O Professor of 3ngineering at Carnegie .ellon %niversity DPitts)urghE ,6=8=76=A4Phili0 (drian Wads!orth ,B.(. 6=<F, Ph.D. 6=<=- O Professor of #ren h at Ri e %niversity D+ouston, &e'asE ,6=>876=A<Charles Leslie Stevenson ,B.(. 6=<5- O Professor of Philoso0hy at %niversity of .i higan ,6=8=76=AA2tis (rnold Pease ,B.(. 6=8=, Ph.D. 6=F8, SK$ 6=8=- O Professor of +istory at the %niversity of Washington DSeattleE ,6=>>76==FRo)ert Stafford Ward ,B.(. 6=4=- O Professor of 3nglish at the %niversity of .iami D#loridaE ,6=F>76=A4David &hornton Smith ,B.(. 6=FA- O Professor of La! at %niversity of #lorida ,6=>=7455<Simon Ne! om) Whitney ,B.(. 6=48, Ph.D. 6=<6- O Professor of 3 onomi s at Rutgers %niversity ,6=>676=>A-9 Professor of 3 onomi s at Ne! ?ork %niversity ,6=8=76=F8, 6=>A76=A6-9 Dire tor of the Bureau of 3 onomi s at the #ederal &rade Commission ,6=F>76=>6(nthony Ni holas Brady /arvan ,B.(. 6=<=9 Ph.D. 6=8@, SK$ 6=<=- O Professor of (meri an CiviliCation at %niv. of Pennsylvania ,6=>576=@A&aylor Cul)ert ,B.(. 6=<=- O Professor of 3nglish at 2hio %niversity ,6=>F76=@A-9 Dean of the /raduate College at 2hio %niversity ,6=>F7 6=A5-9 Provost of 2hio %niversity ,6=AF76=A>2s!ald /arrison Villard "r. ,B.(. 6=<@- O Professor of 3le tri al 3ngineering at Stanford %niversity ,6=FF76=@A-9 .em)er of %nited States (ir #or e S ientifi (dvisory Board ,6=>676=AF-9 great7grandson of a)olitionist William Lloyd /arrison Do tors ,.edi ine-* "ose0h Vin ent &erenCio ,B.(. 6=<=- O Commissioner of +os0itals of Ne! ?ork City ,6=>>76=A5+arold 3d!ard +arrison ,B.S. 6=4@9 ..D. 6=<6- O Pediatri ian7in7Chief of Baltimore City +os0itals ,6=8F76=AFDavid Daniel Denker ,B.(. 6=8@9 Ph.D. 6=F6- O President of Ne! ?ork .edi al College ,6=>A76=>=-9 Professor of +istory at Rutgers %niversity ,6=F@76=>A(l)ert #. Wessen ,B.(. 6=8@9 Ph.D. 6=F6- O Professor of So iology at Washington %niversity Din St. LouisE ,6=>F76=A5-9 Professor of So iology at Bro!n %niversity ,6=A57 .6=A>-9 Chief of )ehavioral s ien e unit, World +ealth 2rganiCation ,W+2- in /eneva, S!itCerland ,6=>A7 .6=A>Ro)ert Straus ,B.(. 6=8<9 ..(. 6=8F9 Ph.D. 6=8A- O Chairman of National (dvisory Committee on (l oholism ,6=>>76=>=William 3d!ard Lau0us ,B.S. 6=8<9 ..D. 6=8F- O Professor of Pediatri s and Chairman of the de0artment at the .edi al College of Virginia and Virginia Common!ealth %niversity DRi hmond, VirginiaE ,6=><76=AFPaul Cala)resi ,B.(. 6=F6, ..D. 6=FF- O Professor of .edi al S ien e at Bro!n %niversity ,6=>@7L-9 Physi ian7in7Chief at Roger Williams /eneral +os0ital in Providen e, Rhode :sland ,6=>@7L+enry Brill ,B.(. ?ale 6=4@, ..D. ?ale 6=<4- O (dministrator of Ne! ?ork State .ental +ygiene Resear h Program ,6=F476=>8-9 Vi e Chairman of Ne! ?ork State Nar oti (ddi tion Control Commission ,6=>>76=>@-9 .em)er of the National Commission on .ariHuana and Drug ()use ,6=A676=A<-9 Chairman of the ommittee of hallu inogeni drugs at #D(7N:.+ ,6=>576=A52thers* Q"ohn #or)es $erry ,B.(. 6=>>, SKB 6=>>- O Navy Lieutenant during the Vietnam War9 0rominent anti7Vietnam War a tivist /eorge W. Bush ,B.(. 6=>@, SKB 6=>@- O Lieutenant in the &e'as (ir National /uard during the Vietnam War9 son of /eorge +.W. Bush ,B.(. 6=8@, SKB 6=8@- and grandson of former %.S. Senator Pres ott S. Bush ,B.(. 6=6A, SKB 6=6AQBarry Morthian ,B.(. 6=869 SKB 6=86- O Chief %.S. S0okesman and Dire tor of "oint %.S. Pu)li (ffairs 2ffi e in Saigon ,6=>876=>@-9 Vi e President of &ime, :n . ,6=>=76=A=Ri hard Ward Day ,B.(. 6=<@, Ph.D. +arvard 6=F5- O Prin i0al of Philli0s 3'eter ( ademy ,6=>876=A8Note* QR.em)er of the Coun il on #oreign Relations9 SKB R Skull K Bones9 SK$ R S roll K $ey Note* Ro)ert %0Hohn Red0ath "r.Gs offi e address !as lo ated at >>> #ifth (venue in Ne! ?ork City. Note* "ose0h #. Cullman :::Gs Phili0 .orris Co. or0orate head;uarters !as lo ated at 655 Park (venue in Ne! ?ork City.

#rom left to right* (rmy Chief of Staff /en. +arold $. "ohnson, Se retary of the (rmy Stanley Resor, National Se urity (dvisor . /eorge Bundy, President Lyndon B. "ohnson, and Se retary of Defense Ro)ert . Namara meet to dis uss the Vietnam War on "uly 44, 6=>F. St'n!e$ 5e#or 'n. &c:eor"e 7un.$ -ere B'!e "r'.u'te#1 ,Photo* Lyndon B. "ohnson Presidential Li)rary-

,=’ll tell you% the more = Fust stayed a-a4e last night% thin4ing a#out this thing .Vietnam <ar/% the more = thin4 of itDit loo4s li4e to me -e’re getting into another Korea0 =t Fust -orries the hell out of meDand = don’t thin4 it’s -orth fighting for and = don’t thin4 -e 2an get out and it’s Fust the #iggest damn mess05 6 70S0 President )yndon *aines +ohnson% Hay $O% 1&'J% in a ta3e8re2orded tele3hone 2on"ersation -ith ational Se2urity Ad"isor H2George *undy

President Lyndon B. "ohnson is Hoined )y several of his to0 advisors to dis uss the Vietnam War at Cam0 David on (0ril =, 6=>@. :t is )elieved )y some that the meeting !as held so as to e' use the 0resident from attending .artin Luther $ing, "r.Ss funeral. &he men de0i ted are ,from left to right-* %.S. (m)assador to South Vietnam 3lls!orth Bunker, President Lyndon B. "ohnson, (verell +arriman, Se retary of State Dean Rusk, and Chairman of the "oint Chiefs of Staff /eneral 3arle Wheeler. =!!#-ort( 7un4er 'n. Avere!! 9'rr m'n -ere B'!e "r'.u'te#1 ,Wally . Namee1C2RB:S-

President Lyndon B. "ohnson ,left- meets !ith Coun il on #oreign Relations mem)ers ,left to right- Walt Rosto!, William Bundy, Cyrus Van e, and former President D!ight 3isenho!er a)oard (ir #or e 2ne on (0ril 6@, 6=>@. 8'!t 5o#to-, 8 !! 'm 7un.$, 'n. ;$ru# D'nce -ere B'!e "r'.u'te#1 ,Photo* ?oi hi R. 2kamoto1Lyndon B. "ohnson Presidential Li)rary-

.em)ers of the ?ale Cor0oration in (0ril 6=>@ #ront ro!, left to right* "ose0h :r!in .iller (;(' rm'n o, t(e bo'r. o, ;umm n# =n" ne ;o1), "ohn +ay Whitney (,ormer C1S1 Amb'##'.or to :re't 7r t' n), 3d!in #oster Blair, $ingman Bre!ster "r. (+re# .ent o, B'!e Cn ver# t$) , &he Reverend /ardiner .umford Day, "ose0h Ri hardson Dil!orth (;(' rm'n o, t(e bo'r. o, 5oc4e,e!!er ;enter, 0nc1), and +arold +o!e :: (C1S1 ;omm ## oner o, =.uc't on). Ba k ro!, left to right* William Warren S ranton, &he Right Reverend Paul .oore "r., "ohn Vliet Lindsay (&'$or o, Ne- Bor4 ; t$) , William . Chesney .artin "r. (;(' rm'n o, t(e 3e.er'! 5e#erve), William Putnam Bundy (A## #t'nt Secret'r$ o, St'te ,or ='#t A# 'n 'n. +'c , c A,,' r#), Caryl Parker +askins (+re# .ent o, ;'rne" e 0n#t tut on o, 8'#( n"ton), #rederi k Bald!in (dams "r., William +oro!itC, and S0en er Dumares; .oseley. ()sent* (rthur $ittredge Watson (;(' rm'n o, 07& 8or!. <r'.e ;orpor't on). 3d!in #oster Blair, "ose0h Ri hardson Dil!orth, +arold +o!e ::, William Putnam Bundy, #rederi k Bald!in (dams "r., and S0en er Dumares; .oseley !ere mem)ers of S4u!! A 7one#. "ohn +ay Whitney and "ohn Vliet Lindsay !ere mem)ers of Scro!! A ?e$. &he Right Reverend Paul .oore "r. !as a mem)er of 8o!,E# 9e'.. • • • • • • • • • • • • +istori al 3vents in 6=>@ "anuary 46, 6=>@ O Blue +ouse Raid in Seoul, South $orea9 attem0ted assassination of South $oreaGs President Park Chung7hee "anuary 4<, 6=>@ O Ca0ture of USS Pueblo )y North $orea #e)ruary 6, 6=>@ O &et 2ffensive in Saigon, South Vietnam .ar h 6>, 6=>@ O .y Lai .assa re in South Vietnam (0ril 8, 6=>@ O (ssassination of Dr. .artin Luther $ing "r. in .em0his (0ril7.ay 6=>@ O Protests at Colum)ia %niversity in Ne! ?ork City (0ril 4>74@, 6=>@ O Bilder)erg .eetings in .ont &rem)lant, Canada "une F, 6=>@ O (ssassination of %.S. Senator and 0residential andidate Ro)ert #. $ennedy in Los (ngeles (ugust 45746, 6=>@ O Soviet :nvasion of CCe hoslovakia (ugust 4>74=, 6=>@ O Riots at the Demo rati National Convention in Chi ago 2 to)er 44, 6=>@ O /un Control ( t of 6=>@ is signed into la! )y %.S. President Lyndon B. "ohnson Novem)er F, 6=>@ O 3le tion of Ri hard Ni'on as President of the %nited States

6=>@ O Ra))i .eir David $ahane esta)lishes the "e!ish Defense League in Ne! ?ork City

Vietnam <ar: =n Their >-n <ords
,<AL is a ra24et0 =t al-ays has #een0 =t is 3ossi#ly the oldest% easily the most 3rofita#le% surely the most "i2ious0 =t is the only one international in s2o3e0 =t is the only one in -hi2h the 3rofits are re24oned in dollars and the losses in li"es0 A ra24et is #est des2ri#ed% = #elie"e% as something that is not -hat it seems to the maFority of the 3eo3le0 >nly a small ,inside5 grou3 4no-s -hat it is a#out0 =t is 2ondu2ted for the #enefit of the "ery fe-% at the eA3ense of the "ery many0 >ut of -ar a fe3eo3le ma4e huge fortunes05 6 Smedley !0 *utler% Letired HaFor General of the 70S0 Harine Cor3s% War is a acket

Gen0 Smedley !0 *utler ,<hy% of 2ourse the 3eo3le don’t -ant -ar0 <hy -ould some 3oor slo# on a farm -ant to ris4 his life in a -ar -hen the #est that he 2an get out of it is to 2ome #a24 to his farm in one 3ie2e? aturally% the 2ommon 3eo3le don’t -ant -arM neither in Lussia nor in Bngland% nor in Ameri2a% nor for that matter in Germany0 That is understood0 *ut% after all% it is the leaders of the 2ountry -ho determine the 3oli2y and it is al-ays a sim3le matter to drag the 3eo3le along -hether it@s a demo2ra2y% a fas2ist di2tatorshi3% a 3arliament% or a 2ommunist di2tatorshi30 D#ut "oi2e or no "oi2e% the 3eo3le 2an al-ays #e #rought to the #idding of the leaders0 That is easy0 All you ha"e to do is tell them they are #eing atta24ed% and denoun2e the 3a2ifists for la24 of 3atriotism and eA3osing the 2ountry to danger0 =t -or4s the same -ay in any 2ountry05 6 1ermann Goering% in a 2on"ersation -ith 70S0 Army Ca3tain Gusta"e Gil#ert in a 3rison 2ell during the urem#erg trials% on A3ril 1N% 1&J'0 from !urem"er# $iary% #y Gusta"e H0 Gil#ert ,*ut the safety of the 3eo3le of Ameri2a against dangers from %orei#n for2e de3ends not only on their for#earing to gi"e &ust 2auses of -ar to other nations% #ut also on their 3la2ing and 2ontinuing themsel"es in su2h a situation as not to invite hostility or insultM for it need not #e o#ser"ed that there are pretended as -ell as Fust 2auses of -ar0 =t is too true% ho-e"er disgra2eful it may #e to human nature% that nations in general -ill ma4e -ar -hene"er they ha"e a 3ros3e2t of getting anything #y itM nay% a#solute monar2hs -ill often ma4e -ar -hen their nations are to get nothing #y it% #ut for the 3ur3oses and o#Fe2ts merely 3ersonal% su2h as thirst for military glory% re"enge for 3ersonal affronts% am#ition% or 3ri"ate 2om3a2ts to aggrandize or su33ort their 3arti2ular families or 3artisans0 These and a "ariety of other moti"es% -hi2h affe2t only the mind of the so"ereign% often lead him to engage in -ars not san2tified #y Fusti2e or the "oi2e and interests of his 3eo3le05 6 +ohn +ay% 'edera(ist o0 J ,>f all the enemies to 3u#li2 li#erty -ar is% 3erha3s% the most to #e dreaded% #e2ause it 2om3rises and de"elo3s the germ of e"ery other0 <ar is the 3arent of armiesM from these 3ro2eed de#ts and taAesM and armies% and de#ts% and taAes are the 4no-n instruments for #ringing the many under the domination of the fe-0 =n -ar% too% the dis2retionary 3o-er of the BAe2uti"e is eAtendedM its influen2e in dealing out offi2es% honors% and emoluments is multi3liedM and all the means of sedu2ing the minds% are added to those of su#duing the for2e% of the 3eo3le0 The same malignant as3e2t in re3u#li2anism may #e tra2ed in the ineEuality of fortunes% and the o33ortunities of fraud% gro-ing out of a state of -ar% and in the degenera2y of manners and of morals engendered #y #oth0 o nation 2ould 3reser"e its freedom in the midst of 2ontinual -arfare05 6 70S0 Congressman +ames Hadison% from Po(itica( )"servations% A3ril $G% 1O&I

1ermann Goering

+ohn +ay

+ames Hadison

Prelude to Vietnam <ar% Part 1: The !rug Trade

Chinese o3ium den in Vietnam0 The smo4ers are in 2lean surroundings and healthy8loo4ing% 3ossi#ly #e2ause at least one is smo4ing a to#a22o 3i3e% not an o3ium 3i3e% L*+((ustration% 1&1N0 From Phili3 Choy 2olle2tion0 9Sour2e: htt3:KK---02inar20orgK>3ium8$0html;

( Vietnamese man 0re0ares to smoke o0ium. ,Photo* htt0*11!!!.o0iummuseum. om1inde'.0lL0i sK>>-

Paul !oumer ser"ed as the Go"ernor8General of Fren2h =ndo2hina from 1N&O81&G$ and President of Fran2e from +une 1(% 1&(1 to Hay O% 1&($0 Paul !oumer -as assassinated #y a ,lone gunman5 named Paul Gorguloff% a Lussian WmigrW% in Paris% Fran2e on Hay '% 1&($M Paul !oumer died of his -ounds the neAt day0 9Sour2e: Vietnam: A History #y Stanley Karno-;

,The la#oring 2lasses% mostly Chinese and Vietnamese Chinese% u3on -hom the 3redominantly agri2ulturally #ased e2onomy relied% s3ent mu2h of their earnings on o3ium0 Families star"ed to death% disease -as -ides3read and the drug undermined -or4ers’ a#ilities0 The Fren2h8trained nati"e 2i"il ser"i2e elite -ere most of them addi2ts and 2orru3t0 <hen anti82olonial% nationalist sentiments #egan to #e "oi2ed% the o3ium mono3oly -as 2ited as the -orst as3e2t of Fren2h domination and one of the lin2h83ins of 1o Chi Hinh’s anti82olonial 3ro3aganda0 =t -as the Fren2h -ho enti2ed the 1mong hill tri#es of northern )aos to 2hange their 2ash 2ro3 to o3ium during the Se2ond <orld <ar% o#taining their 2o8o3eration #y 3romising 3oliti2al su33ort0 Produ2tion rose #y NGG 3er 2ent from O0I tons in 1&JG to 'G0' tons in 1&JJ and the 1mong tri#es% arguing o"er o3ium rights and re"enues% s3lit into fa2tions -hi2h 2aused a Euarter of a 2entury of 2i"il -ar0 =n neigh#ouring Ton4in% the Fren2h 3oliti2ally sided -ith Tai feudal leaders -ho 3ur2hased 1mong o3ium #ut dou#le82rossed them -hen it 2ame time to 3ay% 2ausing the 1mong to ta4e sides -ith the Viet Hinh against the Fren2h0 The Viet Hinh and% therefore% ultimately the Viet Cong% had their struggle 3artly aided #y the o3ium trade they detested0 The Fren2h sto33ed the o3ium mono3oly in 1&J' #ut% u3on losing the re"enue from it% unoffi2ially san2tioned Fren2h intelligen2e organizations to ta4e o"er the traffi24ing of o3iates to fund 2o"ert o3erations in the First =ndo8China <ar of 1&J'8IJ0 <ith ty3i2al Galli2 guile% 2orru3t Fren2h intelligen2e offi2ers in 2olla#oration -ith Corsi2an gangsters o3erated the =ndo8Chinese #ased international drugs trade0 The money they earned -as "ital0 The -ar -as underfunded from Paris% -here 3u#li2 o3inion -as against it% so Fren2h military and intelligen2e offi2ers too4 a ne- ta240 =n >3eration R% they dealt in o3ium to 3ay and arm lo2al grou3s in order to 4ee3 the Viet Hinh at #ay0 The Fren2h% therefore% in2reased the illi2it traffi2 in o3ium% ta4ing a 2ut of the 3rofits to 3ay -hat -ere% in effe2t% mer2enaries: indi"idual Fren2h offi2ials and military 3ersonnel also 2reamed off 3er2entages for themsel"es and #e2ame ri2h on the 3ro2eeds0 This 3ra2ti2e did not sto3 until the Fren2h Euit =ndo8China0 The ra- o3ium in -hi2h they dealt -as 3ur2hased from the 1mong then flo-n #y Fren2h military trans3ort to Saigon -here it -as 3re3ared and distri#uted to dens and dealers #y the *inh Ruyen0 This -as a Vietnamese 2riminal syndi2ate -hi2h 2ontrolled organized 2rime in the south of the 2ountry and to -hose nefarious a2ti"ities the Fren2h turned a #lind eye in eA2hange for their 2o8o3eration and o22asional hel3 against the Viet Hinh0 The *inh Ruyen leader% )e Van X*ay’ Vien% #e2ame the ri2hest man in Saigon #y 1&IJ for he not only ran the domesti2 o3ium mar4et #ut he sold any sur3lus on to Chinese and Corsi2an syndi2ates0 <ith Fren2h 2olonial 3o-er re2eding and Vietnam 3artitioned% the Ameri2ans% -ho -ere in2reasing their influen2e in the ne- South Vietnam to 2ounter Communist eA3ansion% su33orted a ne3rime minister% go !inh !iem% -ho -as fier2ely o33osed to the Communist Viet Hinh0 !iem destroyed the *inh Ruyen -hi2h he 3er2ei"ed as a 3oliti2al threat0 <ith the de3arture of )e Van Vien and his 2ohorts% and the 2losure of >3eration R% o3ium smuggling in #ul4 from )aos 2eased -ith selling left to 3etty 2riminals0 The "a2uum -as Eui24ly filled #y the Corsi2an syndi2ates -ho had had re3resentati"es in Saigon and Vientiane% the 2a3ital of )aos% sin2e the Fren2h BA3editionary Cor3s had arri"ed in the late 1&JGs% sent out to fight in the -ar0 Conne2ted to 2omrades in Harseilles% they had #een running gold% gemstones% 2urren2y and nar2oti2s #et-een the Fren2h 3ort and Saigon throughout hostilities0 They instigated a num#er of small 2harter air freight 2om3anies% 2olle2ti"ely referred to as Air >3ium 9not to #e 2onfused -ith Air Ameri2a;0 Some 3ilots -ere Fren2h 2riminals and some eA8Lesistan2e fighters form the Se2ond <orld <ar% in2luding the famous dou#le agent% 1enri !eri2ourt0 7nder the leadershi3 of *ona"enture XLo24’ Fran2is2i% a Corsi2an gangster -ho o3erated Air )aos Commer2iale% they fle- mor3hine #ase form the golden Triangle to Saigon then freighted it on-ard #y sea to Buro3e0 <hilst the Corsi2ans -ere setting u3 a South8east Asian #ran2h of the Fren2h Conne2tion% the go"ernment of go !inh !iem -as running short of funds0 1e legalized o3ium dens in 1&IN and% as other South Vietnamese go"ernments -ere to do% used the re"enue to 3ay for the fight against the Viet Cong05 6 )pium: A History #y Hartin *ooth

<inh @uyen
<ith their stronghold in the Cholon se2tion near Saigon% the <inh @uyen were drug smugglers -ho traditionally traded su33ort for legal 3rote2tion of their ra24ets% -hether they -ere dealing -ith the Fren2h Bm3ire or the Vietminh nationalists0 Their trade -as 3rostitution% gam#ling 2asinos% and o3ium dens0 =n 3ost8<orld <ar == Vietnam% the *inh Ruyen #e2ame a 3o-erful 3oliti2al fa2tion under the leadershi3 of *ay Vien0 =n 1&JI the *inh Ruyen 3ro"ided terrorists to the Vietminh% -ho assassinated more than 1IG Fren2h 2i"ilians% in2luding -omen and 2hildren0 =n order to generate the funds ne2essary to sustain his go"ernment% Bm3eror *ao !ai readily a22e3ted money from the *inh Ruyen% -ho re2ei"ed legal 3rote2tion for their ra24ets in return0 *ao !ai made *ay Vien a general in the Vietnamese army and ga"e him 2om3lete authority o"er the 2asinos% 3rostitution% o3ium traffi2% gold smuggling% 2urren2y mani3ulation% and other ra24ets0 The Fren2h a22e3ted *ay Vien@s authority and e"en used his 3ri"ate *inh Ruyen army to fight the Vietminh0 *y the early 1&IGs% the *inh Ruyen army had rea2hed more than JG%GGG soldiers and it -as a maFor 3oliti2al8military fa2tion in southern Vietnam0 After se2uring 2ontrol of the ne- go"ernment of South Vietnam in the s3ring of 1&II% go !inh !iem de2ided to 2rush the 3oliti2al and religious fa2tions in the SouthVli4e the 1oa 1ao and Cao !aiVand one of the most 3o-erful -as the *inh Ruyen0 >n A3ril $O% 1&II% !iem ordered *ay Vien and the *inh Ruyen to remo"e its troo3s from Saigon% and -hen they refused !iem atta24ed0 The #attle raged inside the 2ity% 4illing more than IGG 3eo3le and lea"ing $I%GGG -ithout homes0 The Fren2h and *ao !ai tried to assist the *inh Ruyen% #ut !iem 3re"ailed0 *y the end of Hay% *ay Vien had fled to Paris and the *inh Ruyen army had #een dri"en into the He4ong !elia% -here many of them Foined the Viet2ong guerrillas0 Sour2e: htt3:KK---0"ietnam-ar0netK*inhRuyen0htm

)e Grand Honde Casino in the Cholon !istri2t .Chinese !istri2t/ in Saigon in the early 1&IGs 9Photo: htt3:KKsaigon0"ietnam0free0frKsaigonUenO03h3;

*ay Vien% head of the *inh Ruyen

Saigon’s Cholon !istri2t at night 9Photo: htt3:KKsaigon0"ietnam0free0frKsaigonUenO03h3;

( 0ost ard from #ren h :ndo hina sho!ing a Vietnamese o0ium smoker !ith a modest layout. ,Photo* htt0*11!!!.o0iummuseum. om1inde'.0lL0i sK>>-

Nationalist Chinese flags fly side )y side !ith #ren h olors in the Cholon Distri t of Saigon, Vietnam in .ar h 6=F5. ,Photo* Carl .ydans1&ime Life-

Peo0le !alk around on the main street of the Cholon Distri t in Saigon, Vietnam in .ar h 6=F5. Cholon is the Chinese se tion of Saigon. ,Photo* Carl .ydans1&ime Life-

Vietnamese men -al4 -ith their oAen as their oAen 3ulls a 2art loaded -ith mer2handise in Saigon% Vietnam in +uly 1&JN0 9Photo: +a24 *irnsKTime )ife;

Lesidents of Saigon ride the street 2ar in Saigon% Vietnam .Fren2h =ndo2hina/ in +uly 1&JN0 9Photo: Time )ife;

!o-nto-n Saigon in the early 1&IGs 9Photo: htt3:KKmua2hieu0multi3ly02omKFournalKitemK''K'';

#ren h soldiers share a drink at a side!alk afe in Saigon, Vietnam ,#ren h :ndo hina- in "uly 6=8@. ,Photo* "a k Birns1&ime Life-

Bao DaiSs 0i ture adorns the ity hall in Saigon, Vietnam in .ar h 6=F5. ,Photo* Carl .ydans1&ime Life-

A 3i2ture of *ao !ai hang on the Saigon 2ity hall in Saigon% Vietnam in Har2h 1&IG0 9Photo: Carl HydansKTime )ife;

A 2afW in Saigon 9Photo: htt3:KKsaigon0"ietnam0free0frKsaigonUenO03h3;

Colonial Saigon 9Photo: htt3:KKmua2hieu0multi3ly02omKFournalKitemK''K'';

&he Continental Pala e +otel in Saigon, South Vietnam in 6=>>, in the right )a kground, !as home to most of the famous !ar orres0ondents of the time. &he o0en air ground level 0atio )ar and restaurant served some of the )est drinks and meals ,and drugs- in Saigon and !as fre;uented )y some e'traordinarily interesting 0eo0le. &he Continental Pala e is still in o0eration today. ,Photo* Wiki0edia-

Do!nto!n Saigon in the 6=>5s ,Photo* htt0*11mua hieu.multi0ly. om1Hournal1item1>>1>>-

Lue Catinat and Continental Pala2e 1otel in Saigon 9Photo: htt3:KKsaigon0"ietnam0free0frKsaigonUenO03h3;

!o-nto-n Saigon in the 1&'Gs% #efore the Tet >ffensi"e 9Photo: htt3:KKmua2hieu0multi3ly02omKFournalKitemK''K'';

T-o Vietnamese -omen dan2e together at a night2lu# in Saigon in the early 1&IGs0 9Photo: htt3:KKsaigon0"ietnam0free0frKsaigonUenO03h3;

&he smuggling of heroin and o0ium along the .ekong River and around Bangkok and Saigon !as ram0ant during the Vietnam War.

BA2er3ts from ,he Po(itics o% Heroin in Southeast Asia #y Alfred <0 H2Coy 91&O$;

2hapter /A9 &he <inh @uyen9 6rder and 6pium in Saigon

<hile the history of S!BCB and HACGs dire2t in"ol"ement in the tri#al o3ium trade 3ro"ides an eAoti2 2ha3ter in the history of the nar2oti2s traffi2% the in"ol"ement of Saigon@s *inh Ruyen ri"er 3irates -as the 3rodu2t of a ty3e of 3oliti2al relationshi3 that has #een re3eated -ith alarming freEuen2y o"er the last half82entury8the allian2e #et-een go"ernments and gangsters0 +ust as the relationshi3 #et-een the >SS and the =talian Hafia during <orld <ar 11 and the C=A8Corsi2an allian2e in the early years of the 2old -ar affe2ted the resurre2tion of the Buro3ean heroin trade% so the Fren2h $eme *ureau@s allian2e -ith the *inh Ruyen allo-ed Saigon@s o3ium 2ommer2e to sur"i"e and 3ros3er during the First =ndo2hina <ar0 The $eme *ureau -as not an integral 2og in the me2hani2s of the traffi2 as HACG had #een in the mountainsM it remained in the #a24ground 3ro"iding o"erall 3oliti2al su33ort% allo-ing the *inh Ruyen to ta4e o"er the o3ium dens and esta#lish their o-n o3ium referen2es0 *y 1&IJ the *inh Ruyen 2ontrolled "irtually all of Saigon@s o3ium dens and dominated the distri#ution of 3re3ared o3ium throughout Co2hin China 9the southern 3art of Vietnam;0 Sin2e Co2hin China had usually 2onsumed o"er half of the mono3oly@s o3ium% and Saigon-ith its Chinese t-in 2ity% Cholon8had the highest density of smo4ers in the entire 2olony% 9IO; the $eme *ureau@s de2ision to turn the traffi2 o"er to the *inh Ruyen guaranteed the failure of the go"ernment@s anti8o3ium 2am3aign and ensured the sur"i"al of mass o3ium addi2tion in Vietnam0 The $eme *ureau@s 3a2t -ith the *inh Ruyen -as 3art of a larger Fren2h 3oli2y of using ethni2% religious% and 3oliti2al fa2tions to deny territory to the Viet Hinh0 *y su33lying these s3linter grou3s -ith arms and money% the Fren2h ho3ed to ma4e them strong enough to ma4e their lo2alities into 3ri"ate fiefs% there#y neutralizing the region and freeing regular 2om#at troo3s from garrison duty0 *ut Saigon -as not Fust another 2lum3 of ri2e 3addies% it -as Fran2e@s CPearl of the >rient%C the ri2hest% most im3ortant 2ity in =ndo2hina0 =n gi"ing Saigon to the *inh Ruyen% #lo24 #y #lo24% o"er a siA8year 3eriod% the Fren2h -ere not Fust #uilding u3 another fiefdom% they -ere ma4ing these #andits the 4ey to their hold on all of Co2hin China0 1unted through the s-am3s as ri"er 3irates in the 1&JGs% #y 1&IJ their military 2ommander -as dire2tor8general of the ational Poli2e and their great 2hief% the illiterate *ay Vien% -as nominated as 3rime minister of Vietnam0 The ro##ers had #e2ome the 2o3s% the gangsters the go"ernment0 The *inh Ruyen ri"er 3irates first emerged in the early 1&$Gs in the marshes and 2anals along the southern fringes of Saigon8Cholon0 They -ere a loosely organized 2oalition of 3irate gangs% a#out t-o hundred to three hundred strong0 Armed -ith old rifles% 2lu#s% and 4ni"es% and s2hooled in Sino8Vietnamese #oAing% they eAtorted 3rote2tion money from the sam3ans and Fun4s that tra"eled the 2anals on their -ay to the Cholon do24s0 >22asionally they sortied into Cholon to 4idna3% ro#% or sha4e do-n a -ealthy Chinese mer2hant0 =f too sorely 3ressed #y the 3oli2e or the 2olonial militia% they 2ould retreat through the streams and 2anals south of Saigon dee3 into the im3enetra#le Lung Sat S-am3 at the mouth of the Saigon Li"er% -here their re3utations as 3o3ular heroes among the inha#itants% as

-ell as the maze of mangro"e s-am3s% rendered them in"ulnera#le to 2a3ture0 9IN; =f the *inh Ruyen 3irates -ere the Lo#in 1oods of Vietnam% then the Lung Sat 9CForest of the AssassinsC; -as their Sher-ood Forest0 Their 3o3ular image -as not entirely undeser"ed% for there is e"iden2e that many of the early outla-s -ere ordinary 2ontra2t la#orers -ho had fled from the ru##er 3lantations that s3rang u3 on the northern edge of the Lung Sat during the ru##er #oom of the 1&$Gs0 =nsuffi2ient food and #rutal -or4 s2hedules -ith #eatings and torture made most of the 3lantations little #etter than sla"e la#or 2am3sM many had an annual death rate higher than $G 3er2ent0 9I&; *ut the maFority of those -ho Foined the *inh Ruyen -ere Fust ordinary Cholon street toughs% and the 2areer of )e Van Vien 9C*ayC Vien; -as rather more ty3i2al0 *orn in 1&GJ on the outs4irts of Cholon% *ay Vien found himself alone% unedu2ated and in need of a Fo# after an inheritan2e dis3ute 2ost him his #irthright at age se"enteen0 1e soon fell under the influen2e of a small8time gangster -ho found him em3loyment as a 2hauffeur and introdu2ed him to the leaders of the Cholon under-orld0 9'G; As he esta#lished his under-orld re3utation% *ay Vien -as in"ited to meetings at the house of the under-orld 4ing3in% !uong Van !uong 9C*aC !uong;% in the hamlet of *inh Ruyen 9-hi2h later lent its name to the grou3;% Fust south of Cholon0 The early history of the *inh Ruyen -as an intermina#le 2y2le of 4idna33ing% 3ira2y% 3ursuit% and o22asionally im3risonment until late in <orld <ar ==% -hen +a3anese military intelligen2e% the Kem3eitai% #egan da##ling in Vietnamese 3oliti2s0 !uring 1&J(81&JJ many indi"idual gang leaders managed to ingratiate themsel"es -ith the +a3anese army% then administering Saigon Fointly -ith the Vi2hy Fren2h0 Than4s to +a3anese 3rote2tion% many gangsters -ere a#le to 2ome out of hiding and find legitimate em3loymentM *a !uong% for eAam3le% #e2ame a la#or #ro4er for the +a3anese% and under their 3rote2tion 2arried out some of Saigon@s most s3e2ta2ular -artime ro##eries0 >ther leaders Foined +a3anese8s3onsored 3oliti2al grou3s% -here they #e2ame in"ol"ed in 3oliti2s for the first time0 9'1; Hany of the *inh Ruyen #andits had already ta4en a 2rash 2ourse in Vietnamese nationalist 3oliti2s -hile im3risoned on Con Son 9Puolo Condore; island0 Finding themsel"es sharing 2ells -ith em#ittered 3oliti2al 3risoners% they 3arti2i3ated% out of #oredom if nothing else% in their heated 3oliti2al de#ates0 *ay Vien himself es2a3ed from Con Son in early 1&JI% and returned to Saigon 3oliti2ized and em#ittered to-ard Fren2h 2olonialism0 9'$; >n Har2h &% 1&JI% the fortunes of the *inh Ruyen im3ro"ed further -hen the +a3anese army #e2ame -ary of gro-ing anti8Fas2ist sentiments among their Fren2h military and 2i"ilian 2olla#orators and laun2hed a lightning 3reem3ti"e 2ou30 <ithin a fe- hours all Fren2h 3oli2e% soldiers% and 2i"il ser"ants -ere #ehind #ars% lea"ing those Vietnamese 3oliti2al grou3s fa"ored #y the +a3anese free to organize o3enly for the first time0 Some *inh Ruyen gangsters -ere gi"en amnestyM others% li4e *ay Vien% -ere hired #y the ne-ly esta#lished Vietnamese go"ernment as 3oli2e agents0 Bager for the intelligen2e% money% and men the *inh Ruyen 2ould 3ro"ide% almost e"ery 3oliti2al fa2tion 2ourted the organization "igorously0 LeFe2ting o"ertures #y 2onser"ati"es and Trots4yites% the *inh Ruyen made a de2ision of 2onsidera#le im3ortan2e 8they 2hose the Viet Hinh as their allies0 <hile this de2ision -ould ha"e #een of little 2onseEuen2e in Ton4in or 2entral Vietnam% -here the Communist8dominated Viet Hinh -as strong enough to stand alone% in Co2hin China the *inh Ruyen su33ort -as 2ru2ial0 After laun2hing an a#orti"e re"olt in 1&JG% the Co2hin di"ision of the =ndo2hina Communist 3arty had #een -ea4ened #y mass arrests and eAe2utions09'(; <hen the 3arty #egan re#uilding at the end of <orld <ar == it -as already outstri33ed #y more 2onser"ati"e nationalist grou3s% 3arti2ularly 3oliti2oreligious grou3s su2h as the 1oa 1ao and Cao !ai0 =n August 1&JI the head of the Viet Hinh in Co2hin China% Tran Van Giau% 2on"in2ed *ay Vien to 3ersuade *a !uong and the other 2hiefs to align -ith the Viet Hinh0 9'J; <hen the Viet Hinh 2alled a mass demonstration on August $I to 2ele#rate their installation as the ne- nationalist go"ernment% fifteen -ell8armed% #are82hested #andits 2arrying a large #anner de2laring C*inh Ruyen Assassination CommitteeC Foined the tens of thousands of demonstrators -ho mar2hed Fu#ilantly through do-nto-n Saigon for o"er nine hours0 9'I; For almost a month the Viet Hinh ran the 2ity% managing its 3u#li2 utilities and 3atrolling the streets% until late Se3tem#er% -hen arri"ing *ritish and Fren2h troo3s too4 2harge0 <orld <ar == had 2ome to an a#ru3t end on August 1I% -hen the +a3anese surrendered to the Allies in the -a4e of atomi2 atta24s on 1iroshima and agasa4i0 Allied 2ommanders had #een 3re3aring for a long% #loody in"asion of the +a3anese home islands% and -ere suddenly fa2ed -ith the enormous 3ro#lems of disarming thousands of +a3anese troo3s s2attered a2ross Bast and Southeast Asia0 >n Se3tem#er 1$ some 1%JGG =ndian Gur4has and a 2om3any of Fren2h infantry under the 2ommand of *ritish General !ouglas !0 Gra2ey -ere airlifted to Saigon from *urma0 Although he -as under stri2t orders to stay out of 3oliti2s% General Gra2ey% an ar2h8 2olonialist% inter"ened de2isi"ely on the side of the Fren2h0 <hen a Viet Hinh -el2oming 2ommittee 3aid a 2ourtesy 2all he made no effort to 2on2eal his 3reFudi2es0 CThey 2ame to see me and said @-el2ome@ and all that sort of thing%C he later re3orted0 C=t -as an un3leasant situation and = 3rom3tly 4i24ed them out0 9''; Ten days later the *ritish se2retly rearmed some fifteen hundred Fren2h troo3s% -ho 3rom3tly eAe2uted a 2ou3% reo22u3ying the 2ity@s main 3u#li2 #uildings0 *a24ed #y +a3anese and =ndian troo3s% the Fren2h 2leared the Viet Hinh out of do-nto-n Saigon and #egan a house8to8house sear2h for nationalist leaders0 And -ith the arri"al of Fren2h troo3 shi3s from Harseille se"eral -ee4s later% Fran2e@s re2onEuest of =ndo2hina #egan in earnest0 9'O; Fearing further re3risals% the Viet Hinh -ithdre- to the -est of Saigon% lea"ing *ay Vien as military 2ommander of Saigon8Cholon0 9'N; Sin2e at that time the *inh Ruyen 2onsisted of less than a hundred men% the Viet Hinh suggested that they merge for2es -ith the 2ity-ide nationalist youth mo"ement% the A"ant8Garde :outh0 9'&; After meeting -ith *ay Vien% one of the A"ant8Garde@s Saigon leaders% the future 3oli2e 2hief )ai Van Sang% agreed that the merger made sense: his t-o thousand men la24ed arms and money% -hile

the -ealthy *inh Ruyen la24ed ran4 and file0 9OG; =t -as a 3e2uliar allian2eM Saigon@s toughest 2riminals -ere no- 2ommanding idealisti2 young students and intelligentsia0 As *ritish and Fren2h troo3s reo22u3ied do-nto-n Saigon% the *inh Ruyen too4 u3 defensi"e 3ositions along the southern and -estern edges of the 2ity0 *eginning on >2to#er $I% Fren2h thrusts into the su#ur#s smashed through their lines and #egan dri"ing them #a24 into the Lung Sat S-am30 9O1; *a !uong led the am3hi#ious retreat of thousands of *inh Ruyen troo3s% A"ant8Garde :outh% and +a3anese deserters dee3 into the Lung Sat@s -atery maze0 1o-e"er% they left #ehind a net-or4 of 2landestine 2ells 4no-n as Ca2tion 2ommitteesC 9formerly Cassassination 2ommitteesC; totaling some $IG men0 <hile *inh Ruyen -ater#orne guerrillas harassed the 2anals% the a2tion 2ommittees effe2ti"ely 3ro"ided intelligen2e% eAtorted money% and unleashed 3oliti2al terror0 Her2hants 3aid the a2tion 2ommittees regular fees for a guarantee of their 3ersonal safety% -hile the famous 2asino% the Grand Honde% 3aid S$%'GG a day as insuran2e that *inh Ruyen terrorists -ould not toss a grenade into its gaming halls0 9O$; These 2ontri#utions% along -ith arms su33lies% ena#led the *inh Ruyen to eA3and their for2es to se"en full regiments totaling ten thousand men% the largest Viet Hinh for2e in Co2hin China0 9O(; =n 1&JO% -hen the Viet Hinh de2ided to laun2h a -a"e of terror against Fren2h 2olonists% the *inh Ruyen a2tion 2ommittees 3layed a maFor role in the #om#ings% 4nifings% and assaults that 3un2tuated the daily life of Saigon8Cholon0 9OJ; *ut des3ite their im3ortant 2ontri#utions to the re"olutionary mo"ement% the *inh Ruyen marriage to the Viet Hinh -as doomed from the "ery start0 =t -as not so3histi2ated ideologi2al dis3utes that di"ided them% #ut rather more mundane sEua##lings o"er #eha"ior% dis2i3line% and territory0 Lelations #et-een *inh Ruyen gangs had al-ays #een managed on the 3rin2i3le of mutual res3e2t for ea2h 2hief@s autonomous territory0 =n 2ontrast% the Viet Hinh -ere attem3ting to #uild a mass re"olution #ased on 3o3ular 3arti2i3ation0 Confiden2e in the mo"ement -as a must% and the eA2esses of any unit 2ommander had to #e Eui24ly 3unished #efore they 2ould alienate the 3eo3le and destroy the re"olution0 >n the one hand the #rash% im3ulsi"e #andit% on the other the dis2i3lined 3arty 2adre8a 2lash -as ine"ita#le0 A 2onfrontation 2ame in early 1&J' -hen a22usations of murder% eAtortion and -anton "iolen2e against a minor *inh Ruyen 2hieftain for2ed the Viet Hinh 2ommander% guyen *inh% to 2on"ene a military tri#unal0 =n the midst of the heated argument #et-een the *inh Ruyen leader *a !uong and guyen *inh% the a22used gra##ed the Viet Hinh 2ommander@s 3istol and shot himself in the head0 *laming the Viet Hinh for his friend@s sui2ide% *a !uong #egan #uilding a mo"ement to oust guyen *inh% #ut -as strafed and 4illed #y a Fren2h air2raft a fe- -ee4s later% -ell #efore his 3lans had matured0 9OI; Shortly after *a !uong@s death in Fe#ruary 1&J'% the *inh Ruyen held a mass rally in the heart of the Lung Sat to mourn their fallen leader and ele2t *ay Vien as his su22essor0 Although *ay Vien had -or4ed 2losely -ith the Viet Hinh% he -as no- mu2h more am#itious than 3atrioti20 *ored -ith #eing 4ing of the mangro"e s-am3s% *ay Vien and his ad"isers de"ised three strategems for 2ata3ulting him to greater heights: they ordered assassination 2ommittees to fiA their sights on guyen *inhM 9O'; they #egan -or4ing -ith the 1oa 1ao religious grou3 to forge an anti8Fren2h% anti8Viet Hinh 2oalitionM 9OO; and they initiated negotiations -ith the Fren2h $eme *ureau for some territory in Saigon0 The Viet Hinh remained relati"ely tolerant of *ay Vien@s ma2hinations until Har2h 1&JN% -hen he sent his to3 ad"isers to Saigon to negotiate a se2ret allian2e -ith Ca3tain Sa"ani of the $eme *ureau0 9ON; Con2ealing their 4no-ledge of *ay Vien@s #etrayal% the Viet Hinh in"ited him to attend a s3e2ial 2on"o2ation at their 2am3 in the Plain of Leeds on Hay 1&% 1o Chi Hinh@s #irthday0 Lealizing that this -as a tra3% *ay Vien strutted into the meeting surrounded #y t-o hundred of his toughest gangsters0 *ut -hile he allo-ed himself the luAury of denoun2ing guyen *inh to his fa2e% the Viet Hinh -ere stealing the Lung Sat0 Viet Hinh 2adres -ho had infiltrated the *inh Ruyen months #efore 2alled a mass meeting and eA3osed *ay Vien@s negotiations -ith the Fren2h0 The sho24ed nationalisti2 students and youths laun2hed a 2ou3 on Hay $NM *ay Vien@s su33orters -ere arrested% unrelia#le units -ere disarmed and the Lung Sat refuge -as turned o"er to the Viet Hinh0 *a24 on the Plain of Leeds% *ay Vien sensed an ugly 2hange of tem3er in the 2on"o2ations% massed his #odyguards% and fled to-ard the Lung Sat 3ursued #y Viet Hinh troo3s0 9O&; Bn route he learned that his refuge -as lost and 2hanged dire2tion% arri"ing on the outs4irts of Saigon on +une 1G0 1ounded #y 3ursuing VietHinh 2olumns% and a-are that return to the Lung Sat -as im3ossi#le% *ay Vien found himself on the road to Saigon0 7n-illing to Foin -ith the Fren2h o3enly and #e la#eled a 2olla#orator% *ay Vien hid in the marshes south of Saigon for se"eral days until $eme *ureau agents finally lo2ated him0 *ay Vien may ha"e lost the Lung Sat% #ut his 2o"ert a2tion 2ommittees remained a 3otent for2e in SaigonCholon and made him in"alua#le to the Fren2h0 Ca3tain Sa"ani 9-ho had #een ni24named Cthe Corsi2an #anditC #y Fren2h offi2ers; "isited the *inh Ruyen leader in his hideout and argued% C*ay Vien% there@s no other -ay out0 :ou ha"e only a fehours of life left if you don@t sign <ith 7S0 9NG; The 2a3tain@s logi2 -as irrefuta#leM on +une 1' a Fren2h staff 2ar dro"e *ay Vien to Saigon% -here he signed a 3re3ared de2laration denoun2ing the Communists as traitors and a"o-ing his loyalty to the 3resent em3eror% *ao !ai0 9N1; Shortly after-ard% the Fren2h go"ernment announ2ed that it Chad de2ided to 2onfide the 3oli2e and maintenan2e of order to the *inh Ruyen troo3s in a zone -here they are used to o3eratingC and assigned them a small 3ie2e of territory along the southern edge of Cholon 9N$; =n eA2hange for this 2on2ession% eight hundred gangsters -ho had rallied to *ay Vien from the Lung Sat% together -ith the 2o"ert a2tion 2ommittees% assisted the Fren2h in a massi"e and enormously su22essful s-ee3 through the t-in 2ities in sear2h of Viet Hinh

2adres% 2ells% and agents0 As *ay Vien@s 2hief 3oliti2al ad"iser% )ai 1uu Tai% eA3lained% CSin2e -e had s3ent time in the maEuis and fought there% -e also 4ne- ho- to organize the 2ounter maEuis0 9N(; *ut on2e the o3eration -as finished% *ay Vien% afraid of #eing damned as a 2olla#orator% retired to his slender turf and refused to #udge0 The *inh Ruyen refused to set foot on any territory not 2eded to them and la#eled an inde3endent Cnationalist zone0C =n order to a"ail themsel"es of the *inh Ruyen@s uniEue a#ilities as an ur#an 2ounterintelligen2e and se2urity for2e% the Fren2h -ere o#liged to turn o"er Saigon8Cholon #lo24 #y #lo240 *y A3ril 1&IJ the *inh Ruyen military 2ommander% )ai Van Sang% -as dire2tor8general of 3oli2e% and the *inh Ruyen 2ontrolled the 2a3ital region and the siAty8mile stri3 #et-een Saigon and Ca3 Saint +a2Eues0 Sin2e the *inh Ruyen@s 3a2ifi2ation te2hniEue reEuired "ast amounts of money to #ri#e thousands of informers% the Fren2h allo-ed them 2arte #lan2he to 3lunder the 2ity0 =n gi"ing the *inh Ruyen this e2onomi2 and 3oliti2al 2ontrol o"er Saigon% the Fren2h -ere not only eradi2ating the Viet Hinh% #ut 2reating a 3oliti2al 2ounter-eight to Vietnamese nationalist 3arties gaining 3o-er as a result of gro-ing Ameri2an 3ressure for 3oliti2al and military Vietnamization0 9NJ; *y 1&IJ the illiterate% #ullne24ed *ay Vien had #e2ome the ri2hest man in Saigon and the 4ey to the Fren2h 3resen2e in Co2hin China0 Through the *inh Ruyen% the Fren2h $eme *ureau 2ountered the gro-ing 3o-er of the nationalist 3arties% 4e3t Viet Hinh terrorists off the streets% and #attled the Ameri2an C=A for 2ontrol of South Vietnam0 Sin2e the 4ey to the *inh Ruyen@s 3o-er -as money% and Euite a lot of it% their e2onomi2 e"olution #ears eAamination0 The *inh Ruyen@s finan2ial hold o"er Saigon -as similar in many res3e2ts to that of Ameri2an organized 2rime in e- :or4 City0 The Saigon gangsters used their 3o-er o"er the streets to 2olle2t 3rote2tion money and to 2ontrol the trans3ortation industry% gam#ling% 3rostitution% and nar2oti2s0 *ut -hile Ameri2an gangsters 3refer to maintain a lo- 3rofile% the *inh Ruyen flaunted their 3o-er: their green8#ereted soldiers strutted do-n the streets% o3ium dens and gam#ling 2asinos o3erated o3enly% and a go"ernment minister a2tually 3resided at the dedi2ation of the 1all of Hirrors% the largest #rothel in Asia0 Pro#a#ly the most im3ortant *inh Ruyen e2onomi2 asset -as the gam#ling and lottery 2on2ession 2ontrolled through t-o s3ra-ling 2asinos 8 the Grand Honde in Cholon and the Clo2he d@>r in Saigon8-hi2h -ere o3erated #y the highest #idder for the annually a-arded fran2hise0 the Grand Honde had #een o3ened in 1&J' at the insisten2e of the go"ernor8general of =ndo2hina% Adm0 Thierry d@Argenlieu% in order to finan2e the 2olonial go"ernment of Co2hin China0 9NI; The fran2hise -as initially leased to a Ha2ao Chinese gam#ling syndi2ate% -hi2h made 3ayoffs to all of Saigon@s 2om3eting 3oliti2al for2es8the *inh Ruyen% Bm3eror *ao !ai% 3rominent 2a#inet ministers% and e"en the Viet Hinh0 =n early 1&IG *ay Vien suggested to Ca3t0 Antoine Sa"ani that 3ayments to the Viet Hinh 2ould #e ended if he -ere a-arded the fran2hise0 9N'; The Fren2h agreed% and *ay Vien@s 3oliti2al ad"iser% )ai 1uu Tai 9)ai Van Sang@s #rother;% met -ith Bm3eror *ao !ai and 3romised him strong e2onomi2 and 3oliti2al su33ort if he agreed to su33ort the measure0 *ut -hen *ao !ai made the 3ro3osal to President 1uu and the go"ernor of Co2hin% they refused their 2onsent% sin2e #oth of them re2ei"ed sti3ends from the Ha2ao Chinese0 1o-e"er% the *inh Ruyen #ro4e the deadlo24 in their o-n inimita#le fashion: they ad"ised the Chinese fran2hise holders that the *inh Ruyen 3oli2e -ould no longer 3rote2t the 2asinos from Viet Hinh terrorists 9NO; 4idna33ed the head of the Ha2ao syndi2ate% 9NN; and% finally% 3ledged to 2ontinue e"ery#ody@s sti3ends0 After agreeing to 3ay the go"ernment a S$GG%GGG de3osit and S$G%GGG a day% the *inh Ruyen -ere a-arded the fran2hise on !e2em#er (1% 1&IG0 9N&; !es3ite these hea"y eA3enses% the a-ard of the fran2hise -as an enormous e2onomi2 2ou3M shortly #efore the Grand Honde -as shut do-n #y a ne- regime in 1&II% 4no-ledgea#le Fren2h o#ser"ers estimated that it -as the most 3rofita#le 2asino in Asia% and 3erha3s in the -orld0 9&G; Sometime after 1&IG the Fren2h military a-arded the *inh Ruyen another lu2rati"e 2olonial asset% Saigon@s o3ium 2ommer2e0 The *inh Ruyen started 3ro2essing HACG@s ra- Heo o3ium and distri#uting 3re3ared smo4ers@ o3ium to hundreds of dens s2attered throughout the t-in 2ities0 9&1; They 3aid a fiAed 3er2entage of their 3rofits to Bm3eror *ao !ai% the Fren2h $eme *ureau% and the HACG 2ommandos0 The C=A@s Colonel )ansdale later re3orted that: -,he .inh /uyen 0ere participatin# in one o% the 0or(d*s ma&or arteries o% the dope tra%%ic1 he(pin# move the pri2e opium crops out o% Laos and South China3 ,he pro%its 0ere so hu#e that .ao $ai*s tiny cut 0as amp(e to keep him in yachts1 vi((as1 and other com%orts in 'rance3- 4567 The final *inh Ruyen aset -asT 3rostitution0 They o-ned and o3erated a -ide "ariety of #rothels% all the -ay from small% intimate "illas staffed -ith attra2ti"e young -omen for generals and di3lomats do-n to the 1all of Hirrors% -hose t-el"e hundred inmates and assem#lyline te2hniEues made it one of the largest and most 3rofita#le in Asia0 9&(; The #rothels not only 3ro"ided in2ome% they also yielded a steady flo- of 3oliti2al and military intelligen2e0 =n re"ie-ing *ay Vien@s e2onomi2 a2ti"ities in 1&IJ% 9&J; the Fren2h $eme *ureau 2on2luded: -+n summary1 the tota( o% the economic potentia( "ui(t up "y 8enera( Le Van 4.ay7 Vien has succeeded in %o((o0in# e9act(y the ru(es o% hori2onta( and vertica( monopo(i2ation so dear to American consortiums3- 45:7 -.ay Vien*s contro( over Sai#on;Cho(on had ena"(ed him to "ui(d -a mu(ti;%aceted "usiness enterprise 0hose economic potentia( constitutes 333 one o% the most so(id economic %orces in South Vietnam3- 45<7

After ha"ing allo-ed the *inh Ruyen to de"elo3 this finan2ial em3ire% the $eme *ureau -itnessed its liEuidation during the des3erate struggle it -aged -ith the C=A for 2ontrol of Saigon and South Vietnam0 *et-een A3ril $N and Hay (% 1&II% the *inh Ruyen and the Vietnamese army 9ALV ; fought a sa"age house8to8house #attle for 2ontrol of Saigon8Cholon0 Hore troo3s -ere in"ol"ed in this #attle than in the Tet offensi"e of 1&'N% and the fighting -as almost as destru2ti"e0 9&O; =n the siA days of fighting fi"e hundred 3ersons -ere 4illed% t-o thousand -ounded% and t-enty thousand left homeless0 9&N; Soldiers 2om3letely disregarded 2i"ilians and le"eled -hole neigh#orhoods -ith artillery% mortars% and hea"y ma2hine guns0 And -hen it -as all o"er the *inh Ruyen had #een dri"en #a24 into the Lung Sat and Prime Hinister go !inh !iem -as master of Saigon0 This #attle had #een a -ar #y 3roAyM the *inh Ruyen and !iem@s ALV -ere stand8ins% mere 3a-ns% in a 3o-er struggle #et-een the Fren2h $eme *ureau and the Ameri2an C=A0 Although there -ere longstanding ta2ti2al disagreements #et-een the Fren2h and Ameri2ans% at the am#assadorial and go"ernmental le"els% there -as an atmos3here of friendliness and fleAi#ility that -as not to #e found in their res3e2ti"e intelligen2e agen2ies0 Prior to the Fren2h de#a2le at !ien *ien Phu the t-o go"ernments had 2oo3erated -ith a minimum of "isi#le fri2tion in =ndo2hina0 !uring the early 1&IGs the 7nited States 3aid ON 3er2ent of the 2ost for maintaining the Fren2h BA3editionary Cor3s and hundreds of Ameri2an ad"isers ser"ed -ith Fren2h units0 After !ien *ien Phu and Gene"a% ho-e"er% the 3artnershi3 #egan to 2rum#le0 Fran2e resigned herself to granting full inde3enden2e to her former 2olony% and agreed at Gene"a to -ithdra- from the northern half of the 2ountry and hold an all8Vietnam referendum in 1&I'8an ele2tion the Viet Hinh -ere sure to -in8to determine -ho -ould rule the unified nation0 7nder the guidan2e of Premier Hendes8Fran2e% Fran2e 3lanned Ca 3re2edent8setting eA3eriment in 2oeAisten2eCM she -ould grant the Viet Hinh full 2ontrol o"er Vietnam #y adhering stri2tly to the Gene"a A22ords% and then -or4 2losely -ith 1o Chi Hinh Cto 3reser"e Fren2h 2ultural influen2e and sal"age Fren2h 2a3ital0 9&&; eedless to say% the Fren2h 3remier@s 3lans did not sit -ell in a 70S0 State !e3artment o3erating on Se2retary +ohn Foster !ulles@ anti8Communist first 3rin2i3les0 Fundamental 3oli2y disagreements #egan to de"elo3 #et-een <ashington and Paris% though there -as no o3en 2onfli2t0 The Pentagon Pa3ers ha"e summarized the 3oints of disagreement #et-een <ashington and Paris rather neatly0 All the foregoing tension resol"ed to t-o 2entral issues #et-een the 7nited States and Fran2e0 The first -as the Euestion of ho- and #y -hom Vietnam@s armed for2es -ere to #e trained0 The se2ond% and more far rea2hing% -as -hether go !inh !iem -as to remain at the head of Vietnam@s go"ernment or -hether he -as to #e re3la2ed #y another nationalist leader more sym3atheti2 to *ao !ai and Fran2e0 91GG; The first Euestion -as resol"ed soon after S3e2ial Am#assador Gen0 +0 )a-ton Collins arri"ed in Vietnam on o"em#er N% 1&IJ0 The Ameri2ans -ere already su33lying most of ALV @s aid% and Fren2h 1igh Commissioner Gen0 Paul Bly readily agreed to turn the training o"er to the Ameri2ans0 The se2ond Euestion8-hether !iem should 2ontinue as 3remier 3ro"o4ed the C=A8$eme *ureau -ar of A3ril 1&II0 !iem -as a 3oliti2al un4no-n -ho had a22eded to the 3remiershi3 largely #e2ause <ashington -as 2on"in2ed that his strong anti8Communist% anti8Fren2h #eliefs #est suited Ameri2an interests0 *ut the immediate 3ro#lem for !iem and the Ameri2ans -as 2ontrol of Saigon0 =f !iem -ere to #e of any use to the Ameri2ans in #lo24ing the unifi2ation of Vietnam% he -ould ha"e to -rest 2ontrol of the streets from the *inh Ruyen0 For -hoe"er 2ontrolled the streets 2ontrolled Saigon% and -hoe"er 2ontrolled Saigon held the 4ey to Vietnam@s ri2e8 ri2h He4ong !elta0 <hile the Fren2h and Ameri2an go"ernments 3olitely disa"o-ed any self8interest and tried to ma4e e"en their most 3artisan suggestions seem a 3ragmati2 res3onse to the 2hanging situation in Saigon% #oth ga"e their intelligen2e agen2ies a free hand to see if Saigon@s reality 2ould #e molded in their fa"or0 *ehind the smiles on the di3lomati2 front% Colonel )ansdale% of the C=A% and the Fren2h $eme *ureau% 3arti2ularly Ca3tain Sa"ani% engaged in a sa"age 2landestine #attle for Saigon0 =n the mo"ie "ersion of Graham Greene@s no"el on this 3eriod% The Puiet Ameri2an% Colonel )ansdale -as 3layed #y the <orld <ar == 2om#at hero% Audie Hur3hy0 Hur3hy@s 3re"ious roles as the ty3i2al Ameri2an hero in dozens of #la24 hat8-hite hat -esterns ena#led him a22urately to 3roFe2t the e"angelisti2 anti8Communism so 2hara2teristi2 of )ansdale0 <hat Hur3hy did not 3ortray -as )ansdale@s mastery of the C=A@s re3ertoire of Cdirty tri24sC to a2hie"e limited 3oliti2al ends0 <hen )ansdale arri"ed in Saigon in Hay 1&IJ he -as fresh from engineering President Lamon Hagsaysay@s su22essful 2ounterinsurgen2y 2am3aign against the Phili33ine Communist 3arty0 As the 3ro3het of a ne- 2ounterinsurgen2y do2trine and re3resentati"e of a -ealthy go"ernment% )ansdale -as a formida#le o33onent0 =n see4ing to de3ose *ay Vien% Colonel )ansdale -as not Fust 2hallenging the $eme *ureau% he -as ta4ing on Saigon@s Corsi2an 2ommunity 6 Corsi2an #usinessmen% Corsi2an 2olonists% and the Corsi2an under-orld0 From the late nineteenth 2entury on-ard% Corsi2ans had dominated the =ndo2hina 2i"il ser"i2e0 91G1; At the end of <orld <ar ==% Corsi2an resistan2e fighters% some of them gangsters% had Foined the regular army and 2ome to =ndo2hina -ith the BA3editionary Cor3s0 Hany remained in Saigon after their enlistment to go into legitimate #usiness or to rea3 3rofits from the #la24 mar4et and smuggling that flourished under -artime 2onditions0 Those -ith strong under-orld 2onne2tions in Harseille -ere a#le to engage in 2urren2y smuggling #et-een the t-o 3orts0 The Harseille gangster *arthelemy Guerini -or4ed 2losely -ith 2onta2ts in =ndo2hina to smuggle S-iss gold to Asia immediately

after <orld <ar ==0 91G$; Horeo"er% Corsi2an gangsters 2lose to Corsi2an offi2ers in Saigon@s $eme *ureau 3ur2hased sur3lus o3ium and shi33ed it to Harseille% -here it made a small 2ontri#ution to the 2ity@s gro-ing heroin industry0 91G(; The un2hallenged leader of Saigon@s Corsi2an under-orld -as the eminently res3e2ta#le Hathieu Fran2hini0 >-ner of the eA2lusi"e Continental Pala2e 1otel% Fran2hini made a fortune 3laying the 3iastergold 2ir2uit #et-een Saigon and Harseille during the First =ndo2hina <ar0 91GJ; 1e #e2ame the *inh Ruyen@s in"estment 2ounselor and managed a good deal of their o3ium and gam#ling 3rofits0 <hen *ay Vien@s fortune rea2hed monumental 3ro3ortions% Fran2hini sent him to Paris -here Cne- found Corsi2an friends ga"e him good ad"i2e a#out in"esting his sur3lus millions0C 91GI; And a22ording to relia#le Vietnamese sour2es% it -as Fran2hini -ho 2ontrolled most of Saigon@s o3ium eA3orts to Harseille0 either he nor his asso2iates 2ould "ie- -ith eEuanimity the 3ros3e2t of an Ameri2an ta4eo"er0 Hany 3eo3le -ithin the $eme *ureau had -or4ed as mu2h as eight years #uilding u3 se2t armies li4e the *inh RuyenM many Corsi2ans outside the military had #usinesses% 3ositions% ra24ets% and 3o-er that -ould #e threatened #y a de2line in Fren2h influen2e0 <hile they 2ertainly did not share Premier Hendes Fran2e@s ideas of 2oo3eration -ith the Viet Hinh% they -ere e"en more hostile to the idea of turning things o"er to the Ameri2ans0 <hen )ansdale arri"ed in Saigon in Hay 1&IJ he fa2ed the tas4 of #uilding an alternati"e to the mosai2 of religious armies and 2riminal gangs that had ruled South Vietnam in the latter years of the -ar0 go !inh !iem@s a33ointment as 3remier in +uly ga"e )ansdale the le"er he needed0 1and3i24ed #y the Ameri2ans% !iem -as strongly anti8Fren2h and un2om3romisingly anti8Communist0 1o-e"er% he had s3ent most of the last de2ade in eAile and had fe- 3oliti2al su33orters and almost no armed for2es0 Premier in name only% !iem 2ontrolled only the fe- #lo24s of do-nto-n Saigon surrounding the 3residential 3ala2e0 The Fren2h and their 2lients8 ALV % the *inh Ruyen% and the armed religious se2ts% Cao !ai and 1oa 1ao82ould easily mount an anti8!iem 2ou3 if he threatened their interests0 )ansdale 3ro2eeded to fragment his o33osition@s solid front and to #uild !iem an effe2ti"e military a33aratus0 Fren2h 2ontrol o"er the army -as #ro4en and Col0 !uong Van Hinh 9C*ig HinhC;% an Ameri2an sym3athizer% -as re2ruited to lead the atta24s on the *inh Ruyen0 *y mani3ulating 3ayments to the armed religious se2ts% )ansdale -as a#le to neutralize most of them% lea"ing the *inh Ruyen as the only Fren2h 3a-n0 The *inh Ruyen finan2ed themsel"es largely from their "i2e ra24ets% and their loyalty 2ould not #e mani3ulated through finan2ial 3ressures0 *ut% deserted #y ALV and the religious se2ts% the *inh Ruyen -ere soon 2rushed0 )ansdale@s "i2tory did not 2ome easily0 Soon after he arri"ed he #egan sizing u3 his o33onent@s finan2ial and military strength0 Kno-ing something of the o3ium trade@s im3ortan2e as a sour2e of in2ome for Fren2h 2landestine ser"i2es% he no- #egin to loo4 more 2losely at >3eration R -ith the hel3 of a res3e2ted Cholon Chinese #an4er0 *ut the #an4er -as a#ru3tly murdered and )ansdale dro33ed the inEuiry0 There -as reason to #elie"e that the #an4er had gotten too 2lose to the Corsi2ansM in"ol"ed% and they 4illed him to 3re"ent the information from getting any further0 91G'; An attem3ted anti8!iem 2ou3 in late 1&IJ led to )ansdale@s re3la2ing the 3ala2e guard0 After the Bm#assy a33ro"ed se2ret funding 9later estimated at S$ million;% )ansdale 2on"in2ed a Cao !ai dissident named Trinh Hinh The to offer his maEuis near the Cam#odian #order as a refuge in 2ase !iem -as e"er for2ed to flee Saigon0 91GO; <hen the im3ending 2risis #et-een the Fren2h and the Ameri2ans threatened !iem@s se2urity in the 2a3ital% The mo"ed his for2es into the 2ity as a 3ermanent se2urity for2e in Fe#ruary 1&II and 3araded $%IGG of his #arefoot soldiers through do-nto-n Saigon to demonstrate his loyalty to the 3remier0 91GN; The $eme *ureau -as outraged at )ansdale@s su33ort for The Pra2ti2ing -hat )ansdale Fo2ularly referred to as the CunorthodoA do2trine of za33ing a 2ommander% 91G&;The had murdered Fren2h General Chanson in 1&I1 and had further in2ensed the Fren2h -hen he #le- u3 a 2ar in 1&I( in do-nto-n Saigon% 4illing a num#er of 3assers#y0 $eme *ureau offi2ers 3ersonally "isited )ansdale to -arn him that they -ould 4ill TH% and they Cusually added the 3ious ho3e that = -ould #e standing neAt to him -hen he -as gunned do-n0 911G; >n Fe#ruary 11% 1&II% the Fren2h army a#di2ated its finan2ial 2ontrols and training res3onsi#ilities for ALV to the 7nited States% losing not only the ALV #ut 2ontrol of the 1oa 1ao and Cao !ai religious se2ts as -ell% A33roAimately $G%GGG of them had ser"ed as su33lementary for2es to the Fren2h and Vietnamese army% 9111; and had #een 3aid dire2tly #y the $eme *ureau0 o-% -ith their sti3ends 2ut and their num#ers redu2ed% they -ere to #e integrated into ALV % -here they -ould #e 2ontrolled #y !iem and his Ameri2an ad"isers0 )ansdale -as gi"en SN0' million to 3ay #a24 salaries and C#onusesC to se2t 2ommanders -ho 2oo3erated in CintegratingC into the ALV 0 911$; eedless to say% this aroused enormous hostility on the 3art of the Fren2h0 <hen )ansdale met -ith General Gam#iez of the Fren2h army to dis2uss the se2t 3ro#lem% the tensions -ere o#"ious: -We sat at a sma(( ta"(e in his o%%ice3333 A hu#e A(satian do# crouched under it3 8am"ie2 in%ormed me that at one 0ord %rom him1 the do# 0ou(d attack me1 "ein# a trained ki((er3 + asked 8am"ie2 to p(ease note that my hands 0ere in my pockets as + sat at the ta"(e= + had a sma(( 6: automatic pointin# at his stomach 0hich 0ou(d tick(e him %ata((y3 8am"ie2 ca((ed o%% his do# and + put my hands on the ta"(e3 We %ound 0e cou(d 0ork to#ether3- 4>>?7

*y Fe#ruary the $eme *ureau realized that they -ere gradually losing to )ansdale@s team% so they tried to dis2redit him as an irres3onsi#le ad"enturer in the eyes of his o-n go"ernment #y 2on"ening an un3re2edented se2ret agents@ tri#unal0 *ut the session -as unsu22essful% and the $eme *ureau offi2ers -ere humiliatedM their animosity to-ard )ansdale -as% no dou#t% intensified0 911J; *ut the Fren2h -ere not yet defeated% and late in Fe#ruary they mounted a su22essful 2ounteroffensi"e0 <hen !iem refused to meet the se2ts@ demands for finan2ial su33ort and integration into ALV % the Fren2h seized the o33ortunity and #rought all the se2t leaders together in Tay inh on Fe#ruary $$% -here they formed the 7nited Front and agreed to -or4 for !iem@s o"erthro-0 Honey -as to #e 3ro"ided #y the *inh Ruyen0 <hen a month of fruitless negotiations failed to -ring any 2on2essions from !iem% the 7nited Front sent a fi"e8day ultimatum to !iem demanding e2onomi2 and 3oliti2al reforms0 911I; Suddenly the lethargi2 Euadrille of 3oliti2al intrigue -as o"er and the time for 2onfrontation -as at hand0 )ansdale -as no- -or4ing fe"erishly to #rea4 u3 the 7nited Front and -as meeting -ith !iem regularly0 911'; <ith the hel3 of the C=A station 2hief% )ansdale 3ut together a s3e2ial team to ta24le the *inh Ruyen% the finan2ial lin2h3in of the 7nited Front0 )ansdale re2ruited a former Saigon 3oli2e 2hief named Hai 1uu Ruan% -ho had formed the Hilitary Se2urity Ser"i2e 9HSS; -ith t-o hundred to three hundred of his #est dete2ti"es -hen the *inh Ruyen too4 o"er the 3oli2e for2e in 1&IJ0 Bm#ittered #y four years of losing to the *inh Ruyen% the HSS #egan a year8long #attle -ith the *inh Ruyen@s a2tion 2ommittees0 Hany of these 2o"ert 2ells had #een eliminated #y A3ril 1&II% a fa2tor that Ruan feels -as 2riti2al in the *inh Ruyen@s defeat0 911O; Another of )ansdale@s re2ruits -as Col0 !uong Van Hinh% the 2ommander for Saigon8Cholon0 )ansdale made am3le dis2retionary funds a"aila#le to Hinh% -hom he in2or3orated in his 3lans to assault the *inh Ruyen0 911N; The fighting #egan on Har2h $N -hen a 3ro8!iem 3aratroo3 2om3any atta24ed the *inh Ruyen8o22u3ied 3oli2e headEuarters0 The *inh Ruyen 2ounteratta24ed the follo-ing night and #egan -ith a mortar atta24 on the 3residential 3ala2e at midnight0 <hen Fren2h tan4s rolled into the 2ity se"eral hours later to im3ose a 2ease8fire agreed to #y the 7nited States% )ansdale 3rotested #itterly to Am#assador Collins% CeA3laining that only the *inh Ruyen -ould gain #y a 2ease fire0 911&; For almost a month Fren2h tan4s and troo3s 4e3t the *inh Ruyen and ALV a3art0 Then on A3ril $O Am#assador Collins met -ith Se2retary of State !ulles in <ashington and told him that !iem@s o#stina2y -as the reason for the "iolent 2onfrontation in Saigon0 !ismayed% !ulles 2a#led Saigon that the 70S0 -as no longer su33orting !iem0 91$G; A fe- hours after this telegram arri"ed% !iem@s troo3s atta24ed *inh Ruyen units% and dro"e them out of do-nto-n Saigon into neigh#oring Cholon0 Blated #y !iem@s easy "i2tory% !ulles 2a#led Saigon his full su33ort for !iem0 The Bm#assy #urned his earlier telegram0 91$1; !uring the fighting of A3ril $N )ansdale remained in 2onstant 2ommuni2ation -ith the 3residential 3ala2e% -hile his ri"al% Ca3tain Sa"ani% mo"ed into the *inh Ruyen headEuarters at the : *ridge in Cholon% -here he too4 2ommand of the #andit #attalions and assigned his offi2ers to a22om3any *inh Ruyen troo3s in the house8to8house fighting0 91$$; The *inh Ruyen radio offered a re-ard to anyone -ho 2ould #ring )ansdale to their headEuarters -here% *ay Vien 3romised% his stoma2h -ould #e 2ut o3en and his entrails stuffed -ith mud091$(; >n Hay $ the fighting resumed as ALV units 3enetrated Cholon% le"eling -hole 2ity #lo24s and 3ushing the *inh Ruyen steadily #a24-ard0 Softened #y years of 2orru3tion% the *inh Ruyen #andits -ere no longer the tough guerrillas of a de2ade #efore0 <ithin a -ee4 most of them had retreated #a24 into the de3ths of the Lung Sat S-am30 Although the -ar #et-een !iem and *ay Vien -as o"er% the struggle #et-een )ansdale and the Corsi2ans -as not Euite finished0 True to the Corsi2an tradition% the defeated Fren2h laun2hed a "endetta against the entire Ameri2an 2ommunity0 As )ansdale des2ri#es it: A grou3 of soreheads among the Fren2h in Saigon undertoo4 a s3iteful terror 2am3aign against Ameri2an residents0 Grenades -ere tossed at night into the yards of houses -here Ameri2ans li"ed0 Ameri2an o-ned automo#iles -ere #lo-n u3 or #oo#y8tra33ed0 Fren2h se2urity offi2ials #landly informed ner"ous Ameri2an offi2ials that the terrorist a2ti"ity -as the -or4 of the Viet Hinh0 91$J; A sni3er 3ut a #ullet through )ansdale@s 2ar -indo- as he -as dri"ing through Saigon% a Fren2hman -ho resem#led him -as ma2hine8 gunned to death in front of )ansdale@s house #y a 3assing 2ar0 <hen )ansdale -as finally a#le to determine -ho the ringleaders -ere 9many of them -ere intelligen2e offi2ers;% grenades started going off in front of their houses in the e"enings0 91$I; !uring his Hay N811% 1&II% meeting -ith Fren2h Premier Bdgar Faure in Paris% !ulles asserted his 2ontinuing su33ort for !iem% and #oth agreed that Fran2e and the 7nited States -ould 3ursue inde3endent 3oli2ies in =ndo2hina0 The 3artnershi3 -as o"erM Fran2e -ould lea"e% and the 7nited States -ould remain in Vietnam in order to #a24 !iem0 91$'; !iem@s "i2tory #rought a#out a three8year res3ite in large8s2ale o3ium traffi24ing in Vietnam0 <ithout the *inh Ruyen and >3eration R managing the trade% #ul4 smuggling o3erations from )aos 2ame to an end and distri#ution in Saigon of -hate"er o3ium -as a"aila#le #e2ame the 3ro"in2e of 3etty 2riminals0 >#ser"ers also noti2ed a steady de2line in the num#er of o3ium dens o3erating in the 2a3ital region0 *ut although Ameri2an 3ress 2orres3ondents des2ri#ed the *inh Ruyen8!iem 2onfli2t as a morality 3lay8a 2lash

#et-een the honest% moral Premier !iem and 2orru3t% do3e8dealing Csu3er #anditsC8the *inh Ruyen -ere only a su3erfi2ial manifestation of a dee3er 3ro#lem% and their e"i2tion from Saigon 3rodu2ed little su#stanti"e 2hange0 91$O; For o"er eighty years Fren2h 2olonialism had inter-o"en the "i2e trades -ith the #asi2 fa#ri2 of the Vietnamese e2onomy #y using them as legitimate sour2es of go"ernment taA re"enue0 !uring the late 1&JGs the Fren2h sim3ly transferred them from the legitimate e2onomy to the under-orld% -here they ha"e remained a tem3ting sour2e of re"enue for 3oliti2al organizations e"er sin2e0 *y eA3loiting the ra24ets for the Fren2h% the *inh Ruyen had de"elo3ed the only effe2ti"e method e"er de"ised for 2ountering ur#an guerrilla -arfare in Saigon0 Their formula -as a 2om#ination of 2rime and 2ounterinsurgen2y: 2ontrol o"er the muni2i3al 3oli2e allo-ed systemati2 eA3loitation of the "i2e tradeM the ra24ets generated large sums of ready 2ashM and money #ought an effe2ti"e net-or4 of s3ies% informants% and assassins0 The system -or4ed so -ell for the *inh Ruyen that in 1&I$ Viet Hinh 2adres re3orted that their a2ti"ities in Saigon had 2ome to a "irtual standstill #e2ause the #andits had either #ought off or 4illed most of their effe2ti"e organizers0 91$N; <hen the !iem administration -as fa2ed -ith large8s2ale insurgen2y in 1&IN it re"erted to the *inh Ruyen formula% and go"ernment 2landestine ser"i2es re"i"ed the o3ium trade -ith )aos to finan2e 2ounterinsurgen2y o3erations0 Fa2ed -ith similar 3ro#lems in 1&'I0 Premier Ky@s ad"iser% General )oan% -ould use the same methods0 91$&; Sour2e: htt3:KK---0drugteAt0orgKli#raryK#oo4sKH2CoyK#oo4K$N0htm

( grou0 of +mong !omen harvest 0o00y seeds in the /olden &riangle area near &hailand. ,National /eogra0hi 0hoto-

,Sour e* Th" Will Be *one, The ,onquest of the Ama-on: %elson &ockefeller and E!an#elism in the A#e of .il )y /erard Col)y ,!ith Charlotte Dennett-

C=A !ire2tor Allen <0 !ulles ins3e2ts a grou3 of mer2enaries in Thailand in 1&I'0 9Sour2e: 8ent(eman Spy: ,he Li%e o% A((en $u((es #y Peter Grose;

,The Cold <ar 3layed a dire2t and 3rominent role in the 3rodu2tion and traffi24ing of illi2it drugs0 =ndeed% the finan2ing of many anti8Communist 2o"ert o3erations% su2h as those led #y the C=A% deri"ed from the drug e2onomy that eAisted in "arious 3roAy states -here traffi24ing -as often 2ondoned and e"en en2ouraged0 S3e2ifi2 histori2al eAam3les illustrated ho- the anti8 Communist agenda of the C=A 3layed a de2isi"e role in stimulating the glo#al illi2it drug trade0 These in2lude the Fren2h Conne2tion and the role of the Corsi2an mafia against Communists in Fran2e and in Southeast Asia 9)aos and Vietnam;% the 3ro33ing u3 of the defeated KHT .Kuomintang/ in northern *urma% the =slami2 muFahideen resistan2e in Afghanistan and% on another 2ontinent% the Contras in i2aragua0 The 7nited States% as the leader of the glo#al struggle against 2ommunism% made eAtensi"e use of its s3e2ial ser"i2es and intelligen2e agen2ies to 2ondu2t 2o"ert o3erations -orld-ide0 =n the glo#al struggle to 2ontain 2ommunism% lo2al aid -as needed and -idely found in the form of lo2al 2riminal organizations0 The first su2h 2ase dates #a24 to the early 1&(Gs% -hen e- :or4’s organized 2rime 4ing3ins 6 Sal"atore )u2ania a040a0 Charles X)u24y’ )u2iano% and Heyer )ans4y 6 traffi24ed heroin eA3orted from China to su33ort Chiang Kai8she4’s KHT in the 2i"il -ar there0 )u2iano -as Failed in 1&(' in the 7nited States% not long #efore traffi24ing in Chinese heroin -as 2onsidera#ly disru3ted #y <orld <ar ==0 =t -as during <orld <ar == that the Ameri2an >ffi2e of a"al =ntelligen2e 2oo3erated -ith )u2iano: he -as to #e freed after the -ar so long as he ordered his thugs to -at2h 70S0 do24s and orts to 3rote2t them from azi sa#oteurs0 Then% the >ffi2e of Strategi2 Ser"i2es 9>SS;% the 3re2ursor to the C=A% used mafia assistan2e in the Allied in"asion of Si2ily0 Su2h a2ti"ities initiated -hat -as to #e2ome a long8term feature of 2o"ert o3erations led #y 7nited States intelligen2e ser"i2es -hen 2onsent of the 7nited States Congress 2ould not #e o#tained: the enlistment of nefarious grou3s engaged in illi2it a2ti"ities in order to -age se2ret -ars through #oth 3roAies and alternati"e funding0 *asi2ally% drug traffi24ers -ere useful to s3e2ial ser"i2es and 3oliti2ians% and in turn relied on su2h 2onne2tions to eA3and their a2ti"ities0 )u2iano -as freed in 1&J' and sent to Si2ily -here he -as to 2oo3erate -ith the C=A0 =ndeed% to 2ounter the gro-ing 2ommunist influen2e in Fran2e and =taly% the C=A turned to the mafia and 2ondoned its drug traffi24ing a2ti"ities0 The C=A soon as4ed )u2iano to use his 2onne2tions in Fran2e to #rea4 the stri4es led #y so2ialist unions in Harseille’s do24s% from -hi2h arms and su33lies -ere sent to =ndo2hina0 The sometimes "iolent assistan2e of Corsi2an mo#sters in 2ra24ing do-n on the unions -as es3e2ially moti"ated #y their in"ol"ement in the o3ium #usiness in =ndo2hina and #y the smuggling of ra- o3ium from Tur4ey to Harseille% -here it -as refined into heroin for eA3ort to the 7nited States0 )u2iano too4 ad"antage of su2h high refining 2a3a2ities and hel3ed turn Harseille into the heroin 2a3ital of Buro3e0 These Harseille syndi2ates% du##ed the XFren2h Conne2tion’% su33lied the 7nited States heroin mar4et for t-o de2ades0 *ut it is in Southeast Asia% South-est Asia% and )atin Ameri2a that the C=A most signifi2antly influen2ed the illi2it drug trade0 =ts anti8Communist 2o"ert o3erations #enefited from the 3arti2i3ation of a num#er of drug8related 2om#at units -ho% to finan2e their o-n struggle% -ere dire2tly in"ol"ed in illi2it drug 3rodu2tion and traffi24ing0 The C=A’s #a24ing of different grou3s in the drug trade 9for eAam3le% the 1mong in )aos% the KHT in *urma and the muFahideen in Afghanistan;% inferred that the agen2y 2ondoned the used of drug 3ro2eeds and the in2rease in o3iate 3rodu2tion in Asia0 1o-e"er% no e"iden2e has surfa2ed to suggest that the C=A 2ondoned or fa2ilitated the eA3ort of heroin to the 7nited States or Buro3e% as 2learly ha33ened -ith 2o2aine and the i2araguan Contras05 6 )pium: Uncoverin# the Po(itics o% the Poppy #y Pierre8Arnaud Chou"y% 30 &J8&' 93u#lished in $G1G; ,=n >2to#er 1&J&% the Communists defeated the KHT in China% and in the years that follo-ed they 2ra24ed do-n on -hat -as then the -orld’s largest o3ium 3rodu2tion net-or40 >3ium 3rodu2tion then shifted to the mountainous and frontier areas of *urma% )aos% and Thailand% -here KHT remnants had fled and #e2ome dee3ly in"ol"ed in drug traffi24ing0 *eginning in 1&I1% the C=A su33orted the KHT in *urma in an unsu22essful effort to assist it in regaining a foothold in China’s :unnan 3ro"in2e0 Arms% ammunition% and su33lies -ere flo-ed into *urma from Thailand #y the C=A’s Ci"il Air Trans3ort 9CAT;% later renamed Air Ameri2a and% still later% Sea Su33ly Cor3oration% 2reated to mas4 the shi3ments0 The *urmese Army e"entually dro"e KHT remnants form *urma in 1&'1% #ut the latter resettled in )aos and northern Thailand and 2ontinued to run most of the o3ium trade0 CAT not only su33lied military aid to the KHT: it also fle- o3ium to Thailand and Tai-an0 There is no dou#t that the C=A san2tioned #oth the KHT’s in"ol"ement in the o3ium trade and the use of CAT 9and later Air Ameri2a air2raft; in that trade0 The KHT -ould e"entually enlarge its role in the o3ium trade after the C=A’s -ithdra-al of finan2ial and logisti2al su33ort0 *urma e"entually #e2ame one of the -orld’s t-o main o3ium 3rodu2ers0 Follo-ing the Fren2h defeat in =ndo2hina in 1&IJ% the 7nited States gradually too4 o"er the intelligen2e and military fight against 2ommunism in #oth )aos and Vietnam0 =t also too4 o"er the drug traffi24ing #usiness de"elo3ed #y the Fren2h #y the #uying the o3ium 3rodu2ed #y the 1mong and :ao hill tri#es in return for hel3 -ith 2ounterinsurgen2y o3erations against the Viet Hinh0 To meet the 2osts of this -ar% the Fren2h se2ret intelligen2e ser"i2e% the S!BCB 9Ser"i2e de do2umentation eAterieure et de 2ontrees3ionnage;% had allied itself -ith the Corsi2an syndi2ates% traffi24ing o3ium form =ndo2hina to Harseille in order to gain 2ontrol of the o3ium trade that the 2olonial go"ernment had outla-ed in 1&J'0 The C=A ran its se2ret army in )aos% 2om3osed largely of 1mong tri#esmen led #y General Vang Pao0 Air Ameri2a -ould fly arms to the 1mong and fly #a24 their o3ium to the C=A #ase at )ong Tieng% -here Vang Pao had set u3 a large heroin la#oratory0 Some of the heroin -as then flo-n to South Vietnam% -here 3art of it -as sold to 70S0 troo3s0 After the Ameri2ans 3ulled out of Vietnam in 1&OI% )aos #e2ame the -orld’s third largest o3ium 3rodu2er and retained this ran4 until the mid8$GGGs0 6 )pium: Uncoverin# the Po(itics o% the Poppy #y Pierre8Arnaud Chou"y% 30 &'8&O 93u#lished in $G1G;

,1o-e"er% Vietnam -as not the only #attleground of Cold <ar drug o3erations0 The C=A laun2hed a maFor ne- 2o"et o3eration in South-est Asia in the early 1&NGs to su33ort Afghanistan’s muFahideen guerillas in their fight against So"iet o22u3ation0 7nited States President% Lonald Leagan% -as determined to 2ounter -hat he "ie-ed as So"iet hegemony and eA3ansionism% a goal shared #y his C=A dire2tor% <illiam Casey0 To su33ort the muFahideen -ith arms and funds% the C=A turned to one of Pa4istan’s intelligen2e ser"i2es% the =nter8Ser"i2es =ntelligen2e 9=S=;0 The =S= 2hose -hi2h Afghan leaders to #a24 and used tru24s from Pa4istan’s military ational )ogisti2s Cell 9 )C; to 2arry arms from Kara2hi to the Afghan #order0 1o-e"er% the =S= not only 2hose Gul#uddin 1e4matyar % an im3ortant Afghan o3ium traffi24er% as its main #enefi2iary: it also allo-ed )C tru24s to return from the #order loaded -ith o3ium and heroin0 After the So"iet -ithdra-al from Afghanistan in 1&N&% 7nited States aid to the muFahideen sto33ed% and the interne2ine 2onfli2t that ensued in the 2ountry fa"oured an in2rease in o3ium 3rodu2tion in order to maintain ri"al -arlords and armies0 Afghanistan e"entually #e2ame the -orlds’ leading o3ium8 3rodu2ing 2ountry0 As +ill +onnes 3uts it: +n the years "e%ore Wor(d War ++1 American internationa( narcotics po(icy had "een e9treme(y strai#ht%or0ard3 ,he United States 0as ri#hteous(y a#ainst anythin# that promoted or sustained the non;medica( use o% addictin# dru#s3 .ut the Co(d War created not on(y ne0 nationa( security po(icies1 "ut a ne0 shado0 0or(d that accepted a %ar more am"iva(ent attitude to0ard dru#s and dru# tra%%ickin#3 =lli2it drug 3rodu2tion and traffi24ing in2reased during the Cold <ar0 !uring this 3eriod% the 7nited States go"ernment -as less interested in -aging the X-ar on drugs’ #egun in 1&O1 #y Li2hard iAon that n in using drug traffi24ers to su33ort its -ar and 3roAies a#road0 =ndeed% had the C=A 2ra24ed do-n on drug traffi24ing during the Cold <ar% it -ould ha"e forgone "alua#le intelligen2e sour2es% 3oliti2al influen2e and mu2h needed funding for its 2o"ert% and sometimes illegal% o3erations0 =roni2ally% there is no e"iden2e that the So"iet 7nion or its se2ret intelligen2e agen2y% the KG* 9Komitet Gosudarst"ennoy *ezo3asnosti;% resorted to drug sales to fund a2ti"ities during the Cold <ar0 Thus% after the modern international nar2oti2s traffi24ing industry emerged in 3re8Se2ond <orld <ar China% and after 2ommunism had ena#led the Peo3le’s Le3u#li2 of China to su33ress lo2al o3ium 3rodu2tion% traffi24ing and 2onsum3tion% it -as the Cold <ar fight against 2ommunism that 3ro"ide the Fustifi2ation for using 3ro2eeds from o3ium 3rodu2tion and traffi24ing to finan2e 2o"ert o3erations and se2ret -ars0 =n the third edition of ,he Po(itics o% Heroin% Alfred H2Coy -rites: hetoric a"out the dru# evi( and the mora( imperative o% its e9tirpation has "een matched "y a parado9ica( 0i((in#ness to su"ordinate or even sacri%ice the cause %or more questiona"(e #oa(s3 ,he same #overnments that seem to rai( most stern(y a#ainst dru#s1 such as !ationa(ist China in the >5?@s and the United States since the >5A@s1 have %requent(y %ormed covert a((iances 0ith dru# tra%%ickers3 =n his effort to re"eal the eAtent of the XC=A 2om3li2ity in the glo#al drug trade’ H2Coy then eA3lains that Xno-here is this 2ontradi2tion #et-een so2ial idealism and 3oliti2al realism more e"ident than in the 2lash #et-een 3rohi#ition and 3rote2tion during the 2old -ar’0 1o-e"er% the end of the Cold <ar -ould not redu2e illi2it o3ium 3rodu2tion in Asia% as the end of foreign su#sidies to -arring Afghan fa2tions largely stimulated o3ium 3o33y 2ulti"ation in Afghanistan0 !uring most of the t-entieth 2entury% -ars and 2onfli2ts fostered illi2it o3ium 3rodu2tion and made 3ea2e8#uilding more diffi2ult% as -ar e2onomies and drug e2onomies fed ea2h other in a "i2ious 2ir2le05 6 )pium: Uncoverin# the Po(itics o% the Poppy #y Pierre8Arnaud Chou"y% 30 &O8&N 93u#lished in $G1G;

Left* C:( Dire tor (llen Dulles greets his )rother %.S. Se retary of State "ohn #oster Dulles. Right* %.S. Se retary of State "ohn #oster Dulles revie!s a ma0 of #ren h :ndo hina at a onferen e.

&he Central :ntelligen e (gen y ,C:(- !as involved in various drug traffi king o0erations in South Vietnam, Laos, &hailand, Cam)odia, and other areas of Southeast (sia during the Vietnam War. Some of the drugs )rought to South Vietnam !ere later e'0orted to the %nited States of (meri a and sold to unsus0e ting (meri ans during the &ur)ulent 6=>5s. &he C:( used illi it drug 0rofits to finan e various overt o0erations in South Vietnam, Cam)odia, and Laos.

I2ne day in 6=>A at the 0la e !here Burma, &hailand, and Laos meet O a onHun tion that gives the /olden &riangle its name O an S%( DShan %nited (rmyE aravan !ith 6> tons of o0ium, oming south from Burma, sought to avoid 0aying the ustomary ta' to the $.& D$uomintangE. So the S%( rossed the .ekong River into Laos9 the $.& gave hase. (t the height of the fight, at the village of Ban $h!an9 Lao !ar0lanes s!oo0ed in, dro00ing )om)s. &hen ame Lao 0aratroo0ers, seiCing the o0ium9 it !ent to the ommander in hief of the Royal Lao (rmy, !ho !as in the o0ium )usiness too.J O National /eogra0hi magaCine, #e)ruary 6=@F, The Po//": 'or 0ood and E!il, 0. 6A5

Prelude to Vietnam <ar% Part $: Colonization

Soldiers of the Siamese 9Thailand; Army a33ear in the dis3uted territory of )aos during the Fran2o8Siamese <ar of 1N&(0 The Fren2h 2onEuered and 2olonized 3resent8day Vietnam% Cam#odia% and )aos0

)eft: Hilitary o22u3ation of Trat% Thailand #y Fren2h troo3s in 1&GJ Light: Territorial 2laims a#andoned #y Siam .Thailand/ in the late 1&th and early $Gth 2enturies0 The result of the Fran2o8 Siamese <ar -as the 2ession of )aos 9dar4 #lue; to Fran2e in 1N&(0

A ma3 of Fren2h =ndo2hina0 Saigon -as the 2a3ital of Fren2h =ndo2hina from 1NNO to 1&G1% and 1anoi -as the 2a3ital of Fren2h =ndo2hina from 1&G$ to 1&IJ0 Vietnam 2onsisted of three se3arate 4ingdoms in the early 1NGGs: Co2hin China 9-ith 2a3ital at Saigon;% Annam 9-ith 2a3ital at 1ue;% and Ton4in 9-ith 2a3ital at 1anoi;0

Go"ernors8General of Fren2h =ndo2hina: $lbertBPierre Sarraut 9left% o"em#er 1&118+anuary 1&1J% +anuary 1&1O8 Hay 1&1&; and Paul ;oumer 9right% Fe#ruary 1N&O8>2to#er 1&G$;

Street s2ene in Saigon% Fren2h =ndo2hina 9Vietnam; 2ir2a 1&1I 9Photo: )i#rary of Congress Photo and Prints Colle2tion;

A ma3 of =ndo8China in 1NN'

9Sour2e: Vietnam: A History #y Stanley Karno-;

9Sour2e: Vietnam: A History #y Stanley Karno-;

9Sour2e: Vietnam: A History #y Stanley Karno-;

:m0erial "a0anese (rmy troo0s enter Saigon in 6=86. &he :m0erial "a0anese Navy !as stationed at Cam Ranh Bay during World War ::.

Left* &hai and "a0anese offi ers 0ose after meeting in &hailand ir a 6=86. Right* "a0anese and &hai soldiers meet together, dis0laying the :m0erial "a0anese and &hai flags.

9Sour2e: Vietnam: A History #y Stanley Karno-;

1o Chi Hinh 92enter; and Vo guyen Gia3 9far left; a33ear -ith Ameri2an >SS agents in 1&JI as they 3lanned 2oordinated a2tion against the +a3anese0

A +a3anese soldier 3osts Pro2lamation o0 1 de2laring martial la- in Vietnam in Bnglish% Fren2h and Vietnamese in Se3tem#er 1&JI0 9=m3erial <ar Huseum% )ondon;

=nde3enden2e and Le8Colonization 91&JI81&J';

1o Chi Hinh 3ro2laims Vietnamese inde3enden2e in 1anoi on Se3tem#er $% 1&JI

Vietnamese !e2laration of =nde3enden2e 9Se3tem#er $% 1&JI;
,All men are 2reated eEual0 They are endo-ed #y their Creator -ith 2ertain inaliena#le rights% among these are )ife% )i#erty% and the 3ursuit of 1a33inessC This immortal statement -as made in the !e2laration of =nde3enden2e of the 7nited States of Ameri2a m 1OO'0 =n a #roader sense% this means: All the 3eo3les on the earth are eEual from #irth% all the 3eo3les ha"e a right to li"e% to #e ha33y and free0 The !e2laration of the Fren2h Le"olution made in 1O&1 on the Lights of Han and the Citizen also states: CAll men are #orn free and -ith eEual rights% and must al-ays remain free and ha"e eEual rights0C Those are undenia#le truths0 e"ertheless% for more than eighty years% the Fren2h im3erialists% a#using the standard of )i#erty% BEuality% and Fraternity% ha"e "iolated our Fatherland and o33ressed our fello-82itizens0 They ha"e a2ted 2ontrary to the ideals of humanity and Fusti2e0 =n the field of 3oliti2s% they ha"e de3ri"ed our 3eo3le of e"ery demo2rati2 li#erty0 They ha"e enfor2ed inhuman la-sM they ha"e set u3 three distin2t 3oliti2al regimes in the orth% the Center and the South of Vietnam in order to -re24 our national unity and 3re"ent our 3eo3le from #eing united0 They ha"e #uilt more 3risons than s2hools0 They ha"e mer2ilessly slain our 3atriots8 they ha"e dro-ned our u3risings in ri"ers of #lood0 They ha"e fettered 3u#li2 o3inionM they ha"e 3ra2tised o#s2urantism against our 3eo3le0 To -ea4en our ra2e they ha"e for2ed us to use o3ium and al2ohol0 =n the fields of e2onomi2s% they ha"e flee2ed us to the #a24#one% im3o"erished our 3eo3le% and de"astated our land0 They ha"e ro##ed us of our ri2e fields% our mines% our forests% and our ra- materials0 They ha"e mono3olised the issuing of #an48notes and the eA3ort trade0 They ha"e in"ented numerous unFustifia#le taAes and redu2ed our 3eo3le% es3e2ially our 3easantry% to a state of eAtreme 3o"erty0 They ha"e ham3ered the 3ros3ering of our national #ourgeoisieM they ha"e mer2ilessly eA3loited our -or4ers0 =n the autumn of 1&JG% -hen the +a3anese Fas2ists "iolated =ndo2hina@s territory to esta#lish ne- #ases in their fight against the Allies% the Fren2h im3erialists -ent do-n on their #ended 4nees and handed o"er our 2ountry to them0 Thus% from that date% our 3eo3le -ere su#Fe2ted to the dou#le yo4e of the Fren2h and the +a3anese0 Their sufferings and miseries in2reased0 The result -as that from the end of last year to the #eginning of this year% from Puang Tri 3ro"in2e to the orth of Vietnam% more than t-o million of our fello-82itizens died from star"ation0 >n Har2h &% the Fren2h troo3s -ere disarmed #y the +a3anese0 The Fren2h 2olonialists either fled or surrendered% sho-ing that not only -ere they in2a3a#le of C3rote2tingC us% #ut that% in the s3an of fi"e years% they had t-i2e sold our 2ountry to the +a3anese0 >n se"eral o22asions #efore Har2h &% the Vietminh )eague urged the Fren2h to ally themsel"es -ith it against the +a3anese0 =nstead of agreeing to this 3ro3osal% the Fren2h 2olonialists so intensified their terrorist a2ti"ities against the Vietminh mem#ers that #efore fleeing they massa2red a great num#er of our 3oliti2al 3risoners detained at :en *ay and Cao *ang0 ot-ithstanding all this% our fello-82itizens ha"e al-ays manifested to-ard the Fren2h a tolerant and humane attitude0 B"en after the +a3anese 3uts2h of Har2h 1&JI% the Vietminh )eague hel3ed many Fren2hmen to 2ross the frontier% res2ued some of them from +a3anese Fails% and 3rote2ted Fren2h li"es and 3ro3erty0 From the autumn of 1&JG% our 2ountry had in fa2t 2eased to #e a Fren2h 2olony and had #e2ome a +a3anese 3ossession0 After the +a3anese had surrendered to the Allies% our -hole 3eo3le rose to regain our national so"ereignty and to found the !emo2rati2 Le3u#li2 of Vietnam0 The truth is that -e ha"e -rested our inde3enden2e from the +a3anese and not from the Fren2h The Fren2h ha"e fled% the +a3anese ha"e 2a3itulated% Bm3eror *ao !ai has a#di2ated0 >ur 3eo3le ha"e #ro4en the 2hains -hi2h for nearly a 2entury ha"e fettered them and ha"e -on inde3enden2e for the Fatherland0 >ur 3eo3le at the same time ha"e o"erthro-n the monar2hi2 regime that has reigned su3reme for dozens of 2enturies0 =n its 3la2e has #een esta#lished the 3resent !emo2rati2 Le3u#li20 For these reasons% -e% mem#ers of the Pro"isional Go"ernment% re3resenting the -hole Vietnamese 3eo3le% de2lare that from no- on -e #rea4 off all relations of a 2olonial 2hara2ter -ith Fran2eM -e re3eal all the international o#ligation that Fran2e has so far su#s2ri#ed to on #ehalf of Vietnam and -e a#olish all the s3e2ial rights the Fren2h ha"e unla-fully a2Euired in our Fatherland0 The -hole Vietnamese 3eo3le% animated #y a 2ommon 3ur3ose% are determined to fight to the #itter end against any attem3t #y the Fren2h 2olonialists to re2onEuer their 2ountry0 <e are 2on"in2ed that the Allied nations -hi2h at Tehran and San Fran2is2o ha"e a24no-ledged the 3rin2i3les of self8 determination and eEuality of nations% -ill not refuse to a24no-ledge the inde3enden2e of Vietnam0 A 3eo3le -ho ha"e 2ourageously o33osed Fren2h domination for more than eighty years% a 3eo3le -ho ha"e fought side #y side -ith the Allies against the Fas2ists during these last years% su2h a 3eo3le must #e free and inde3endent0 For these reasons% -e% mem#ers of the Pro"isional Go"ernment of the !emo2rati2 Le3u#li2 of Vietnam% solemnly de2lare to the -orld that Vietnam has the right to #e a free and inde3endent 2ountry and in fa2t it is so already0 The entire Vietnamese 3eo3le are determined to mo#ilise all their 3hysi2al and mental strength% to sa2rifi2e their li"es and 3ro3erty in order to safeguard their inde3enden2e and li#erty05 T ote% the !emo2rati2 Le3u#li2 of Vietnam has #een renamed The So2ialist Le3u#li2 of Vietnam0 Sour2e: htt3:KK---0marAists0orgKreferen2eKar2hi"eKho82hi8minhK-or4sK1&JIKde2laration8inde3enden2e0htm

9Sour2e: Vietnam: A History #y Stanley Karno-;

1anoi 3eo3le -el2omed the Allies to lay do-n the +a3anese army’s -ea3ons on Trang Tien Street in 1anoi in August 1&JI0 9Photo: htt3:KK---0loo4at"ietnam02omK$G1GKGNKhistori283hotos8of8hanoi0html;

>n August 1&% 1&JI% 1anoi 3eo3le seized the 3o-er at the northern go"ernment offi2e% 1$ go Puyen% 1anoi0 9Photo: htt3:KK---0loo4at"ietnam02omK$G1GKGNKhistori283hotos8of8hanoi0html;

>n August $N% 1&JI% li#eration troo3s from Viet *a2 3araded at 1anoi >3era 1ouse sEuare0 9Photo: htt3:KK---0loo4at"ietnam02omK$G1GKGNKhistori283hotos8of8hanoi0html;

The 3latform #uilt at *a !inh SEuare on Se3tem#er $% 1&JI% -here President 1o Chi Hinh read the !e2laration of =nde3enden2e to found the !emo2rati2 Le3u#li2 of Vietnam0 9Photo: htt3:KK---0loo4at"ietnam02omK$G1GKGNKhistori283hotos8 of8hanoi0html;

1anoi 3eo3le donated 2ash and gold to the go"ernment on Se3tem#er 1O% 1&JI during ,Gold <ee450 9Photo: htt3:KK---0loo4at"ietnam02omK$G1GKGNKhistori283hotos8of8hanoi0html;

1anoi youth as4ed the go"ernment to send them south to Foin the -ar of resistan2e there in Se3tem#er 1&JI0 9Photo: htt3:KK---0loo4at"ietnam02omK$G1GKGNKhistori283hotos8of8hanoi0html;

Free Fren2h 'th Commando C0)0=0 are saluted #y surrendered +a3anese soldiers in Saigon in o"em#er 1&JI0

H Vinh Tuy 9left; and former Bm3eror *ao !ai 9right; meet -ith Vietnam’s ne- President 1o Chi Hinh in o"em#er 1&JI0 9Photo #y 1enri Bstira2;0 9Sour2e: htt3:KK#elleindo2hine0free0frKAnnee1&JISaigon0htm;

General Vo guyen Gia3 re"ie-s the li#eration army from Tan Trao to 1anoi in 1&JI0 9Photo: htt3:KK23"0org0"nK23"KHodulesK e-sUBnglishK e-sU!etailUB0as3A?C U=!YJ1&JJ$&C>U=!Y(GJ(N;

The sui2ide sEuad -aylaid in Khuong Thuong% 1anoi in 1&JI0 9Photo: htt3:KK---0loo4at"ietnam02omK$G1GKGNKhistori283hotos8of8hanoi0html;

1anoi 3eo3le attended President 1o Chi Hinh’s 3resentation a#out the general ele2tion at the 1anoi 7ni"ersity of Te2hnology on +anuary I% 1&J'0 9Photo: htt3:KK---0loo4at"ietnam02omK$G1GKGNKhistori283hotos8of8hanoi0html;

9Sour2e: Vietnam: A History #y Stanley Karno-;

1anoi 3eo3le mar2h to su33ort the national illitera2y eradi2ation 2am3aign in 1&J'0 9Photo: htt3:KK---0loo4at"ietnam02omK$G1GKGNKhistori283hotos8of8hanoi0html;

The ma3 of Vietnam dis3layed at 1ang !a Street in 1anoi on +une &% 1&J'0 9Photo: htt3:KK---0loo4at"ietnam02omK$G1GKGNKhistori283hotos8of8hanoi0html;

> Cau !en% 1anoi in 1&J'0 9Photo: htt3:KK---0loo4at"ietnam02omK$G1GKGNKhistori283hotos8of8hanoi0html;

The August Le"olution anni"ersary on Trang Tien Street in 1anoi on August 1&% 1&J'0 9Photo: htt3:KK---0loo4at"ietnam02omK$G1GKGNKhistori283hotos8of8hanoi0html;

The go"ernment 3resented itself #efore the ational Assem#ly on o"em#er (% 1&J' at the 1anoi >3era 1ouse0 9Photo: htt3:KK---0loo4at"ietnam02omK$G1GKGNKhistori283hotos8of8hanoi0html;

The sui2ide sEuad laid mines in front of !ong Ruan mar4et in !e2em#er 1&J'0 9Photo: htt3:KK---0loo4at"ietnam02omK$G1GKGNKhistori283hotos8of8hanoi0html;

+o Chi .inh, 0resident of the :ndo hinese revolutionary government, in Paris !ith Pham Van Dong ,6=5> 7 4555, left-, 44nd "une 6=8>. ,Photo )y RD(1/etty :mages-

+o Chi .inh ,left- delivers a s0ee h in .os o!, !ith Soviet #oreign .inister Vya heslav .olotov ,right- in attendan e.

)etter from 1o Chi Hinh to Ameri2an President 1arry S0 Truman% Fe#ruary $N% 1&J'0 Creator: +oint Chiefs of Staff0 >ffi2e of Strategi2 Ser"i2es0 9G'K1(K1&J$ 8 1GKG1K1&JI; From the ational Ar2hi"es 9htt3:KKmedia0nara0go"KmediaKimagesK(OK'K(O8GIO(a0gif;

1o Chi Hinh 9se2ond from right; sha4es hands -ith Prime Minister o% 'rance 8eor#es .idau(t 4(e%t7 in >5A<3
9Photo: htt3:KK-arandgame02omKtagK2olonialK3ageKJK;

9Sour2e: Vietnam: A History #y Stanley Karno-;

+ean Sainteny 9left% Fren2h Commissioner of Ton4in;M Vo guyen Gia3 92enter% 1o Chi Hinh’s Hinister of the =nterior;% and General +a2Eues Phili33e )e2ler2 9right% Commander of the Fren2h for2es in the Far Bast;% lead a 2ontingent to the Tom# of the 7n4no-n Soldier in 1anoi% Vietnam in Har2h 1&J' 9Photo: +effrey *lan4fortV+ere#oam;

Fren2h =ndo2hina <ar & !ien *ien Phu 91&J'81&IJ;

1o Chi Hinh meets -ith the Vietminh go"erning 2oun2il in a 2a"e north of 1anoi and under a 3ortrait of himself during the Fren2h =ndo2hina <ar0 9Photo: go Vinh )ong Colle2tion;

Lang #ortress, !here the first )ullet !as shot at the +anoi itadel to ki k off the national !ar of resistan e against #ren h on De em)er 6=, 6=8>. ,Photo* htt0*11!!!.lookatvietnam. om1456515@1histori 70hotos7of7hanoi.html-

Command of the Ca0ital Regiment in "anuary 6=8A. ,Photo* htt0*11!!!.lookatvietnam. om1456515@1histori 70hotos7of7hanoi.html-

9Sour2e: Vietnam: A History #y Stanley Karno-;

9Sour2e: Vietnam: A History #y Stanley Karno-;

A fa"orite meal -ith President 1o Chi Hinh% General Vo guyen Gia3 92enter;% and Truong Chinh at the north #ase in 1&JO 9Photo: htt3:KK23"0org0"nK23"KHodulesK e-sUBnglishK e-sU!etailUB0as3A?C U=!YJ1&JJ$&C>U=!Y(GJ(N;

Ha3 of dissident a2ti"ities in =ndo2hina in ( o"em#er 1&IG C=A% =B8I Ha3 Su33lement% 3u#lished as 3art of the Pentagon 3a3ers

70S0 a"y Admiral Lussell S0 *er4ey 9left; -al4s -ith Bm3eror of =ndo8China *ao !ai 9right; along the de24 of the 70S0S0 Sti24ell in Saigon% Vietnam in A3ril 1&IG0 9Photo: Carl HydansKTime )ife;

)eft to right: 70S0 a"y Admiral Lussell S0 *er4ey% Vietnam’s Bm3eror *ao !ai% Ameri2an di3lomat Bdmund A0 Gullion% and Tran Van 1uu 9Prime Hinister of the State of Vietnam from 1&IG to 1&I$; 2onsult on "arious issues during their meeting in Saigon% Vietnam in A3ril 1&IG0 Bdmund A0 Gullion -as a mem#er of the Coun2il on Foreign Lelations0 *ao !ai died in Paris on +uly (G% 1&&O0 9Photo: Carl HydansKTime )ife; *ao !ai -as the Bm3eror of the Fren2h 3rote2torate of Annam and later Vietnam during <orld <ar ==0 *ao !ai -as the Bm3eror of the Bm3ire of Vietnam% a +a3anese 3u33et state% from Har2h 11% 1&JI to August $(% 1&JIM the =m3erial +a3anese Army remo"ed Vi2hy Fren2h 2olonial administrators from 3o-er on Har2h &% 1&JI0 The 2a3ital of the Bm3ire of Vietnam in 1&JI -as 1ue0 *oth Fran2e and +a3an 2olonized Co2hin China 9in2luding Saigon; -hile Annam 9in2luding 1ue and !a ang; and Ton4in 9in2luding 1anoi; -ere re2ognized as Fren2h 9and later +a3anese; 3rote2torates0 =m3erial +a3an re2ognized the inde3enden2e of Vietnam under the leadershi3 of *ao !ai shortly #efore =m3erial +a3an surrendered on August 1I% 1&JI 9+a3an time;0 *ao !ai a#di2ated and mo"ed to 1ong Kong in August 1&JI -hen the Viet Hinh% led #y 1o Chi Hinh% assumed 3o-er o"er Vietnam0

(meri an Vi e President Ri hard Ni'on visits Vietnamese nationalist troo0s in late 6=F<. ,Sour e* "effrey Blankfort77"ere)oam 1The 1ietnam E2/erience: Passin# the Torch, 0. 6A5-

Sur0lus %.S. Navy Bear at fighter 0lanes are to!ed through the streets of Saigon on #e)ruary 66, 6=F6 after they !ere unloaded from the es ort arrier Windham Bay. &hey !ere 0art of a shi0ment of 88 0lanes to )e used in the fighting against the Communists in #ren h :ndo7 China. ,Photo* "ean7"a ;ues Levy1(sso iated Press,Sour e* The Tumultuous 'ifties: A 1iew from The %ew (ork Times Photo Archi!es )y Douglas Dreish0oon and (lan &ra hten)erg-

(n army drum and )ugle or0s 0lays at a street7renaming eremony in Saigon, Vietnam in 6=F4. ,Photo* T ". Baylor Ro)erts1National /eogra0hi So iety1Cor)is-

/eneral +enri Navarre ,left- hats !ith VietnamGs 3m0eror Bao Dai after Bao Dai arrived in :ndo hina on Novem)er >, 6=F<. ,Photo* T Bettmann1C2RB:S-

9Sour2e: Vietnam: A History #y Stanley Karno-;

9Sour2e: Vietnam: A History #y Stanley Karno-;

9Sour2e: Vietnam: A History #y Stanley Karno-;

General Vo guyen Gia3 re2ei"ed the re3ort regarding the !ien *ien Phu fighting situation 9Photo: htt3:KK23"0org0"nK23"KHodulesK e-sUBnglishK e-sU!etailUB0as3A?C U=!YJ1&JJ$&C>U=!Y(GJ(N;

>n ' !e2em#er 1&I(% at the north #ase% President 1o Chi Hinh and Party leaders% in2luding General Vo guyen Gia3% 2ommander of the Vietminh for2es% de2ided to o3en the !ien *ien Phu 2am3aign 9Photo: htt3:KK23"0org0"nK23"KHodulesK e-sUBnglishK e-sU!etailUB0as3A?C U=!YJ1&JJ$&C>U=!Y(GJ(N;

General Vo guyen Gia3 and the 1igh Command of the army 2on"ened the 3lan to -i3e out all the enemies at !ien *ien Phu0 From the left% General Van Tien !ung% Hr0 Tran !ang inh% to38ran4ing and the Commander8in8Chief Vo guyen Gia3% and 1ead of the General Politi2al !e3artment guyen Chi Thanh0 9Photo: htt3:KK23"0org0"nK23"KHodulesK e-sUBnglishK e-sU!etailUB0as3A?C U=!YJ1&JJ$&C>U=!Y(GJ(N;

*attle of !ien *ien Phu in Vietnam in early 1&IJ0 The Fren2h army surrendered to the Viet Hinh on Hay N% 1&IJ0

Vietnamese soldiers atta k a #ren h military )ase in an ar hived 0hoto taken during the Dien Bien Phu am0aign in 6=F8 and no! dis0layed at the Dien Bien Phu .useum in Dien Bien Phu City, Vietnam. &he histori Dien Bien Phu )attle lasted for F> days during 6=F8 and is onsidered one of the great )attles of the 45th entury. &he #ren h defeat led to the signing of the /eneva ( ords on "uly 46, 6=F8. ,T Dien Bien Phu .useum1Reuters1Cor)is-

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9Sour2e: Vietnam: A History #y Stanley Karno-;

%nder the guard of Communist Viet .inh troo0s, #ren h and Vietnamese 0risoners of !ar mar h from the )attlefields of Dien Bien Phu on "uly 4@, 6=F8. &he 6=F8 )attle of Dien Bien Phu marked the fall of #ren h :ndo hina. ,T Bettmann1C2RB:S-

Senior Vietminh delegate /en. Van &ien Dung ,left- addresses ease7fire talks )et!een the Vietminh and #ren h %nion for es in the village of &rung /ia, 4F miles north of +anoi, in "uly 6=F8. Photogra0hers !ere e' luded from the hut after the o0ening day of talks. ,Photo* htt0*11!!!.military0hotos.net1forums1sho!thread.0h0L6<585A7Vietnamese7.ilitary7&hread7,u0dated7on7regular7)asis-10age>-

Cease7fire meetings o0en at &rung /ia, 4F miles north of +anoi, on "uly 8, 6=F8. :n the to0 0hoto, /en. Van &ien Dung ,seated left-, head of the Vietminh delegation, meets !ith his delegates in their ;uarters, de oratd !ith a 0hoto of +o Chi .inh, a Vietminh flag, and a 0ara hute they said !as taken at Dien Bien Phu. ,Photo* htt0*11!!!.military0hotos.net1forums1sho!thread.0h0L6<585A7Vietnamese7.ilitary7&hread7,u0dated7on7regular7)asis-10age>-

3m0eror of Vietnam Bao Dai re eives an oath of allegian e from the Vietnam National (rmy :n an im0osing military eremony in +anoi, State of Vietnam on (0ril 6A, 6=F8. Numerous offi ials of #ran e, Vietnam and other nations !ere on hand as 3m0eror Bao Dai revie!s a unit of the army as /eneral +inh 0oints them out. ,T Bettmann1C2RB:S-

#ren h army offi er De &assigny ,left- and South VietnamGs 3m0eror Bao7Dai ,right- are seen drinking from a stra! during a meeting in Vietnam on .ay A, 6=F8. ,Bettmann1C2RB:S-

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Soldiers of the army of the State of Vietnam o)serve the anniversary of the union of their state !ith #ran e and other :ndo7Chinese states ,Cam)odia and Laos- !ith a military 0arade in +anoi, Vietnam on "une 64, 6=F8, Hust over a month after the Viet .inh defeated the #ren h army at Dien Bien Phu on .ay @.

Gene"a Conferen2e & The Partition of Vietnam

The opening session at the Geneva Conference on Far East problems begins on April 27, 1954, with Anthony Eden leading the British delegation (top left), Vyacheslav Molotov and Andrei Gromyko leading the Soviet delegation (top right), and Chou En-lai of the Chinese Communist delegation (center). (Photo by Keystone/Getty Images)

Di0lomats attend the /eneva Conferen e in (0ril 6=F8. ,#rank S hers hel1&ime Life-

(meri aGs %nder Se retary of State Walter Bedell Smith , enter, foreground- and other mem)ers of the (meri an delegation to the /eneva Conferen e listen to the o0ening of the first session of the :ndo7China Pea e &alks )et!een #ran e and :ndo7China ,Vietnam- at the Pala e of Nations in /eneva, S!itCerland on .ay @, 6=F8. Seated at right is Walter Ro)ertson, (meri aGs (ssistant Se retary of State. ,Bettmann1C2RB:S-

Di0lomats meet together for the Pea e &alks at the /eneva Conferen e 0rior to the signing of the U/eneva ( S!itCerland in "uly 6=F8. ,Bettmann1C2RB:S-

ordsU in /eneva,

Prime .inister of #ran e Pierre .endes7#ran e ,left-, !ho attended the Bilder)erg .eetings in 6=>@, shakes hands !ith Chinese Communist envoy Chou 3nlai at the /eneva onferen e in /eneva, S!itCerland in "uly 6=F8. ,Photo* #rank S hers hel1&ime Life-

Left to right* /eneral Nam :l of North $orea9 Soviet %nion #oreign .inister Vyas heslav .. .olotov, Chou 3nlai of Red China, and Vietminh #oreign .inister Pham Van Dong a00ear at ChouSs villa during 0ea e talks in /eneva, S!itCerland in "uly 6=F8. ,T Bettmann1C2RB:S-

Di0lomats 0re0are to meet at the /eneva Conferen e on :ndo hina in (0ril 6=F8. #rom left to right* Se retary of State "ohn #oster Dulles, #ren h #oreign .inister /eorges Bidault, #ren h aide "ean Chauvel, British aide Lord Reading, %.S. (ssistant Se retary of State Walter Bedell Smith. Dulles and Smith !ere mem)ers of the Coun il on #oreign Relations. ,(P Photo-

Left to right* %.S. President D!ight D. 3isenho!er, %.S. Se retary of State "ohn #oster Dulles, #ren h #oreign .inister /eorges Bidault, and British #oreign .inister Lord Ro)ert Ce il Salis)ury laugh together during the #oreign .inisters Conferen e in Washington, D.C. in "uly 6=F<. ,Photo* /eorge Skadding 1&ime Life-

British #oreign Se retary Sir +arold .a .illan ,left-, #ren h #oreign Se retary (ntoine Pinay , enter-, and (meri an Se retary of State "ohn #oster Dulles a00ear at the /eneva Conferen e on Novem)er <, 6=FF. ,Photo )y $eystone1/etty :mages-

Bm3eror of the State of Vietnam *ao !ai deli"ers a s3ee2h in 1anoi in 1&IJ0 3anoi was the capital of Crench 'ndochina and the State of Vietnam until !"#. DPhoto: 1o-ard So2hure4KTime )ife;

Left* &he 0ala e of 3m0eror Bao Dai in +anoi !ith the State of Vietnam flag dis0layed on a flag 0ole in 6=F8 ,Photo* +o!ard So hurek1&ime LifeRight* &he Vietnamese im0erial guards of 3m0eror Bao Dai in +anoi in 6=F8.

Streets ro!ded !ith 0eo0le after ease7fire announ ed in +anoi, Vietnam in "uly 6=F8. ,Photo* +o!ard So hurek1&ime Life-

Vietnamese troo0s ,State of Vietnam army troo0sL- retreat from +amdinh to +anoi, Vietnam in "uly 6=F8. ,Photo* +o!ard So hurek1&ime Life-

#ren h troo0s ,foreground- eva uate +anoi, Vietnam as Vietminh troo0s enter the ity in 2 to)er 6=F8. ,Photo* +o!ard So hurek1&ime Life-

#ren h troo0s 0re0are to leave the ity of +anoi in 2 to)er 6=F8 after eding territory to Communist Vietminh guerillas. ,Photo* +o!ard So hurek1&ime Life-

7SS Hontague lo-ers a ladder o"er the side to Fren2h )SH to ta4e Vietnamese refugees a#oard in 1ai3hong% Vietnam in August 1&IJ0 P11 10S0 1em3hill0 9 a"y; Pu#li2 !omain 9!efense Visual =nformation Center;: htt3:KK---0dodmedia0osd0milK Sour2e:htt3:KK---0dodmedia0osd0milK!V=CUVie-KStillU!etails02fm? S!A Y1!S &&G$GJI&+PGPathYKAssetsKStillK1&&&K!o!K1!8S 8&&8G$GJI0+PG

6peration EPassage to CreedomE% !"#B !"": Four 2re-men dis3lay a -el2oming #anner for Vietnamese refugees 2oming on #oard 7SS .ay%ie(d 9APA8((; for 3assage to Saigon% =ndo2hina% from 1ai3hong% ( Se3tem#er 1&IJ0 )%%icia( U3S3 !avy Photo#raph1 no0 in the co((ections o% the !ationa( Archives3
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Vietnamese refugees #oard )ST I1' for their Fourney from 1ai3hong% orth Vietnam% to Saigon% South Vietnam during >3eration Passage to Freedom in >2to#er 1&IJ0 This o3eration e"a2uated thousands of Vietnamese refugees from the ne-ly 2reated Communist orth Vietnam to the !emo2rati2 South Vietnam0 *y the end of the o3eration% the 70S0 a"y had 2arried to freedom more than $&(%GGG immigrants% "ehi2les% and other 2argo0 The a"al 1istori2al Center and Surfa2e a"y Asso2iation are see4ing a"y "eterans and former Vietnamese refugees -ho -itnessed and 3arti2i3ated in this little 4no-n res2ue0 970S0 a"y Photo% LB)BASB!; htt3:KK---0na"y0milK"ie-Usingle0as3?idYN(J'

6peration EPassage to CreedomE% !"#B !""9 Vietnamese refugee in a to3sides food ser"i2e line on #oard 7SS .ay%ie(d 9APA8((;% -hile en route from to Saigon% =ndo2hina in August 1&IJ0 9)%%icia( U3S3 !avy Photo#raph1 no0 in the co((ections o% the !ationa( Archives ; htt3:KK---0history0na"y0milK3hotosKsh8usnKusnsh8#Ka3a((840htm

%SS Bayfield Saigon 6=F8 ,Photo* htt0*110hanthanh.multi0ly. om10hotos1al)um1FF16=F8VV:3&N(.V3W2D%SX0hotoR8=-

+aNoi ,+anoi- o0era house in 6=F8, !ith the #ren h and State of Vietnam ,later Re0u)li of Vietnam1South Vietnam- flags dis0layed together. ,Photo* htt0*11!!!.military0hotos.net1forums1sho!thread.0h0L6<585A7Vietnamese7.ilitary7&hread7,u0dated7on7regular7)asis-10age>6-

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#ren h army offi ers salute to a grou0 of Vietnamese soldiers at an air0ort in +anoi in 6=F8, shortly after the #ren h )egan !ithdra!ing from Vietnam altogether. ,Photo* &ime Life-

+anoi in late 6=F8, follo!ing the surrender of the #ren h olonial government ,and military- to the Viet .inh ,Photo* htt0*11!!!.military0hotos.net1forums1sho!thread.0h0L6<585A7Vietnamese7.ilitary7&hread7,u0dated7on7regular7)asis-10age>6-

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Communist Chinese and Vietnamese troo0s moved into +anoi in Imade in ChinaJ tru ks ,Photo* &ime Lifehtt0*11!!!.military0hotos.net1forums1sho!thread.0h0L6<585A7Vietnamese7.ilitary7&hread7,u0dated7on7regular7)asis-10age>6

&he first grou0 of Vietminh troo0s mar h into the former #ren h olonial a0ital of +anoi on 2 to)er =, 6=F8, !hile else!here in +anoi, the #ren h !ere !ithdra!ing under the terms of the /eneva Conferen e. ,Photo* htt0*11!!!.military0hotos.net1forums1sho!thread.0h0L6<585A7Vietnamese7.ilitary7&hread7,u0dated7on7regular7)asis-10age>-

A smiling Vietminh and a Fren2h offi2er stand together on a rainy 1anoi street on >2to#er 1G% 1&IJ as the 2ommunist8led Vietminh assumed 2ontrol of northern =ndo2hina under the terms of the armisti2e negotiated in Gene"a% S-itzerland0 9Photo: htt3:KK---0military3hotos0netKforumsKsho-thread03h3?1(GJGO8Vietnamese8Hilitary8Thread89u3dated8on8regular8 #asis;K3age';

Fren2h troo3s lo-er their flag for the last time in 1anoi% Vietnam% the former 2a3ital of the Fren2h 2olony of =ndo2hina% in >2to#er 1&IJ0 9Photo: 1o-ard So2hure4;

A Vietminh soldier 3atrols in front of the Ameri2an 2onsulate in 1anoi% Vietnam in >2to#er 1&IJ0 9Photo: 1o-ard So2hure4KTime )ife;

=ndian Prime Hinister +a-aharlal ehru -ith Vietminh soldiers in 1anoi% Vietnam in >2to#er 1&IJ0 9Photo: 1o-ard So2hure4KTime )ife;

( #ren h 0atrol stands at left, ready to move off, as Communist Vietminh troo0s move in to take over +ai0hong, the )ig 0ort for the northern Vietnam a0ital of +anoi, on .ay 45, 6=FF. :n a ordan e !ith the /eneva &reaty !hi h 0artitioned Vietnam as $orea !as 0artitioned, +ai0hong !as one of the last 0la es to )e eva uated )y the #ren h and Southern Vietnamese. &he Communist vanguard is in single file in )a kground. ,:mage )y T Bettmann1C2RB:S-

( 0hotogra0h of a main street in +anoi, North Vietnam on #e)ruary 64, 6=F> sho!s that 0u)li trans0ortation is 0rin i0ally on foot or )i y le. &his 0hotogra0h !as one of the fe! 0hotos !hi h ame out of Communist7 ontrolled +anoi, North Vietnam. ( handful of Canadians !ere still in +anoi in early 6=F> as 0art of the :ndo7China tru e team although their movements !ere restri ted. ,:mage )y T Bettmann1C2RB:S-

The flag of orth Vietnam and the flag of South Vietnam fly on the o33osite sides of the !e8Hilitarized Qone in 1&'10 9Photo: 1o-ard So2hure4KTime )ife;

1ien )uong *ridge o"er the *en 1ai Li"er in Vietnam0 Vietnam -as di"ided into t-o nations along the 1O th Parallel and the *en 1ai Li"er in 1&IJ follo-ing the defeat of the Fren2h army at !ien *ien PhuM the !e8Hilitarized Qone -as lo2ated along the *en 1ai Li"er0

The #our $eaders of the %artitioned Vietnam

)eaders of Communist orth Vietnam: 1o Chi Hinh 9left; and Vietminh Foreign Hinister Pham Van !ong

)eaders of Anti8Communist South Vietnam: Bm3eror *ao !ai 9left; and go !inh !iem

G> != 1 !=BH & S>7T1 V=BT AH
Part 6* Binh Wuyen %0rising and Consolidation of Po!er

Anti8*ao !ai Grou3 seizes a general of the Vietnamese Army in Saturday Le"olution in Saigon in 1&II0 9Photo: 1o-ard So2hure4KTime )ife;

South Vietnam’s General TrZnh Hinh Th[ -as assassinated #y a ,lone gunman5 on Hay (% 1&II0

&roo0s of (meri an7)a ked Premier Ngo Dinh Diem and the Binh Wuyen gang fought a )rief street )attle !ith ma hine guns in Saigon, South Vietnam on (0ril 48, 6=FF, as a South Vietnamese army soldier stands guard over a sus0e t after the fighting had died do!n. &he fighting took 0la e on the o00osite side of the 3uro0ean residential distri t from the )oulevard /allien !hile the general anar hy in reased as gangs of thugs roamed the streets of Saigon kidna00ing ivilians and e'torting ransoms. ,Photo* T Bettmann1C2RB:S-

9Sour2e: Vietnam: A History #y Stanley Karno-;

( Vietnamese Paratroo0er takes over as refugees flee the Cholon distri t ,Chinese distri t- of Saigon during fighting !ith re)el Binh Wuyen on (0ril 4=, 6=FF. ,Photo* htt0*11!!!.military0hotos.net1forums1sho!thread.0h0L6<585A7Vietnamese7.ilitary7&hread7,u0dated7on7regular7)asis-10ageA-

A Vietnamese mother and her 2hildren flee to another area of Saigon during the #rief "iolent *inh Ruyen u3rising in Saigon% South Vietnam in Hay 1&II0 9Photo: 1o-ard So2hure4;

Some <55,555 0eo0le a00lauded Vietnamese army troo0s during 0arade to ele)rate their vi tory of the Binh Wuyen re)els in the s!am0s south of Saigon. &he )attle !as an im0ortant vi tory for the Diem regime. ,Photo* htt0*11!!!.military0hotos.net1forums1sho!thread.0h0L6<585A7Vietnamese7.ilitary7&hread7,u0dated7on7regular7)asis-10ageA-

South Vietnamese troo0s train !ith (meri an military !ea0ons in "une 6=FF. ,Photo* htt0*11!!!.military0hotos.net1forums1sho!thread.0h0L6<585A7Vietnamese7.ilitary7&hread7,u0dated7on7regular7)asis-10ageA-

South Vietnamese Premier Ngo Dinh Diem, fresh from vi tory in his struggles for 0o!er, greets villagers in "une 6=FF during a visit to the oastal to!n of Binh Dinh. ,Photo* htt0*11!!!.military0hotos.net1forums1sho!thread.0h0L6<585A7Vietnamese7.ilitary7&hread7,u0dated7on7regular7)asis-10ageA-

Se0tem)er 6=FF 7 :nfantry men stand at attention in !ater as Premier Ngo Dinh Diem makes a tour of the troo0s in the Rung Sat s!am0 to thank the men !ho defeated the re)el Binh Wuyen for es. ,Photo* htt0*11!!!.military0hotos.net1forums1sho!thread.0h0L6<585A7Vietnamese7.ilitary7&hread7,u0dated7on7regular7)asis-10ageA-

( ro!d outside :nde0enden e Pala e in Saigon listens as Ngo Dinh Diem 0ro laims the ne! Re0u)li of South Vietnam on 2 to)er 4>, 6=FF, !ith himself as 0resident and 0rime minister. Ngo re eived =@ 0er ent of the votes in the referendum against the a)sentee em0eror, Bao Dai. ,Photo* htt0*11!!!.military0hotos.net1forums1sho!thread.0h0L6<585A7Vietnamese7.ilitary7&hread7,u0dated7on7regular7)asis-10ageA-

Premier Ngo Dinh Diem 0ro laims himself as 0resident on 2 to)er 4>, 6=FF during eremonies in Saigon that follo!ed his vi tory in a referendum. ,Photo* htt0*11!!!.military0hotos.net1forums1sho!thread.0h0L6<585A7Vietnamese7.ilitary7&hread7,u0dated7on7regular7)asis-10ageA-

Vietnamese in Saigon, Re0u)li of Vietnam reHoi e as their ountry )e omes a re0u)li on Novem)er 4, 6=FF. Saigon to!n hall is )ede ked after the de laration of the 0olls !ith a huge 0hotogra0h of Ngo Dinh Diem, giving the a tual figures of his tremendous vi tory. ,:mage )y T Bettmann1C2RB:S-

Cro!ds gather in Saigon, South Vietnam on 2 to)er 4>, 6=FF to ele)rate the 0ro lamation of the ne! Re0u)li of Vietnam. :n a referendum held three days )efore, the 0eo0le voted over!helmingly for Ngo Dinh Diem as their Chief of State. ,:mage )y T C2RB:S-

South $oreaGs President Syngman Rhee ,left- and South VietnamGs President Ngo Dinh Diem meet together in Saigon during a t!o day state visit )y Syngman Rhee to the Re0u)li of Vietnam in 6=F@. ,+ulton7Deuts h Colle tion1C2RB:S-

South VietnamGs President Ngo Dinh Diem ,front left-, is greeted u0on his arrival at the air0ort in &ai0ei, Re0u)li of China ,&ai!an- )y Re0u)li of ChinaGs President Chiang $ai7shek on "anuary 44, 6=>5. &he South Vietnamese 0resident !as making an offi ial five7day state visit to the Re0u)li of China. ,Bettmann1C2RB:S-

Part 4* Coun il on #oreign Relations K South Vietnam under Ngo Dinh Diem

"ohn Ro kefeller ::: , enter- visits South VietnamGs President Ngo Dinh Diem ,left- in Saigon on #e)ruary <, 6=FA.

President D!ight 3isenho!er shakes hands !ith South VietnamGs President Ngo Dinh Diem on .ay @, 6=FA. Se retary of State "ohn #oster Dulles is standing )et!een 3isenho!er and Diem.

Cardinal #ran is S0ellman ,left- and +enry Lu e ,right-, the 3ditor7in7Chief of Time magaCine, stand )eside South VietnamGs President Ngo Dinh Diem. +enry Lu e !as a mem)er of the Coun il on #oreign Relations and a mem)er of Skull K Bones, a se ret so iety at ?ale %niversity.

Retired %.S. (rmy /eneral .a'!ell D. &aylor hats !ith President of South Vietnam Ngo Dinh Diem in Saigon, South Vietnam on 2 to)er 4<, 6=>6. .a'!ell &aylor !ould )e re alled )a k to a tive duty to serve as Chairman of the "oint Chiefs of Staff the follo!ing year. ,Photo* Swords and Plowshares )y /en. .a'!ell D. &aylor ,6=A4--

C:( agent and %.S. (ir #or e Colonel ,later .aHor /eneral- 3d!ard /. Lansdale , enter- and %.S. (m)assador to South Vietnam #rederi k Reinhardt !ere mem)ers of the Coun il on #oreign Relations. ,Sour e* n The +idst of Wars: An American3s +ission to Southeast Asia )y .aH. /en. 3d!ard /eary Lansdale, %S(# ,retired--

South VietnamGs Premier Ngo Dinh Diem , enter- onverses !ith Se retary of State "ohn #oster Dulles ,left- in Saigon, South Vietnam in .ar h 6=FF. ,Photo* +o!ard So hurek1&ime Life-

70S0 Am#assador to South Vietnam 1enry Ca#ot )odge +r0 9right; tal4 -ith go !inh hu 9left; at a di3lomati2 re2e3tion in Saigon% South Vietnam in Se3tem#er 1&'(0 9Photo: )arry *urro-sKTime )ife;

%.S. (m)assador to South Vietnam +enry Ca)ot Lodge "r. a00ears !ith a ting #oreign .inister of South Vietnam &ruong Cong Cuu ,left- at a di0lomati re e0tion in Saigon, South Vietnam in Se0tem)er 6=><. ,Photo* Larry Burro!s1&ime Life-

%.S. (m)assador to South Vietnam +enry Ca)ot Lodge "r. ,left- meet !ith President of South Vietnam Ngo Dinh Diem in Saigon, Vietnam in Se0tem)er 6=><. ,Photo* Larry Burro!s1&ime Life-

%.S. (m)assador to South Vietnam +enry Ca)ot Lodge "r. ,L- meets !ith Ngo Dinh Diem, the President of South Vietnam, in Saigon, South Vietnam in Se0tem)er 6=><. ,Photo* Larry Burro!s1&ime Life-

Part <* South Vietnam K (meri an I(ssistan eJ

Ameri2an Vi2e President )yndon *aines +ohnson meets -ith South Vietnam’s President go !inh !iem and 70S0 Am#assador to Vietnam Frederi24 olting in Saigon% South Vietnam in 1&'10 olting -as a mem#er of the Coun2il on Foreign Lelations0 9Sour2e: J'B and Vietnam: $eception1 +ntri#ue1 and ,he Stru##(e %or Po0er #y +ohn H0 e-man 91&&$;;

9Sour2e: J'B and Vietnam: $eception1 +ntri#ue1 and ,he Stru##(e %or Po0er #y +ohn H0 e-man 91&&$;;

Vi2e President )yndon * +ohnson meets go !inh hu at Gia )ong Pala2e in Saigon on Hay 1$% 1&'10 9Photo: )yndon *0 +ohnson Presidential )i#rary% <or4 #y 70S0 Bm#assy0 S2anned from #oo4 $eath o% a 8eneration #y 1o-ard +ones;

President Ngo Dinh Diem of South Vietnam, on a state visit to the %nited States, vie!s San #ran is o from a sightseeing )oat 0assing )eneath the San #ran is o72akland Bay Bridge on .ay A, 6=FA. With him are Lt. /en. "ohn W. 2GDaniel ,ret.-, left, hairman of the (meri an #riends for Vietnam, and Ro)ert Blum, head of the (sia #oundation. Ro)ert Blum !as a mem)er of the Coun il on #oreign Relations.

South Vietnam’s President go !inh !iem "isits e- :or4 City in Hay 1&IO0 9Photo: Vietnam: A History #y Stanley Karno-;

South VietnamGs President o!ed his 0oliti al survival largely to %.S. (ir #or e Colonel ,later .aHor /eneral- 3d!ard Lansdale ,near left-, an (meri an air for e offi er atta hed to the Central :ntelligen e (gen y. ,Sour e* 1ietnam: A $istor" )y Stanley $arno!-

Lieutenant Colonel Lu ien Conein ,rear- !as a C:( agent !ho served as liaison !ith the South Vietnamese generals !ho ons0ired to overthro! Diem. +is s0e ial onta t !as /eneral &ran Van Don , enter-. Both !ere )orn in #ran e and had )een friends for years. 2thers ,left to right- are /enerals Le Van $im, &on &hat Dinh, Nguyen Van Vy, and .ai +uu Wuan. ,Sour e* 1ietnam: A $istor" )y Stanley $arno!-

Nguyyan Dinh &huan, Chief Ca)inet .inister to President Ngo Dinh Diem of South Vietnam, onfers !ith President "ohn #. $ennedy at the White +ouse in Washington, D.C. on "une 68, 6=>6. &huan delivered a letter from President Ngo Dinh Diem dealing !ith the Communist threat to his ountry. ,:mage* T Bettmann1C2RB:S-

%nited States Senator 3d!ard .. I&edJ $ennedy ,D7.assa husetts- and his !ife, "oan $ennedy , enter-, hat !ith .adame Ngo Dinh Nhu after attending a lun heon in Belgrade, ?ugoslavia on Se0tem)er 6<, 6=><. Senator $ennedy and .adame Nhu, the #irst Lady of South Vietnam, attended the F4nd session of the :nter0arliamentary ,%nion onferen e- in Belgrade. Senator $ennedy, the youngest )rother of President "ohn #. $ennedy, said .adame Nhu Udis ussed at length her side of the 0i tureU in her familySs handling of Buddhist o00osition in South Vietnam. .adame Nhu !as the sister7in7la! of South VietnamGs President Ngo Dinh Diem. ,:mage* T Bettmann1C2RB:S-

President "ohn #. $ennedy ,left- meets !ith the South VietnamGs Se retary of State Nguyyan Dinh &huan at the White +ouse on "une 68, 6=>6. ,White +ouse 0hoto )y Ro)ert $nudsen-

President +ohn F0 Kennedy meets -ith Sou"anna Phouma% the neutralist Prime Hinister of )aos at the <hite 1ouse in Se3tem#er 1&'(0 9Sour2e: American ,ra#edy: Bennedy1 Johnson1 and the )ri#ins o% the Vietnam War #y !a"id Kaiser;

President +ohn F0 Kennedy s3ea4s -ith 70S0 Am#assador to )aos <inthro3 G0 *ro-n0 <inthro3 G0 *ro-n -as a mem#er of the Coun2il on Foreign Lelations and a graduate of :ale 7ni"ersity0 9Photo: American ,ra#edy: Bennedy1 Johnson1 and the )ri#ins o% the Vietnam War #y !a"id Kaiser;

President "ohn #. $ennedy meets !ith %.S. (m)assador to South Vietnam +enry Ca)ot Lodge "r. at the White +ouse on (ugust 6F, 6=><. +enry Ca)ot Lodge "r. !as a mem)er of the Coun il on #oreign Relations. ,Photo )y Ro)ert $nudsen1"ohn #. $ennedy Presidential Li)rary and .useum-

(rmy Chief of Staff /en. .a'!ell D. &aylor toasts Cam)odiaGs $ing Norodom Sihanouk in Phnom Penh in 6=FF.

70S0 Army General HaA-ell !0 Taylor has a dinner -ith Cam#odia’s !efense Hinister )on ol0 9Photo: S0ords and P(o0shares #y Gen0 HaA-ell !0 Taylor 91&O$;;

C:( agent William Col)y meets !ith a grou0 of South Vietnamese army generals near the Lao )order in South Vietnam in 6=>4. /eneral Nguyen $hanh served as the President of the Re0u)li of Vietnam ,South Vietnam- in 6=>8. ,Sour e* $onorable +en: +" Life in the , A )y William Col)y and Peter #or)ath-

C:( agent William Col)y and his family visit South VietnamGs President Ngo Dinh Diem in Saigon in 6=>4. ,Sour e* $onorable +en: +" Life in the , A )y William Col)y and Peter #or)ath-

( %.S. (rmy a0tain engages in a mo k hand7to7hand om)at !ith a South Vietnamese army soldier. ,Photo* &ime Life-

South Vietnamese soldiers re eive guerilla !arfare training from (meri an military advisors in "uly 6=>6. ,Photo* "ohn Dominis1&ime Life-

2 to)er 6=>4 7 %.S. advisor trains Vietnamese troo0s in the use of a flame thro!er. ,Photo* htt0*11!!!.military0hotos.net1forums1sho!thread.0h0L6<585A7Vietnamese7.ilitary7&hread7,u0dated7on7regular7)asis-10ageA-

9Sour2e: J'B and Vietnam: $eception1 +ntri#ue1 and ,he Stru##(e %or Po0er #y +ohn H0 e-man 91&&$;;

9Sour2e: J'B and Vietnam: $eception1 +ntri#ue1 and ,he Stru##(e %or Po0er #y +ohn H0 e-man 91&&$;;

President +ohn F0 Kennedy dis2usses the 3oliti2al situation in )aos during a 3ress 2onferen2e at the <hite 1ouse in <ashington% !0C0 in Har2h 1&'10 9Photo: Paul S2hutzerKTime )ife;

9Sour2e: J'B and Vietnam: $eception1 +ntri#ue1 and ,he Stru##(e %or Po0er #y +ohn H0 e-man 91&&$;;

9Sour2e: J'B and Vietnam: $eception1 +ntri#ue1 and ,he Stru##(e %or Po0er #y +ohn H0 e-man 91&&$;;

9Sour2e: J'B and Vietnam: $eception1 +ntri#ue1 and ,he Stru##(e %or Po0er #y +ohn H0 e-man 91&&$;;

9Sour2e: J'B and Vietnam: $eception1 +ntri#ue1 and ,he Stru##(e %or Po0er #y +ohn H0 e-man 91&&$;;

9Sour2e: J'B and Vietnam: $eception1 +ntri#ue1 and ,he Stru##(e %or Po0er #y +ohn H0 e-man 91&&$;;

Part <* Politi al &urmoil K (ssassination of Ngo Dinh Diem

9Photo: Vietnam: A History #y Stanley Karno-;

9Photo: Vietnam: A History #y Stanley Karno-;

&he four men !ho fired the first shots in the Vietnam War on "anuary 6A, 6=>5, left to right* Nguyen Van &hong, Le Van $inh, Pham Van /iai and Nguyen Van Dung in Dinh &huy hamlet, north of .o Cay in the .ekong Delta. &heir a0ture of a Diem military out0ost is offi ially re ogniCed as the start of the !ar. ,Photo* T Phili0 "ones /riffiths 1 .agnum 1 V:3&N(. at P3(C3 1 &rolley Bookshtt0*11!!!.digitalHournalist.org1issue5F5A10Hg64.html

South Vietnamese 0aratroo0ers 0re0are to Hum0 from an air0lane during ounterinsurgen y training )eing ondu ted )y the (meri an military in South Vietnam in 2 to)er 6=>4. ,C2RB:S-

"une 6=>6 7 South Vietnamese militiamen, automati !ea0ons in hand, stand guard in .y Puai, a village a)out AF miles south!est of Saigon in an area threatened )y guerilla for es. ,Photo* htt0*11!!!.military0hotos.net1forums1sho!thread.0h0L6<585A7Vietnamese7.ilitary7&hread7,u0dated7on7regular7)asis-10ageA-

South Vietnam’s President go !inh !iem a33ears -ith his assistant go !inh hu0 9Photo: htt3:KK---0military3hotos0netKforumsKsho-thread03h3?1(GJGO8Vietnamese8Hilitary8Thread89u3dated8on8regular8 #asis;K3age1&;

South VietnamGs President Ngo Dinh Diem ins0e t soldiers of the South Vietnamese armed for es in Saigon in 6=>4, shortly after the Presidential Pala e !as atta ked. ,Photo* htt0*11!!!.military0hotos.net1forums1sho!thread.0h0L6<585A7Vietnamese7.ilitary7&hread7,u0dated7on7regular7)asis-10ageF@-

&he 0residential 0ala e in Saigon is hit )y an isolated atta k )y t!o mem)ers of the South Vietnamese air for e on #e)ruary 4>, 6=>4. President Ngo Dinh Diem !as unhurt. ,Photo* htt0*11!!!.military0hotos.net1forums1sho!thread.0h0L6<585A7Vietnamese7.ilitary7&hread7,u0dated7on7regular7)asis-10ageA-

South Vietnamese female militiamen !at h .adame Ngo Dinh Nhu fire a .<@ 0istol in South Vietnam in "une 6=>4. ,Photo* Larry Burro!s 1&ime Life-

.adame Ngo Dinh Nhu ins0e ts the 0residential 0ala e in Saigon in 6=>4. &he 0residential 0ala e !as atta ked and )om)ed )y t!o mem)ers of the South Vietnamese air for e on #e)ruary 4>, 6=>4. .adame Nhu !as the !ife of Ngo Dinh Nhu, the )rother of South VietnamGs President Ngo Dinh Diem. +er hus)and and her )rother7in7la! Ngo Dinh Diem !ere assassinated in Saigon on Novem)er 4, 6=><. .adame Nhu is alive and urrently lives in e'ile in #ran e. ,Photo* &ime Life-

.adame Ngo Dinh Nhu issues orders to female soldiers at a firing range in South Vietnam in 6=>4. ,Photo* Larry Burro!s1 &ime Life-

%.S. Vi e President Lyndon B. "ohnson ,left-, South VietnamGs President Ngo Dinh Diem , enter-, and %.S. (m)assador to South Vietnam #rederi k Nolting stand together at the Presidential Pala e in Saigon, South Vietnam on .ay 64, 6=>6.

9Sour2e: Vietnam: A History #y Stanley Karno-;

%.S. (rmy Ca0tain /erald $il)urn ,left- leads South Vietnamese army soldiers through ri e 0addies in hunt for Viet Cong terrorists in the .ekong Delta in South Vietnam on 2 to)er 4, 6=><. , +(otoF Larry Burro!s1&ime Life-

9Photo: Vietnam: A History #y Stanley Karno-;

9Sour2e: Vietnam: A History #y Stanley Karno-;

Hem#ers of the Viet Congs 2arry su33lies through a trail% later 4no-n as the 1o Chi Hinh Trail% in the late 1&IGs0

A South Vietnamese soldier es2orts a man and a #oy sus3e2ted of #eing a Viet2ong% ha"ing Fust flushed them out of 3addy -here they -ere hiding% in the He4ong !elta in South Vietnam in 1&'$0 9)arry *urro-sKTime )ife;

9Sour2e: Vietnam: A History #y Stanley Karno-;

A South Vietnamese soldier -ields a #ayonet in front of a 2a3tured Viet2ong sus3e2t during interrogation in August 1&'$0 9Photo: )arry *urro-sKTime )ife;

Buddhist monk Puang Du )urns himself to death in Saigon, South Vietnam on "une 66, 6=><.

( olor 0hoto of Buddhist monk Puang Du )urning himself to death in Saigon, South Vietnam on "une 66, 6=><

"uly 6, 6=>< 7 South VietnamSs President Ngo Dinh Diem revie!s honor troo0s in Saigon, marking his first a00earan e in 0u)li sin e the risis )et!een Diem, a Roman Catholi , and the Buddhists. ,Photo* htt0*11!!!.military0hotos.net1forums1sho!thread.0h0L6<585A7Vietnamese7.ilitary7&hread7,u0dated7on7regular7)asis-10ageA-

2 to)er 6>, 6=>< 7 (rmed South Vietnamese marines mar h 0ast SaigonSs Wa Loi Pagoda, on e head;uarters of the Buddhist o00osition, as the 0arti i0ate in National Day &hanksgiving Servi e. ,Photo* htt0*11!!!.military0hotos.net1forums1sho!thread.0h0L6<585A7Vietnamese7.ilitary7&hread7,u0dated7on7regular7)asis-10ageA-

,Photo* htt0*11!!!.military0hotos.net1forums1sho!thread.0h0L6<585A7Vietnamese7.ilitary7&hread7,u0dated7on7regular7)asis-10ageF=-

(ugust F, 6=>< 7 ( severely !ounded South Vietnamese soldier is omforted in a sugar ane field near Du +oa, 64 miles !est of Saigon after a Viet Cong am)ush. &he one7day o0eration involved a)out <,555 troo0s in tanks, armored river raft, and on foot. ,Photo* htt0*11!!!.military0hotos.net1forums1sho!thread.0h0L6<585A7Vietnamese7.ilitary7&hread7,u0dated7on7regular7)asis-10ageA-

South Vietnamese *uddhists demanded #asi2 3oliti2al rights in Saigon in 1&'(0 The Ra )oi 3agoda is in the #a24ground0 9Photo: American ,ra#edy: Bennedy1 Johnson1 and the )ri#ins o% the Vietnam War #y !a"id Kaiser;

9Sour2e: Vietnam: A History #y Stanley Karno-;

Ngo Dinh Diem !ould )e assassinated in Saigon on Novem)er 4, 6=><.

Pi ture taken on the (nniversary of the Re0u)li of Vietnam on 2 to)er 4>, 6=><, five days )efore the ou0 dGetat that !ould result in the death of South VietnamGs President Ngo Dinh Diem. Left* /eneral Duong Van .inh ,IBig .inhJ-, /eneral Le Van $im, unkno!n Colonel ,LL-, /eneral &ran Van Don. ,Photo* htt0*11ngothelinh.tri0od. om1NgoDinhDiem.html-

Left 0hoto* South VietnamGs President Ngo Diem a00ears !ith South VietnamGs Navy offi er +o &an Puyen , enter- at Nha &rang, South Vietnam in 6=>4. Right 0hoto* South VietnamGs President Ngo Dinh Diem re eives di0lomati redentials from in oming (meri an (m)assador to South Vietnam +enry Ca)ot Lodge "r. at /ia Long Pala e in Saigon on (ugust 4F, 6=><. ,Both 0hotos* htt0*11!!!.h;vn h.net1default.as0LidRF@-

South Vietnamese army 0aratroo0ers stand outside the Dien7+ong Pala e in Saigon, South Vietnam on 2 to)er 4F, 6=FA, !here the =th Colum) Plan Conferen e !as held. ,Photo* +ulton7Deuts h Colle tion1C2RB:S-

Commander 1o Tan Puyen 9left;% A2ti"e a"al !e3uty% Le3u#li2 of Vietnam a"y% <ith Lear Admiral Alfred G0 <ard% 7S % Commander Cruiser !i"ision >ne% on #oard 7SS Toledo 9CA81((;% during the shi3@s "isit to Saigon for Vietnamese =nde3enden2e !ay 2ele#rations% $O >2to#er 1&I&0 1o Tan Puyen% a !iem loyalist% -as a 2ommander of the Le3u#li2 of Vietnam a"y -hen he -as assassinated in Saigon on o"em#er 1% 1&'(% shortly #efore the assassination of South Vietnam’s President go !inh !iem0 970S0 a"al 1istori2al Center Photogra3h;

South Vietnam’s President go !inh !iem 9a#o"e; and his #rother go !inh hu -ere assassinated in Saigon% South Vietnam on 0ovember /% !)F0 go !inh !iem -as a Loman Catholi20 Ameri2a’s President +ohn F0 Kennedy -ould #e assassinated in !allas% TeAas% 7nited States of Ameri2a on 0ovember //% !)F0 9Photo: American ,ra#edy: Bennedy1 Johnson1 and the )ri#ins o% the Vietnam War #y !a"id Kaiser;

,They started on me -ith . go !inh/ !iem% you remem#er0 1e -as 2orru3t and he ought to #e 4illed0 So -e 4illed him0 We all got together and got a goddamn bunch of thugs and we went in and assassinated him. o-% -e’"e really had no 3oliti2al sta#ility sin2e then05 6 70S0 President )yndon *aines +ohnson% in a ta3e8re2orded 2on"ersation 9Sour2e: htt3:KK---0youtu#e02omK-at2h?"Y!e "U'$"'<P&featureYrelated;

&he Presidential Pala e in Saigon, South Vietnam is ransa ked in Novem)er 6=>< after a military ou0 that overthre! Diem government. ,Photo* Larry Burro!s1&ime Life-

General !uong Van Hinh% also 4no-n as ,*ig Hinh5% a33ears on the front 2o"er of the o"em#er N% 1&'( edition of ,ime magazine0

Lieutenant Colonel Lu ien Conein ,rear- !as a C:( agent !ho served as liaison !ith the South Vietnamese generals !ho ons0ired to overthro! Diem. +is s0e ial onta t !as /eneral &ran Van Don , enter-. Both !ere )orn in #ran e and had )een friends for years. 2thers ,left to right- are /enerals Le Van $im, &on &hat Dinh, Nguyen Van Vy, and .ai +uu Wuan. ,Sour e* 1ietnam: A $istor" )y Stanley $arno!-

&he South Vietnamese (rmy generals !ho )etrayed President Ngo Dinh Diem for Y84,555 %.S. dollars ,I<5 0ie es of silverJ- from C:( agent Lu ien Conien. :ener'!# ? m, D n(, Don, D$, 'n. Gu'n under house arrest in Dalat, South Vietnam in 6=>8. ,Photo* htt0*11ngothelinh.tri0od. om1NgoDinhDiem.html-

9Sour2e: Cd0ard Lansda(e: ,he Unquiet American #y Ce2il *0 Currey;

9Sour2e: Cd0ard Lansda(e: ,he Unquiet American #y Ce2il *0 Currey;

,Sour e* The Secret $istor" of the , A )y "ose0h ". &rento ,4556--

:n the )ook The Secret $istor" of the , A )y "ose0h ". &rento, the author states that Ithe orders that ended in the deaths of DSouth VietnamGs President Ngo DinhE Diem and his )rother originated !ith D(verellE +arriman. . .J

:n the )ook The Secret $istor" of the , A )y "ose0h ". &rento, the author states that (verell +arriman ordered the death of South VietnamGs President Ngo Dinh Diem.

President 4isenhower:s Letter to 0go ;inh ;iem% 6ctober /F% !"#
Letter %rom President Cisenho0er to !#o $inh $iem1 President o% the Counci( o% Ministers o% Vietnam1 )cto"er 6?1 >5:A !BAL HL0 PLBS=!B T: = ha"e #een follo-ing -ith great interest the 2ourse of de"elo3ments in Viet8 am% 3arti2ularly sin2e the 2on2lusion of the 2onferen2e at Gene"a0 The im3li2ations of the agreement 2on2erning Viet8 am ha"e 2aused gra"e 2on2ern regarding the future of a 2ountry tem3orarily di"ided #y an artifi2ial military grou3ing% -ea4ened #y a long and eAhausting -ar and fa2ed -ith enemies -ithout and #y their su#"ersi"e 2olla#orators -ithin0 :our re2ent reEuests for aid to assist in the formida#le 3roFe2t of the mo"ement of se"eral hundred thousand loyal Vietnamese 2itizens a-ay from areas -hi2h are 3assing under a de %acto rule and 3oliti2al ideology -hi2h they a#hor% are #eing fulfilled0 = am glad that the 7nited States is a#le to assist in this humanitarian effort0 <e ha"e #een eA3loring -ays and means to 3ermit our aid to Viet8 am to #e more effe2ti"e and to ma4e a greater 2ontri#ution to the -elfare and sta#ility of the Go"ernment of Viet8 am0 = am% a22ordingly% instru2ting the Ameri2an Am#assador to Viet8 am to eAamine -ith you in your 2a3a2ity as Chief of Go"ernment% #o- an intelligent 3rogram of Ameri2an aid gi"en dire2tly to your Go"ernment 2an ser"e to assist Viet8 am in its 3resent hour of trial% 3ro"ided that your Go"ernment is 3re3ared to gi"e assuran2es as to the standards of 3erforman2e it -ould #e a#le to maintain in the e"ent su2h aid -ere su33lied0 The 3ur3ose of this offer is to assist the Go"ernment of Viet8 am in de"elo3ing and maintaining a strong% "ia#le state% 2a3a#le of resisting attem3ted su#"ersion or aggression through military means0 The Go"ernment of the 7nited States eA3e2ts that this aid -ill #e met #y 3erforman2e on the 3art of the Go"ernment of Viet8 am in underta4ing needed reforms0 =t ho3es that su2h aid% 2om#ined -ith your o-n 2ontinuing efforts% -ill 2ontri#ute effe2ti"ely to-ard an inde3endent Viet8 am endo-ed -ith a strong go"ernment0 Su2h a go"ernment -ould% = ho3e% #e so res3onsi"e to the nationalist as3irations of its 3eo3le% so enlightened in 3ur3ose and effe2ti"e in 3erforman2e% that it -ill #e res3e2ted #oth at home and a#road and dis2ourage any -ho might -ish to im3ose a foreign ideology on your free 3eo3le0 Sin2erely% !-ight !0 Bisenho-er Source9 Le3rinted from ,he $epartment o% State .u((etin 9 o"em#er 1I% 1&IJ;% 330 O(I8O('0 This teAt is 3art of the =nternet Hodern 1istory Sour2e#oo40 The Sour2e#oo4 is a 2olle2tion of 3u#li2 domain and 2o3y8 3ermitted teAts for introdu2tory le"el 2lasses in modern Buro3ean and <orld history0 7nless other-ise indi2ated the s3e2ifi2 ele2troni2 form of the do2ument is 2o3yright0 Permission is granted for ele2troni2 2o3ying% distri#ution in 3rint form for edu2ational 3ur3oses and 3ersonal use0 =f you do redu3li2ate the do2ument% indi2ate the sour2e0 o 3ermission is granted for 2ommer2ial use of the Sour2e#oo40 \ Paul 1alsall% +uly 1&&N

Sour2e: htt3:KKngothelinh0tri3od02omKBisenho-er8!iem0html

$ Letter Crom South Vietnamese President 0go ;inh ;iem to $merican President 5ohn C. +ennedy
!e2em#er O% 1&'1 !ear Hr0 President: Sin2e its #irth% more than siA years ago% the Le3u#li2 of Vietnam has enFoyed the 2lose friendshi3 and 2o8o3eration of the 7nited States of Ameri2a0 )i4e the 7nited States% The Le3u#li2 of Vietnam has al-ays #een de"oted to the 3reser"ation of 3ea2e0 Hy 3eo3le 4no- only too -ell the sorro-s of -ar0 <e ha"e honored the 1&IJ Gene"a Agreements e"en though they resulted in the 3artition of our 2ountry and the ensla"ement of more than half of our 3eo3le #y Communist tyranny0 <e ha"e ne"er 2onsidered the reunifi2ation of our nation #y for2e0 >n the 2ontrary% -e ha"e 3u#li2ly 3ledged that -e -ill not "iolate the demar2ation line and the demilitarized zone set u3 #y the Agreements0 <e ha"e al-ays #een 3re3ared and ha"e on many o22asions stated our -illingness to reunify Vietnam on the #asis of demo2rati2 and truly free ele2tions0 The re2ord of the Communist authorities in the northern 3art of the 2ountry is Euite other-ise0 They not only 2onsented to the di"ision of Vietnam% #ut -ere eager for it0 They 3ledged themsel"es to o#ser"e the Gene"a Agreements and during the se"en years sin2e ha"e ne"er 2eased to "iolate them0 They 2all for free ele2tions #ut are ignorant of the "ery meaning of the -ords0 They tal4 of C3ea2eful reunifi2ationC and -age -ar against us0 From the #eginning% the Communists resorted to terror in their efforts to su#"ert our 3eo3le% destroy our go"ernment% and im3ose a Communist regime u3on us0 They ha"e atta24ed defenseless tea2hers% 2losed s2hools% 4illed mem#ers of our anti8malarial 3rogram% and looted hos3itals0 This is 2oldly 2al2ulated to destroy our go"ernment@s humanitarian efforts to ser"e our 3eo3le0 <e ha"e long sought to 2he24 the Communist atta24 from the orth on our 3eo3le #y a33eals to the =nternational Control Commission0 >"er the years% -e ha"e re3eatedly 3u#lished to the -orld the e"iden2e of the Communist 3lot to o"erthro- our go"ernment and seize 2ontrol of all of Vietnam #y illegal intrusions from outside our 2ountry0 The e"iden2e has mounted until no- it is hardly ne2essary to rehearse it0 Host re2ently% the 4idna33ing and #rutal murder of our Chief )iaison >ffi2er to the =nternational Control Commission% Colonel oang Thuy am% 2om3elled us to s3ea4 out on2e more0 =n our >2to#er $J% 1&'1 letter to the =CC% -e 2alled attention again to the 3u#li2ly stated determination of the Communist authorities in 1anoi to Cli#erate the southC #y the o"erthro- of my go"ernment and the im3osition of a Communist regime on our 3eo3le0 <e 2ited the 3roof of massi"e infiltration of Communist agents and military elements into our 2ountry0 <e outlined the Communist strategy% -hi2h is sim3ly the ruthless use of terror against the -hole 3o3ulation% -omen and 2hildren in2luded0 =n the 2ourse of the last fe- months% the 2ommunist assault on my 3eo3le has a2hie"ed high fero2ity0 =n >2to#er they 2aused more than 1%NGG in2idents of "iolen2e and more than $%GGG 2asualties0 They ha"e stru24 o22asionally in #attalion strength% and they are 2ontinually augmenting their for2es #y infiltration from the orth0 The le"el of their atta24s is already su2h that our for2es are stret2hed to the utmost0 <e are for2ed to defend e"ery "illage% e"ery hamlet% indeed e"ery home against a foe -hose ta2ti2 is al-ays to stri4e at the defenseless0 A disastrous flood -as re2ently added to the misfortunes of the Vietnamese 3eo3le0 The greater 3art of the three 3ro"in2es -as inundated% -ith a great loss of 3ro3erty0 <e are no- engaged in a nation-ide effort to re2onstru2t and reha#ilitate this area0 The Communists are% of 2ourse% ma4ing this tas4 dou#ly diffi2ult% for they ha"e seized u3on the disru3tion of normal administration and 2ommuni2ations as an o33ortunity to so- more destru2tion in the stri24en area0 =n short% the Vietnamese nation no- fa2es -hat is 3erha3s the gra"est 2risis in its long history0 For more than $%GGG years my 3eo3le ha"e li"ed and #uilt% fought and died in this land0 <e ha"e not al-ays #een free0 =ndeed% mu2h of our history and many of its 3roudest moments ha"e arisen from 2onEuest #y foreign 3o-ers and our struggle against great odds to regain or defend our 3re2ious inde3enden2e0 *ut it is not only our freedom that is at sta4e today% it is our national identity0 For if -e lose the -ar% our 3eo3le -ill #e s-allo-ed #y the Communist #lo2% all our 3roud heritage -ill #e #lotted out #y the CSo2ialist so2ietyC and Vietnam -ill lea"e the 3ages of history0 <e -ill lose our national soul0 Hr0 President% my 3eo3le and = are mindful of the great assistan2e the 7nited States has gi"en us0 :our hel3 has not #een lightly re2ei"ed% for the Vietnamese are 3roud 3eo3le% and -e are 3re3ared to do our 3art in the defense of the free -orld0 =t is 2lear to all of us that the defeat of the Viet Cong demands the total mo#ilization of our go"ernment and our 3eo3le% and you may #e sure that -e -ill de"ote all of our resour2es of money% minds% and men to this tas40 *ut Vietnam is not a great 3o-er and the for2es of international Communism no- arrayed against us are more than -e 2an meet -ith the resour2es at hand0 <e must ha"e further assistan2e from the 7nited States if -e are to -in the -ar no- #eing -aged against us0 <e 2an 2ertainly assure man4ind that our a2tion is 3urely defensi"e0 Hu2h as -e regret the su#Fugation of more than half our 3eo3le in orth Vietnam% -e ha"e no intention% and indeed no means% to free them #y use of for2e0 = ha"e said that Vietnam is at -ar0 <ar means many things% #ut most of all it means the death of #ra"e 3eo3le for a 2ause they #elie"e in0 Vietnam has suffered many -ars% and through the 2enturies -e ha"e al-ays had 3atriots and heroes -ho -ere -illing to shed their #lood for Vietnam0 <e -ill 4ee3 faith -ith them0 <hen Communism has long e##ed a-ay into the 3ast% my 3eo3le -ill still #e here% a free united nation gro-ing from the dee3 roots of our Vietnamese heritage0 They -ill remem#er your hel3 in our time of need0 This struggle -ill then #e a 3art of our 2ommon history0 And your hel3% your friendshi3% and the strong #onds #et-een our t-o 3eo3les -ill #e a 3art of Vietnam% then as no-0 Sour2e: htt3:KKngothelinh0tri3od02omK!iem8Kennedy0html

.adame 0hu% ;ragon Lady of South Vietnam G$GGN Peter *rush
ote: An edited "ersion of this arti2le a33eared in Vietnam magazine% Vol0 $$% o0 (% >2to#er% $GG&% 330 ($8(O0 Hadame go !inh hu -as the most famous and influential -oman in the #rief history of South Vietnam0 As the sister8in8la- of Vietnam’s #a2helor President go !inh !iem% she 2onsidered herself the nation’s First )ady0 o stranger to 2ontro"ersy% and thri"ing on 3u#li2ity% Hadame hu had the 2om3lete su33ort of President !iem along -ith the 2om3lete loathing of President +ohn Kennedy and the go"ernment of the 7nited States% #oth at the same time0 This is the story of the rise and fall of Hadame hu% 4no-n as the !ragon )ady of South Vietnam0 Hadame hu -as #orn in1&$J into one of the -ealthiest and most aristo2rati2 families in Vietnam0 1er maiden name -as Tran )e Ruan 9,*eautiful S3ring5;0 1er father -as a la-yer% and the Tran family made its fortune ser"ing the Fren2h 2olonial go"ernment0 At her home in 1anoi she -as attended #y $G ser"ants0 She -as a medio2re student -ho ne"er finished high s2hool0 She #e2ame fluent in Fren2h #ut ne"er learned to -rite Vietnamese0 *eautiful S3ring felt unlo"ed #y her mother% against -hom she re#elled0 She had an unha33y 2hildhood and -as anAious to marry in order to es2a3e her domesti2 2ir2umstan2es0 At the same time *eautiful S3ring -as eager to marry% go !inh hu -as em3loyed as an ar2hi"ist at the =ndo8China )i#rary in 1anoi0 hu also 2ame from an aristo2rati2 family0 The go 2lan had 2on"erted to Catholi2ism in the se"enteenth 2entury0 hu’s father ser"ed as 2ounselor to the em3eror of Vietnam0 hu s3ent his t-enties studying literature and li#rarianshi3 in Paris0 =n 1anoi% in the early 1&JGs% he -as an admirer of *eautiful S3ring’s mother% -ho o3erated a lo2al literary salon0 <hile hu 3ro"ided #oo4s and tutored her in )atin% *eautiful S3ring de"elo3ed a 3lan to get out of her o33ressi"e home situation0 Although fourteen years younger and not in lo"e% she married hu and 2on"erted to Catholi2ism in 1&J(0 Three years later -ar #egan #et-een the Viet Hinh and the Fren2h0.1/ hu and his #rothers -ere strongly anti8Communist0 >ne #rother% !iem% -as arrested and #riefly held 3risoner #y the Viet HinhM another -as 4illed0 hu managed to a"oided 2a3ture0 ot so lu24y% Hadame hu and her infant daughter -ere ta4en #y the Communists in !e2em#er 1&J' and held in a remote "illage for four months0 She -as reunited -ith hu -hen Fren2h for2es li#erated the area0 The hus settled in the resort to-n of !a )at in the Central 1ighlands0 They ran a ne-s3a3er and -or4ed to organize su33ort for !iem% -ho -as li"ing in the 7nited States0 hu mo"ed to Saigon in 1&I( -here he organized demonstrations against the Fren2h and the Communists0 hu also -or4ed to undermine 3o3ular su33ort for Bm3eror *ao !ai in order to in2rease the a33eal of the nationalist mo"ement headed #y !iem% noli"ing in Fran2e and in 2onta2t -ith the large Parisian Vietnamese eAile 2ommunity0 =n Har2h 1&IJ% -ord rea2hed Saigon that the Fren2h army at !ien *ien Phu -as threatened #y a 3o-erful Viet Hinh for2e0 *ao !ai% 2onsidered a 3u33et of the Fren2h #y many Vietnamese% realized there -as a 3ossi#ility the Fren2h might soon de3art Vietnam0 Le2ognizing !iem’s 3o3ularity% in +une 1&IJ he a33ointed him 3rime minister of Vietnam0 The follo-ing year hu 2ame u3 -ith a 3lan to allo- !iem to -in the 3o-er struggle -ith *ao !ai: hold a referendum as4ing the 3eo3le to 2hoose #et-een them0 hu 2ontrolled the se2ret 3oli2e% -ho determined the out2ome of the ele2tion0 !iem -on the >2to#er $I ele2tion -ith a -ho33ing &N0$ 3er 2ent of the "ote0 1e ousted the em3eror% 3ro2laimed a re3u#li2% named himself President% and assumed di2tatorial 3o-ers0 *e2ause he -as strongly anti8Communist% !iem se2ured the su33ort of the Bisenho-er administration% -hi2h ga"e him hundreds of millions of dollars in aid0 !iem% -ith hu’s hel3% s3ent the neAt fe- years defeating his 3oliti2al o33onents and 2onsolidating his 3o-ers0 hu and Hadame hu li"ed in the Presidential Pala2e and 2ontrolled a22ess to !iem0 Their 3o-er -as immense0 A22ording to Fournalist !a"id 1al#erstam% had !iem #een the President of the 70S0% hu -ould ha"e 2ontrolled all the nation’s ne-s3a3ersM headed the C=A% F*=% and CongressM ser"ed as Attorney General and Se2retary of StateM and -ritten all the re3orts seen #y the President0.$/ *oth -ere ele2ted to the ational Assem#ly in 1&I'M #oth rarely #othered to attend its sessions0.(/ Hadame hu ser"ed as her #a2helor #rother8in8la-’s offi2ial First )ady0 She insisted the Vietnamese 3ress refer to her as Hadame go% although the 3ro3er usage -as Hadame hu0.J/ =n 1&I' she #egan a 2am3aign to ma4e maFor 2hanges in Vietnamese domesti2 relations0 =n 1&IN her Family Code #ill #e2ame la-0 =t made illegal 3olygamy% di"or2e% and marital infidelity 9in2luding #eing seen in 3u#li2 -ith a mem#er of another seA;0 <omen -ere gi"en eEual rights -ith men in a "ariety of areas0 umerous male mem#ers of the Assem#ly disagreed -ith this legislation and its 3assage -as 2ontentious 6 during the deli#erations% a22ording to some re3orts% Hadame hu 2alled the Assem#ly maFority leader ,a 3ig05.I/ Although 2ontinued go"ernment re3ression 2emented !iem’s hold on 3o-er% in the long term it ser"ed to alienate the Vietnamese from the go"ernment0 This alienation -as eA3loited #y the Communist Viet Cong 9VC;0 *y the late 1&IGs in2reased VC influen2e #rought the 2ountry to the 3oint of 3oliti2al 2risis0

President !iem’s 3ro3ensity for one8man rule -as tem3ered only #y relian2e on his family to go"ern Vietnam0 1is four #rothers all had im3ortant roles in South Vietnamese affairs0 !es3ite their strong influen2e% neither hu nor Hadame hu held high 3ositions -ithin the !iem go"ernment0 hu’s offi2ial title -as Ad"isor to the President0 Hadame hu -as head of the <omen’s Solidarity Ho"ement and in 2harge of -omen’s affairs generally0 >"er time the 3o-er and influen2e of the hu’s in2reased% to the 3oint -here some o#ser"ers 2laimed hu -as more 3o-erful e"en than !iem% due to hu’s strong influen2e o"er his #rother’s thin4ing0 >ther o#ser"ers felt it -as Hadame hu -ho had #e2ome the dominant mem#er of the family0 She in2reasingly 2on2erned herself -ith matters outside the domain of -omen’s affairs% and sought a 3osition for herself of eEuality -ith the President0.'/ +ohn He24lin ser"ed in Vietnam -ith the 70S0 =nformation Agen2y0 1e 4ne- !iem% hu% and Hadame hu 3ersonally0 1e found it 2on2ei"a#le the entire family -as 2lini2ally madM indeed% some of their a2tions -ere so #izarre as to suggest a death -ish0 A22ording to He24lin% ,the hus -ere the 3oison that ultimately destroyed the regime05 Hadame hu -as a ,hair8triggered s3itfire5 -illing to for2e a resolution to 3oliti2al issues #ut almost al-ays in the most damaging dire2tions0 She -as greatly stirred #y the 2risis affe2ting her 2ountry% #ut her rea2tions ser"ed to -orsen it0 She -as stri4ing in a33earan2e #ut not #eautiful% "ery energeti2% and had eAtra"agant tastes0 She -as eAtro"erted% had a good sense of humor% and -as a 2a3ti"ating 2on"ersationalist% 2a3a#le of tal4ing ,li4e a ma2hine gun in either Fren2h or Bnglish05 .O/ As the influen2e of the hus in2reased% so too did resentment against the go"ernment0 Seeing no alternati"e to !iem% the <hite 1ouse urged reform in order to #roaden his #ase of su33ort0 =n 1&I& Am#assador Bl#ridge !ur#ro- tried to 3ersuade !iem to get rid of hu and #ring ne- 3eo3le into the go"ernment0.N/ =n o"em#er 1&'G there -as a 2ou3 attem3t #y South Vietnamese 3aratroo3ers -ith the same goal0 >ne of their first demands -as that Hadame hu #e remo"ed from the Presidential 3ala2e0 A22ording to an arti2le in ,ime magazine% she -as flattered #y the attention0.&/ =n the first moments of the 2ou3 the 3aratroo3ers a22om3lished their goals 6 !iem and most e"eryone inside the 3ala2e fa"ored a22e3ting the demands to form a ne- go"ernment0 Alone% Hadame hu reFe2ted any notion of 2om3romise% insisting instead on fighting to the end0 !iem finally #rought in loyal troo3s and for2ed an end to the re#ellion0 To the dismay of her enemies% her influen2e in2reased dramati2ally0 As she des2ri#ed it% ,73 until then% they had not ta4en me seriously0 *ut then they #egan to noti2e me% and #egan to -orry -hen = said things05 !uring the 2ou3 Am#assador !ur#ro- offered Hadame hu safe 2ondu2t to the 70S0 em#assy0 Although the Ameri2ans did not s3onsor the 2ou3% !ur#ro-’s offer 2on"in2ed Hadame of 70S0 2om3li2ity0 As !iem and the hus #e2ame more sus3i2ious% the regime ado3ted a siege mentality and #e2ame in2reasingly less 3o3ular0 A22ording to !e0 Dork ,imes re3orter 1al#erstam% ,B"erything that -ent -rong in Vietnam -as #lamed on the hus%5 -hile Hadame hu ,#e2ame the target of e"en more intense hatred05.1G/ A22ording to historian +ose3h *uttinger% , hu and his -ife #e2ame the t-o most hated 3eo3le in South Vietnam05.11/ 1er 1&IN Family Code la- not-ithstanding% Hadame hu de2ided Vietnamese morals needed further regulation0 1er 1&'$ )a- for the Prote2tion of Horality sought to ma4e illegal a -ide range of a2ti"ities% in2luding #irth 2ontrol% #eauty 2ontests% gam#ling% dan2ing% #oAing% 2o24fights% and fighting #y male Siamese fighting fish0 Hinors 2ould not attend unsuita#le mo"ies and 3laysM sor2erers and mediums -ere outla-edM 3rostitution -as 3rohi#ited0.1$/ This legislation in2reased disli4e of Hadame hu in 3ro3ortion to the 3o3ularity of the a2ti"ities #anned0 A22ording to Asso2iated Press re3orter Hal2olm *ro-ne% -ho -as stationed in Saigon% Hadame hu also de2lared -ar on her o-n family0 =n 1&'$ she 2aused her sister to attem3t sui2ideM in 1&'( she diso-ned her 3arents0.1(/ Although she may ha"e #een flattered to #e a fo2us of the 1&'G 2ou3 attem3t% Hadame hu -as li4ely furious -hen she and her hus#and #e2ame the targets of the neAt one0 >n Fe#ruary $O 1&'$% t-o Vietnamese Air For2e 3ilots% trained in the 70S0% too4 off in their Ameri2an8#uilt A!8' atta24 air2raft from the *ien 1oa Air#ase% a fe- miles from Saigon0 )t0 guyen Van Cu su22essfully #om#ed the -ing of the 3residential 3ala2e inha#ited #y hu and Hadame hu0 An a22om3li2e% )t0 guyen Phu Puo2% -as shot do-n -hen antiair2raft fire stru24 his 3lane0 Puo2 -as ta4en 3risoner0 !iem -as -al4ing do-n a hall-ay -hen the #om#s stru24% and -as nearly #o-led o"er #y the #last0 hu -as unhurt% and Hadame hu -as slightly inFured -hen she fell do-n a flight of stairs0 Cu% -ho #om#ed -ith na3alm and high eA3losi"es% later said the atta24 -as ins3ired #y hatred of the !iem regime% hatred dire2ted less at !iem 3ersonally than to-ard his family0 Cu fle- his 3lane to Cam#odia% -here he -as granted 3oliti2al asylum0 Puo2 -as im3risoned until the neAt 2ou3% and then released0 *oth e"entually returned to their duties as air for2e 3ilots0.1J/ South Vietnam -as a 70S0 2lient state0 !iem realized he needed Ameri2an aid to maintain his 3osition0 1e and the hus -anted that aid to 2ome -ith no strings atta2hed0 They disli4ed the in2reasing Ameri2an 3resen2e in their 2ountry0 Hadame hu referred to this as ,2ree3ing Ameri2anism5 and -as -illing to ta4e drasti2 ste3s to minimize it0 For eAam3le% for a time she ordered the 3oli2e to 3i24 u3 all Vietnamese -omen found -al4ing -ith Ameri2ans0.1I/ The Ameri2ans -ere funding the Vietnamese go"ernment and training its 3oli2e and military for2es0 Ameri2an soldiers -ere dying in 2om#at in su33ort of the regime0 They felt this ga"e them the right to ad"ise the !iem regime and eA3e2ted that ad"i2e #e ta4en0 A22ording to re3orter 1al#erstam% Hadame hu’s 3oliti2al 3hiloso3hy -as sim3le: The go family -as al-ays rightM the family should ne"er 2om3romiseM and it should ignore 2riti2ism0.1'/ The 70S0 su33orted South Vietnam in order to 3re"ent its fall to 2ommunism0 Than4s to this aid the size of its armed for2es -as gro-ing0 :et at the same time so too -as the size and effe2ti"eness of the Viet Cong0.1O/ T-i2e elements of the South Vietnamese armed for2es had atta24ed !iem in the 3residential 3ala2e0 1e -as fearful of their loyalty% de3loying them more to minimize their

a#ility to stage 2ou3s than to effe2ti"ely fight the Viet Cong0 The relationshi3 -ith senior army 2ommanders -as further strained #y Hadame hu% -ho ordered them around the 3residential 3ala2e li4e ,house ser"ants5 and treated them generally li4e la24eys under her 3ersonal 2ontrol0.1N/ !iem and the hus -ere Catholi20 Host Vietnamese -ere *uddhists0 o 3oliti2al o33osition 3arties -ere allo-ed in South Vietnam0 As o33osition to the go"ernment in2reased% more Vietnamese #e2ame attra2ted to *uddhism0 go !inh Thu2% #rother of President !iem% -as the Catholi2 Ar2h#isho3 of 1ue% the 2enter of *uddhism in Vietnam0 =n early 1&'( there -as a 2ele#ration in 1ue to 2ommemorate Thu2’s t-enty8fi"e years as #isho30 *oth Vietnamese and Loman Catholi2 flags -ere flo-n% -hi2h "iolated a la-hi2h 3ermitted only the Vietnamese flag #e flo-n in 3u#li20 This e"ent -as follo-ed #y *uddha’s $%INO th #irthday% and the *uddhists in 1ue -anted to fly their flag0 <hen the !iem go"ernment 3rohi#ited this% thousands of *uddhists demonstrated in 3rotest0 ine -ere 4illed -hen go"ernment troo3s fired into the demonstrators0 70S0 Am#assador <illiam Trueheart urged !iem to ma4e 3ea2e -ith the *uddhists #y admitting fault% 3aying indemnity% and issuing a 3u#li2 a3ology for the in2ident0 =nstead the go"ernment #lamed the *uddhists’ death on the Viet Cong0 <hen the *uddhists 2ontinued to demonstrate% the go"ernment #anned demonstrations0 The *uddhist 2risis had #egun% and es2alated0 <hen the go"ernment res3onse to their grie"an2es 3ro"ed unsatisfa2tory% *uddhist mon4s and nuns #egan a series of hunger stri4es0 Lioting in 1ue turned "iolent and go"ernment troo3s fought #a240 Anti8go"ernment demonstrations #y the *uddhists s3read throughout the 2ountry0 =n Saigon% on +une 11 1&'(% an old *uddhist mon4 sEuatted on the street near the Ra )oi 3agoda0 Gasoline -as 3oured o"er his head0 The mon4 lit a mat2h and set himself aflame0 Thi2h Puang !u2 -as the first of se"en *uddhists to 3rotest the !iem regime -ith sui2ide #y immolation0 The 70S0 -as stunned #y the *uddhist sui2ides% and urged !iem to ma4e some sort of settlement0 Sho-ing she -as made of sterner stuff% Hadame hu 2alled for #eating the mon4s ,ten times o"er5 and referred to the sui2ides as a ,mon4 #ar#e2ue sho-05 .1&/ ot to #e outdone% 0hu commented >'f the <uddhists wish to have another barbecue ' will be glad to supply the gasoline and a match.? .$G/ Pressured #y the Ameri2ans% !iem finally met -ith *uddhist leaders0 A 2ommuniEuW -as issued and signed #y !iem0 <hen Hadame hu learned of this she a22used !iem of 2o-ardi2e and 2alled him a Fellyfish for e"en negotiating0 .$1/ Positions hardened0 The *uddhist 3rotests% originally religious% #e2ame o"ertly 3oliti2al0 Their su33ort in2reased0 hu 2laimed the *uddhists -ere re#els and their mo"ement -as 2ommunist infiltrated0 !iem and the hus -anted to 2rush the *uddhists #ut -ere restrained #y the Ameri2ans% -ho 3rofessed a #elief in religious freedom and urged the go"ernment to reform0 The 2risis eAtended into the fall% and -orsened0 The hus 2om3lained !iem -as too soft on the *uddhists0 There -ere rumors #oth the military and hu -ere 3lanning anti8!iem 2ou3s0 hu 2onsidered the Vietnamese S3e2ial For2es his 3ri"ate army0 >n August $1 1&'(% he ordered hundreds of them to atta24 the Ra )oi 3agoda -ith guns% tear gas% and grenades0 The *uddhists #arri2aded themsel"es inside0 After t-o hours of fighting o"er 1GG mon4s -ere arrested and ta4en a-ay0 Hadame hu granted an inter"ie- the day after the 3agoda raid0 She ,-as in a state of eu3horia% 2hattering li4e a s2hoolgirl after a 3rom05 She told the re3orter the go"ernment had 2rushed ,the Communist8*uddhists5 and referred to the e"ent as ,the ha33iest day of my life sin2e -e 2rushed the *inh Ruyen in 1&II05.$$/ =t -asn’t a ha33y day for the Ameri2ans% -ho% ha"ing finan2ed and trained the Vietnamese S3e2ial For2es% -anted them used for 2ounterinsurgen2y instead of atta24ing 3agodas0 Ameri2an offi2ials #egan dis2ussing the 3ossi#ility of a 2ou3 -ith dissident Vietnamese generals0 >n Se3tem#er 1G% Hadame hu em#ar4ed on an eAtended tri3 to Buro3e and the 70S0 to eA3lain ,the monstrous 3lot of the Communists to stifle Vietnam05 She also s2offed at re3orts the 70S0 might redu2e its aid to 3rotest go"ernment re3ression0 .$(/ <hen the 70S0 did 2ut S( million in funding for the Vietnamese S3e2ial For2es until they returned to 2om#at% Hadame hu 2alled it a ,#etrayal05.$J/ >n Se3tem#er $$% -hile in Lome% she ridi2uled Funior offi2ers of the 70S0 military mission in Vietnam% 2alling them ,little soldiers of fortune05.$I/ >n >2to#er O she arri"ed in e- :or40 >ffi2ial -el2omers 6 federal% state% and 2ity 6 -ere 2ons3i2uously a#sent0 >n >2to#er 1N% in <ashington !C% Hadame hu a22used Kennedy administration offi2ials of 2ommitting treason #y redu2ing aid to South Vietnam0.$'/ >n o"em#er 1% in Saigon% Vietnamese generals laun2hed the third military 2ou3 against the go"ernment% resulting in the deaths of !iem and hu0 73on hearing the ne-s the 2itizens of Saigon eA3loded in Fu#ilation0 A fe- of them used a 3o-er -in2h from a shi3 in the har#or to 3ull do-n a statue of Hadame hu0.$O/ A22ording to !a"id 1al#erstam% had Hadame hu #een in Saigon% the ne- Funta -ould ha"e had a terri#le 3ro#lem trying to 4ee3 ho-ling mo#s from lyn2hing her0.$N/ =n *e"erly 1ills% Hadame hu #itterly a22used the 70S0 go"ernment of in2iting and #a24ing the 2ou30 <hen as4ed if she might see4 3oliti2al asylum in the 70S0% Hadame hu re3lied% , e"er] = 2annot stay in a 2ountry -ith 3eo3le -ho ha"e sta##ed my Go"ernment05.$&/ She fle- to Lome -ith her 2hildren0 73on arri"al she se2luded herself in a 2on"ent0 She left a trail of un3aid #ills amounting to thousands of dollars in the -a4e of her fi"e8-ee4 long "isit to the 7nited States0.(G/

=n Saigon% on o"em#er 1I% the ne- go"ernment re"o4ed Hadame hu’s di3lomati2 3ass3ort0 >n !e2em#er 1N it res2inded Hadame hu’s un3o3ular morality and family la-s0.(1/ A33arently not finding se2lusion to her li4ing% Hadame hu Eui24ly sold the eA2lusi"e s2reen% tele"ision% and 3ress rights to her memoirs to a Fren2h 3u#lishing house0.($/ She 2ontinued her atta24s on the 7nited States% 2alling Am#assador 1enry Ca#ot )odge a ,#e-ildered nanny5 -ho -anted to #e2ome the ,go"ernor general5 of South Vietnam0.((/ >n +anuary 1(% she 2alled for a 7nited ations in"estigation of the o"em#er 2ou3 and #izarrely eA3ressed dou#t her hus#and and !iem -ere e"en dead0.(J/ The follo-ing month the Saigon go"ernment de2lared her an outla- and issued an order for her arrest0.(I/ =n Har2h Hadame hu issued a 1'%GGG -ord statement in -hi2h she atta24ed President Kennedy and a22used the 70S0 of fas2ism and 2ommunism0 =n +une 1&'J% Hadame hu a33lied for a "isa to "isit the 70S0 At the urging of Am#assador )odge% the State !e3artment denied her reEuest0 =n Lome she mo"ed in -ith her #rother8in8la-% Ar2h#isho3 go !inh Thu20 <hile detesting the Ameri2an 3ress% she offered to re2ei"e Fournalists under 2ertain 2onditions: =f the ne-s3a3er -anted a 3hotogra3h% she -ould 3ose for S1%GGG0 For an inter"ie3lus 3hotogra3h% the 2harge -as S1%IGG0 =nter"ie-s -ould not #e granted -ithout 3hotogra3hs0.('/ The -ar in Vietnam dragged on% and finally ended0 The 3ress and 3u#li2 lost interest in Hadame hu0 1er fortunes 2ontinued to deteriorate0 1er daughter% go !inh )e Thuy% died in 1&'O of inFuries in suffered in an automo#ile a22ident0 T-enty years later her #rother -as 2harged -ith first8degree murder in the slayings of her elderly 3arents0.(O/ Although #orn into one of the most im3ortant families in all of Vietnam% #y the 1&OGs she -as li"ing in a "illa in Lome% a 3la2e des2ri#ed as ,some-hat rundo-n05 1er home -as re3eatedly stru24 #y ro##ers0.(N/ She s3ent her time gardening and -riting0 =n 1&ON she -as -ell into a history of South Vietnam ,from an insider’s "ie-3oint05 o one ali"e had a #etter "ie- of the rise and fall of the !iem regime and Ameri2a’s in"ol"ement in -hat #e2ame its longest and most 2ontro"ersial -ar than Hadame hu0 o Vietnamese -oman -as more 3o-erful% 2ontro"ersial% and disli4ed0 7nfortunately% the #oo4 has ne"er #een 3u#lished0 At the time of this -riting Hadame hu -as li"ing in Lome0
Footnotes: .1/For details on Hadame hu’s early life% see ,The Pueen *ee%5 ,ime% August &% 1&'(% 30 $$0 , go !inh hu% Hadame 9Tran )e Ruan;5 #y Arthur T0 Frame in Cncyc(opedia o% the Vietnam War: A Po(itica(1 Socia(1 and Mi(itary History % S3en2er C0 Tu24er% ed0 :: >Aford 7ni"ersity Press% 1&&N% 30 $&(0Bd-ard Hiller% ,Vision% Po-er% and Agen2y: The As2ent of go !inh !iem% 1&JI8IJ05 Journa( o% Southeast Asian Studies1 Vol0 (I% o0 (% >2to#er $GGJ% 30 JJN0 .$/ !a"id 1al#erstam% ,he Makin# o% a Eua#mire 4 :: Landom 1ouse% 1&'J;% 30 IO0 .(/ Lo#ert S2igliano% South Vietnam: !ation Under Stress 9*oston: 1oughton Hifflin Co0% 1&'(;% 30 J(0 .J/ 1al#erstam% 30 I'0 .I/ S2igliano% 30 JI0 .'/ S2igliano% 330 I&8'G0 .O/ +ohn He24lin% Mission in ,orment: An +ntimate Account o% the U3S3 o(e in Vietnam 9Garden City% :: !ou#leday% 1&'I;% 30 (O% J(% JN0 .N/ Lo#ert Sha3len% ,The Cult of !iem%5 !e0 Dork ,imes% Hay 1J% 1&O$% 30 SH 1'0 .&/ ,The Pueen *ee%5 ,ime% August &% 1&'$% 30$10 .1G/ 1al#erstam% 330 JN8J&0 .11/ +ose3h *uttinger% Vietnam: A Po(itica( History 9 :: Frederi24 A0 Praeger% 1&'N;% 30 JJO0 .1$/ Hal2olm <0 *ro-ne% ,he !e0 'ace o% War: A eport on a Communist 8uerri((a Campai#n 9)ondon: Cassell% 1&'I;% 30 1OG0 !e0 Dork ,imes% Fe#ruary J% 1&'$% 30 (0 .1(/ *ro-ne% 30 1OG0 .1J/ !e0 Dork ,imes% Fe#ruary $N% 1&'$% 30 1% and !e0 Dork ,imes% Har2h 1% 1&'$% 30 10 .1I/ *ro-ne% $I'0 .1'/ 1al#erstam% 330 'I8''0 .1O/ Andre- F0 Kre3ine"i2h% +r0% ,he Army and Vietnam 9*altimore: +ohns 1o34ins 7ni"ersity Press% 1&N';% 330 IN8I&% '18'(0 .1N/ 1al#erstam% 30 I(0 .1&/ !e0 Dork ,imes% August $I% 1&'(% 30 B10 .$G/ He24lin% 30 1ON0 .$1/ 1al#erstam% 30 $1$0 .$$/ 1al#erstam% 30 $(I0 .$(/ Washin#ton Post% Se3tem#er 1G% 1&'(% 30 A&0 .$J/ !e0 Dork ,imes% >2to#er $(% 1&'(% 30 J0 .$I/ Washin#ton Post% Se3tem#er $(% 1&'(% 30 A$N0 .$'/ !e0 Dork ,imes% >2to#er 1&% 1&'(% 30 '0 .$O/ Seth +a2o#s% AmericaFs Mirac(e Man in Vietnam 9!urham% C: !u4e 7ni"ersity Press% $GGJ;% 30 $0 .$N/ 1al#erstam% 30 II0 .$&/ !e0 Dork ,imes% o"em#er $% 1&'(% 30 10 .(G/ !e0 Dork ,imes% o"em#er 1'% 1&'(% 30 '0 .(1/ Washin#ton Post% o"em#er $&% 1&'(% 30 A'0 .($/ Washin#ton Post% o"em#er 1'% 1&'(% 30 A&% !e0 Dork ,imes% !e2em#er 1&% 1&'(% 30 &0 .((/ !e0 Dork ,imes% !e2em#er 1'% 1&'(% 30 N0 .(J/ !e0 Dork ,imes% +anuary 1J% 1&'J% 30 (0 .(I/ !e0 Dork ,imes% Fe#ruary $'% 1&'J% 30 $0

.('/ Washin#ton Post% o"em#er (G% 1&'I% 30 *(0 .(O/ Washin#ton Post% A3ril $J% 1&NO% 30 C$0 .(N/ Washin#ton Post% >2to#er 1&% 1&NO% 30 A1M !e0 Dork ,imes1 o"em#er $% 1&N'% 30 $(M ,!ragon )ady%5 !e0s0eek% +une I% 1&ON% 30 1'0

Sour2e: htt3:KK---0li#rary0"ander#ilt0eduK2entralK*rushKHadam hu0htm

+o Chi .inh K #riends

+o Chi .inh sits !ith Chairman .ao &se7tung ,left- at a re e0tion given for +o in BeiHing ,Peking-, Communist China in 6=FF. ,Bettmann1C2RB:S-

+o Chi .inh ,left-, the Communist 0resident of the Peo0leSs Re0u)li of Vietnam, and Chou 3nlai, the 0remier of Communist China, smile for the amera during the latterSs visit to +anoi, North Vietnam in 6=>5. ,+ulton7Deuts h Colle tion1C2RB:S-

+o Chi .inh ,left- engages in a friendly onversation !ith Communist ChinaGs ommissar .ao &se7tung.

Left to right* Soviet ommissar Nikita $hrush hev, Red ChinaGs ommissar .ao &se7&ung, and Red VietnamGs ommissar +o Chi .inh ele)rate at a )an;uet in BeiHing ,Peking-, Red China marking the 65th anniversary of the esta)lishment of Communist rule in mainland China on 2 to)er <5, 6=F=. ,%nder!ood K %nder!ood1C2RB:S-

&he leader of the Viet .inh Communists, +o Chi .inh, ,R-, no! styled the President of the Demo rati Re0u)li of Vietnam, is host to :ndiaSs Prime .inister "a!aharlal Nehru at his offi ial residen e in +anoi on Novem)er 64, 6=F8, during the latterSs re ent visit as sho!n. Nehru also visited Communist ChinaSs .ao &se7tung in a Hourney that some Western s0okesmen vie!ed !ith alarm. Ba k home, the :ndian leader 0u)li ly stated that he !as onvin ed his Uhistori U visits had had a )enefi ial effe t on the !orld situation. But, it !as also re0orted that, in 0rivate, he !as riti al of some as0e ts of life )ehind the Bam)oo Curtain. ,Bettmann1C2RB:S-

Left 0hoto* +o Chi .inh meets !ith /eneral Vo Nguyen /ia0 on the ele)ration of the esta)lishment of the Vietnamese Peo0leGs (rmy in 6=>4. ,Photo* htt0*11 0v.org.vn1 0v1.odules1Ne!sV3nglish1Ne!sVDetailV3.as0'LCNV:DR86=884KC2V:DR<58<@North Vietnamese leader +o Chi .inh em)ra es ?ugoslaviaGs di tator .arshal "osi0 BroC &ito ,left- during +oSs visit to Belgrade, ?ugoslavia in 6=FA. ,:mage )y T Bettmann1C2RB:S-

$eft &hoto: North 'orea(s )*ear $eader+ 'im I Sung ,isits North Vietnam(s *i-tator .o Chi Minh in .anoi/ 'im ,isited North Vietnam at east t0i-e in se-ret/ Right &hoto: Chou En ai 1 eft23 Mao 4edong 1-enter23 and .o Chi Minh ins&e-t their -omrades in an undated &hoto/

Hao Tse8tung 9left; and Chou Bnlai 9se2ond from right; -at2h t-o 2hildren gi"e flo-ers to Chairman 1o Chi Hinh of the <or4ers’ Party of Vietnam and President of the State on +une $I% 1&II0 9Photo: htt3:KKenglish023203eo3le02om02nK''11'KJJ'OOIG0html;

Chou Bnlai 9left; em#ra2es 1o Chi Hinh in Hay 1&'G0

,=ndo2hina #rought 2onsidera#le -ealth to Fran2e% so that in the late 1&(G’s the *anEue de l@=ndo2hine s3a-ned in Fran2e an influential 3oliti2al grou3% -ho 3layed a maFor role in the defeatism of 1&JG and the su#seEuent 2olla#oration0 After the +a3anese -ithdra-al in 1&JI% the Paris go"ernment -as relu2tant to see this -ealth% 2hiefly from the tin mines% fall into the hands of +a3anese8s3onsored nati"e grou3s% and% #y 1&J&% de2ided to use for2e to re2o"er the area0 >33osed to the Fren2h effort -as 1o Chi Hinh% a mem#er of the Fren2h Communist Party sin2e its founding in 1&$G% -ho had su#seEuently studied in Hos2o- and had #een leader of the anti82olonial agitations of the =ndo2hinese Communist Party sin2e 1&(10 1o had set u3 a 2oalition go"ernment under his Viet Hinh Party and 3ro2laimed inde3enden2e for Vietnam 92hiefly Ton4in and Annam; in 1&JI% -hile Fren2h troo3s% in a sur3rise 2ou3% seized Saigon in the south0 7nfortunately for 1o% he o#tained no su33ort from the Kremlin0 The Fren2h Communist Party -as at that time a maFor element in the Fren2h 2oalition go"ernment% -ith its leader% Hauri2e Thorez% holding the offi2e of "i2e83remier0 Stalin had no -ish to Feo3ardize the Communist 2han2es to ta4e o"er Fran2e #y his su33ort for a remote and minor Communist li4e 1o Chi Hinh0 =n fa2t% Thorez signed the order for military a2tion against 1o’s Le3u#li2 of Vietnam0 At first 1o sought su33ort from the 7nited States and from Chiang Kai8she4% #ut% after the esta#lishment of Led China in 1&J&% he turned to that ne- Communist state for hel30 Hao’s go"ernment -as the first state to gi"e Vietnam di3lomati2 re2ognition 9+anuary 1&IG;% and at on2e #egan to send military su33lies and guidan2e to 1o Chi Hinh0 Since the =nited States was granting e-tensive aid to Crance% the struggle in Vietnam thus became a struggle% through surrogates% between the =nited States and 7ed 2hina. 'n world opinion this made the =nited States a defender of 4uropean imperialism against antiBcolonial native nationalism. 5 6 ,ra#edy and Hope #y Carroll Puigley% 30 1GJ( !uring this turmoil% inde3endent neutralist go"ernments 2ame into eAisten2e in the interior% -ith )aos to the north and Cam#odia to the south0 *oth states a22e3ted aid from -hoe"er -ould gi"e it% and #oth -ere ruled #y an unsta#le #alan2e of 3ro8 Communists% neutralists% and 3ro8<esterners0 The #alan2e -as dou#ly unsta#le #e2ause all three grou3s had armed su33orters0 >n the -hole% the neutralist grou3 -as the largest% and the 3ro8<estern -as the smallest% #ut the latter 2ould o#tain su33ort from Ameri2a@s -ealth0 The de2isi"e influen2e in the 1&IG’s% ho-e"er% -as that the Communists% follo-ing the death of Stalin% -ere 3re3ared to a22e3t and su33ort neutralism years #efore !ulles 2ould get himself to 2ondone it% a situation -hi2h ga"e 2onsidera#le ad"antages to the eAtreme )eft0 The intensity of the struggle in Vietnam in2reased fairly steadily in the years follo-ing 1&JO0 The 2reation of the Cominform and the su#seEuent Communist -ithdra-al from the 2oalition go"ernments of Buro3e% in2luding Fran2e% freed the Kremlin to su33ort anti82olonial mo"ements in Buro3e@s o"erseas territories0 At the same time% the reesta#lished Fren2h Army -as left -ith a -ounded 3ride -hi2h #e2ame% in some 2ases% a neuroti2 dri"e to -i3e out the stains of 1&JG81&J$ #y su#seEuent "i2tories in 2olonial -ars0 The gro-ing aggression of Communist China and !ulles@s fantasies a#out li#eration all 2ontri#uted to #uild the =ndo2hina 2onfusion into a flaming 2risis0 The final ste3 2ame from the Korean tru2e of 1&I( -hi2h freed Led China’s hands for more "igorous a2tion in the southeast0 The defeat of the Communist risings of 1&JN else-here in Halaysia turned the ne- Chinese a2ti"ities full into =ndo2hina% -hi2h had an o3en frontier for 3assage of Chinese Communist su33lies and ad"isers0 This intensifi2ation of Chinese8su33orted Communist a2ti"ities in Vietnam in 1&I(81&IJ -as Euite 2ontrary to the desires of the Kremlin% -hi2h -as Fust entering the 3ost8Stalin Ctha-C and already mo"ing to-ard the ,Gene"a s3irit5 of 1&II0 At the same time% the readiness of !ulles and the Fren2h Army to for2e a sho-do-n in Vietnam -as eEually una22e3ta#le to the *ritish and to many 3ersons in di"ided Fran2e0 >ut of these 2onfusions 2ame% on Fe#ruary 1N% 1&IJ% a So"iet suggestion for a 2onferen2e on =ndo2hina to #e held at Gene"a in A3ril05 6 ,ra#edy and Hope #y Carroll Puigley% 30 1GJ(81GJJ ,*y the early months of 1&IJ% the Communist guerrillas -ere in 2ontrol of most of northern =ndo2hina% -ere threatening )aos% and -ere 3laguing the "illages of Co2hin8China as far south as Saigon0 A#out $GG%GGG Fren2h troo3s and (GG%GGG Vietnamese militia -ere tied in 4nots #y a#out ((I%GGG Viet Hinh soldiers and guerrillas0 Fran2e -as #eing #led to death% #oth literally and finan2ially% -ith little to sho- for it% #ut the Fren2h Army -as o#stinate in its refusal to a22e3t another defeat0 The Fren2h strong 3oint at !ien *ien Phu -as in"ested #y Viet Hinh on Har2h 1(% 1&IJ% and #y the end of the month its outer defenses -ere 2rum#ling0 The Fren2h 2hief of staff% General Bly% fle- to <ashington and found !ulles -illing to ris4 an all8out -ar -ith Led China #y authorizing dire2t Ameri2an inter"ention in =ndo2hina0 As usual% !ulles thought that -onders 2ould #e a2hie"ed #y an air stri4e alone against the #esiegers of !ien *ien Phu% -here the 2onfli2t in2reased in intensity daily0 For a fe- days the 7nited States% at !ulles’s 3rodding% tottered ,on the #rin4 of -ar05 !ulles 3ro3osed ,a united a2tion 3oli2y5 -hi2h he des2ri#ed in these terms: ,=f *ritain -ould Foin the 70S0 and Fran2e -ould agree to stand firm%000 the three <estern states 2ould 2om#ine -ith friendly Asian nations to o33ose Communist for2es on the ground Fust as the 70 0 ste33ed in against the orth Korean aggression in 1&IG 0 0 0 and if the Chinese Communists inter"ene o3enly% their staging #ases in south China .-ill/ #e destroyed #y 70S0 air 3o-er00005 President Bisenho-er agreed% #ut his 2alls to Chur2hill and Bden found the *ritish go"ernment o33osed to the ad"enture0 The foreign se2retary hastened to 3oint out that the Sino8So"iet Treaty of 1&IG #ound Lussia to 2ome to the assistan2e of China if it -ere atta24ed #y the 7nited States as !ulles 2ontem3lated0 !is2ussion at Gene"a% said Bden% must 3re2ede any su2h drasti2 a2tion0 6 ,ra#edy and Hope #y Carroll Puigley% 30 1GJJ81GJI

,Fe- international 2onferen2es ha"e ta4en 3la2e amid su2h eAternal turmoil as the Far Bastern Gene"a Conferen2e of A3ril $I8 +uly $G% 1&IJ0 !uring it% t-o Ameri2an air2raft 2arriers% loaded -ith atomi2 -ea3ons% -ere 2ruising the South China Sea% a-aiting orders from <ashington to hurl their deadly #om#s at the Communist for2es #esieging the 1I%GGG eAhausted troo3s tra33ed in !ien *ien Phu0 =n <ashington% Admiral Ladford -as "igorously ad"o2ating su2h aggressi"e a2tion on a generally relu2tant go"ernment0 =n Paris% 3u#li2 outrage -as rising o"er =ndo2hina -here the Fren2h had eA3ended 1&%GGG li"es and SN #illion -ithout im3ro"ing matters a 3arti2le0 At Gene"a% delegates from nineteen nations -ere tal4ing and stalling to gain as mu2h as 3ossi#le -ithout o3en -arfare0 The fall of !ien *ien Phu on Hay Oth o3ened a "igorous de#ate in the Fren2h Assem#ly and led to the fall of Premier +ose3h )aniel@s go"ernment% the eighteenth time a Ca#inet had #een o"erturned sin2e the end of <orld <ar == in 1&JI0 The ne- 3rime minister% Pierre Hendes8Fran2e% 3romised a 2ease8fire in =ndo2hina or his o-n retirement -ithin thirty days0 1e #arely made the deadline0 The =ndo2hinese settlement of +uly $G% 1&IJ -as #asi2ally a 2om3romise% some of -hose elements did not a33ear in the agreement itself0 A Communist orth Vietnam state% -ith its 2a3ital at 1anoi 9Ton4in;% -as re2ognized north of the 1Oth 3arallel of latitude% and the rest of =ndo2hina -as left in three states -hi2h remained asso2iated -ith the Fren2h 7nion 9)aos% Cam#odia% and South Vietnam;0 The ne- state system of Southeast Asia -as #rought -ithin the !ulles net-or4 of tri38-ire 3a2ts on Se3tem#er N% 1&IJ% -hen eight nations of the area signed an agreement at Hanila esta#lishing a Southeast Asia Treaty >rganization 9SBAT>;0 The eight 97nited States% *ritain% Fran2e% Australia% e- Qealand% Pa4istan% Thailand% and the Phili33ines; made no s3e2ifi2 2ommitments% #ut set u3 a 2oun2il% to meet at *ang4o4 and o3erate on a unanimous #asis for e2onomi2% so2ial% and military 2oo3eration in the area0 *y s3e2ial 3roto2ol they eAtended their 3rote2tion to )aos% South Vietnam% and Cam#odia0 The Gene"a agreement% in effe2t% -as to neutralize the states of =ndo2hina% #ut neutrality -as a33arently not a22e3ta#le to the !ulles #rothers% and any 3ossi#le sta#ility in the area -as soon destroyed #y their a2ti"ities% es3e2ially through the Central =ntelligen2e Agen2y 9C=A; see4ing to su#"ert the neutrality of )aos and South Vietnam0 This -as done #y 2hanneling millions in Ameri2an funds to Light8-ing army offi2ers% #uilding u3 large 9and totally unrelia#le; military for2es led #y these Lightist generals% rigging ele2tions% and% -hen it seemed ne2essary% #a24ing rea2tionary 2ou3s d’Wtat0 These te2hniEues might ha"e #een Fustified% in the eyes of the C=A% if they had #een su22essful% #ut% on the 2ontrary% they alienated the mass of the nati"es in the area% #rought numerous re2ruits to the )eft% ga"e Fustifi2ation for Communist inter"ention from orth Vietnam% disgusted our allies in *ritain and Fran2e% as -ell as many of our friends in *urma% =ndia% and else-here% and #y 1&'$ had almost destroyed the Ameri2an image and the Ameri2an 3osition in the area05 6 ,ra#edy and Hope #y Carroll Puigley% 30 1GJI81GJ' ,The Ameri2an #ungle in )aos -as re3eated% -ith "ariations% else-here in southern and southeastern Asia0 =n South Vietnam% Ameri2an aid% largely military% amounted to a#out t-o8thirds of the 2ountry’s #udget% and #y 1&'$% -hen it -as running at a#out SJGG million a year% it had rea2hed a total of S$ #illion0 Su2h aid% -hi2h 3ro"ided little #enefit for the 3eo3le% 2orru3ted the go"ernment% -ea4ened the s-ollen defense for2es% and set u3 a 2hasm #et-een rulers and 3eo3le -hi2h dro"e the #est of the latter )eft-ard% in s3ite of the eA3loitati"e "iolen2e of the Communist guerrillas0 A 3le#is2ite in 1&II -as so rigged that the Ameri2an8su33orted Light8-ing 2andidate -on o"er &N 3er2ent of the "ote0 The ele2tion of 1&'G -as similarly managed% eA2e3t in Saigon% the 2a3ital% -here many 3eo3le refused to "ote0 As might ha"e #een eA3e2ted% denial of a fair #allot led to efforts to assassinate the Ameri2an8su33orted President% go !inh !iem% and ga"e rise to -ides3read dis2ontent -hi2h made it 3ossi#le for the Communist guerrillas to o3erate throughout the 2ountry0 The Ameri2an8s3onsored military res3onse dro"e 2asualties to a high sustained figure #y 1&'$ and -as u3rooting the 3easantry throughout the 2ountry in an effort to esta#lish fortified "illages -hi2h the *ritish had introdu2ed% -ith su22ess% in Halaya0 These errors of Ameri2an 3oli2y% -hi2h -ere re3eated in other 3la2es% arose "ery largely from t-o fa2tors: 91; Ameri2an ignoran2e of lo2al 2onditions -hi2h -ere 3assed o"er in the Ameri2an animosity against Lussia and China% and 9$; Ameri2an insisten2e on using military for2e to o"er2ome lo2al neutralism -hi2h the mass of Asiati2 3eo3les -anted0 The ignoran2e of lo2al 2onditions -as -ell sho-n in the Ameri2an #ungling in Cam#odia and in Pa4istan0 =n Cam#odia a neutralist regime -as 3rimarily 2on2erned -ith maintaining its inde3enden2e #et-een its t-o hereditary enemies% the Thai to the -est and the Vietnamese to the east0 The Ameri2an militarization of #oth Thailand and South Vietnam -as used #y these 2ountries to in2rease 3ressure on Cam#odia% -hi2h% in s3ite of its 3ro8<estern desires% -as dri"en to see4 su33ort for its inde3enden2e from China and Lussia0 This o3ened a -edge #y -hi2h Communist 3ressure from orth Vietnam 2ould mo"e a2ross )aos and south-ard into Cam#odia% #et-een Thailand and South Vietnam% a 3ossi#ility -hi2h -ould ne"er ha"e arisen if 7nited States aid had not #een used to 2orru3t and to militarize the t-o eAterior states in the trio0 At the same time% orth Vietnam% -ith a greater 3o3ulation than South Vietnam 91' million to 1J million in 1&'G;% has a defi2ien2y of food% -hile South Vietnam% li4e all the delta areas% is a zone of ri2e sur3lus and thus a shining target for orth Vietnamese aggression% es3e2ially -hen the agri2ultural 2olla3se of Communist China made any food su33ly from the north almost ho3eless05 6 ,ra#edy and Hope #y Carroll Puigley% 30 1GJ'81GJO

,*y 1&(& there -as only one inde3endent state in southeast Asia: Siam 9Thailand;% left as a #uffer #et-een the *ritish areas of *urma and the Halay States to the -est and Fren2h =ndo2hina in the eastern 3ortion of the Halay Peninsula0 South-ard of the 3eninsula% in a great s-ee3 east-ard to e- Guinea% -ere the multitudinous islands of =ndonesia% ruled #y the etherlands from *ata"ia on the island of +a"a0 To the north of these islands -ere the Phili33ines% still under Ameri2an administration in 1&(&0 *et-een +a"a and the Phili33ines% the great mass of the island of *orneo had a fringe of *ritish de3enden2ies 9Sara-a4% *runei% and orth *orneo; along its northern 2oast% -hile% far to the east% the eastern half of Timor -as under Portuguese administration0 Thus all Southeast Asia% eA2e3t Thailand% -as under the 2olonial domination of fi"e <estern states in 1&(&0 &he interest of these imperial Powers in Southeast $sia was chiefly strategic and economic. Strategi2ally% these lands lay ath-art the -aters Foining the Pa2ifi2 -ith the =ndian >2ean% a situation sym#olized #y the great *ritish na"al #ase of Singa3ore% at the southern ti3 of the Halay Peninsula% #et-een Sumatra and *orneo0 4conomically these areas produced substantial Hualities of tin% rubber% petroleum% bau-ite% and other products. Hore signifi2ant% 3erha3s% from the Chinese 3oint of "ie-% many 3arts of the Halay Peninsula -ere fertile% -ere su#stantially under3o3ulated% and eA3orted great Euantities of ri2e 9es3e2ially from *urma;0 <estern 3restige in Halaysia -as irretrie"a#ly damaged #y the +a3anese 2onEuests of the Phili33ines% the !ut2h =ndies% and Halaya in 1&J$% so that the reesta#lishment of the 2olonial Po-ers after the +a3anese 2olla3se in 1&JI -as "ery diffi2ult0 *urma and the Phili33ines -ere granted their inde3enden2e #y Great *ritain and the 7nited States% res3e2ti"ely% soon after the -ar@s end0 Fren2h =ndo2hina emerged from the +a3anese o22u3ation as the three states of Vietnam% )aos% and Cam#odia% ea2h 2laiming inde3enden2e% -hile +a"a 2laimed so"ereignty o"er the -hole etherlands Bast =ndies as a ne-ly inde3endent state of =ndonesia0 Bfforts #y the Buro3ean Po-ers to restore their 3re-ar rule led to "iolent 2lashes -ith the su33orters or inde3enden2e0 These struggles -ere #rief and su22essful in *urma and =ndonesia% #ut -ere "ery 3rotra2ted in =ndo2hina0 *urma #e2ame an inde3endent state in 1&JN% follo-ed #y =ndo2hina in 1&J&% #y Halaya in 1&IO% and #y Singa3ore 9under a s3e2ial relationshi3; in 1&I&0 Contro"ersy and intermittent fighting #et-een =ndonesia and the !ut2h o"er -estern e- Guinea 2ontinued until 1&'$% -hen Ameri2an 3ressure 3ersuaded the etherlands to yield% #ut left =ndonesia% led #y A2hmed Su4arno% unfriendly to the <est05 6 ,ra#edy and Hope #y Carroll Puigley% 30 1GJ181GJ$ ,=n all these areas% nati"e nationalists -ere in2lined to the 3oliti2al )eft% if for no other reason than the fa2t that the diffi2ulties of 2a3ital a22umulation and in"estment to finan2e e2onomi2 im3ro"ements 2ould #e a2hie"ed only under state 2ontrol0 *ut su2h inde3endent So2ialism merged into other 3oints of "ie- -hi2h -ere 2learly Communist0 =n some 2ases% su2h Communism may ha"e #een ideologi2al% #ut in most 2ases it in"ol"ed little more than the desire to 3lay off the So"iet 7nion or Led China against the <estern im3erialist Po-ers0 The Communists of Southeast Asia -ere thus Communists of 2on"enien2e and ta2ti2al maneu"er% and originally re2ei"ed little su33ort from the So"iet 7nion #e2ause of Stalin’s -ell84no-n relu2tan2e to engage in 3oliti2al ad"entures in areas -here he 2ould not dominate the armed for2es0 *ut in Fe#ruary 1&JN% the ne- Cominform s3onsored a Southeast Asia youth 2onferen2e at Cal2utta -here armed resistan2e to 2olonialism -as demanded0 A Communist re"olt in the Phili33ines had already #egun and -as Foined% in the 2ourse of 1&JN% #y similar u3risings in *urma% =ndonesia% and Halaya0 Host of these re"olts too4 the form of agrarian agitations and armed raids #y Communist guerrilla Fungle fighters0 Sin2e these guerrillas o3erated on a hit8and8run #asis and had to li"e off the lo2al 3easantry% their eA3loitation of 3easant life e"entually made them de2reasingly -el2ome to this "ery grou3 for -hom they 3retended to #e fighting0 =n the Phili33ines the 1u4#alaha3 re#els -ere smashed in 1&I( #y the energeti2 and effi2ient go"ernment of President Lamon Hagsaysay0 =n =ndonesia% Su4arno re3ressed the insurre2tion and eAe2uted its leaders0 =n Halaya% -here the Communists -ere almost entirely from the Chinese minority% these re#els -ere systemati2ally hunted do-n and destroyed #y *ritish troo3s in long8dra-n Fungle 2om#at0 =n *urma% the long Chinese frontier 3ro"ided a refuge for the re#els% and they -ere not eliminated until 1&'G0 The real 3ro#lem -as =ndo2hina0 There the situation -as 2om3leA% the Fren2h Army -as un2om3romising% and Communist leadershi3 -as s4illful0 As a result% the struggle there #e2ame 3art of the Cold <ar and 2ontri#uted to a -orld 2risis05 6 ,ra#edy and Hope #y Carroll Puigley% 30 1GJ$

,The Gene"a agreement of 1&IJ had re2ognized the Communist go"ernment of orth Vietnam% di"iding the 2ountry at the 1Oth 3arallel% #ut this imaginary line a2ross Fungle terrain 2ould not 4ee3 dis2ontent or Communist guerrillas out of South Vietnam so long as the Ameri2an8su33orted southern go"ernment 2arried on its tas4s -ith 2orru3tion% fa"oritism% and ar#itrary des3otism0 These gro-ing 2hara2teristi2s of the Vietnam go"ernment 2entered around the anti2s of the !iem family0 The nominal leader of the family -as President go !inh !iem% although the fanati2al s3irit of it -as his #rother@s -ife% Hadame hu0 The #rother% go !inh hu% -as the a2tual 3o-er in the go"ernment% residing in the 3ala2e% and heading u3 a semi8se2ret 3oliti2al organization that 2ontrolled all military and 2i"il a33ointments0 Hadame hu@s father% Tran Van Chuong% -ho resigned from his 3ost as Vietnam Am#assador to the 7nited States as a 3rotest against the ar#itrary nature of the !iem family go"ernment% summed u3 his daughter@s 2areer as ,a "ery sad 2ase of 3o-er madness05 The same authority s3o4e of President !iem as Ca de"oted Loman Catholi2 -ith the mind of a medie"al inEuisitor05 >n the !iem family team -ere three other #rothers% in2luding the Catholi2 Ar2h#isho3 of Vietnam% the 2ountry@s am#assador in )ondon% and the 3oliti2al #oss of 2entral Vietnam% -ho had his o-n 3oli2e for2e0 The !iem family tyranny 2ame to grief from its ina#ility to 4ee3 in tou2h -ith reality and to esta#lish some sensi#le 2on2e3tion of -hat -as im3ortant0 <hile the 2ountry -as in its relentless struggle -ith the Viet2ong Communist guerrillas -ho lur4ed in Fungle areas% stri4ing -ithout -arning at 3easant "illages that su#mitted to the esta#lished go"ernment or did not 2oo3erate -ith the re#els% the !iem family -as engaged in su2h 3ointless tas4s as 2rushing Saigon high s2hool agitations #y se2ret 3oli2e raids or efforts to 3erse2ute the o"er-helming *uddhist maFority and to eAtend fa"ors to the Loman Catholi2s -ho -ere less than lo 3er2ent of the 3o3ulation0 <hen !iem #e2ame 3resident in 1&II% after the de3osition of the 3ro8Fren2h Bm3eror *ao !ai% the 2ountry had Fust re2ei"ed NGG%GGG refugees from orth Vietnam -hi2h the Gene"a Conferen2e of 1&IJ had yielded 1o Chi Hinh@s Communists0 The o"er-helming maFority of these refugees -ere Loman Catholi2s% and their arri"al raised the Catholi2 3o3ulation of South Vietnam to o"er a million in a total 3o3ulation of a#out 1J million0 e"ertheless% President !iem made these Catholi2s the 2hief #asis of his 3o-er% 2hiefly #y re2ruiting the refugees into "arious 3oli2e for2es dominated #y the !iem family0 *y 1&II these -ere already #eginning to 3erse2ute the *uddhist maFority% at first #y harassing their religious festi"als and 3arades #ut later -ith #rutal assaults on their meetings0 An attem3ted 2ou3 d’Wtat #y army units -hi2h atta24ed the Loyal Pala2e in o"em#er 1&'G -as 2rushed0 From that date on% the !iem rule #e2ame in2reasingly ar#itrary0 =n the middle of all this distur#an2e% Ameri2an aid tried to re"i"e the 2ountry’s e2onomy% and Ameri2an military assistan2e tried to 2urtail the de3redations of the Communist guerrillas0 The t-o together amounted to a#out S$GG million a year% although e2onomi2 aid alone -as originally t-i2e this figure0 The intensity of the guerrilla atta24s steadily in2reased% follo-ing President !iem@s reele2tion% -ith NN 3er2ent of the "ote% in A3ril 1&'10 As these atta24s slo-ly in2reased% the Ameri2an inter"ention -as also ste33ed u3% and gradually #egan to shift from a 3urely ad"isory and training role to in2reasingly dire2t 3arti2i3ation in the 2onfli2t0 From 1&'1 on-ard% Ameri2an 2asualties a"eraged a#out one dead a -ee4% year after year0 The Communist guerrilla 2asualties -ere re3orted to #e a#out IGG 3er -ee4% #ut this did not seem to diminish their total num#ers or relaA their atta24s% e"en in 3eriods -hen their 2asualties -ere hea"y0 These guerrilla atta24s 2onsisted of rather 3ur3oseless destru2tion of 3easant homes and "illages% a33arently designed to 2on"in2e the nati"es of the im3oten2e of the go"ernment and the ad"isa#ility of 2oo3erating -ith the re#els0 To sto3 these de3redations% the go"ernment undertoo4 the giganti2 tas4 of organizing the 3easants into ,agro"illes%5 or ,strategi2 hamlets%5 -hi2h -ere to #e strongly defended residential 2enters entirely en2losed #ehind #arri2ades0 The 3ro2ess% it -as said% -ould also im3ro"e the e2onomi2 and so2ial -elfare of the 3eo3le to gi"e them a greater in2enti"e to resist the re#els0 There -as 2onsidera#le dou#t a#out the effe2ti"eness of the reform as3e2t of this 3ro2ess and some dou#t a#out the defense 3ossi#ilities of the s2heme as a -hole0 The Ameri2an ad"isers 3referred stal4ing83atrols to see4 out the guerrillas rather than stati2 defenses% stressed the need for night rather than only daytime 2ountera2tions% and the use of the rifle instead of large8s2ale relian2e on air 3o-er and artillery0 Horeo"er% most o#ser"ers felt that "ery little of Ameri2a@s e2onomi2 aid e"er rea2hed the "illage le"el #ut% instead% -as lost on mu2h higher le"els% #eginning -ith the royal 3ala2e itself0 *y the summer of 1&'(% guerrillas -ere staging su22essful atta24s on the strategi2 hamlets% and the need for a more a2ti"e 3oli2y #e2ame a2ute0 7nfortunately% Fust at that time% the domesti2 2risis in Vietnam also -as #e2oming a2ute0 This final 2risis in the story of the !iem family and its hen2hmen arose from religious 3erse2ution of the *uddhists under the guise of maintaining 3oliti2al order0 Lestri2tions on *uddhist 2eremonies led to *uddhist 3rotests% and these in turn led to "iolent 3oli2e a2tion0 The *uddhists stru24 #a24 in a ty3i2ally Asiati2 fashion% -hi2h #e2ause it -as Asiati2 3ro"ed to #e "ery effe2ti"e in the Asiati2 2onteAt: indi"iduals or small grou3s of *uddhists 2ommitted sui2ide in some 2ro-ded 3u#li2 3la2e near a go"ernmental 2enter0 The fa"orite mode of sui2ide -as to dren2h the "i2tim@s long yello- ro#es -ith gasoline and ignite these -ith a mat2h as he 4nelt in a 3u#li2 sEuare or street0 The 2alloused rea2tion of the !iem family% es3e2ially of Hadame hu% sho24ed the -orld% and outraged feeling rose ra3idly in the summer of 1&'(0 <hen thirty8fi"e uni"ersity 3rofessors and a num#er of 3u#li2 offi2ials 9in2luding the father of Hadame hu; resigned% the 3oli2e atta24ed *uddhist shrines% arresting hundreds of their 3riests0 Student agitations led to the 2losing of Saigon 7ni"ersity and of all 3u#li2 and 3ri"ate s2hools% -ith the arrest of many students0 A 7nited ations fa2t8finding 2ommission -as isolated #y !iem 3oli2e0 >n o"em#er 1% 1&'(% an Ameri2an8en2ouraged military 2ou3% led #y General !uong Van Hinh% o"erthre- the !iem family% 4illing se"eral of its mem#ers05 6 ,ra#edy and Hope #y Carroll Puigley% 30 11O$811OJ

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