Organized Crime?

By William P. Litynski

From the Grassy Knoll in Kandahar, Afghanistan: Lone Gunman or Patsy?
The Assassination of Kandahar Kingpin and CIA agent (and drug dealer) Wali Karzai, the half-brother of Afghanistan President of Afghanistan Hamid Karzai, in Kandahar, Afghanistan on ul! "#, #$""

(Ahmad) Wali Karzai (left) appears %ith half-brother Hamid Karzai (right), the President of Afghanistan, in Kandahar, Afghanistan in &'tober #$"$( Wali Karzai, a one-time CIA 'ollaborator, %as assassinated b! )lone gunman* +ardar ,ohammad, Wali Karzai-s trusted bod!guard, inside his home in Kandahar, Afghanistan on July 12, 2011( CIA-trained al.aida terrorist &sama bin /aden %as 0illed in a pre-da%n raid in Abbottabad, Pa0istan on May 2, 2011( (AP Photo)

Prominent Afghan Politi'al /eaders %ho %ere Assassinated

Gen Khan Mohammed Mu!ahid Poli'e Chief of Kandahar1 Assassinated in a sui'ide bombing in Afghanistan on A"ril 1#, 2011

Mohammed $aud $aud Poli'e Chief of 2orthern Afghanistan1 Assassinated in a Taliban sui'ide bomb atta'0 in Talo3an, Afghanistan on May 2%, 2011

Ahmad &ali Kar'ai Half-brother of President of Afghanistan Hamid Karzai1 Chairman of the Kandahar Pro4in'ial Coun'il1 unoffi'ial %arlord (and drug dealer) of Kandahar1 longtime CIA 'ollaborator1 Assassinated b! )lone gunman* +ardar ,ohammad inside his home in Kandahar, Afghanistan on July 12, 2011

Ghulam (aider (amidi ,a!or of Kandahar, Afghanistan (#$$56 ul! #5, #$"") Citizen of Afghanistan and naturalized 'itizen of the 7nited +tates of Ameri'a1 Assassinated b! a sui'ide bomber in Kandahar, Afghanistan on July 2), 2011

Ahmad *hah Massoud ,inister of 8efense of the Islami' +tate of Afghanistan 92orthern Allian'e: ( une ";;#6+ept( ;, #$$")1 a 0no%n Kremlin (+o4iet) 'ollaborator during the +o4iet-Afghan War1 Assassinated in a sui'ide atta'0 on +eptember ;, #$$"

A+dul (a, Afghan Pashtun mu<ahideen 'ommander %ho fought against the +o4iets and Afghan 'ommunists during the +o4iet-Afghan War1 Assassinated (e=e'uted) b! the Taliban on &'tober #>, #$$"

A+dul *a+ur Farid Kohistani Prime ,inister of Afghanistan ( ul! >, ";;#August "?, ";;#)1 ,ember of the upper house of the 2ational Assembl! of Afghanistan1 Assassinated in a shooting outside his home in Kabul, Afghanistan on ,a! #, #$$5

-urhanuddin .a++ani President of Afghanistan (#@ une ";;#6#5 +ept( ";;>1 "A 2o4( #$$"6## 8e'( #$$")1 President of the 2orthern Allian'e (#5 +ept( ";;>"A 2o4( #$$")1 Assassinated in a sui'ide bombing at his home in Kabul, Afghanistan on *e"tem+er 20, 2011

Profile: Why Was The Afghan President's Brother Ah Wali !ar"ai So #ontro$ersial%
B! CDEFC/ ul! "#, #$""


In the mur0! %orld of Afghan politi's, there %ere fe% figures mur0ier -- !et more important -- than Ahmad Wali Karzai( The !ounger, half-brother of Afghan President Hamid Karzai, the G;-!ear-old Ahmad %as uni4ersall! 'onsidered to be the most po%erful politi'ian in Kandahar, AfghanistanHs se'ond-biggest 'it! and the birthpla'e of the Taliban( But the sour'e of his po%er e=tended far be!ond his offi'ial position as the head of KandaharHs ele'ted pro4in'ial 'oun'il( And it %as e=a'tl! 3uestions o4er %here his immense po%er and %ealth 'ame from that made him both so 'ontro4ersial and diffi'ult to define( That he %as po%erful, there is no doubt( ust last month, a delegation of tribal elders from Kandahar %ent to Kabul to lobb! President Karzai to ma0e Ahmad Wali the go4ernor of Kandahar -- a step %hi'h %ould ha4e gi4en him 4irtuall! monopol! rule o4er the pro4in'e( &ne of Ahmad Wali KarzaiHs supporters, Agha /alai 8astgiri, told CDEFC/Hs Cadio Dree AfghanistanI JAbout #$ da!s ago a delegation representing all the tribes, more than "$$ people, %ent to Kabul( The! 4isited the president and as0ed him to appoint Ahmad Wali Karzai as KandaharHs go4ernor, be'ause the people thin0 that %ould de'rease and sol4e their problems(J 8astgiri is a member of the Kandahar Pro4in'ial Coun'il and the head of the Kandahar Pea'e Commission( &ne sour'e of Ahmad Wali KarzaiHs po%er %as undoubtedl! his 'lose famil! ties to his brother( /i0e the president, Ahmad Wali Karzai %as an elder of the po%erful Popalzai Pashtun tribe in southern Afghanistan and, %ith his brother, rose to po%er %ith 7(+( support in the %a0e of WashingtonHs #$$" in4asion to topple the Taliban( But %hile those important familial and regional ties ma! ha4e helped him get ele'ted to the Kandahar Pro4in'ial Coun'il in #$$?, he soon pro4ed highl! adept at amassing po%er and mone! on his o%n a''ount( When Ahmad Wali Karzai died on July 12 +y an assassin/s hand in his o%n hea4il! guarded home in the southern 'it!, he %as %idel! 'onsidered to be among AfghanistanHs "$ ri'hest men( And the 4er! fa't that he had so mu'h mone! immediatel! made it diffi'ult to 0no% e4en %hat might ha4e moti4ated his 0iller -+ardar ,ohammad, a senior bod!guard trusted b! the famil! -- to fatall! shoot him in the head and 'hest before being shot dead b! other guards( A00usations 1f 2orru"tion Among the most persistent 'harges le4eled against Ahmad Wali Karzai -- both b! 'riti's and some allies -- %ere 'orruption and lin0s to the drug trade( In Western media, and Western 'apitals, he %as so often portra!ed as a s!mbol of 'ron!ism that he be'ame a lightning rod for 'riti'ism of all that is %rong %ith President KarzaiHs administration( JThe 2e% Kor0 TimesJ reported last !ear that senior 7(+( offi'ials spent months %eighing allegations against Ahmad Wali Karzai, in'luding that he paid off Taliban insurgents, that he laundered mone!, that he seized go4ernment land, and that he reaped enormous profits b! fa'ilitating the shipment of opium through his region( The top-le4el 7(+( re4ie% of Ahmad Wali Karzai in'luded a 'lassified briefing presided o4er b! Leneral +tanle! ,'Chr!stal on ,ar'h @, #$"$, at 2AT& head3uarters in Kabul( But, the paper reported, the 7(+( re4ie% ultimatel! 'on'luded that the e4iden'e, some 'ompelling, some 'ir'umstantial, %as not 'lear enough to persuade President Karzai to dismiss his brother(

And it %as 'onsidered ad4isable to lea4e things in pla'e in Kandahar as the 7nited +tates itself prepared to laun'h a ma<or operation to in'rease se'urit! in Kandahar, %hi'h began late last !ear and 'ontinues toda!( Ahmad Wali Karzai 'onsistentl! denied all allegations against him, sa!ing the! %ere politi'all! moti4ated( After JThe 2e% Kor0 TimesJ published an arti'le in &'tober #$$@ headlined JCeports /in0 KarzaiHs Brother to Afghanistan Heroin Trade,J he told reporters at a press 'onferen'e that the a''usation %as J<ust a rumor(J He 'ontinuedI J7p to this minute, nobod! is able to pro4e it( +o it is li0e a ghost( People sa! there is a ghost but !ou 'annot see it, !ou 'annot tou'h it, !ou 'annot hear it, and 9still: it is 9supposedl!: there( +o all the a''usations HThe 2e% Kor0 TimesH is sa!ing in its report, I am read! to ans%er one b! one(J Ahmad Wali Karzai told BritainHs JDinan'ial TimesJ last !earI JItHs 4er! diffi'ult to be the presidentHs brother, belie4e me(J And 23A 4ies But the late Kandahar 0ingpinHs relations %ith Washington ma! ha4e been still more 'ompli'ated that the 'onsistent 'riti'ism of him might suggest( ust ho% 'ompli'ated the! 'ould be %as hinted at t%o !ears ago b! a spate of media in4estigations into persistent rumors he had re'ei4ed regular pa!ments from the CIA for mu'h of the past eight !ears( JThe 2e% Kor0 TimesJ reported in +eptember #$$; that the 7(+( intelligen'e agen'! paid him for a 4ariet! of ser4i'es, in'luding helping to re'ruit an Afghan paramilitar! for'e -- the Kandahar +tri0e Dor'e -- that 'ondu'ts raids against suspe'ted insurgents at the CIAHs dire'tion in and around Kandahar( +imilarl!, the paper reported, Washington paid Karzai for allo%ing CIA and 7(+( 'ommandos to rent a large 'ompound outside the 'it!( Ahmad Wali Karzai subse3uentl! 'alled the ne%spaperHs report Jridi'ulous(J White House spo0esman Cobert Libbs refused to 'omment on an! relationship bet%een Karzai and the CIA, as did CIA spo0esman Leorge /ittle( Po5er 6a0uum 3n Kandahar 2o%, %ith Ahmad Wali KarzaiHs assassination in Kandahar, Washington has lost someone %ho --depending upon %hi'h reports one finds 'redible -- %as simultaneousl! both a partner and a liabilit! for the West( ust ho% mu'h of ea'h ma! be'ome 'learer as more details emerge of his death -- and the moti4es of his assassin( But for no%, the bizarre 'ir'umstan'es of his shooting b! a trusted asso'iate onl! shroud his life in greater m!ster! than e4er( ,ore immediatel!, Ahmad Wali KarzaiHs death plunges Kandahar into a po%er 4a'uum at a 'riti'al time for 7(+( hopes to in'rease se'urit! in Kandahar as Washington prepares for an initial %ithdra%al of troops from Afghanistan ne=t !ear( 8espite the stead! 'riti'ism of Ahmad Wali Karzai as a polarizing figure in Kandahar %ho 'ould 'ompli'ate efforts to %in o4er the population and supplant the Taliban, man! 7(+( and foreign offi'ials ha4e also at times re'ognized his huge rea'h %ithin the 'it!( He %as seen as someone %ith the 'onta'ts to get things done, e4en if one had misgi4ings about his methods( JThe death is a huge loss, as it happened at a time that the po%er transition and national re'on'iliation is in progress,J Khalid Pashtoon, a member of parliament from Kandahar and the first deput! of the lo%er house in the Afghan parliament, told CDEFC/Hs Cadio ,ashaal( JIn addition, the area is plagued b! dail! fighting and inse'urit!( Ahmad Karzai %as an influential person in the %hole area(J The latest assassination attempt %as not the first targeting Ahmad Wali Karzai( There %ere at least t%o pre4ious atta'0s against the pro4in'ial-'oun'il offi'e in Kandahar that Karzai 'laimed %ere dire'ted at him( &ne %as in 2o4ember #$$@, another in April #$$;( The atta'0 in #$$;, b! four sui'ide bombers, 0illed "A people( Ahmad Wali Karzai, %ho %as married and had fi4e 'hildren, %as born in Kandahar 'it! in ";>" and mo4ed to the 7nited +tates in ";@#, %here he li4ed in ,ar!land and Mirginia before mo4ing to Chi'ago to run an Afghan restaurant( He returned to

Afghanistan in ";;#( As0ed about the se'ret of his po%er in Kandahar, he told JThe Washington PostJ last !ear that de'ades of e=perien'e in Afghanistan %as his onl! 0e!I JI 0no% ho% to tal0 to the people,J Ahmad Wali Karzai said( JI 0no% ho% to deal %ith these tribes( I 0no% %hat their needs are( I 0no% ho% to address their needs( This is the s0ill I ha4e learned(J Radio Free Afghanistan's correspondent Salih Mohammad Salih and Radio Mashaal's correspondent Hassiba Shaheed contributed to this report +our'eI httpIFF%%%(rferl(orgF'ontentFprofileNahmadN%aliN0arzaiF#G#>AA;?(html

Afghan poli'e stand guard ne=t to the 'ar of Afghan Mi'e President Abdul .adir after .adirHs assassination in Kabul, Afghanistan, +aturda!, ul! >, #$$#( His dri4er %as also 0illed but the gunmen es'aped( (AP PhotoF+ergei Lrits)

A+dul 7adir, Mi'e President of Afghanistan (&'tober #$$"6 ul! >, #$$#), %as assassinated b! a )lone gunman* in Kabul, Afghanistan on ul! >, #$$#(

2011( The 'ommittee is hearing testimon! on the 8epartment of 8efense Dis'al Kear #$"# national defense authorization budget re3uest( (Lett! Images) British 8efense +e'retar! /iam Do= (left) spea0s %ith 7(+( +e'retar! of 8efense Cobert .addafi stepped do%n.i0e .ullen share a laugh during a House Armed +er4i'es Committee hearing in Washington. 2011 before a 2AT& defense ministers meeting at organization head3uarters in Brussels. pro4ide the ne'essar! means to finish the <ob and help plan for a post-.( Lates on June %. Belgium( 2AT& allies 4o%ed on une @ to 0eep up a relentless bombing 'ampaign in /ib!a until .uammar . 8(C( on Fe+ruary 18.addafi /ib!a( (Lett! Images) .7(+( +e'retar! of 8efense Cobert Lates (right) and Chairman of the oint Chiefs of +taff Admiral .

Gates (left) and Director of the entral !ntelli"ence #"ency ( !#) Leon Panetta smile at each other d$rin" an e%ent in the &ast Room of the White 'o$se in Washin"ton( at the Presidential Palace in . (+ason Reed( Pool %ia #P) .S.S.ab$l( #f"hanistan( on June 4. President )bama anno$nced he is nominatin" Director of the !# Leon Panetta as Secretary of Defense( commander for !nternational Sec$rity #ssistance *orce (!S#*) and U. Secretary of Defense Robert Gates (left) is a. forces in #f"hanistan. forces in #f"hanistan Gen.S. 2011. (Getty !ma"es) U.S. Da%id Petrae$s as Director of the !#( Ryan rocker as U.( by #f"hanistan/s President 'amid . . +ohn #llen as commander for !S#* and U.han( the hi"hest a.United States Secretary of Defense Robert M. on April 28. #mbassador to #f"hanistan and Gen.arded the Wa-ir #kbar .ard the #f"han "o%ernment can besto. 2011.

ith his national sec$rity team on #f"hanistan and Pakistan in the Sit$ation Room of the White 'o$se( #0ril 12( 1344.ise from the President are5 6ational Sec$rity #d%isor 7om Donilon8 #ttorney General &ric 'older8 Director of 6ational !ntelli"ence +ames la00er8 +ohn Brennan( #ssistant to the President for 'omeland Sec$rity and o$nterterrorism8 6eal Wolin( De0$ty Secretary of the 7reas$ry8 hief of Staff Bill Daley8 S$san Rice( U. ()fficial White 'o$se Photo by Pete So$-a) President Barack )bama meets .ith his 6ational Sec$rity Staff in the Sit$ation Room of the White 'o$se on +$ne 14( 1344. ()fficial White 'o$se Photo by Pete So$-a) . entral ommand8 hairman of the +oint hiefs of Staff #dmiral Mike M$llen8 Secretary of Defense Robert Gates8 and :ice President +oe Biden. Donilon( Daley( Petrae$s( and Gates are members of the o$ncil on *orei"n Relations. *rom left( are5 Secretary of State 'illary Rodham linton8 6ational Sec$rity #d%isor 7om Donilon8 hief of Staff Bill Daley8 General Da%id Petrae$s( ommander of U.President Barack )bama meets .S. Permanent Re0resentati%e to the United 6ations8 #dmiral Michael M$llen( hairman( +oint hiefs of Staff8 Defense Secretary Robert Gates8 and Mich9le *lo$rnoy( Under Secretary of Defense for Policy.S. Pict$red clock.

andahar( #f"hanistan( .ab$l #f"hanistan=U. &mbassy .S. 2011. 2011& (Photo5 U. #mbassador to #f"hanistan Ryan rocker (1nd left( .earin" s$n"lasses) . 2011 $ntil +$ly 4<( 1341.andahar Go%ernor 7ooryalai Wesa (center( .earin" a bl$e %est) and U. a pri!ate political or ani"ation in #e$ %ork City& Ryan rocker ser%ed as the U.ith( clock.s 0alace in .President Barack )bama and :ice President +oe Biden meet .ise from the President( Defense Secretary Leon Panetta( Lie$tenant General +ohn #llen( 6ational Sec$rity #d%isor 7om Donilon( hairman of the +oint hiefs of Staff #dmiral Mike M$llen( and United States #mbassador to #f"hanistan Ryan rocker( in the )%al )ffice of the White 'o$se on July 5.alk the "ro$nds of the "o%ernor.andahar( #f"hanistan on #0ril 1<( assassinated by a s$icide bomber in . Gh$lam 'aider 'amidi( the Mayor of . Ryan Crocker is a member of the Council on Forei n Relations. 7om Donilon and Ryan rocker are members of the o$ncil on *orei"n Relations.S. De0artment of State) .S. #mbassador to #f"hanistan from July 25. ()fficial White 'o$se Photo by Pete So$-a) .andahar( #f"hanistan on July 2'.

()fficial White 'o$se Photo by Pete So$-a) .ith members of the onference of Presidents of Ma>or #merican +e.n raid in #bbottabad( Pakistan on (ay 2. !#?trained al? @aida terrorist )sama bin Laden .n as Baba Saab) in the #r"handab area( on the o$tskirts of . on (arch 1. 2011.S.7he shrine of Baba Wali (also kno.#. .ish )r"ani-ations in the State Dinin" Room of the White 'o$se in Washin"ton( killed in a 0re?da.( U.andahar( #f"hanistan #merican President Barack )bama (ri"ht) meets . 2011.

2011( file 0hoto( #merican soldiers board a U. . military 0lane( as they lea%e #f"hanistan( at the U. 7he )bama administration "a%e the first eA0licit si"nal on 7$esday( +an$ary B( 134<( that it mi"ht lea%e no troo0s in #f"hanistan after December 134C( an o0tion that defies the Penta"on. Defense Secretary Robert Gates (ri"ht) are seen la$"hin" d$rin" a 'o$se #rmed Ser%ices ommittee hearin" in Washin"ton( D.s %ie. . on *ebr$ary 4E( 1344.ab$l( #f"hanistan.S. base in Ba"ram( located north of . (#P Photo=M$sadeD SadeD( *ile) #dmiral Mike M$llen (left)( hairman of the +oint hiefs of Staff( and U.!n this July 14.S.S. that tho$sands of troo0s may be needed to kee0 a lid on al?@aida and to stren"then #f"han forces.

#mbassador to Pakistan (1331?133C)8 U. . #mbassador to !srael (133B?1344)8 U. #mbassador to #-erbai>an (1341?0resent) Gen. $nnin"ham U.S. #mbassador to !ndia (#0ril 1C( 1341?0resent) (Lt.S. ons$l General in +eddah( Sa$di #rabia (133C?133B) Richard L. Secretary of Defense (133E?1344)8 Director of entral !ntelli"ence #"ency (4FF4?4FF<) Dick heney :ice President of the United States (1334?133F) Geor"e +.S. Mornin"star U. 'olbrooke S0ecial Re0resentati%e for #f"hanistan and Pakistan (133F?1343) 6ancy +o Po. U. ons$l General in 'on" .arl &ikenberry U.Prominent Council on Foreign Relations Members & Their Influence on Afghanistan 'enry #. Gates U.erry U.ell U.S. Secretary of State (134<?0resent) .on" (1332?133B) Richard . Gen.S. #mbassador to #f"hanistan (1341?0res. &liot +r.S. *orces #f"hanistan (1343?1344) Gen.S.S. Gfoeller U. #mbassador to .S. Da%id '.S. #bi-aid ommander of U.S. Myers hairman of the +oint hiefs of Staff (1334?1332) Gen. entral ommand (133B?1343)8 ommander( U.S.S.halil-ad U. #mbassador to !raD (133G?133F)8 U.S.S. #mbassador to #f"hanistan (133<?1332)8 U.S. #mbassador to Pakistan (133C?133G) +ames B.S.S. Secretary of State (1332?133F)8 6ational Sec$rity #d%isor (1334?1332) Robert M.S. Petrae$s ommander of U. Richard B.S. Stanley Mc hrystal ommander of U.S. rocker U.)8 U.) . #mbassador to #f"hanistan (6o%ember 14( 4FG<? +$ne 4C( 4FGB) Halmay . *orces #f"hanistan (133F?1343) ondolee--a Rice U. Michael 'ayden Director of entral !ntelli"ence #"ency (133E?133F) Gen.S.yr"y-stan (133B?1344)8 U. #mbassador to #f"hanistan (#0ril 1F( 133F?+$ly 12( 1344)8 ommander( ombined *orces ommand? #f"hanistan (1332?133G) 7atiana . #mbassador to !raD (1332?133G) Ryan .S. entral ommand (133<?133G) Gen. +ohn P. 7enet Director of entral !ntelli"ence #"ency (4FFG?133C) +ohn *. Byroade U. #mbassador to #f"hanistan (1344?1341)8 U. #mbassador to #f"hanistan (March 14( 4F2F? +an$ary 4F( 4FE1) 7heodore L.

and emoluments is multiplied1 and all the means of sedu'ing the minds. Cetired . in a 'on4ersation %ith 7(+( Arm! Captain Lusta4e Lilbert in a prison 'ell during the 2uremberg trials. B$sh and his !raD War 0olicies in Miami on +an$ary 13( 1332 as they honor #merican soldiers . or a 'ommunist di'tatorship( Pbut 4oi'e or no 4oi'e. the most to be dreaded. #rmy or0oral Pat 7illman( a former 0rofessional football 0layer for #ri-ona ardinals (6ational *ootball Lea"$e)( . gro%ing out of a state of %ar. that nations in general %ill ma0e %ar %hene4er the! ha4e a prospe't of getting an!thing b! it1 na!. War is a Racket )Wh!. be'ause it 'omprises and de4elops the germ of e4er! other( War is the parent of armies1 from these pro'eed debts and ta=es1 and armies. from "olitical #bser!ations. surel! the most 4i'ious( It is the onl! one international in s'ope( It is the onl! one in %hi'h the profits are re'0oned in dollars and the losses in li4es( A ra'0et is best des'ribed. are added to those of subduing the for'e. a parliament.( Lilbert )But the safet! of the people of Ameri'a against dangers from foreign for'e depends not onl! on their forbearing to gi4e ust 'auses of %ar to other nations. but also on their pla'ing and 'ontinuing themsel4es in su'h a situation as not to in!ite hostilit! or insult1 for it need not be obser4ed that there are pretended as %ell as <ust 'auses of %ar( It is too true. %hi'h affe't onl! the mind of the so4ereign. the 'ommon people don-t %ant %ar1 neither in Cussia nor in England.G>( from Nuremberg Diary. often lead him to engage in %ars not san'tified b! <usti'e or the 4oi'e and interests of his people(* 6 ohn a!. ho%e4er disgra'eful it ma! be to human nature. of the people( The same malignant aspe't in republi'anism ma! be tra'ed in the ine3ualit! of fortunes. at the e=pense of the 4er! man!( &ut of %ar a fe% people ma0e huge fortunes(* 6 +medle! 8arlington Butler. .as killed in a fratricide in #f"hanistan on #0ril 11( 133C.S. perhaps. su'h as thirst for militar! glor!. on April "@. a fas'ist di'tatorship. and in the degenera'! of manners and of morals engendered b! both( 2o nation 'ould preser4e its freedom in the midst of 'ontinual %arfare(* 6 7(+( Congressman ames . Federalist 2o( G )&f all the enemies to publi' libert! %ar is. as something that is not %hat it seems to the ma<orit! of the people( &nl! a small )inside* group 0no%s %hat it is about( It is 'ondu'ted for the benefit of the 4er! fe%. but for the purposes and ob<e'ts merel! personal. nor for that matter in Lerman!( That is understood( But.adison. nor in Ameri'a.? Left 0hoto5 #merican #rmy %eterans 0rotest a"ainst President Geor"e W. April #$. it is the leaders of the 'ountr! %ho determine the poli'! and it is al%a!s a simple matter to drag the people along %hether itHs a demo'ra'!. Ri"ht 0hoto5 U. I belie4e. re4enge for personal affronts. ambition. and denoun'e the pa'ifists for la'0 of patriotism and e=posing the 'ountr! to danger( It %or0s the same %a! in an! 'ountr!(* 6 Hermann Loering. too. easil! the most profitable. after all. and ta=es are the 0no%n instruments for bringing the man! under the domination of the fe%( In %ar. the people 'an al%a!s be brought to the bidding of the leaders( That is eas!( All !ou ha4e to do is tell them the! are being atta'0ed. or pri4ate 'ompa'ts to aggrandize or support their parti'ular families or partisans( These and a 4ariet! of other moti4es. and debts.Global ar on Terrorism! In Their O"n ords )WAC is a ra'0et( It al%a!s has been( It is possibl! the oldest. and the opportunities of fraud. the dis'retionar! po%er of the E=e'uti4e is e=tended1 its influen'e in dealing out offi'es. May he rest in 0eace. honors.a<or Leneral of the 7(+( . ". absolute monar'hs %ill often ma0e %ar %hen their nations are to get nothing b! it. b! Lusta4e . "5.ho ha%e died in !raD.arine Corps. of 'ourse the people donHt %ant %ar( Wh! %ould some poor slob on a farm %ant to ris0 his life in a %ar %hen the best that he 'an get out of it is to 'ome ba'0 to his farm in one pie'eO 2aturall!.

L Sk$ll I Bones initiation rit$als alle"edly incl$de indi%id$als restin" naked in a coffin and re%ealin" their seA life to 4C fello. the Ivy League. Bonesmen. 7he )rder of Sk$ll I Bones is also kno. (So$rce5 Secrets of the Tomb: Skull and Bones. and the Hidden Paths of Power by #leAandra Robbins) .+0ull Q Bones at Kale 7ni4ersit!I +e'ret +o'iet! or Criminal +!ndi'ateO 7he )rder of Sk$ll I Bones is a secret society at Jale Uni%ersity.n as the KBrotherhood of Death.

7he 7omb( official headD$arters of 7he )rder of Sk$ll I Bones( is located at Jale Uni%ersity on 'i"h Street in 6e. 'a%en( onnectic$t( U. Conne'ti'ut. Kale 7ni4ersit! 'ampus in 2e% Ha4en. 7(+(A( .#.S.

Mem+ers of *9ull : -ones and 4heir 100u"ation during the Glo+al &ar on 4errorism . Jale 4FCB President of the United States (4FBF?4FF<)8 &lder Statesman Geor"e W. firmN (4FGG?4FB4( 4FBC? 0resent) . Jale 4FEB President of the United States (1334?133F) William '.#.#.( 4FB2?134<) Geor"e '. Jale 4FEG Partner of Mc arter I &n"lish Mla.S.a"an B.#. Jale 4FEF +$d"e of the U. Secretary of State (134<?0resent)8 U. Jale 4FEE U. Mc all$m +r. &rcklentB.n Brothers 'arriman I o. . Jale 4FF4 Member (133F?1344) and hairman (1343?1344) of the o$ncil of &conomic #d%isers Robert W.S. Jale 4FE< President of Uni%ersity of )klahoma (4FFC?0resent) +ohn *orbes . (4FGB?0resent) Geor"e 'erbert Walker !!! B.#. #mbassador to #$stralia (133E?133F)8 #ssociate U. Jale 4FCB Senior :ice President of Paine Webber MacD$ired by UBSN (4FGF?c. Jale 4F23 &ditor?at?Lar"e of ational !eview ma"a-ine (4FF4?133C) #leAander B.#.S. 6ordha$s B. #mbassador to '$n"ary (133<?133E) :ictor #she B.#. (4FG2?0res. Jale 4FEB U.#. Jale 4F2< hairman of Sec$rities and &Achan"e ommission (133<?1332) *rederick W. Rose B. Smith B.#. B.#.#. firm in 6e. Boren B.S.) Ste0hen #. B$ckley +r.S. B$sh B.#. Jale 4FEG U.#. Senator (D?Mass.S.#. #ttorney General (133<?133E) Da%id 'oadley 7horne B.#. Jale 4FE< Professor of &conomics at Jale Uni%ersity (4FG<?0resent) #$stan Goolsbee B. #mbassador to Poland (133C?133F) Robert D.erry B.#. Jork ityN (1334?0resent) +onathan .#. Jale 4F2< U. Jale 4FB3 ol$mnist for The "ashington Post8 o? *o$nder of Pro>ect for the 6e. Sch. #mbassador to !taly (133F?134<) Do$"las P. Jale 4FE< Partner of +ones( Day( Rea%is I Po"$e Mla.S.S.#. B$sh B.S.W. District o$rt for the District of Massach$setts (4FBE?0resent) William D. Woodlock B. #merican ent$ry Da%id #lan Richards B. B. Jale 4F2F Partner of Bro. Jale 4FEF hairman and &) of 7he Blackstone Gro$0 (4FB2?0resent) Geor"e 'arold Pfa$ +r.#.133C) William *.2001<"resent= Da%id L. Jale 4FEE U. Jale 4FEE hairman and &) of *ed&A or0. B. Donaldson B.#.

ard San Die"o( alifornia( U.nin"=Re$ters= orbis) >&ell. B$sh and +ohn . U. on May 4( 133<. 3 thin9 3 5as un"re"ared for 5ar ? 6 President Leorge W( Bush. in a spee'h in Washington. A -ta e* +!ent. in an inter4ie% %ith ABC <ournalist Charlie Libson on 8e'ember ".erry are members of Sk$ll I Bones. (Larry Do.#.erry (left)( 0residential candidate for the Democratic Party( and inc$mbent President Geor"e W. aboard the aircraft carrier USS #braham Lincoln( as the carrier steamed to.S. )&ur enemies are inno4ati4e and resour'eful. #$$G . B$sh (ri"ht)( 0residential candidate for the Re0$blican Party( la$"h to"ether d$rin" the 133C 0residential election.U. 8(C( on August ?. President Geor"e W. Senator +ohn .S. and so are %e( 4hey ne@er sto" thin9ing a+out ne5 5ays to harm our 0ountry and our "eo"le. and neither do 5e * $ 7(+( President Leorge W( Bush. #$$@ 2004 American )resi*ential +lection. Geor"e W. B$sh deli%ers a s0eech to cre.S.

#$$A TI. C7++ECTI Kou %ere both in +0ull and Bones. p( @ >-ut 5hy should 5e hear a+out +ody +ags. C7++ECTI Kou both %ere members of +0ull and Bones. and ho5 many this or 5hat do you su""ose? 1r.D: Cot mu0h. %ood Morning America on ABC. you can bet it $as planne* that $ay&1 2 3&-& )resi*ent Franklin 4elano Roose!elt . the se'ret so'iet!( P. )Ba'0 to the WombO*. a se'ret so'iet! at Kale( What does that tell usO *BC J1(C KB. itAs not rele@ant *o. .? issue of Foreign Affairs. nothin happens by acci*ent& 0f it happens. August A". +e0ause itAs a se0ret R Meet the "ress on 2BC. itAs. #$$G /0n politics. Debruar! 5. and deaths.B*3$BC4 GB1. 5hat day itAs gonna ha""en.GB & -E*(: 3tAs so se0ret 5e 0anAt tal9 a+out it R Meet the "ress on 2BC.>&e are not going to a0hie@e a ne5 5orld order 5ithout "aying for it in +lood as 5ell as in 5ords and money ? 6 Arthur +'hlesinger r(.ar'h "@.. 5hy should 3 5aste my +eautiful mind on something li9e that?? 6 Dormer Dirst /ad! Barbara Bush.. 3 mean. #$$A TI. and ho5 many. ul!FAugust ".

.Leorge H(W( Bush Q Sne% %orld order- )&ut of these troubled times." )The 4i'tor! o4er Ira3 %as not %aged as )a %ar to end all %ars(* E4en the ne5 5orld order 'annot guarantee an era of perpetual pea'e( But enduring pea'e must be our mission( &ur su''ess in the Lulf %ill shape not onl! the ne5 5orld order %e see0 but our mission here at home(* 6 President Leorge H(W( Bush.! 4ision of a ne5 5orld order foresees a 7nited 2ations %ith a re4italized pea'e0eeping fun'tion(* 6 President Leorge H(W( Bush." ). stronger in the pursuit of <usti'e. in a spee'h deli4ered in the &4al &ffi'e on anuar! ">. in a spee'h to Congress on . in a spee'h deli4ered at the E'onomi' Club of 2e% Kor0 in 2e% Kor0 Cit! on Debruar! >. an order in %hi'h a 'redible 7nited 2ations 'an use its pea'e0eeping role to fulfill the promise and 4ision of the 7(2(-s founders(* 6 President Leorge H(W( Bush... ". ".. not the la% of the <ungle. and the rule of la%( +u'h is a %orld %orth! of our struggle. "." . and more se'ure in the 3uest for pea'e(* 6 President Leorge H(W( Bush. in a spee'h to Congress on +eptember "". our fifth ob<e'ti4e 6 a ne5 5orld order 6 'an emergeI a ne% era 6 freer from the threat of terror. go4erns the 'ondu't of nations( When %e are su''essful -. ".and %e %ill be 6 %e ha4e a real 'han'e at this ne5 5orld order. and %orth! of our 'hildren-s future(* 6 President Leorge H(W( Bush." )Dor t%o 'enturies %eH4e done the hard %or0 of freedom( And tonight %e lead the %orld in fa'ing do%n a threat to de'en'! and humanit!( What is at sta0e is more than one small 'ountr!1 it is a big idea 6 a ne5 5orld order.. freedom. +tate of the 7nion Address on anuar! #. ". %here di4erse nations are dra%n together in 'ommon 'ause to a'hie4e the uni4ersal aspirations of man0indI pea'e and se'urit!.$ )This is an histori' moment( We ha4e in this past !ear made great progress in ending the long era of 'onfli't and 'old %ar( We ha4e before us the opportunit! to forge for oursel4es and for future generations a ne5 5orld order 6 a %orld %here the rule of'h >..

B$sh Presidential Library) President Geor"e W.W. B$sh( and *ederal Reser%e hairman #lan Greens0an a00ear in a recei%in" line at a state dinner in Washin"ton( D. (Washin"ton Post=White 'o$se=#P Photo) . (Photo5 Geor"e '. 7his 0hoto a00ears in the book The #ge of Turbulence: #dventures in a ew "orld by #lan Greens0an.W.So%iet ommissar Mikhail Gorbache%( President Geor"e '. . B$sh (left) and :ice President Dick heney listen to *ederal Reser%e hairman #lan Greens0an. Dick heney and #lan Greens0an are members of the o$ncil on *orei"n Relations. on May <4( 4FF3.

gold and sil4er 'ertifi'ates.T".#5>.$$@.A.?#>.$5."$A.AA5.>$#.#>#(G@ +eptember #@.A .A$A. R$msfeld (ri"ht) con"rat$lates *ederal Reser%e hairman #lan Greens0an (left) after a.@#..5("> +eptember A$..5G. 6a%y) Ameri'an 2ational 8ebt during the +o4iet-Afghan War ("."A.55 .$A$.$$$($$U +eptember A$..5@ . ".@A .G . from May <3( 1331 to +$ne 1( 1331...T>..) and Ameri'an-Afghan War (#$$"-present)I +eptember A$. ".5#G.A5.>5G.> . #$$$ .5(># +eptember A$. #$"$ .$$$($$U +eptember A$.TA. Donald '. ".@G .A. and finall! from ul( " to &'t( " in "..".@@ .T#.$ . ".T@.G"A.A?$..@. #lan Greens0an ser%ed as the hairman of the *ederal Reser%e from #$"$st 44( 4FBG to +an$ary <4( 133E (Photo5 U.A#@..@$5.T.TG.-".G?".$$$.? .T5. ".@.S.?5#.. #$$..$>#.$$$. #$$5 .5#A(?$ +eptember A$..A$#.T"".@> . ". "." . "5@. ".@ .?". #$"# .>. ".@$ ."$..5@A.$$$($$U +eptember A$.##@.?$>.#5$.@" .TG.T"$.5($A +eptember A$.T?.G@@.>?>.$$$($$U +eptember A$.$AG.5. ".5$". #$"" .TG.#$.>">.T">.$". .T#.."G>."#?.>?@(G# +eptember A$.>. "...T>..@? .#"?(#A +eptember #.$$5.>#A.G"#.@5 .>?A. ".T5. et'( The first fis'al !ear for the 7(+( Lo4ernment started an( ".@. . ".T55". #$$# .$$$.TA..>#$.?GG.. +eptember A$.T@#>.$$$.##G.$$$($$U +eptember A$. ".T".$"A(A# +eptember A$.$.@??.>. De0artment of Defense=Petty )fficer 4st lass had +..A"A.@#. 2oteI UCounded to . ".$?#.#AA.#A".@. ".# .A.A55. ".T.5(AG +eptember A$.AA$(A# +eptember A$.5 .>?.T?.$$$.?#"(>> +eptember A$.5"#.."A?(5A +eptember A$.#$$($> +eptember A$. #$$G .Secretary of Defense Donald '. R$msfeld and #lan Greens0an attended the 1331 Bilderber" Meetin"s in hantilly( :ir"inia( U.555(#? +eptember A$.T"A.$$$.$>G."(5. #$$A .$$$($$U +eptember A$. +eptember A$.G>A.$#G.#A?.$$A.T?.GA$.ardin" him the De0artment of Defense Medal for Distin"$ished P$blic Ser%ice at the Penta"on in #rlin"ton( :ir"inia on +an$ary 1<( 133E.>.$$$.. ".$$$($$U +eptember A$..>.. #$$? ..5$..A5#..@# .$$$($$U +eptember A$.$>>.@@A. #$$> ..S. ".#.T?.(A@ +eptember A$.T.$.$$. #$$" .( Congress 'hanged the beginning of the fis'al !ear from an( " to ul( " in "@G#.>"?(GA +eptember A$.$$$($$U +eptember #.T?.A@?(@..S.$$$.@#A.5A.T?.$G"("> +eptember A$..$$$.T#. .@.G$5."5@.TG.5..55 %here it remains toda!( To find more histori'al information.>??.@"$. ".?. ". ".#>>.5A.A#.T#..#"$.T>.(A.T". Mc6eeley( U.?>"."#(G.$"".@@>(@> +eptember A$.T".?A($$ +eptember A$. +eptember A$.??5("? +eptember A$. #$$@ . 4isit The Publi' 8ebt Histori'al Information ar'hi4es( +our'eI httpIFF%%%(treasur!dire't(go4Fgo4tFreportsFpdFhistdebtFhistdebtNhistoG(htm .5$.5.>$.>>".5GA(># +eptember A$..#. .AG$.@?5."@5(A# +eptember A$.#G".$..illions( In'ludes legal tender notes.. ".@G$..?""(5? +eptember A$.>>?."G#.5.A?".@.G"".@.T"G...@.

B$sh at (Photo5 entral !ntelli"ence #"ency) !# 'eadD$arters . #ll three men "rad$ated from Jale Uni%ersity. B$sh (ri"ht) shakes hands .+ohn 6e"ro0onte (left)( the Director of 6ational !ntelli"ence( . (White 'o$se 0hoto by &ric Dra0er) 7he first Director of the entral !ntelli"ence #"ency( Porter Goss( "reets President Geor"e W.atches President Geor"e W.ith entral !ntelli"ence #"ency Director Porter Goss (center) in the )%al )ffice on *riday( May 2( 133E( after Porter Goss anno$nced his resi"nation.

distinguished guests. as gra4e as it is. and his hope for pea'e( But Wade also %rote. East and West. Leneral +'h%artz0opf1 and the men and %omen of the 8epartment of 8efense( What a magnifi'ent <ob !ou all are doing( And than0 !ou 4er!. IH4e <ust returned from a 4er! produ'ti4e meeting %ith +o4iet President Lorba'he4( And I am pleased that %e are %or0ing together to build a ne% relationship( In Helsin0i. Ameri'a is proud of !ou and is grateful to e4er! soldier. if there e4er %as a time to put 'ountr! before self and patriotism before part!. 'an prosper and li4e in harmon!( A hundred generations ha4e sear'hed for this elusi4e path to pea'e. a po%erful Ira3i arm! in4aded its trusting and mu'h %ea0er neighbor. 1FF0 . follo%ing negotiations and promises b! Ira3Hs di'tator +addam Hussein not to use for'e. Pri4ate Dirst Class Wade . sailor.ost 'ountries share our 'on'ern for prin'iple( And man! ha4e a sta0e in the stabilit! of the Persian Lulf( This is not. to ser4e on the front line half%a! around the %orld( The! remind us %ho 0eeps Ameri'a strongI the! do( In the tr!ing 'ir'umstan'es of the Lulf. his lo4e of famil!. VVI am proud of m! 'ountr! and its firm stan'e against inhumane aggression( I am proud of m! arm! and its men( I am proud to ser4e m! 'ountr!(HH Well. the morale of our ser4i'e men and %omen is e='ellent( In the fa'e of danger. Tennessee. and %ithout 'ondition( Ku%aitHs legitimate go4ernment must be restored( The se'urit! and stabilit! of the Persian Lulf must be assured( And Ameri'an 'itizens abroad must be prote'ted( These goals are not ours alone( The!H4e been endorsed b! the 7nited 2ations +e'urit! Coun'il fi4e times in as man! %ee0s( .STo%ard a 2e% World &rderA trans0ri"t of former President George (er+ert &al9er -ush/s address to a !oint session of 2ongress and the nation From the Cational Ar0hi@es *e"tem+er 11. and airman ser4ing the 'ause of pea'e in the Persian Lulf( I also %ant to than0 the Chairman of the oint Chiefs of +taff. stronger in the "ursuit of !usti0e. %rote his parents of his %orries. and more se0ure in the .r( President and . immediatel!. our goals defined and familiarI Ira3 must %ithdra% from Ku%ait 'ompletel!.%hat %e must do together to defend 'i4ilized 4alues around the %orld and maintain our e'onomi' strength at home( &ur ob<e'ti4es in the Persian Lulf are 'lear. and dedi'ated( A soldier. marine.uest for "ea0e An era in %hi'h the nations of the %orld. the!Hre bra4e. espe'iall! those here in this Chamber tonight. 4er! mu'h from a grateful people( I %ish I 'ould sa! that their %or0 is done( But %e all 0no% itHs not( +o. Wade. also offers a rare opportunit! to mo4e to%ard an histori' period of 'ooperation( 1ut of these trou+led times. than0 !ou 4er! mu'h for that %arm %el'ome( We gather tonight.erritt of Kno=4ille. tonight I %ant to tal0 to !ou about %hatHs at sta0e -. as +addam Hussein %ould ha4e it. the time is no%( And let me than0 all Ameri'ans. for !our support for our armed for'es and for their mission( That support %ill be e4en more important in the da!s to 'ome( +o. side b! side %ith the for'es of more than #$ other nations( The! are some of the finest men and %omen of the 7nited +tates of Ameri'a( And the!Hre doing one terrifi' <ob( These 4aliant Ameri'ans %ere read! at a momentHs noti'e to lea4e their spouses and their 'hildren. fello% Ameri'ans. %itness to e4ents in the Persian Lulf as signifi'ant as the! are tragi'( In the earl! morning hours of August #d. 2orth and +outh. a %orld 3uite different from the one %eH4e 0no%n( A %orld %here the rule of la% supplants the rule of the <ungle( A %orld in %hi'h nations re'ognize the shared responsibilit! for freedom and <usti'e( A %orld %here the strong respe't the rights of the %ea0( This is the 4ision that I shared %ith President Lorba'he4 in Helsin0i( . no longer 'an a di'tator 'ount on EastWest 'onfrontation to st!mie 'on'erted 7nited 2ations a'tion against aggression( A ne% partnership of nations has begun( We stand toda! at a uni3ue and e=traordinar! moment( The 'risis in the Persian Lulf. our bra4e ser4i'emen and %omen stand %at'h in that distant desert and on distant seas. %hile a thousand %ars raged a'ross the span of human endea4or( Toda! that ne% %orld is struggling to be born. the!Hre %ell-trained.r( +pea0er and . no% stationed in +audi Arabia. let me <ust sa!. Leneral Po%ell1 the Chiefs here tonight1 our 'ommander in the Persian Lulf. our fifth o+!e0ti@e << a ne5 5orld order << 0an emerge: a ne5 era << freer from the threat of terror. our <oint statement affirmed to the %orld our shared resol4e to 'ounter Ira3Hs threat to pea'e( /et me 3uoteI VVWe are united in the belief that Ira3Hs aggression must not be tolerated( 2o pea'eful international order is possible if larger states 'an de4our their smaller neighbors(HH Clearl!.$$$ Ira3i troops %ith @?$ tan0s had poured into Ku%ait and mo4ed south to threaten +audi Arabia( It %as then that I de'ided to a't to 'he'0 that aggression( At this moment. "#$.embers of the 7nited +tates Congress. the 7nited +tates against Ira3( It is Ira3 against the %orld( As !ou 0no%. Ku%ait( Within A da!s.

in parti'ular. the material 'ost of our leadership 'an be steep( ThatHs %h! +e'retar! of +tate Ba0er and Treasur! +e'retar! Brad! ha4e met %ith man! %orld leaders to unders'ore that the burden of this 'olle'ti4e effort must be shared( We are prepared to do our share and more to help 'arr! that load1 %e insist that others do their share as %ell( The response of most of our friends and allies has been good( To help defra! 'osts.those refugees( Dor our part. our hearts go out to the hostages and to their families( But our poli'! 'annot 'hange. su'h as Tur0e! and Eg!pt( I am also heartened to report that this international response e=tends to the neediest 4i'tims of this 'onfli't -. apan. as %ell as the arrogan'e.He and other leaders from Europe. and around the %orld understand that ho% %e manage this 'risis toda! 'ould shape the future for generations to 'ome( The test %e fa'e is great.inister . Ku%ait.ideast %aters( The!H4e alread! inter'epted more than 5$$ ships to enfor'e the san'tions( Three regional leaders I spo0e %ith <ust !esterda! told me that these san'tions are %or0ing( Ira3 is feeling the heat( We 'ontinue to hope that Ira3Hs leaders %ill re'al'ulate <ust %hat their aggression has 'ost them( The! are 'ut off from %orld trade. the 7nited 2ations has demanded the release of all foreign nationals held hostage against their %ill and in 'ontra4ention of international la%( It is a mo'0er! of human de'en'! to 'all these people )guests(* The! are hostages. a'ting hand in hand %ith others. the leader of Ira3 must learn this fundamental truth( Drom the outset. under stri't international super4ision that guarantees the proper destination.ha4e pledged to pro4ide our deplo!ed troops %ith all the food and fuel the! need( Lenerous assistan'e %ill also be pro4ided to stal%art front-line nations. to intimidate and 'oer'e its neighbors -neighbors %ho 'ontrol the lionHs share of the %orldHs remaining oil reser4es( We 'annot permit a resour'e so 4ital to be dominated b! one so ruthless( And %e %onHt( Ce'ent e4ents ha4e surel! pro4en that there is no substitute for Ameri'an leadership( In the fa'e of t!rann!. and so are the sta0es( This is the first assault on the ne% %orld that %e see0. and se4eral European nations %ho ha4e <oined us in this purel! humanitarian effort( . the first test of our mettle( Had %e not responded to this first pro4o'ation %ith 'larit! of purpose. if need be. the Lulf. to defend against atta'0( .the 7nited Arab Emirates -. and 'ategori'all! re<e't Ira3Hs '!ni'al and self-ser4ing attempt to anne= Ku%ait( Dinall!. %eH4e 'ontributed T#@ million for relief efforts( This is but a portion of %hat is needed( I 'ommend.oslems and non-. ships of the 7nited +tates 2a4! are toda! patrolling . the restoration of Ku%aitHs legitimate go4ernment. and the 7AE -.oslems. and it %ill not 'hange( Ameri'a and the %orld %ill not be bla'0mailed b! this ruthless poli'!( WeHre no% in sight of a 7nited 2ations that performs as en4isioned b! its founders( We o%e mu'h to the outstanding leadership of +e'retar!-Leneral a4ier Perez de Cuellar( The 7nited 2ations is ba'0ing up its %ords %ith a'tion( The +e'urit! Coun'il has imposed mandator! e'onomi' san'tions on Ira3. designed to for'e Ira3 to relin3uish the spoils of its illegal 'on3uest( The +e'urit! Coun'il has also ta0en the de'isi4e step of authorizing the use of all means ne'essar! to ensure 'omplian'e %ith these san'tions( Together %ith our friends and allies. of 'ourse. it %ould be a signal to a'tual and potential despots around the %orld( Ameri'a and the %orld must defend 'ommon 4ital interests -and %e %ill( Ameri'a and the %orld must support the rule of la% -. then food %ill be permitted( At home.argaret That'her. Arabs and non-Arabs. let no one doubt Ameri'an 'redibilit! and reliabilit!( /et no one doubt our sta!ing po%er( We %ill stand b! our friends( &ne %a! or another. resolute against +addam HusseinHs ambitions( We 'an no% point to fi4e 7nited 2ations +e'urit! Coun'il resolutions that 'ondemn Ira3Hs aggression( The! 'all for Ira3Hs immediate and un'onditional %ithdra%al. if %e do not 'ontinue to demonstrate our determination.and %e %ill( And one thing moreI In the pursuit of these goals Ameri'a %ill not be intimidated( Mital issues of prin'iple are at sta0e( +addam Hussein is literall! tr!ing to %ipe a 'ountr! off the fa'e of the Earth( We do not e=aggerate( 2or do %e e=aggerate %hen %e sa! +addam Hussein %ill fail( Mital e'onomi' interests are at ris0 as %ell( Ira3 itself 'ontrols some "$ per'ent of the %orldHs pro4en oil reser4es( Ira3 plus Ku%ait 'ontrols t%i'e that( An Ira3 permitted to s%allo% Ku%ait %ould ha4e the e'onomi' and militar! po%er. a dependable all!. soldiers from man! nations stand shoulder to shoulder. %eH4e sought to fashion the broadest possible international response to Ira3Hs aggression( The le4el of %orld 'ooperation and 'ondemnation of Ira3 is unpre'edented( Armed for'es from 'ountries spanning four 'ontinents are there at the re3uest of King Dahd of +audi Arabia to deter and. unable to sell their oil( And onl! a tin! fra'tion of goods gets through( The 'ommuni3uW %ith President Lorba'he4 made mention of %hat happens %hen the embargo is so effe'ti4e that 'hildren of Ira3 literall! need mil0 or the si'0 trul! need medi'ine( Then. said it allI VVWe do not bargain o4er hostages( We %ill not stoop to the le4el of using human beings as bargaining 'hips e4er(HH &f 'ourse. and the %hole %orld 0no%s it( Prime .and %e %ill( Ameri'a and the %orld must stand up to aggression -. +audi Arabia. the leaders of +audi Arabia.

ena't gro%th-oriented ta= measures -. and 'ompetiti4eness for the longer term( These measures in'lude e=tending in'enti4es for resear'h and e=perimentation1 e=panding the use of ICAHs for ne% homeo%ners1 establishing ta=deferred famil! sa4ings a''ounts1 'reating in'enti4es for the 'reation of enterprise zones and initiati4es to en'ourage more domesti' drilling1 and.5$Hs. the Congress should. 'ontinue steps to e=pand oil and gas produ'tion.and %e all hope itHs soon.there %ill be a lasting role for the 7nited +tates in assisting the nations of the Persian Lulf( &ur role thenI to deter future aggression( &ur role is to help our friends in their o%n self-defense( And something elseI to 'urb the proliferation of 'hemi'al. and to a''elerate the de4elopment of the Alas0an energ! resour'es %ithout damage to %ildlife( As !ou 0no%. and our 'ohesion all determine %hether %e 'an help our friends and stand up to our foes( Dor Ameri'a to lead. a sound defense budget 'an ha4e some redu'tion in real terms1 and %eHre prepared to a''ept that( But to go be!ond su'h le4els. 'onser4ation efforts are essential to 0eep our energ! needs as lo% as possible( And %e must then ta0e ad4antage of our energ! sour'es a'ross the boardI 'oal. %ith an e='essi4e dependen'e on foreign oil and an e='essi4e burden of Dederal debt( . 7(+( imports had risen to nearl! @ million barrels per da!( And %eHd mo4ed in the %rong dire'tion( And no% %e must a't to 'orre't that trend( .a pro<e'ted T#A# billion for the 'oming !ear( It must -. nu'lear te'hnologies( /et me also ma0e 'lear that the 7nited +tates has no 3uarrel %ith the Ira3i people( &ur 3uarrel is %ith Ira3Hs di'tator and %ith his aggression( Ira3 %ill not be permitted to anne= Ku%ait( ThatHs not a threat. before the Ira3i in4asion. fuel-s%it'hing. %ithin a budget agreement. this month. Ameri'a must remain strong and 4ital( &ur %orld leadership and domesti' strength are mutual and reinfor'ing1 a %o4en pie'e. %e 'an stabilize pri'es and guarantee against hardship( Additionall!. in4estment. thatHs not a boast. or ne=t !ear. strongl! bound as &ld Llor!( To re4italize our leadership. our leadership 'apa'it!. e'onomi' or militar!. h!dro. the Congress should. natural gas. ballisti' missile and. our Armed Dor'es. is something I %ill ne4er a''ept( The %orld is still dangerous( And surel!. ena't measures to in'rease domesti' energ! produ'tion and energ! 'onser4ation in order to redu'e dependen'e on foreign oil( These measures should in'lude m! proposals to in'rease in'enti4es for domesti' oil and gas e=ploration. 4er! soon -. the Congress should. %here 'utting defense %ould threaten our 4ital margin of safet!. our energ! dependen' help a4oid re'ession in the short term and to in'rease sa4ings. one that refle'ts not onl! the impro4ement in East-West relations but our broader responsibilities to deal %ith the 'ontinuing ris0s of outla% a'tion and regional 'onfli't( E4en %ith our obligations in the Lulf. %e must address our budget defi'it -. the 7nited +tates imported almost > million barrels of oil a da!( This !ear.not after ele'tion da!. !es. but let it be 'learI %e %ill not let this aggression stand( &ur interest. and nu'lear( &ur failure to do these things has made us more dependent on foreign oil than e4er before( Dinall!. this month.ThereHs an energ!-related 'ost to be borne as %ell( &il-produ'ing nations are alread! repla'ing lost Ira3i and Ku%aiti output( . in'luding the 7nited +tates. our in4ol4ement in the Lulf is not transitor!( It predated +addam HusseinHs aggression and %ill sur4i4e it( /ong after all our troops 'ome home -. produ'ti4it!. this month.before the ne=t fis'al !ear begins on &'tober "st -. that is no% 'lear( +tabilit!Hs not se'ure( Ameri'an interests are far rea'hing( Interdependen'e has in'reased( The 'onse3uen'es of regional instabilit! 'an be global( This is no time to ris0 Ameri'aHs 'apa'it! to prote't her 4ital interests( And third. thatHs <ust the %a! itHs going to be( &ur abilit! to fun'tion effe'ti4el! as a great po%er abroad depends on ho% %e 'ondu't oursel4es at home( &ur e'onom!. let no one e4en 'ontemplate profiteering from this 'risis( We %ill not ha4e it( I 'annot predi't <ust ho% long it %ill ta0e to 'on4in'e Ira3 to %ithdra% from Ku%ait( +an'tions %ill ta0e time to ha4e their full intended effe't( We %ill 'ontinue to re4ie% all options %ith our allies. redu'ing the ta= rate on 'apital gains( And se'ond.ore than half of %hat %as lost has been made up( And %eHre getting superb 'ooperation( If produ'ers. abo4e all. ena't a prudent multi!ear defense program. and higher defense 'osts %ould onl! ma0e our fis'al defi'it problem %orse( That defi'it %as alread! greater than it should ha4e been -. %e and se4eral of our allies al%a!s ha4e the option to e=tra't oil from our strategi' petroleum reser4es if 'onditions %arrant( As IH4e pointed out before.ost Ameri'ans are si'0 and tired of endless battles in the Congress and bet%een the bran'hes o4er budget matters( It is high time %e pulled together and get the <ob done right( ItHs up to us to straighten this out( This <ob has four basi' parts( %ill -. biologi' redu'ed( To m! friends in Congress. together %e must a't this 4er! month -. but no%( Higher oil pri'es slo% our get Ameri'aHs e'onomi' house in order( The Lulf situation helps us realize %e are more e'onomi'all! 4ulnerable than %e e4er should be( Ameri'ans must ne4er again enter an! 'risis. %hen the oil embargo %as imposed in the earl! ".

%ith measures to assure that it 'an be full! enfor'ed( Ameri'a is tired of phon! defi'it redu'tion or promise-no%.I$. they ser@e together 5ith Ara+s. p(m( in the House Chamber at the Capitol( He %as introdu'ed b! Thomas +( Dole!. Cepubli'ans.And fourth. the Congress should. +pea0er of the House of Cepresentati4es( The address %as broad'ast li4e on nation%ide tele4ision and radio( +our'eI httpIFF%%%(s%eetlibert!(orgFissuesF%arFbushsr(htm . ena't a ?-!ear program to redu'e the pro<e'ted debt and defi'its b! T?$$ billion -thatHs b! half a trillion dollars( And if. in fa't.'an 'ome together to fulfill our responsibilities here( Than0 !ou( Lood night( And Lod bless the 7nited +tates of Ameri'a( 2ational Ar'hi4es 2oteI The President spo0e at . Ameri'ans ha4e stepped for%ard to share a tearful goodb!e %ith their families before lea4ing for a strange and distant shore( At this @ery moment. if old ad4ersaries li0e the +o4iet 7nion and the 7nited +tates 'an %or0 in 'ommon 'ause. then surel! %e %ho are so fortunate to be in this great Chamber -. it must be real( I urge Congress to pro4ide a 'omprehensi4e ?-!ear defi'it redu'tion program to me as a 'omplete legislati4e pa'0age. then Ameri'ans %ill ha4e to fa'e a tough.8emo'rats. this month. and Afri0ans in defense of "rin0i"le and the dream of a ne5 5orld order ThatHs %h! the! s%eat and toil in the sand and the heat and the sun( If the! 'an 'ome together under su'h ad4ersit!. liberals. Buro"eans. it must a4oid an! measure that %ould threaten e'onomi' gro%th or turn us ba'0 to%ard the da!s of punishing in'ome ta= rates( That is one path %e should not head do%n again( I ha4e been pleased %ith re'ent progress. %e 'an de4elop a satisfa'tor! program b! the end of the month. Asians. Ameri'ans traditionall! 'ome together in times of ad4ersit! and 'hallenge( &n'e again. mandated se3uester( IHm hopeful. %ith the Congress. to the e=tent that the defi'it redu'tion program in'ludes ne% re4enue measures. sa4e-later plans( It is time for a program that is 'redible and real( And finall!. I as0 both Houses of the Congress to allo% a straight up-or-do%n 4ote on a 'omplete T?$$-billion defi'it redu'tion pa'0age not later than +eptember #@( If the Congress 'annot get me a budget. %e 'an a4oid the a= of se3uester -. for %e go4ern onl! %ith the 'onsent of the go4erned( And although free people in a free so'iet! are bound to ha4e their differen'es. our abilit! to meet our responsibilities abroad depends upon politi'al %ill and 'onsensus at home( This is ne4er eas! in demo'ra'ies.deep a'ross-the-board 'uts that %ould threaten our militar! 'apa'it! and ris0 substantial domesti' disruption( I %ant to be able to tell the Ameri'an people that %e ha4e trul! sol4ed the defi'it problem( And for me to do that. although it has not al%a!s seemed so smooth( But no% itHs time to produ'e( I hope %e 'an %or0 out a responsible plan( But %ith or %ithout agreement from the budget summit. 'onser4ati4es -. further. a budget agreement must meet these testsI It must in'lude the measures IH4e re'ommended to in'rease e'onomi' gro%th and redu'e dependen'e on foreign oil( It must be fair( All should 'ontribute. but the burden should not be e='essi4e for an! one group of programs or people( It must address the gro%th of go4ernmentHs hidden liabilities( It must reform the budget pro'ess and. IHm 'onfident that the Congress %ill do %hat it should( And I 'an assure !ou that %e in the e=e'uti4e bran'h %ill do our part( In the final anal!sis.

<8)'*** American troops . anuar! ">. and then. air atta'0s are under%a! against militar! targets in Ira3( We are determined to 0no'0 out +addam Hussein-s nu'lear bomb potential( We %ill also destro! his 'hemi'al %eapons fa'ilities( .ith &?*'*** Allied troops from more than t. ". crossed the border into neighboring -u.i dictator Saddam Hussein to sei/e control of !ital oil resources in the Middle 6ast1 "resident 5ush then doubled the si/e of Allied forces in the region to 78*'*** soldiers1 #n No!ember &)th' the 31N1 Security 4ouncil authori/ed its member nations to use 9all necessary means9 to e:pel +ra.ait did not budge1 5y no. inno'ent 'hildren( .i Foreign Minister =ari.anuary (?th' at &@7< a1m1' 5aghdad time A2@7< p1m1' . onl! to 'on'lude that +addam Hussein %as un%illing to lea4e Ku%ait( &thers tra4eled to Baghdad in a 4ariet! of efforts to restore pea'e and <usti'e( &ur +e'retar! of +tate. +addam Hussein s!stemati'all! raped.ait1 #n .his se'ond su'h mission( And he 'ame ba'0 from Baghdad %ith no progress at all in getting +addam Hussein to %ithdra% from Ku%ait( 2o% the #@ 'ountries %ith for'es in the Lulf area ha4e e=hausted all reasonable efforts to rea'h a pea'eful resolution -. follo%s months of 'onstant and 4irtuall! endless diplomati' a'ti4it! on the part of the 7nited 2ations.. by a deadline of ." #n August &' ())*' tanks and soldiers from +ra. man! other 'ountries( Arab leaders sought %hat be'ame 0no%n as an Arab solution. +addam Hussein started this 'ruel %ar against Ku%ait( Tonight. allied air for'es began an atta'0 on militar! targets in Ira3 and Ku%ait( These atta'0s 'ontinue as I spea0( Lround for'es are not engaged( This 'onfli't started August #nd %hen the di'tator of Ira3 in4aded a small and helpless neighbor( Ku%ait -. and man!.uietly' as the <7<'*** +ra.ithdra.eeks later and stated the 31S1 could not allo.i troops from -u. and authori/ed the use of force by na!al forces in the "ersian %ulf to pre!ent any !iolations1 "resident %eorge 5ush addressed a oint session of 4ongress a fe.ait and sei/ed the tiny' oil0rich nation1 +ra.and among those maimed and murdered. ta0en in a''ord %ith 7nited 2ations resolutions and %ith the 'onsent of the 7nited +tates Congress. %hen pea'e is restored.ith +ra. brutalized( Di4e months ago. held an histori' meeting in Lene4a.iddle East %ith pea'e in his heart -.u'h of +addam-s artiller! and tan0s %ill be destro!ed( &ur operations are designed to best prote't the li4es of all the 'oalition for'es b! targeting +addam-s 4ast militar! arsenal( Initial reports from Leneral +'h%arz0opf are that our operations are pro'eeding a''ording to plan( &ur ob<e'ti4es are 'learI +addam Hussein-s for'es %ill lea4e Ku%ait( The legitimate go4ernment of Ku%ait %ill be restored to its rightful pla'e.ha4e no 'hoi'e but to dri4e +addam from Ku%ait b! for'e( We %ill not fail( As I report to !ou. and Ku%ait %ill on'e again be free( Ira3 %ill e4entuall! 'ompl! %ith all rele4ant 7nited 2ations resolutions. onl! to be totall! rebuffed( This past %ee0end.ere in the %ulf along .%as 'rushed1 its people. the battle has been <oined( This militar! a'tion. sho%ed no signs of a''omplishing their ob<e'ti4e( +an'tions %ere tried for %ell o4er ? months.a member of the Arab /eague and a member of the 7nited 2ations -.ere sent to Saudi Arabia in #peration Desert Shield' protecting Saudi Arabia from possible attack1 #n August 2th' the 3nited Nations Security 4ouncil imposed a trade embargo and financial sanctions against +ra. and plundered a tin! nation. and %e and our allies 'on'luded that san'tions alone %ould not for'e +addam from Ku%ait( While the %orld %aited. A/i/ in %ene!a for se!eral hours in a last ditch effort to a!oid .eapons facilities' tanks and artillery1 =he air raid on 5aghdad . it is our hope that Ira3 %ill li4e as a pea'eful and 'ooperati4e member of the famil! of nations. the 7nited +tates. thus enhan'ing the se'urit! and stabilit! of the Lulf( +ome ma! as0I Wh! a't no%O Wh! not %aitO The ans%er is 'learI The %orld 'ould %ait no longer( +an'tions.anuary (2 0 6astern timeB' #peration Desert Shield became #peration Desert Storm as 31S1 and Allied ets conducted a ma or bombing raid against +ra. the +e'retar!-Leneral of the 7nited 2ations %ent to the .er since World War ++1 #n .i air defenses' communications systems' chemical .ith 5aker finally announcing the talks had failed1 =hree days later' the House of Representati!es !oted &<*0(>8 and the 31S1 Senate !oted <&07? to authori/ed "resident 5ush to use military force1 =he . pillaged.ait if they did not .i troops then began massing along the border of Saudi Arabia1 Within days' American troops .i troops in and around -u.anuary (<' ())(1 "resident 5ush then ordered more troops to the %ulf to pressure Saddam Hussein into e!acuating -u. in a last-dit'h effort. +ra. .President George ( & -ushAs *"ee0h Announ0ing &ar Against 3ra. no threat to his o%n( He sub<e'ted the people of Ku%ait to unspea0able atro'ities -.ar1 =he meeting ended in an impasse .as broadcast li!e to a global audience by 4NN correspondents perched on a city rooftop1 =his is the tele!ision speech "resident 5ush ga!e shortly after the air attack had commenced1 ust # hours ago.anuary (<th deadline passed .o do/en nations' the largest assembly of land troops and air po.ames 5aker met . ames Ba0er.anuary )' ())(' Secretary of State . though ha4ing some effe't.

too0 its resolute a'tion. he remained intransigent. e=hausted e4er! means at our disposal to bring this 'risis to a pea'eful end( Ho%e4er. )/et-s free these people.inister e4er 'ould( /isten to Holl!%ood Huddleston. %e no% belie4e that onl! for'e %ill ma0e him lea4e( Prior to ordering our for0es into +attle. I prefer to thin0 of pea'e. lea4e Ku%ait.ha4e for'es in the Lulf area standing shoulder to shoulder against +addam Hussein( These 'ountries had hoped the use of for'e 'ould be a4oided( Cegrettabl!.arine /ieutenant Leneral Walter Boomer( He saidI )There are things %orth fighting for( A %orld in %hi'h brutalit! and la%lessness are allo%ed to go un'he'0ed isnHt the 0ind of %orld %eHre going to %ant to li4e in(* .arine lan'e 'orporal( He sa!s. e4en no%. . . and 5ith the greatest degree of "rote0tion "ossi+le for Ameri0an and allied ser@i0e men and 5omen 3A@e told the Ameri0an "eo"le +efore that this 5ill not +e another 6ietnam.'ountries from ? 'ontinents. an order in 5hi0h a 0redi+le Enited Cations 0an use its "ea0e9ee"ing role to fulfill the "romise and @ision of the E C As founders We ha4e no argument %ith the people of Ira3( Indeed. not %ar( I am 'on4in'ed not onl! that %e %ill pre4ail but that out of the horror of 'ombat %ill 'ome the re'ognition that no nation 'an stand against a %orld united. he tried to ma0e this a dispute bet%een Ira3 and the 7nited +tates of Ameri'a( Well. no nation %ill be permitted to brutall! assault its neighbor( 2o President 'an easil! 'ommit our sons and daughters to %ar( The! are the 2ationHs finest( &urs is an all-4olunteer for'e. 'ertain that time %as on his side( +addam %as %arned o4er and o4er again to 'ompl! %ith the %ill of the 7nited 2ationsI /ea4e Ku%ait. together %ith the 7nited 2ations. more damage %as being done to the fragile e'onomies of the Third World. %hile +addam stalled. he failed( Tonight. 3 instru0ted our military 0ommanders to ta9e e@ery ne0essary ste" to "re@ail as . +addam Hussein met e4er! o4erture of pea'e %ith open 'ontempt( While the %orld pra!ed for pea'e. or be dri4en out( +addam has arrogantl! re<e'ted all %arnings( Instead. #@ nations -. an infinitel! more dangerous %eapon of mass destru'tion -. +addam prepared for %ar( I had hoped that %hen the 7nited +tates Congress. magnifi'entl! trained. +addam Hussein dug in and mo4ed massi4e for'es into Ku%ait( While the %orld %aited. in histori' debate. +addam %ould realize he 'ould not pre4ail and %ould mo4e out of Ku%ait in a''ord %ith the 7nited 2ation resolutions( He did not do that( Instead. and 3 re"eat this here tonight 1ur troo"s 5ill ha@e the +est "ossi+le su""ort in the entire 5orld. so %e 'an go home and be free again(* And he-s right( The terrible 'rimes and tortures 'ommitted b! +addamHs hen'hmen against the inno'ent people of Ku%ait are an affront to man0ind and a 'hallenge to the freedom of all( /isten to one of our great offi'ers out there. and the Arab /eague -. emerging demo'ra'ies of Eastern Europe.ui09ly as "ossi+le. highl! moti4ated( The troops 0no% %h! the!Hre there( And listen to %hat the! sa!. +addam 'learl! felt that b! stalling and threatening and def!ing the 7nited 2ations. and they 5ill not +e as9ed to fight 5ith one hand tied +ehind their +a09 3Am ho"eful that this fighting 5ill not go on for long and that 0asualties 5ill +e held to an a+solute minimum 4his is an histori0 moment &e ha@e in this "ast year made great "rogress in ending the long era of 0onfli0t and 0old 5ar &e ha@e +efore us the o""ortunity to forge for oursel@es and for future generations a ne5 5orld order << a 5orld 5here the rule of la5. 'on4in'e their di'tator that he must la! do%n his arms. go@erns the 0ondu0t of nations &hen 5e are su00essful << and 5e 5ill +e << 5e ha@e a real 0han0e at this ne5 5orld order. he 'ould %ea0en the for'es arra!ed against him( While the %orld %aited. Afri'a. Europe and Asia. in'luding to our o%n e'onom!( The 7nited +tates.a nu'lear %eapon( And %hile the %orld %aited. for the inno'ents 'aught in this 'onfli't. %hile the %orld tal0ed pea'e and %ithdra%al. to the entire %orld. +addam sought to add to the 'hemi'al %eapons arsenal he no% possesses. not the la5 of the !ungle. and let Ira3 itself re<oin the famil! of pea'e-lo4ing nations( Thomas Paine %rote man! !ears agoI )These are the times that tr! men-s souls(* Those %ell-0no%n %ords are so 4er! true toda!( But e4en as planes of the multinational for'es atta'0 Ira3. I pra! for their safet!( &ur goal is not the 'on3uest of Ira3( It is the liberation of Ku%ait( It is m! hope that someho% the Ira3i people 'an.While the %orld %aited. for the!H4e said it better than an! President or Prime .

%e should all sit up and listen to a'0ie ones./isten to . and ma! He 'ontinue to bless our nation." +our'eI httpIFF%%%(histor!pla'e('omFspee'hesFbush-%ar(htm The remains of an Ira3i soldier resting in pea'e during the Dirst Persian Lulf War (&peration 8esert +torm) in ".a! Lod bless ea'h and e4er! one of them. Ameri'a and the %orld are deepl! grateful to them and to their families( And let me sa! to e4er!one listening or %at'hing tonightI When the troops %eH4e sent in finish their %or0. )If %e let him get a%a! %ith this. I am determined to bring them home as soon as possible( Tonight. and the 'oalition for'es at our side in the Lulf..anuar! ">. an Arm! lieutenant. ". %hen she sa!s. %ho 0no%s %hatHs going to be ne=tO* I ha4e 'alled upon Holl!%ood and Walter and (P( and a'0ie and all their 'ourageous 'omrades-in-arms to do %hat must be done( Tonight." . the 7nited +tates of Ameri'a( President Leorge Bush .aster +ergeant (P( Kendall of the @#nd AirborneI JWeHre here for more than <ust the pri'e of a gallon of gas( What %eHre doing is going to 'hart the future of the %orld for the ne=t "$$ !ears( ItHs better to deal %ith this gu! no% than ? !ears from no%(* And finall!.. the! and their families are in our pra!ers( . as our for'es fight.

7oni"ht( . 7he 0rinci0le that has "$ided $s is sim0le5 o$r ob>ecti%e is to hel0 the Baltic 0eo0les achie%e their as0irations( not to 0$nish the So%iet Union. free*om. We are #mericansO0art of somethin" lar"er than o$rsel%es.ay( then s$rely .n a threat to decency and h$manity.orld no. Saddam '$ssein. peace an* and the 0otential to meet o$r challen"es at home. an* the rule of la$& -uch is a $orl* $orthy of our stru le.S. it is a bi i*ea6a ne$ $orl* or*er.hy the ho0es of h$manity t$rn to $s. .s in%asion .al( and backed $0 by forces from 1B co$ntries of siA continents. stands as one.orld in facin" do. !f it is 0ossible( ! .o$ld not stand( and it ..e ha%e resisted the tra0 of a00easement( cynicism and isolation that "i%es tem0tation to tyrants.isdom of o$r nation. !f anyone tells yo$ #merica. # year and a half a"o( in Germany( ! said o$r "oal . 7his is not merely a call for ne.ith the So%iet leadershi0 to enco$ra"e contin$ed commitment to democrati-ation and reform.ithdra. .o$ld res$lt in the . We .e are en"a"ed in a "reat str$""le in the skies and on the seas and sands. !n o$r recent disc$ssions .ith the re0$blics( and a mo%e a. 7o"ether( .orld( .e lead the .here aro$nd the .ant to contin$e to b$ild a lastin" basis for U. $here *i!erse nations are *ra$n to ether in common cause to achie!e the uni!ersal aspirations of mankin*.ron" .orld 0eace and >$stice is the same s0irit that "i%es $s the 0o.ork of freedom.orld has said this a""ression .e .e do( freedom . #nd ." Mr.e can selflessly confront e%il for the sake of "ood in a land so far a.e. initiati%e in "o%ernment( in o$r comm$nities( and from e%ery #mericanOto 0re0are for the neAt #merican cent$ry. eAce0tions( the .ith the So%iet leadershi0 .e ha%e been "i%en re0resentations( . !f .e. President( Mr. We kno. We are #mericans8 .ith an a00eal for rene.e stand at a definin" ho$r. *or t. We are resol$te and reso$rcef$l.hole and free. 7oni"ht( ! come before this ho$se( and the #merican 0eo0le( .orld all confirm the .hy .re lookin" the .ith 41 United 6ations resol$tions( startin" .o cent$ries( #merica has ser%ed the .o cent$ries .ithdra. We in this Union enter the last decade of the 13th ent$ry thankf$l for all o$r blessin"s( steadfast in o$r 0$r0ose( a. "o%ernment initiati%es( it is a call for ne.ay from %iolence. that leadershi0 brin"s b$rdens( and reD$ires sacrifice.are of o$r diffic$lties and res0onsi%e to o$r d$ties at home and aro$nd the .orks.hen .orld has ans. 7he tri$m0h of democratic ideas in &astern &$ro0e and Latin #merica( and the contin$in" str$""le for freedom else. 'alf. *or "enerations( #merica has led the str$""le to 0reser%e and eAtend the blessin"s of liberty. . #mericans kno.?So%iet coo0eration( for a more 0eacef$l f$t$re for all mankind.e see in the Persian G$lf today is sim0ly the #merican character in action. B$t .ill not stand.hole and free( and #merica.s best days are behind her( they. *or t.. ".e can make this land all it sho$ld be. 5hat is at stake is more than one small country. &$ro0e has become .ay.s immediate and $nconditional .ith a demand for ! of some So%iet forces( a reo0enin" of dialo"$e . 7oni"ht( Germany is $nited.s fo$nders. 7he con%iction and co$ra"e .re there.ill maintain o$r contact . #nd toni"ht .ar has been a %ictory for all h$manity. ! come to this ho$se of the 0eo0le to s0eak to yo$ and all #mericans( certain . an* $orthy of our chil*ren7s future& 7he comm$nity of nations has resol$tely "athered to condemn and re0el la. 7he .ork to achie%e another %ictory( a %ictory o%er tyranny and sa%a"e a""ression. #nd .al. 7he indomitable s0irit that is contrib$tin" to this %ictory for .orld. 7he .e .as a &$ro0e .ill .orld as an ins0irin" eAam0le of freedom and democracy. 7he end of the cold .atch caref$lly as the sit$ation de%elo0s.President Leorge H( W( Bush-s +tate of the 7nion Address 8eli4ered on Tuesda!.e ha%e a $niD$e res0onsibility to do the hard . #nd today( in a ra0idly chan"in" .ork of freedom.s leadershi0 . S0eaker( members of the United States on"ress.less a"" instr$mental in makin" it 0ossible.ay aro$nd the .s $n0ro%oked in%asionOhis r$thless( systematic ra0e of a 0eacef$l nei"hborO%iolated e%erythin" the comm$nity of nations holds dear.ered Saddam.orld( #merican leadershi0 is indis0ensable. With fe.%e done the hard .e also kno. anuar! #.hich( if f$lfilled( .

Do the hard . !n fact( #merican b$sinesses are eA0ortin" at a record rate.s . !f yo$.hat #merica is all abo$t.on. #nd .%e 0$t dollars for child care directly in the hands of 0arents instead of b$rea$cracies( $nshackled the 0otential of #mericans . 7ho$"h contro%ersial( the b$d"et a"reement finally 0$t the federal "o%ernment on a 0ay?as?yo$?"o basis( and c$t the "ro.ill "et on o$r . 7he 0roblems before $s may be different( b$t the key to sol%in" them remains the same5 it is the indi%id$alOthe indi%id$al . We all ha%e somethin" to "i%e.hy !.er to chart their o.ill lead $s in this neAt #merican cent$ryP &%eryone . +oin the comm$nity of conscience.e. !f yo$.%e created almost 13 million >obs( c$t inflation in half and c$t interest rates in half. Second( most ind$stries .e. to read( find someone . We ha%e . We are a nation of rock?solid realism and clear?eyed idealism.ho ste0s for. #nd third( o$r eA0orts are r$nnin" solid and stron".n( sayin"( KMy heart is achin"( and ! think that yo$ sho$ld kno.t ha%e bi" in%entories 0iled $0.n destiny( and the freedom and o00ort$nity 0ro%ided by stron" economic " not h$n"ry( not lonely( not in tro$bleOseek o$t someone . . &arlier this month . the irresistible force of a child. *irst( .th soon. Jes( the lar"est 0eacetime economic eA0ansion in history has been tem0orarily interr$ and choice of indi%id$als and families. ! kno.t ha%e to make bi" c$ts in 0rod$ction beca$se they don. B$t there are reasons to be o0timistic abo$t o$r economy.ho can.ill mean a battle of ideas( not a biddin" . #nd the state of o$r Union is the $nion of each of $s( one to the other5 the s$m of o$r friendshi0s( marria"es( families and comm$nities.ard by ser%in" some 0$r0ose hi"her than o$rsel%esOa shinin" 0$r0ose( the ill$mination of a tho$sand 0oints of li"ht.ho amon" $s . We are #mericans.ard today( to "et one addict off dr$"s8 to con%ince one tro$bled teen?a"er not to "i%e $0 on life8 to comfort one #!DS 0atient8 to hel0 one h$n"ry child.nershi0 0ossible for more #mericans.hen the economy slo. !n e%erythin" . ho. What "o%ernment can do alone is limited( b$t the 0otential of the #merican 0eo0le kno. ne.m not $nrealistic abo$t the f$t$re.ay to a ne.ithin o$r reach the 0romise of rene.Oyo$r 0eo0le o$t here are h$rtin" badly.ork of freedom. #nd that frees f$nds for sa%in" and >ob?creatin" in%estment. ! hear them.e do( let $s $nleash the 0otential of o$r most 0recio$s reso$rceOo$r and o00ort$nity to the indi%id$al.athy in s0endin" to less than the rate of inflation. We m$st ret$rn to families( comm$nities( co$nties( cities( states and instit$tions of e%ery kind( the 0o. We can find meanin" and has al. !t is eA0ressed by all . We sho$ld foc$s o$r efforts today on enco$ra"in" economic "ro. We . We are the nation that can sha0e the f$t$re.s b$d"et debate( .e don.ith diabilities( a00lied the creati%ity of the market0lace in the ser%ice of the en%ironment( for clean air( and made homeo. 7hat.s "enero$s "est$re( an idea that is sim0ly ri"ht.t ha%e to fi"ht do$ble?di"it inflation.ith control of federal s0endin".s do.ell of Massach$setts .m s$bmittin" a b$d"et that holds the "ro. 7hat .ho ste0s of debt by nearly Q233 billion.e.rote me abo$t . So let. Since the birth of o$r nation( K.s 0$t these times in 0ers0ecti%e. 7o"ether( these last t.e 0$t into la.o years( .s no limits.%e be"$n to do >$st that( by stren"thenin" the 0o. We . #nd !. B$t o$r economy is still o%er t.hy( amid all the so$nd and f$ry of last year.ill "et this recession behind $s and ret$rn to "ro.ho stands by yo$ and stays thereOa %ol$nteer.%e "ot a hammer( find a nail. We m$st be"in . So if yo$ kno.( enforceable s0endin" ca0s so that f$t$re s0endin" debates .ho kno. We are the nation that belie%es in the f$t$re.hat can ha00en .s .ed #merica.ho is.t.ard.ill carry $s into the neAt #merican cent$ry.ays led by eAam0le.s hand( of a friend . 7o"ether( since 4FB4( .ill define the state of o$r Union. 7he stren"th of a democracy is not in b$rea$cracy( it is in the 0eo0le and their comm$nities. record of eA0ansion( and achie%e the com0etiti%e stren"th that .th( in%estin" in the f$t$re and "i%in" 0o.L ! $nderstand.( toni"ht( in some re"ions of o$r co$ntry( 0eo0le are in "en$ine economic distress.s . #nd that.e the 0eo0leL has been the so$rce of o$r stren"th. So .ice as lar"e as o$r closest com0etitor.ill set this eAam0leP Which of o$r citi-ens .

nershi0 of 0$blic ho$sin". So toni"ht ! am askin" the con"ressional leaders and the *ederal Reser%e to coo0erate . Recent data sho.?enforcement officials.s la. 1 in math and science. 0re%ention initiati%esOfor infants( for children( for ad$lts( and for the elderlyOto 0romote a healthier #merica and to hel0 kee0 costs from s0iralin". now. #nd . We . businesses. My b$d"et a"ain incl$des taA?free family sa%in"s acco$nts8 0enalty?free . 7he time has come to 0$t the national interest ahead of the s0ecial interestOand totally eliminate 0olitical action committees.orld markets.ard?lookin" 0lan of action( and that.. infrastructure.s eAactly . Legislation to achieve excellence in education.e are makin" 0ro"ress( b$t m$ch remains to be cannot be 0$t directly into the hands of the indi%id$al( it sho$ld be mo%ed closer to the 0eo0leOa. now. 7hat . .s time to "i%e 0eo0le more choice in "o%ernment by re%i%in" the ideal of the citi-en 0olitician .e .e need a to$"h crime control le"islation( and . #. !t also means tenant control and o.ithdra.o$ld tr$ly 0$t more com0etition in elections and more 0o.ill create more real >obs( and more real " a red$ced taA for lon"?term ca0ital "ains. #s .ay from Washin"ton.e are 0ro0osin" an a""ression 0ro"ram of determined to 0rotect another f$ndamental ci%il ri"ht5 freedom from crime and the fear that stalks o$r cities.ill not rest $ntil the day of the dealer is o%er( fore%er. !n addition to these 0ro0osals( .ho comes not to stay( b$t to ser%e.s res0onsibility.e need it no. And interest rates should be lower. and homebuyers. So . so that our banks remain safe and secure and can continue to make job-creating loans for our factories. that if the 0layin" field is le%el( #merica. i%il ri"hts are also cr$cial to 0rotectin" eD$al o00ort$nity. building on the partnership forged with the 50 governors at the education summit.s a"ainst em0loyment discrimination . A blueprint for a new national highway system.ill brin" economic "ro. &%ery one of $s has a res0onsibility to s0eak o$t a"ainst racism( bi"otry( and hate.e . )ne of the reasons there is so m$ch s$00ort for term limitations is that the #merican 0eo0le are increasin"ly concerned abo$t bi"?money infl$ence in 0olitics.hat .ard a free trade -one thro$"ho$t this entire hemis0here. !t. # s$ccessf$l Ur$"$ay ro$nd of .ork and o$t0rod$ce anyone( anytime( any.6o. space and high 0o.. 7hat means ne.ill contin$e o$r %i"oro$s enforcement of eAistin" stat$tes( and ! . We m$st contin$e to eA0and to choose sho$ld not be the 0ri%ile"e of .e m$st reco"ni-e that o$r economic stren"th de0ends $0on bein" com0etiti%e in .ill once a"ain 0ress the on"ress to stren"then the and o00ort$nity in the hands of the indi%id$al. Sound banks should be making more sound loans. ! kno. and in the f$t$re( they m$st also be matched by lon"?term in%estments for the neAt #merican cent$ry. Good health care is e%ery #merican.ith the MeAican free trade a"reement and o$r &nter0rise for the #mericas !nitiati%e .s ri"ht and e%ery #merican. I do think there has been too much pessimism. A research and development agenda that includes record levels of federal investment and a permanent tax credit to strengthen private R and D and create jobs. education. We . We ha%e 0re0ared a A budget that promotes investment in America's future—in children. B$t >$st as o$r efforts . #nd to hel0 $s s$00ort them . increased development and greater use of alternative fuels.ill soon con%ene a crime s$mmit of the nation. 7he b$d"et also incl$des a 0lan of action ri"ht here at home to 0$t more 0o.orkers and farmers can o$t.ill f$lly im0lement o$r national strate"y for combattin" dr$" ab$se.s do more. enabling parents to choose their children's schools and helping to make America No.s eA0orts. #nd . A banking reform plan to bring America's financial system into the 21st century. Jo$ and ! kno.als from !. a critical investment in our transportation infrastructure. 7he #ttorney General . 7hat reD$ires a for. We m$st look beyond the neAt election( to the neAt " no. A comprehensive national energy strategy that calls for energy conservation and efficiency.itho$t resortin" to the $se of $nfair 0references.s for first? time homeb$yers8 and( to increase >obs and "ro.e can hel0 o$r 0artners stren"then their economies and mo%e to.e fi"ht crime( .e can a%oid a ret$rn to $n0rod$cti%e 0artisan bickerin".ill be sendin" to the detailed series of 0ro0osals( that incl$de5 • • • • • • on" in the hands of indi%id$als. We. 7hey are the birthri"ht of e%ery for all nations.s . incenti%es to create >obs in o$r inner cities by enco$ra"in" in%estment thro$"h enter0rise -ones.orld trade ne"otiations . *reedom and the 0o.ith $s in a st$dy( led by hairman #lan Greens0an( to sort o$t o$r technical differences so that .( let. . R. their are differences amon" $s abo$t the im0act and the effects of a ca0ital "ains

orked for a sol$tion. )$r in%estment( o$r trainin"( o$r 0lannin"Oall are 0ayin" off. they bra%ely str$""le to earn for #merica and for the .$.anted. this conflict be"an( and . #nd it reinforces a theme of this administration5 a00reciation and enco$ra"ement of the inno%ati%e conflict is no lon"er the r$le( . #nd so m$st .e all reali-e that o$r res0onsibility to be the catalyst for 0eace in the re"ion does not end . Some sho$ld be terminated. !raD.e are on co$ belon"s in the hands of the 0eo0le. We seek a Persian G$lf and decision?makin" closer to the 0eo0le. . 7here is no one more de%oted( more committed to the hard .e.ea0on( . 7hey kno. 7hey 0lanned for the f$t$re. So that 0eace can 0re%ail( .er of Kstates as laboratories. !t allo.orld.s is bein" destroyed. My b$d"et incl$des a list of 0ro"rams for 0otential t$rno%er totalin" more than Q13 billion.s states to mana"e more fleAibly and more efficiently. !t allo. this br$tal dictator .hy . Rather( .de $ellar8 0residents Gorbache%( Mitterand( )-al( M$barak( and Bend>edid8 kin"s *ahd and 'assan8 0rime minsters Ma>or and #ndreottiO>$st to name a fe.e m$st ste0 for.e need to b$ild a ne.( not later.s finest. it .ith the #rab Lea"$e( the &$ro0ean omm$nity and the United 6ations( tried e%ery di0lomatic a%en$e. 7he %al$e of this t$rno%er a00roach is strai"htfor.ard.ill end. We . #nd no.ay from the dark chaos of dictators( to. 7he .e had to sto0 Saddam no.orked hard to a%oid .ell kno.s le"itimate "o%ernment( and to ins$re the stability and sec$rity of this critical re"ion. Some 0ro"rams sho$ld increase.orld a. Workin" .( end$rin" 0eaceObased not on arms races and confrontation( b$t on shared 0rinci0les and the r$le of la.$. ser%in" in the Persian G$lf. that .ill 0re%ail. *or more than fi%e months .%e been $nited in 0rinci0le and 0$r0ose for 133 years. Democracy brin"s the $ndeniable %al$e of tho$"htf$l dissent( and .e( alon" .. there are times . 7hey are tr$ly #merica.s time for a more dynamic 0ro"ram life cycle. !t mo%es and for f$t$re "enerations( a >$st and lastin" 0eace.L 7his nation .eOhere and aro$nd the . 7hey kno.s ca0acity to s$stain .e kno.e . B$t the fact that all the %oices ha%e the ri"ht to s0eak o$t is one of the reasons .m 0leased to re0ort that .s sal%ation. instincti%ely .here the stron" are neither tem0ted nor able to intimidate the . )$r commitment to them m$st be eD$al of their commitment to o$r co$ .e select at least Q42 billion in s$ch 0ro"rams and t$rn them o%er to the states in a sin"le consolidated "rant( f$lly f$nded( for fleAible mana"ement by the states. )$r 0$r0ose in the Persian G$lf remains constant5 to dri%e !raD o$t from . . . B$t time and a"ain Saddam '$ssein flatly re>ected the 0ath of di0lomacy and 0eace.ill not be Saddam.s stability and sec$rity.ait( to restore .orld . #lmost 23 years a"o( in the G$lf is not a .e m$st make s$re that control of the .hat ! mean by the re"ion.ard and acce0t o$r res0onsibility to lead the . #nd .s oil reso$rces does not fall into his hands only to finance f$rther a""ression.e ha%e heard some dissentin" %oices here at home( some reckless( most res0onsible.ill commit any o$tra"e( no matter ho.Oall .hen5 it be"an on #$"$st 1nd( .orld. . many innocents m$st s$ffer. U6 secretary "eneral Pere. &ach of them has %ol$nteered to 0ro%ide for this nation.hen Saddam in%aded and sacked a small( defenseless nei" fo$nded by leaders . #nd some sho$ld be consolidated and t$rned o%er to the states. 7hey kno. We do not seek the destr$ction of !raD( its c$lt$re or its 0eo0le.hen . Some sho$ld decrease. #s #mericans( .ar.e be"an a lon" str$""le a"ainst a""ressi%e totalitarianism.ard the bri"ht 0romise of a better day.oman no. !t. Let me make clear . 7he .ith on"ress and the "o%ernors( ! 0ro0ose .ho $nderstood that 0o.orld. )nce established( federal 0ro"rams seem to become immortal.ill do anythin"( .7he federal "o%ernment too often treats "o%ernment 0ro"rams as if they are of Washin"ton( by Washin"ton( and for Washin"ton.e seek an !raD that $ses its "reat reso$rces not to destroy( not to ser%e the ambitions of a tyrant( b$t to b$ild a better life for itself and its nei"hbors. Most #mericans kno.e face another definin" ho$r for #merica and the .s the federal "o%ernment to red$ce o%erhead.s ho.ith the s$ccessf$l concl$sion of this . 7oni"ht !. 6o.e . 7hey kno. #nd ! am certain of ho.ork of freedom( than e%ery soldier and sailor( e%ery marine( airman and coast"$ardsmanOe%ery man and e%ery .e are in the G$lf.ill $se any . 7ime .

We all ha%e a s0ecial 0lace in o$r hearts for the families of men and .ill "ain an ad%anta"eOhe is dead . )$r 0eo0le ha%e ne%er . #ny cost in li%es is beyond o$r 0o.ith any f$t$re threat to the United States( to o$r forces o%erseas and to o$r friends and allies. recei%ed commitments of o%er QC3 billion for the first three months of 4FF4( ! am confident they ..ill ha%e sent an end$rin" . !f . 7hey are re0resented here toni"ht( by Mrs.hate%er their so$rce.arnin" to any dictator or des0ot( 0resent or f$t$re( .here . Sch. #mon" the nations of the .ar.e ha%e to fi"ht at all.ard the neAt cent$ry( more confident than e%er( that . We are all %ery "ratef$l to General Sch.ithin o$rsel%es( the %al$e of this "reat str$""le.).ho contem0lates o$tla. 6o. We .e fi"ht in an"er( it is only beca$se .e are not bein" asked to bear alone the financial b$rden of this str$""le. #nd if he thinks that by ab$sin" coalition P.#.ell( the ..e affirmed #merica( and the .hat the dictator of !raD is thinkin". Let $s 0$rs$e an S.ife of the distin"$ished hairman of the +oint hiefs. confirmin" its fo$nders. Let them say( . )$r ca$se is moral.ill ad%ance his ca$se thro$"h tra"ic and des0icable en%ironmental terrorismOhe is dead . We ha%e "i%en o$r men and .ar-ko0f and to all those ser%in" . 0ro"ram be refoc$sed on 0ro%idin" 0rotection from limited ballistic missile strikes( . 7he .$.( . B$t the .5 )$r ca$se is >$st.s 0o.ill do no less as . Let f$t$re "enerations $nderstand the b$rden and the blessin"s of freedom.ith remarkable technolo"ical ad%ances like the Patriot missile( . #nd to the families( let me say( o$r forces in the G$lf .orld( only the United States of #merica has had both the moral standin"( and the means to back it $0.ith $s no.ron".orld comm$nity .W. that to"ether( . an* a ression $ill meet collecti!e resistance& Jes( the United States bears a ma>or share of leadershi0 in this effort. #nd .com=i0a=#3F3342E.ron".e can defend the ballistic missile attacks aimed at innocent ci%ilians..ill benefitOhe is dead .aiti( Sa$di( *rench( anadians( !talians( the 0ilots of @atar and BahrainOall are 0roof that for the first time since World War !!( the international comm$nity is $nited. 0ro"ram that can deal .ork of freedom. )$r ca$se is ri"ht. 0ilotsOof the . 7he co$ra"e and s$ccess of the R.orld( as a comm$nity of he .e stood .orld .anted to abandon the blessin"s of home and . B$t the cost of closin" o$r eyes to a""ression is beyond to ima"ine. 7his nation has ne%er fo$nd "lory in .here d$ty reD$ired $s to stand.ill at home and abroad( to do . Let them kno.ork( for distant lands and deadly conflict.inds of chan"e are . 8he $orl* can therefore sei"e this opportunity to fulfill the lon 9hel* promise of a ne$ $orl* or*er6$here brutality $ill o unre$ar*e*.ill meas$re( .orld has to .orker( has enabled $s to s$ccessf$lly deal .e do( the .ith him.omen ser%in" in the G$lf.onder .*.D.info0lease.e ha%e the .orld.D. May God bless the United States of #merica.omen the %ery best.hat m$st be doneOthe hard . #nd all of $s yearn for a .ard( ! ha%e directed that the S.ron". We are the only nation on this earth that co$ld assemble the forces of 0eace..ho came . 7he D$ality of #merican technolo"y( thanks to the #merican . &ach of $s . #nd ! mi"ht also reco"ni-e one .hen .e do kno. 7his .ill s$cceed in the G$lf. a""ression.)$r 0ro"ress in this "reat str$""le is the res$lt of years of %i"ilance and a steadfast commitment to a stron" defense. ! am heartened that . !f he thinks that by tar"etin" innocent ci%ilians in !srael and Sa$di #rabia( that he . 7his is the b$rden of leadershi0Oand the stren"th that has made #merica the beacon of freedom in a searchin" . (So$rce5 htt05==. !f he thinks that he .html) .e .!.ill ne%er ha%e to fi"ht a"ain. 7he leadershi0 of the United 6ations( once only a ho0ed?for ideal( is no.ith Mrs. #nd they deser%e it.ill not stay there one day lon"er than is necessary to com0lete their mission. Lookin" to meas$re. 7he forces of freedom are $nited.!. Last year( o$r friends and allies 0ro%ided the b$lk of the economic costs of Desert Shield( and ha%in" no. %ision.ith diffic$lt military conditions( and hel0 minimi-e the loss of life. We mo%e to.e mo%e thro$"h Desert #lma Po. 6orman Sch.

ames Ba0er( It is a 4i'tor! for the rule of la% and for %hat is right( 8esert +tormHs su''ess belongs to the team that so abl! leads our Armed Dor'esI our +e'retar! of 8efense and our Chairman of the oint Chiefs.ith !raD at the U. I 'an report to !ou our armed for'es fought %ith honor and 4alor( And as President.9laughter: -.the to%er of 'alm at the e!e of 8esert +torm'h >.at'h* -.S.embers of Congress. on March E( of the .( U.r( President( And . sir. this nation has %at'hed its sons and daughters %ith pride. our %armest 'ongratulations on the brilliant 4i'tor! of the 8esert +torm &peration( .embers of the Congress.this militar! 4i'tor! also belongs to the one the British 'all the ). I no% ha4e the high pri4ilege and distin't honor of presenting to !ou the President of the 7nited +tates( The PresidentI . for the 7nited 2ations( A 4i'tor! for unpre'edented international 'ooperation and diploma'!.#. 8i'0 Chene! and Colin Po%ell( And %hile !ouHre standing -. and through !ou to the members of our Armed Dor'es." President Geor"e '. (Photo5 Geor"e B$sh Presidential Library and M$se$m) +pea0er Dole!I . for those 4er! generous %ords spo0en from the heart about the %onderful performan'e of our militar!( .r( President. a0itol in Washin"ton( D. ". B$sh addresses a >oint session of on"ress re"ardin" the KendL of the first Persian G$lf War . than0 !ou.Leneral 2orman +'h%arz0opf( . %e meet in a %orld blessed b! the promise of pea'e( Drom the moment &peration 8esert +torm 'ommen'ed on anuar! ">th until the time the guns fell silent at midnight " %ee0 ago.r( +pea0er. ? short %ee0s ago I 'ame to this House to spea0 to !ou about the state of the 7nion( We met then in time of %ar( Tonight.Address Before a oint +ession of the Congress on the Cessation of the Persian Lulf Confli't President Leorge H(W( Bush . %at'hed o4er them %ith pra!er( As Commander in Chief.embers of Congress dire'tl! and %ithout further 'omment( But I %ish to depart from tradition tonight and e=press to !ou on behalf of the Congress and the 'ountr!. it is 'ustomar! at <oint sessions for the Chair to present the President to the .. I 'an report to the 2ation aggression is defeated( The %ar is o4er( This is a 4i'tor! for e4er! 'ountr! in the 'oalition. . so %ell led b! our +e'retar! of +tate.W.

uires s"e0ial @igilan0e Entil 3ra. tonight let me outline four 0e! 'hallenges to be met( Dirst. denied the truth( And %hen his defeated legions 'ome home. to foster e'onomi' freedom and prosperit! for all the people of the region( . I 'ome to this House to spea0 about the %orld -. 0on@in0es the 5orld of its "ea0eful intentions << that its leaders 5ill not use ne5 re@enues to rearm and re+uild its mena0ing 5ar ma0hine << 3ra. and to the entire %orld. from Afri'a and the Arab %orld. !es. and in the Lulf must go for%ard %ith ne% 4igor and determination( And I guarantee !ouI 2o one %ill %or0 harder for a stable pea'e in the region than %e %ill( Dourth. to em+ar9 on a ne5 arms ra0e 3ra. +addam and those around him are a''ountable( All of us grie4e for the 4i'tims of %ar. from Asia and +outh Ameri'a. the 'hallenge is to rea'h higher.! hope is that one da! %e %ill on'e again %el'ome them as friends into the 'ommunit! of nations( &ur 'ommitment to pea'e in the . it should be plain to all parties that pea'ema0ing in the . so no% Ameri'a stands read! to %or0 %ith them to se'ure the pea'e( This does not mean stationing 7(+( ground for'es in the Arabian Peninsula. but it does mean Ameri'an parti'ipation in <oint e=er'ises in4ol4ing both air and ground for'es( It means maintaining a 'apable 7(+( na4al presen'e in the region.iddle East( &n the night I announ'ed &peration 8esert +torm. pea'e brings real benefits to e4er!one( We must do all that %e 'an to 'lose the gap bet%een Israel and the Arab +tates -. in the 'onfli't <ust 'on'luded.And re'ognizing this %as a 'oalition effort. %e must foster e'onomi' de4elopment for the sa0e of pea'e and progress( The Persian Lulf and . all united against aggression( &ur un'ommon 'oalition must no% %or0 in 'ommon purposeI to forge a future that should ne4er again be held hostage to the dar0er side of human nature( Tonight in Ira3. %e grie4e for the people of Ira3.iddle East re3uires 'ompromise( At the same time. +addam %al0s amidst ruin( His %ar ma'hine is 'rushed( His abilit! to threaten mass destru'tion is itself destro!ed( His people ha4e been lied to. %e must %or0 to 'reate ne% opportunities for pea'e and stabilit! in the .embers of this Congress -. in the Arab-Israeli dispute. BritainHs Leneral de la Billiere.iddle East does not end %ith the liberation of Ku%ait( +o. all Ira3is %ill see and feel the ha4o' he has %rought( And this I promise !ouI Dor all that +addam has done to his o%n people.iddle East re'ognize that the! %ill bear the bul0 of the responsibilit! for regional se'urit!( But %e %ant them to 0no% that <ust as %e stood %ith them to repel aggression. I than0 those %hose unfailing lo4e and support sustained our 'ourageous men and %omenI I than0 the Ameri'an people( Tonight. let us not forget +audi Leneral Khalid. for the people of Ku%ait and the suffering that s'ars the soul of that proud nation( We grie4e for all our fallen soldiers and their families. and all the others %hose leadership pla!ed su'h a 4ital role( And most importantl!. and se'urit! does not 'ome from militar! po%er alone( All of us 0no% the depth of bitterness that has made the dispute bet%een Israel and its neighbors so painful and intra'table( Ket. the 4i'tim( To the aid of this small 'ountr! 'ame nations from 2orth Ameri'a and Europe. all those %ho ser4ed in the field( I than0 the . most importantl! of all. 5e must a0t to 0ontrol the "roliferation of 5ea"ons of mass destru0tion and the missiles used to deli@er them 3t 5ould +e tragi0 if the nations of the Middle Bast and Persian Gulf 5ere no5. %e must %or0 together to 'reate shared se'urit! arrangements in the region( &ur friends and allies in the . a people %ho ha4e ne4er been our enem!( . must not ha@e a00ess to the instruments of 5ar And third. in the 5a9e of 5ar. I e=pressed m! hope that out of the horrors of %ar might 'ome ne% momentum for pea'e( WeH4e learned in the modern age geograph! 'annot guarantee se'urit!.iddle East form a region ri'h in natural resour'es %ith a %ealth of untapped human potential( Cesour'es on'e s3uandered on militar! might must be redire'ted to more pea'eful ends( We are alread! addressing the immediate e'onomi' 'onse3uen'es of Ira3Hs aggression( 2o%. Israel and man! of the Arab +tates ha4e for the first time found themsel4es 'onfronting the same aggressor( B! here for our troops in battle %as o4er%helming( And abo4e all. for all the inno'ents 'aught up in this 'onfli't( And. to the Ku%aitis. or Leneral Co3ue<eoffre of Dran'e. re. <ust as %e ha4e for o4er G$ !ears( /et it be 'learI &ur 4ital national interests depend on a stable and se'ure Lulf( *e0ond.the %orld after %ar( The re'ent 'hallenge 'ould not ha4e been 'learer( +addam Hussein %as the 4illain1 Ku%ait.and bet%een Israelis and Palestinians( The ta'ti's of terror lead absolutel! no%here( There 'an be no substitute for diploma'!( A 'omprehensi4e pea'e must be grounded in 7nited 2ations +e'urit! Coun'il Cesolutions #G# and AA@ and the prin'iple of territor! for pea'e( This prin'iple must be elaborated to pro4ide for IsraelHs se'urit! and re'ognition and at the same time for legitimate Palestinian politi'al rights( An!thing else %ould fail the t%in test of fairness and se'urit!( The time has 'ome to put an end to Arab-Israeli 'onfli't( The %ar %ith Ira3 is o4er( The 3uest for solutions to the problems in /ebanon.

5e 0an see a ne5 5orld 0oming into @ie5 A 5orld in 5hi0h there is the @ery real "ros"e0t of a ne5 5orld order In the %ords of Winston Chur'hill. to the %a! %e meet 'hallenges here at home( In m! +tate of the 7nion Address and in m! budget. Ambassador al-+abah.timetables -. tonight Ku%ait is free( And %eHre 4er! happ! about that( 4onight. that same sense of urgen'!.$. about oursel4es( . freed from 'old %ar stalemate. I defined a 'omprehensi4e agenda to prepare for the ne=t Ameri'an 'entur!( &ur first priorit! is to get this e'onom! rolling again( The fear and un'ertaint! 'aused b! the Lulf 'risis %ere understandable( But no% that the %ar is o4er. letHs build on su''ess %ith those and ena't the rest of our agenda( If our for'es 'ould %in the ground %ar in "$$ hours. let us re0ogni'e that the hard 5or9 of freedom still 0alls us for5ard &e/@e learned the hard lessons of history 4he @i0tory o@er 3ra. about all the! taught us about our 4alues. the strongest e'onom! on Earth( We must also ena't the legislation that is 0e! to building a better Ameri'a( Dor e=ample. for the sa0e of the Ku%aiti people. to probe. %e stood our ground( Be'ause the %orld %ould not loo0 the other %a!. %hatHs right. %eHre read! to do the same thing %ith our s'hools and e=pand 'hoi'e in edu'ation( We passed a 'rime bill that made a useful start in fighting 'rime and drugs( This !ear. abo4e all.iddle East to begin the pro'ess( He %ill go to listen. no solel! Ameri'an ans%er( But %e 'an ma0e a differen'e( Ameri'a %ill %or0 tirelessl! as a 'atal!st for positi4e 'hange( But %e 'annot lead a ne% %orld abroad ad4an'e the sear'h for pea'e and stabilit!( IH4e also as0ed him to raise the plight of the hostages held in /ebanon( We ha4e not forgotten them. those hopes pro4ed to be a distant dream. a %orld order in %hi'h )the prin'iples of <usti'e and fair pla! prote't the %ea0 against the strong( ( ( (* A %orld %here the 7nited 2ations. and 'old %ar( Co5. spend. itHs politi's as usual on Ameri'an defense and diploma'!( ItHs time to turn a%a! from the temptation to prote't unneeded %eapons s!stems and obsolete bases( ItHs time to put an end to mi'romanagement of foreign and se'urit! assistan'e programs -. then surel! the Congress 'an pass this legislation in "$$ da!s( /et that be a promise %e ma0e tonight to the Ameri'an people( When I spo0e in this House about the state of our 7nion.and. the! transformed a nation at home( Thin0 of the %a! the! %ent about their mission -. %eH4e sent up our ne% high%a! bill( And these are <ust a fe% of our pending proposals for reform and rene%al( +o. 5as not 5aged as >a 5ar to end all 5ars ? B@en the ne5 5orld order 0annot guarantee an era of "er"etual "ea0e -ut enduring "ea0e must +e our mission 1ur su00ess in the Gulf 5ill sha"e not only the ne5 5orld order 5e see9 +ut our mission here at home In the %ar <ust ended. and 'onfiden'e is rightl! 'oming ba'0( Ameri'ans 'an mo4e for%ard to lend. to offer suggestions -. is poised to fulfill the histori' 4ision of its founders( A %orld in %hi'h freedom and respe't for human rights find a home among all nations( The Lulf %ar put this ne% %orld to its first test( And m! fello% Ameri'ans. oil pri'es are do%n. 'onfli't. an o4erriding imperati4e to a'hie4e results( We must bring that same sense of self-dis'ipline. tonight I 'all on the Congress to mo4e for%ard aggressi4el! on our domesti' front( /etHs begin %ith t%o initiati4es %e should be able to agree on 3ui'0l!I transportation and 'rime( And then. in ".a %orld of barbed %ire and 'on'rete blo'0. as our troo"s +egin to 0ome home. I as0ed all of !ouI If %e 'an selflessl! 'onfront e4il for the sa0e of good in a land so far a%a!. the %orld %eH4e 0no%n has been a %orld di4ided -.. %eHre sending to Congress our 'omprehensi4e 'rime pa'0age to finish the <ob( We passed the landmar0 Ameri'ans %ith 8isabilities A't( And no% %eH4e sent for%ard our 'i4il rights bill( We also passed the a4iation bill( This !ear. to do %hat is ne'essar!.%ith 'onfiden'e and 3uiet pride( Thin0 about their sense of dut!. and in4est in this. an entire %orld %as 'on4ulsed b! %ar( T%i'e this 'entur!. there %ere 'lear-'ut ob<e'ti4es -. and %hat %ill enable this nation to pla! the leadership role re3uired of us( The 'onse3uen'es of the 'onfli't in the Lulf rea'h far be!ond the 'onfines of the . the bra4e men and %omen of 8esert +torm a''omplished more than e4en the! ma! realize( The! set out to 'onfront an enem! abroad. %e passed that test( Dor the sa0e of our prin'iples. then surel! %e 'an ma0e this land all that it should be( In the time sin'e then. and in the pro'ess. at home. and %e %ill not forget them( To all the 'hallenges that 'onfront this region of the %orld there is no single solution. interest rates are do%n. out of the horrors of %ar hope emerged for enduring pea'e( T%i'e before. %e ena'ted an histori' Clean Air A't( And no% %eH4e proposed a national energ! strateg!( We passed a 'hild-'are bill that put po%er in the hands of parents( And toda!. be!ond the grasp of man( 7ntil no%.mi'romanagement that humiliates our friends and allies and hamstrings our diploma'!( ItHs time to rise abo4e the paro'hial and the por0 barrel.iddle East( T%i'e before in this 'entur!.B! meeting these four 'hallenges %e 'an build a frame%or0 for pea'e( IH4e as0ed +e'retar! of +tate Ba0er to go to the .

"QmonthXA . to the sergeants and the suppl! offi'ers. 4er! soon. about the patriotism that %e feel tonight( +o.e'hanized Infantr! 8i4ision bound for Dort!le. ho% Ameri'an produ'ts and Ameri'an %or0ers are se'ond-'lass( Well.ho% our 'hildren fall short. donHt !ou belie4e it( The Ameri'a %e sa% in 8esert +torm %as first-'lass talent( And the! did it using Ameri'aHs state-of-the-art te'hnolog!( We sa% the e='ellen'e embodied in the Patriot missile and the patriots %ho made it %or0( And %e sa% soldiers %ho 0no% about honor and bra4er! and dut! and 'ountr! and the %orldsha0ing po%er of these simple %ords( There is something noble and ma<esti' about the pride. heads high( There is mu'h that %e must do. the 7nited +tates of Ameri'a( Than0 !ou all 4er!.We hear so often about our !oung people in turmoil -. 'ommander of the 7(+( for'es in the Persian Lulf1 +audi 'ommander Len( Abdul Aziz bin +ultan1 British 'ommander Len( Peter de la Billiere1 Dren'h 'ommander Len( . and %e as0 nothing in return( WeHre 'oming home no% -. 'onfident. %ith others. Chairman of the oint Chiefs of +taff1 Len( H( 2orman +'h%arz0opf. all 'reeds and 'olors -. %e 'an ma0e this a holida! the!Hll ne4er forget( In a 4er! real sense. and hate( Eliminate them( IHm sure that man! of !ou sa% on the tele4ision the unforgettable s'ene of four terrified Ira3i soldiers surrendering( The! emerged from their bun0er bro0en.I"# p(m( in the House Chamber at the Capitol( He %as introdu'ed b! Thomas +( Dole!. headed for the 7(+(A( That plane %ill 'arr! the men and %omen of the #Gth . a generous people( /et us al%a!s be 'aring and good and generous in all %e do( +oon.their mar'h home( And I ha4e dire'ted +e'retar! Chene! to begin the immediate return of Ameri'an 'ombat units from the Lulf( /ess than # hours from no%. but I 'an tell !ou thisI Dor them and for their families. +pea0er of the House of Cepresentati4es( In his remar0s. President of the +enate1 +e'retar! of +tate ames A( Ba0er III1 +e'retar! of 8efense 8i'0 Chene!1 Colin /( Po%ell. to the 2ational Luard( This 4i'tor! belongs to the finest fighting for'e this nation has e4er 0no%n in its histor!( We %ent half%a! around the %orld to do %hat is moral and <ust and right( We fought hard and. fearing the %orst( And then there %as an Ameri'an soldier( Cemember %hat he saidO He saidI VVItHs o0a!( KouHre all right no%( KouHre all right no%(HH That s'ene sa!s a lot about Ameri'a. 4er! mu'h( 2oteI The President spo0e at . bigotr!. Leorgia( This is <ust the beginning of a stead! flo% of Ameri'an troops 'oming home( /et their return remind us that all those %ho ha4e gone before are lin0ed %ith us in the long line of freedomHs mar'h( Ameri'ans ha4e al%a!s tried to ser4e. %e %on the %ar( We lifted the !o0e of aggression and t!rann! from a small 'ountr! that man! Ameri'ans had ne4er e4en heard of. our troops %ill begin the mar'h %eH4e all been %aiting for -.i'hel Co3ue<eoffre1 President +addam Hussein of Ira31 and Ambassador +aud 2asir al-+abah of Ku%ait( The address %as broad'ast li4e on nation%ide tele4ision and radio( +our'eI Leorge H(W( Bush Presidential /ibrar! httpIFFbushlibrar!(tamu(eduFresear'hFpubli'Npapers(phpOidX#5>5Q!earX". to the men and %omen in the ma'hines and the men and %omen %ho made them %or0( It belongs to the regulars.a! Lod bless this great nation. to the reser4es.. ho% our s'hools fail us. he referred to 8an .proud.b! setting the fa'e of this nation against dis' the pri4ates and the pilots. a lot about %ho %e are( Ameri'ans are a 'aring people( We are a good people. at home and abroad( And %e %ill do it( We are Ameri'ans( . this 4i'tor! belongs to them -. to sa'rifi'e nobl! for %hat %e belie4e to be right( Tonight. to e4er!one here and e4er!one %at'hing at home. thin0 about the men and %omen of 8esert +torm( /et us honor them %ith our gratitude( /et us 'omfort the families of the fallen and remember ea'h pre'ious life lost( /et us learn from them as %ell( /et us honor those %ho ha4e ser4ed us b! ser4ing others( /et us honor them as indi4iduals -men and %omen of e4er! ra'e. the first planeload of Ameri'an soldiers %ill lift off from +audi Arabia. tears streaming from their e!es. I as0 e4er! 'ommunit! in this 'ountr! to ma0e this 'oming Dourth of ul! a da! of spe'ial 'elebration for our returning troops( The! ma! ha4e missed Than0sgi4ing and Christmas.

B$sh deli%ers a s0eech aboard the aircraft carrier $SS #braham Lincoln on May 4( 133<( as the carrier steamed to. President Geor"e W.S.#. B$sh deli%ered a s0eech anno$ncin" the concl$sion of #merica/s military o0erations a"ainst the !raDi "o%ernment and army led by Saddam '$ssein. U. .(ission accomplishe*.ard San Die"o( alifornia( U.S.

*ront 0a"e 0hoto5 U.reasonably s$re. . M$sharraf said he . on Se0tember 44( 1334. Jork ity at F53< #.M$sharraf looks on d$rin" a ne. on Se0tember 44( 1334.s conference at the Penta"on in Washin"ton( D. .er in 6e.M. (Photo by #leA Won"=Getty !ma"es) . at F5C4 #.F"" Traged! (+eptember "".The . Secretary of Defense Donald R$msfeld (left) takes D$estions from re0orters as Pakistani President Per%e. that kidna00ed Wall Street +o$rnal re0orter Daniel Pearl is ali%e. #merican #irlines *li"ht GG crashes into the Penta"on near Washin"ton( D. on *ebr$ary 4<( . #$$")I +atani' CitualO United #irlines *li"ht 4G2 hits the World 7rade enter So$th 7o.

ith his ad%isors after ret$rnin" to the White 'o$se on 8ues*ay e!enin .ith his 6ational Sec$rity o$ncil in the Presidential &mer"ency )0erations enter of the White 'o$se on 8ues*ay e!enin . -eptember 11.President Geor"e W. 2001" the F=44 attacks.S. (Photo5 6ational #rchi%es) . (Photo5 6ational #rchi%es) President Geor"e W. B$sh meets . Secret Ser%ice in the Presidential &mer"ency )0erations enter of the White 'o$se. -eptember 11. *rom left to ri"ht5 :ice President Dick heney8 hief of Staff #ndy ard8 ondolee--a Rice( 6ational Sec$rity #d%iser8 and S0ecial #"ent arl 7r$scott of the U. B$sh meets . 2001( soon after addressin" the nation in a tele%ised s0eech.

on *riday( Se0tember 4C( 1334( after s0eakin" at the ser%ice for #merica. Seated . De0artment of Defense) President Geor"e W. Barbara B$sh( *ormer President Bill linton( Sen.( U.s 6ational Day of Prayer and Remembrance.#.President Geor"e W.ith the President from left are5 Mrs. B$sh( at the 6ational athedral in Washin"ton( D. B$sh "ras0s the hand of his father( former President Geor"e '. . Ward=U. (Photo by R.D. B$sh (left) and Secretary of Defense Donald R$msfeld look o%er the scene of destr$ction at the Penta"on on Se0tember 41( 1334.S.S. 'illary Rodham linton( and helsea linton. W. (Photo5 6ational #rchi%es) .

White( De0$ty Secretary of Defense Pa$l Wolfo. B$sh meets .Global ar on Terrorism in Afghanistan! Organized Crime? President Geor"e W. Stikkel=U. Ri"ht5 World Bank President +ames Wolfensohn meets . Per%e.ith Secretary of Defense Donald '.ith Pakistan/s President Gen. *rom left to ri"ht5 Secretary of the #rmy 7homas &.M$sharraf and Prime Minister Sha$kat #-i. De0artment of Defense) Left5 World Bank President +ames Wolfensohn talks to #f"hanistan/s President 'amid . (Photo by 'elene .in !slamabad( Pakistan on *ebr$ary G( 1332. R$msfeld and his staff at the Penta"on on Se0tember 41( 1334. R$msfeld( B$sh( and 6ational Sec$rity #d%isor ondolee--a at a dinner in 7okyo( +a0an on +an$ary 14( 1331.

is Libby( hief of Staff for the :ice President in the abinet Room of the White 'o$se on -eptember 12. Wolfo. Secretary of State8 and Le. 2001.S.ith the President from left are5 Donald R$msfeld( Po.ith( from left( Donald R$msfeld( U.ere members of the o$ncil on *orei"n Relations at the time of this 0hoto"ra0h. Secretary of Defense8 olin Po. Secretary of Defense Pa$l Wolfo. (Photo5 6ational #rchi%es) President Geor"e W. Secretary of Defense8 olin Po.S.S. Secretary of State8 and :ice President Dick heney.ell( U.talks .it. (Photo5 6ational #rchi%es) .ith his 6ational Sec$rity o$ncil in the abinet Room of the White 'o$se on Se0tember 41( 1334.De0$ty U. B$sh meets .S.ell( and Libby . Seated .ell( U.S.

atches Do$"las *eith (left)( the Under Secretary of Defense for Policy( shake hands . Do$"las *eith is a member of the o$ncil on *orei"n Relations8 Donald R$msfeld is a former member of the o$ncil on *orei"n Relations. De0artment of Defense) (So$rce5 "ar and %ecision: Inside the Pentagon at the %awn of the "ar on Terrorism by Do$"las +.Secretary of Defense Donald R$msfeld (ri"ht) .S. B$sh at the Penta"on on Se0tember 41( 1334. *eith) .ith President Geor"e W. (Photo5 U.

S.Michael hertoff (ri"ht)( the #ssistant U. #ttorney General for riminal &nforcement( is seen talkin" to U.S. (Win Mc6amee=Re$ters) . #ttorney General +ohn #shcroft before a 'o$se committee on Se0tember 1C( 1334.

ell( Secretary of Defense R$msfeld( De0$ty Secretary of Defense Pa$l Wolfo. lock. ard( 6ational Sec$rity #d%iser ondolee--a Rice( and hairman of the +oint hiefs of Staff General 'enry Shelton.6eill( Secretary of 7reas$ry8 :ice President Dick heney8 olin Po. B$sh meets .President Geor"e W.ell( Secretary of State8 Donald R$msfeld( Secretary of Defense8 and Gen.ith the 6ational Sec$rity o$ncil in the Sit$ation Room of the White 'o$se on Se0tember 13( cabinet meets at am0 Da%id on Se0tember 42( 1334.S.6eill( !# Director Geor"e 7enet( White 'o$se hief of Staff #ndre. B$sh. (Photo5 6ational #rchi%es) .is Libby( hief of Staff to the :ice President8 Geor"e 7enet( Director of the entral !ntelli"ence #"ency ( !#)8 #ttorney General +ohn #shcroft8 Pa$l ). (Photo"ra0h5 + Scott *B! Director Robert M$eller( Secretary of the 7reas$ry Pa$l ).ise from left5 U. #ttorney General +ohn #shcroft( :ice?President heney( B$sh( Secretary of State Po.s . 'enry Shelton( hairman of the +oint hiefs of Staff. Partici0ants from left incl$de5 Robert M$eller( Director of the *B!8 Le.hite=#P) President Geor"e W.

B$sh talks 0ri%ately .ith British Prime Minister 7ony Blair in the Bl$e Room at the White 'o$se on Se0tember 13( 1334. B$sh meets .'o$rs before addressin" on"ress and the nation( President Geor"e W.S. (Photo5 6ational #rchi%es) President Geor"e W.ell and Sa$di #mbassador to the U. Secretary of State olin Po.ith *orei"n Minister Sa$di #l?*ail of Sa$di #rabia in the )%al )ffice on Se0tember 13( 1334. (Photo5 6ational #rchi%es) . Prince Bandar are seen standin" in front of the President/s desk.

(Photo5 6ational #rchi%es) .ith !# Director Geor"e 7enet (ri"ht)( 6ational Sec$rity #d%isor ondolee--a Rice (abo%e( left)( and White 'o$se hief of Staff #ndre.President Geor"e left) at am0 Da%id in Maryland on Se0tember 1F( 1334 to disc$ss the in%asion of #f"hanistan.ith entral !ntelli"ence #"ency ( !#) Director Geor"e 7enet( :ice President Dick heney and 6ational Sec$rity #d%iser ondolee--a Rice in the )%al )ffice of the White 'o$se on )ctober G( 1334. B$sh meets . ard (lo. (Photo5 6ational #rchi%es) President Geor"e W. B$sh meets .

)rrin 'atch( Re0$blican?Utah8 Sen. on )ctober 1E( 1334.S. Patrick Leahy( Democrat?:ermont8 Sen.President Geor"e W.S. (Photo5 6ational #rchi%es) . Standin" behind the President from left are5 U. Bob Graham( Democrat?*lorida. #ttorney General +ohn #shcroft8 Sen. 'arry Reid( Democrat?6e%ada8 Re0resentati%e +ames Sensenbrenner of Wisconsin( and Sen. . (Photo5 6ational #rchi%es) *B! Director Robert M$eller( !# Director Geor"e 7enet( #ttorney General +ohn #shcroft( and 'omeland Sec$rity Director 7om Rid"e confer in the abinet Room of the White 'o$se on )ctober 1F( 1334. B$sh si"ns the 3-A )atriot Act in the &ast Room of the White 'o$se in Washin"ton( D.( U.#.

Secretary of Defense Donald R$msfeld talks to his assistants Do$"las *eith (ri"ht( Under Secretary of Defense for Policy)( :ice #dmiral &dm$nd Giambastiani (black >acket)( and #ssistant Secretary of Defense William +. KBillL L$ti (back"ro$nd) d$rin" their fli"ht to Sa$di #rabia in )ctober 1334.ennerly=Getty !ma"es) (So$rce5 "ar and %ecision: Inside the Pentagon at the %awn of the "ar on Terrorism by Do$"las +. (#P Photo=Salim #l 'ashli) (So$rce5 "ar and %ecision: Inside the Pentagon at the %awn of the "ar on Terrorism by Do$"las +. *eith) Do$"las *eith( the Under Secretary of Defense for Policy( .atches Secretary of Defense Donald R$msfeld "reet S$ltan @aboos bin Said in )man in )ctober 1334. (Da%id '$me . *eith) .

(White 'o$se 0hoto by &ric Dra0er) Secretary of Defense Donald R$msfeld (left) talks to :ice President Dick heney and President Geor"e W. De0artment of Defense) . B$sh( Secretary of State ondolee--a Rice( and Pakistan/s President Per%e.M$sharraf 0re0are for dinner at the White 'o$se on Se0tember 1G( :ice President Dick heney( President Geor"e W.#f"hanistan/s President 'amid . (Photo5 U.S. B$sh at the Penta"on. heney and Rice are members of the o$ncil on *orei"n Relations.

7hey are >oined by Secretary of Defense Robert Gates (center)( hairman of the +oint hiefs of Staff #dmiral Michael M$llen (second from ri"ht)( and De0$ty Secretary of State +ohn 6e"ro0onte (ri"ht).ar-ai (left) and President Geor"e W. S. B$sh si"ns into la. D$ncan '$nter( and Sen. General Peter Pace( hairman of the +oint hiefs of Staff( and U. Ste%e B$yer( Wisconsin Re0. Lindsey Graham of So$th arolina( alifornia Re0.ith United States Pro%incial Reconstr$ction 7eam Leaders( 6ational G$ard #"ric$lt$re De%elo0ment 7eam Re0resentati%es( and #f"han Go%ernors in Washin"ton( D. hris annon( !ndiana Re0. +ohn Warner of :ir"inia. (Getty !ma"es) President Geor"e W. on Se0tember 1E( 133B. +im Sensenbrenner( Sen. B$sh (second from left) 0artici0ate in a :ideo 7eleconference . +oinin" him on sta"e( from left are5 Utah Re0. #ttorney General #lberto Gon-ales are in the back"ro$nd. (White 'o$se 0hoto by Pa$l Morse) .S. . <F<3( the Military ommissions #ct of 133E( d$rin" a ceremony in the &ast Room of the White 'o$se on 7$esday( )ctober 4G( 133E.#f"hanistan/s President 'amid .

Do$"las *eith (.ith 6#7) Secretary General Lord Robertson on December 4B( 1334.ith . (6#7) Photo) .S. 6icholas B$rns (left)( the U. (Photo5 U.earin" "lasses) and De0$ty Secretary of Defense Pa$l Wolfo.atches Secretary of Defense Donald R$msfeld (center) shake hands . De0artment of Defense) #mbassador . Permanent Re0resentati%e to 6#7)( .it.S.e%in 7ebbit( the Permanent Under Secretary of the British Ministry of Defence( at the Penta"on on December G( 1334.

at the Penta"on on December 4C( 133C. #mbassador to #f"hanistan Halmay . De0artment of Defense) U.S.halil-ad (ri"ht) "reets De0$ty Secretary of Defense Pa$l Wolfo. #rmy or0oral Pat 7illman/s death on #0ril 11( 133C.S. (Photo5 U.halil-ad "reets Secretary of Defense Donald R$msfeld at the Penta" (Photo5 the U. Halmay .S. #mbassador to #f"hanistan at the time of U. De0artment of Defense) .Halmay .halil-ad .

Petersb$r" 7imes) . (6#7) Photo) British Prime Minister 7ony Blair toasts R$ssia/s President :ladimir P$tin at a dinner in Mosco.ith R$ssia/s President :ladimir P$tin in the . (St. on 6o%ember 14( 1333.6#7) Secretary General +aa0 de 'oo0 Scheffer shakes hands . in #0ril 133C.remlin in Mosco.

B$sh (ri"ht).ofi #nnan shakes hands .Left 0hoto5 United 6ations Secretary?General . (Left 0hoto5 ('asan Sarbakhshian=#ssociated Press) Ri"ht 0hoto5 U6 Secretary General .ar-ai shakes hands .ofi #nnan meets . . B$sh $0on his arri%al to United 6ations 'eadD$arters in 6e. (U6 0hoto by &skinder Debebe=State De0artment) #f"hanistan/s President 'amid .ith !ran/s r$ler Mahmo$d #hmadine>ad (left) and President Geor"e W.ith !ran/s r$ler Maho$d #hmadine>ad (left) and President Geor"e W. B$sh (ri"ht). Jork ity on Se0tember 1<( 133<.ith President Geor"e W.

Pakistan/s President Gen..ab$l( #f"hanistan +an$ary 12( (L)( shakes hands .mod.ofi #nnan d$rin" a >oint 0ress conference at the 0residential 0alace in .ar-ai at .M$sharraf is "reeted by #f"hanistan/s interim leader Dr... 'amid . (Photo5 htt05==. Per%e.ab$l !nternational #ir0ort d$rin" his %isit to #f"hanistan on #0ril 1( 1331.$k=fin"al=0hotoR"alleryR0atrols. (Photo5 Pa$la Bronstein=Getty !ma"es) .htm) #f"hanistan/s interim Prime Minister 'amid .ith United 6ations Secretary General .o0erations.

(Photo by Robert D.S. (Re$ters) (So$rce5 "ar and %ecision: Inside the Pentagon at the %awn of the "ar on Terrorism by Do$"las +. &mbassy in . *eith) Do$"las *eith( the Under Secretary of Defense for Policy( talks to theh 0ress at the U. Ward=U.S. De0artment of Defense) (So$rce5 "ar and %ecision: Inside the Pentagon at the %awn of the "ar on Terrorism by Do$"las and Myers are members of the o$ncil on *orei"n the De0$ty Secretary of Defense( and U.Do$"las *eith( the Under Secretary of Defense for Policy( shakes hands . 0resident 'amid .ab$l( #f"hanistan in Se0tember 1331.S. #ir *orce General Richard Myers( the hairman of the +oint hiefs of Staff( stand in the back"ro$ in +an$ary 1331 as Pa$l Wolfo.ith #f"hanistan/s ne. *eith( Wolfo. *eith) .

#$$"( &ddl!. )2e=t door to +har<ah is 8ubai. the 'enter of CIA sp!ing in the region. p( "#$ . &sama bin /aden %as reported to ha4e re'ei4ed 0idne! treatment at the Ameri'an Hospital in 8ubai %ith the blessing of the 8ubai and 7AE go4ernments( At the time of his hospitalization. Go%ernor of 7eAas and Re0$blican Party 0residential candidate Geor"e W.66 re0orter Peter L. b! /arr! .inister +hei0h Hamdan bin Ya!ed Al 2aha!an( In ul! #$$". Ber"en is a member of the o$ncil on *orei"n Relations. Peter L. Bin /aden %as reported b! the Dren'h ne%spaper /e Digaro and Cadio Dran'e International to ha4e been 4isited on ul! "#. %ho %as said to ha4e had 'lose 'onta'ts %ith all the Lulf ro!al families( . Mirginia on ul! "?.aded =asks@ 5rass "lates' 5lack #ps' C 5ig #il' =he 5lood "olitics of %eorge 5ush C 4o1 b! Wa!ne .adsen. Ber"en sits beside #rab terrorist and s$s0ected !# asset )sama bin Laden in #f"hanistan on March 11( 4FFG. %as on 3uarter-o%ned b! Enron before the firm-s 'ollapse( 8olphin-s CE& %as 7AE Doreign . B$sh( La$ra B$sh( and #rab terrorist Sami #l?#rian (center( .earin" a beard) smile for the camera on March 41( 1333. #$$".it''hell %as reportedl! 'alled ba'0 to CIA head3uarters in /angle!. the CIA 'hief in 8ubai. a''ording to 7(+( intelligen'e sour'es( 8ubai-s 8olphin Energ! /td(. Carl!le o%ned a G# per'ent sta0e in /e Digaro at the time it reported on the Bin /aden meeting %ith the CIA in 8ubai(* 6 .

Jork ity in 4FBG. (Photo5 o$ncil on *orei"n Relations #nn$al Re0ort) .eden o$ncil on *orei"n Relations members in%ite members of the !slamic #lliance of #f"hanistan to the 'arold Pratt 'o$se in 6e.7he Bin Laden *amily in S.

Geor"e '. B$sh "reets Prince Bandar of Sa$di #rabia.W. .

(U. +erry Morrison) !n this hando$t ima"e 0ro%ided by the De0artment of Defense (D)D)( former President Geor"e '.S.ith President Barack )bama (R) before the Points of Li"ht *o$ndation for$m held at 7eAas #IM Uni%ersity in olle"e Station( 7eAas on )ctober 4E( 133F.S. De0artment of Defense 0hoto by U. President )bama >oined former 0resident B$sh and more than 1(333 ser%ice leaders to celebrate the 13th #nni%ersary of the Points of Li"ht mo%ement and iss$e a ne. (Photo by U. W. #ir *orce Master S"t. Gates (left)( former Secretary of State +ames #.7he 7eAas 7roika "reets the Bi" K)L. Baker !!! (second from left)( and former President Geor"e '.S. B$sh (L)( Secretary of Defense Robert Gates ( ) and Senior #d%isor to the President :alerie +arrett sit . De0artment of Defense='ando$t=Getty !ma"es 6orth #merica) .W. Secretary of Defense Robert M. call to #mericans to ser%e in their comm$nities.ife Barbara "reet President Barack )bama as he arri%es in olle"e Station( 7eAas on )ctober 4E( 133F( 0rior to attendin" the Points of Li"ht *o$ndation for$m held at 7eAas #IM Uni%ersity. B$sh and his .

ait for a meetin" to be"in on +$ly 1E( 133E.#rmy General +ohn #bi-aid (left)( the ommander of U.S. (U. 6a%y #dm.s S$0reme #llied ommander for &$ro0e( and U.S. #rmy Gen.S. De0artment of Defense 0hoto by U. Defense Secretary Robert M. entral ommand( and Marine or0s General +ames L.S. (6#7) Photo) U.S. +ames G. Gates( Sta%ridis( and Mc hrystal are members of the o$ncil on *orei"n Relations. +ones( the S$0reme #llied ommander of &$ro0e and 6#7)( .S. Sta%ridis( center( 6#7).ith U. Gates( left( s0eaks . Stanley Mc hrystal( commander of 6#7) and U.S. #ir *orce Master S"t. +erry Morrison) . forces in #f"hanistan( ri"ht( d$rin" a meetin" of 6#7) defense ministers in Bratisla%a( Slo%akia on )ctober 1<( 133F.

e%in Dietsch) htt05==. (Photo5 U.S.Secretary of Defense Robert Gates (left) "reets U.ere members of the o$ncil on *orei"n Relations at the time this 0hoto .$0i. +ohn Warner( R?:#( (L to R) 0rior to a Senate #rmed Ser%ices ommittee hearin" on the sit$ation in !raD on a0itol 'ill in Washin"ton( D. Gen. Both men .S. #rmy Gen. +ohn Mc ain( R?#H( and Sen. Petrae$s( ommander of the M$lti?6ational *orce?!raD( chats . De0artment of Defense= herie #. on #0ril B( taken. (UP! Photo=. 7h$rlby) U. .arl &ikenberry( the ommander of the ombined *orces ommand in #f"hanistan( at Ba"ram airfield in #f"hanistan on +an$ary 4G( 133G. #rmy$s=0hotos=0"?B= .S..ith Re0$blican 0res$m0ti%e 0residential nominee Sen. . Da%id '.

#rmy General Da%id '.e%in Dietsch) (fifth from ri"ht) meets .$0i. (Photo5 )ffice of the President of the !slamic Re0$blic of #f"hanistan) .ab$l( #f"hanistan on March 4<( 1341. on May 11( 133B. (UP! Photo=.ay to his seat 0rior to his confirmation hearin" before a Senate +$diciary ommittee hearin" on a0itol 'ill in Washin"ton( D. .eden/s *orei"n Minister arl Bildt in$s=0hotos=0"?43= #f"hanistan/s President 'amid .U..ith S.S. Petrae$s( nominee for rea00ortionment to be commander of United States entral ommand( makes his .

od:MPDTmcchrystalU"ordonUbro.n( ri"ht( is "reeted by Gen. Prime Minister Gordon Bro.ith Richard 'olbrooke( the #merican s0ecial en%oy to Pakistan and #f"hanistan (center)( and arl Bildt (left)( the *orei"n Minister of S.n fle.n 0romised British troo0s more hel0 to o%ercome the threat of 7aliban roadside bombs that ha%e killed and ..daylife.eden( d$rin" a meetin" at a U. military base in Gha-ni( #f"hanistan on +$ly 1C( 133F( 0rior to #f"hanistan/s $0comin" 0residential election.S. Stanley Mc hrystal( left( the head of U. Sat$rday to the city of Lashkar Gah( .arl W. . Bro. &ikenberry (ri"ht)( the U. #mbassador to #f"hanistan( s0eaks .com=0hoto=3dS'b*s".o$nded many British soldiers this s$mmer... and 6#7) forces in #f"hanistan( at am0 Bastion in Lashkar Gah in #f"hanistan on Sat$rday( #$"$st 1F( 133F.n . &ikenberry and Richard 'olbrooke are members of the o$ncil on *orei"n Relations.S.S.arl W. (#P Photo) British troo0s ha%e been .s Prime Minister Gordon Bro. arl Bildt and Richard 'olbrooke are re"$lar Bilderber" Meetin"s 0artici0ants. (#P Photo) Britain..a"in" a to$"h fi"ht a"ainst 7aliban ins$r"ents.

com=0hotos=state0hotos=<2B<23<<FB= .ith #f"hanistan and Pakistan at the s$00lemental hearin" on a0itol 'ill in Washin"ton( D.ith #f"han President 'amid . ..S.S.. .flickr.S. on #0ril <3( 133F. De0artment of State in Washin"ton( D. (U. Secretary of State 'illary Rodham linton 0ro%ides remarks d$rin" talks .ar-ai and Pakistani President #sif #li Hardari d$rin" trilateral cons$ltations .Secretary of State 'illary Rodham linton( ri"ht( and Secretary of Defense Robert Gates( second from left( share a la$"h as they arri%e to testify before the Senate #00ro0riations ommittee d$rin" the fiscal year 133F .. (#P Photo) U. State De0artment 0hoto by Michael Gross) htt05==. on May E( 133F.

"o%=0hotos=ne..defense.ab$l( #f"hanistan (Photo5 U. (Photo5 DoD 0hoto by Master S"t. (Released)) htt05==.S.ab$l( #f"hanistan( on December B( 133F.ith #f"han President 'amid .s0hotoidT41333 # %ie.ab$l( #f"hanistan) .Secretary of Defense Robert M. of the 'a>i #bd$l Rahman MosD$e in .ar-ai at the 0residential 0alace in ..S. +erry Morrison( U. #ir *orce. Gates . Gates is on his first tri0 back to so$th.s0hoto.est #sia after President )bama decided to send an additional <3(333 troo0s to #f"hanistan.alks .as0APne.. &mbassy .

ith #f"han President 'amid . &ikenberry( center( and ommander of U. #rmy in . and 6#7) forces in #f"hanistan U. (U.S.arl W. #mbassador to #f"hanistan .ith U.arl W. &ikenberry and Stanley Mc hrystal are members of the o$ncil on *orei"n Relations.S. #rmy General Stanley Mc hrystal (ri"ht) in #f"hanistan on 6o%ember 4F( 133F. .ab$l( #f"hanistan on S$nday( March 1B( 1343.S. Stanley Mc hrystal at Ba"ram #ir Base( #f"hanistan( en ro$te to an $nanno$nced %isit .S.Secretary of State 'illary linton (center) meets .S. (#P Photo) . State De0artment 0hoto by Daniel Wilkinson) President Barack )bama( ri"ht( is "reeted by U. ( )( U. #nd 6#7) commander General Stanley Mc hrystal (left) and other 6#7) officers at the !nternational Sec$rity #ssistance *orce (!S#*) headD$arters in .in" (ri"ht) s0eaks .o?day conference re%ie. S0ecial Re0resentati%e for #f"hanistan and Pakistan Richard 'olbrooke (L)( and U. Richard 'olbrooke and Da%id Petrae$s are members of the o$ncil on *orei"n Relations.S.ab$l( #f"hanistan on #0ril 43( 1343.S. 'olbrooke and Petrae$s attended a t.S. entral ommand( arri%e for a conference at .ith U.S.ab$l( #f"hanistan on #0ril 44( 4WtPDTda%idU0etrae$s .. (Re$ters) #f"han President 'amid .daylife. (Re$ters) htt05==..ab$l !nternational #ir0ort in .#f"hanistan/s President 'amid . ci%ilian and military in%ol%ement in #f"hanistan for the comin" year. #rmy General Da%id Petrae$s (R)( ommander of U.

.com=0hotos=state0hotos=CE31<<B3CC= . on May 43( 1343. State De0artment Photo=P$blic Domain) at the Blair 'o$se( Washin"ton( D. & Secretary of Defense Robert Gates( $nidentified( Gen. U. Secretary of State 'illary Rodham linton hosts a dinner in honor of President of the !slamic Re0$blic of #f"hanistan 'amid . +ones( #f"hanistan/s President 'amid . Jork ity.S. Stanley Mc hrystal( $nidentified #f"han di0lomat( Richard 'olbrooke( $nidentified #f"han di0lomat( 'illary Rodham linton( $nidentified #f"han di0lomat( and U... Left to ri"ht5 +ames L.arl W. #mbassador to #f"hanistan . Gates( Mc hrystal( 'olbrooke( and &ikenberry are members of the o$ncil on *orei"n Relations( an internationalist or"ani-ation in 6e. (U.

ar-ai of #f"hanistan in the )%al )ffice at the White 'o$se in Washin"ton( D.( May 41( 1343.ith President 'amid . .al( Mohammed #sif Rahimi( Dr. Halmai Rasso$l( Dr.President Barack )bama holds a bilateral meetin" . Rahim Wardak( Mohammed 'aneef #tmar( Dr. . Gen. #f"hans 0artici0ants incl$de5 Dr. Do$"las (Do$") L$te( S0ecial #ssistant for #f"hanistan and Pakistan( General Stanley Mc hrystal( ommander !nternational Sec$rity #ssistance *orce( Secretary of State 'illary Rodham linton( Secretary of Defense Robert Gates( 6ational Sec$rity #d%isor Gen.arl & Gen. #shraf Ghani #hmad-ai( and Mahammad Masoom Sanek-ai. +ames L. Partici0ants incl$de5 Lt. +ones( De0$ty 6ational Sec$rity #d%isor 7om Donilon( hairman of the +oint hiefs of Staff #dmiral Mike M$llen( and United States #mbassador to #f"hanistan . 'a-rat Hakhil. Ran"in S0anta( Said 7ayeb +a. Shaheen !! missile 0ict$re (Photo5 htt05==.s=133E=6o%ember=MilitaryR6e.armyreco"nition. .. Pakistan/s "o%ernment maintains n$clear .htm) Pakistan/s missiles are dis0layed in a military 0arade.

Indi4iduals 'aptured b! the 7(+( militar! in Afghanistan and Ira3 are detained at the Luantanamo Ba! prison 'amp in Cuba( (PhotoI 7(+( 8epartment of 8efense) G$antanamo Bay 0rison cam0 in $ba .

Camp Z-Ca! at the 7(+( militar! prison for Senem! 'ombatants. Cuba (Lett! Images) Left to ri"ht5 *ormer Secretary of Defense Donald R$msfeld( former hairman of the +oint hiefs of Staff Richard Myers( former ommander of the U. entral ommand retired Gen.S. R$msfeld( Myers( and #bi-aid are (or .S. (Photo by hi0 Somode%illa=Getty !ma"es) . #rmy Ran"er Pat 7illman on a0itol 'ill on #$"$st 4( 133G.ere) members of the o$ncil on *orei"n Relations.n take an oath before testifyin" to the 'o$se )%ersi"ht and Go%ernment Reform ommittee abo$t the combat fratricide of 6*L football 0layer and U. +ohn #bi-aid( and 0ast ommander of the U. S0ecial )0erations ommand Luantanamo Ba!.S. Bryan Bro.

ADLHA2I+TA2 Q 8C7L+ 7(+( Arm! soldiers patrol a suspe'ted opium popp! farm in Afghanistan in the )global %ar on terrorism(* (PhotoI httpIFF%%%(no'aptionneeded('omFinde=(phpOsXfi=ate) .

Afghanistan on Wednesda!. &'tober A$.+oldiers in Afghanistan obser4e a 4illage( Afghan drug addi'ts smo0e heroin in Kabul. #$"A( The 7nited 2ations said the 'ountr! is the %orldHs largest produ'er of opium. and the !ear #$"# pro4ided about 5? per'ent of the global 'rop . the ra% ingredient in heroin.$ per'ent this !ear due to in'reased 'ulti4ation( (AP PhotoFCahmat Lul) httpIFFne%s(!ahoo('omFphotosFafghanistan-opium-"A@GA@5@"5-slidesho%F .a figure that ma! <ump to .

in garbage-filled dried ri4er beds ree0ing of human %aste( (AP PhotoFAn<a 2iedringhaus) httpIFFne%s(!ahoo('omFphotosFafghanistan-opium-"A@GA@5@"5-slidesho%F . li4ing in s3ualor in its 'ities.ore than " million Afghans are addi'ts. sleeping on the street. Afghanistan on +aturda!.I+AD (2AT&) soldiers loo0 for suspe'ted Taliban rebels in Afghanistan( An Afghan drug addi't smo0es opium in a foul smelling ri4er bed in the 'enter of Kabul. 2o4ember .. #$"A( .

.a! "$. <umped G$$ per'ent in #$"A( (AP PhotoFAn<a 2iedringhaus) httpIFFne%s(!ahoo('omFphotosFafghanistan-opium-"A@GA@5@"5-slidesho%F . a Taliban stronghold. east of Kabul. espe'iall! in regions %here thousands of 7(+(-led 'oalition troops ha4e been %ithdra%n or are in the pro'ess of departing( The report indi'ates that %hate4er international efforts ha4e been made to %ean lo'al farmers off the 'rop ha4e failed( (AP PhotoFCahmat Lul) httpIFFne%s(!ahoo('omFphotosFafghanistan-opium-"A@GA@5@"5-slidesho%F Afghan popp! farmers prepare the soil for their popp! seeds in fields in Cham Kalai 4illage in AfghanistanHs eastern 2angarhar pro4in'e. the 7(2( said in a report( Popp! 'ulti4ation is also dramati'all! in'reasing in areas of the southern Taliban heartland. 2o4ember "#. on Drida!. #$"A( Popp! 'ulti4ation in 2angarhar pro4in'e.Afghan farmers 'olle't ra% opium as the! %or0 in a popp! field in Khog!ani distri't of alalabad. #$"A( &pium popp! 'ulti4ation has been in'reasing for a third !ear in a ro% and is heading for a re'ord high. Afghanistan. %here Cham Kaai is lo'ated. the report sho%ed. on Tuesda!.

parti'ularl! in the south %here the Taliban 'ontrol 'ulti4ation of opium poppies and smuggling routes( The Afghan go4ernment and its international ba'0ers ha4e made a massi4e effort in re'ent !ears to dis'ourage farmers from gro%ing opium popp!. dependent on a dail! dose of opium and heroin abo4e all R but also 'annabis. the 'oordinator for 'hild 'are at +an<a Ama<( There are a number of ?. $(5 per'ent of the population in neighboring Pa0istan and $(?@ per'ent of Ameri'ans aged "?->G %ere regular opiate users. 'ommunit! leaders.?$$ drug users. but the go4ernment has said it also sho%s that the Afghan %ar on drugs is ha4ing some su''ess( T%ent! of the 'ountr!Hs AG pro4in'es %ere de'lared popp!-free in #$$. along %ith Cussia and Iran. 72 sa!s 5y H6+D+ D#%=' Associated "ress Writer1 une #". as the top three 'ountries for opiate drug use %orld%ide. %as also being treated for heroin addi'tion( +he said she started on the drug b! stealing small amounts from her mother or brother( . and is the global leader in hashish produ'tion( 8rug 'rops ha4e helped finan'e insurgents and en'ourage 'orruption.onda!. the 7(2( said . as hundreds of thousands of Afghans turn to drugs to es'ape the miser! of po4ert! and %ar( 2earl! A per'ent of Afghans aged "? to >G are addi'ted to opiates. %hi'h ended %ith the 7(+(-led in4asion of #$$"( JI lost m! brothers during the fighting and life %as miserable( . pla!ing and being tutored in a nurser!( 2earl! all of the 'hildren are addi'ts. and its 'ulti4ation dropped ## per'ent last !ear( +ome of the drop is li0el! due to lo%er mar0et pri'es.others %ho 'alm their 'hildren b! blo%ing opium smo0e in their fa'es( Whole 'ommunities hoo0ed on heroin %ith fe% opportunities for treatment( 7se of opiates su'h as heroin and opium has doubled in Afghanistan in the last fi4e !ears.and G-!ear-old addi'ts( The !oungest the! ha4e e4er seen %as " month old( The Asso'iated Press toured the 'enter in Debruar! and tal0ed to a middle-aged %oman %ho said she started using opium during Taliban rule. a''ording to the most re'ent 7(2( data( Treatment fa'ilities in Afghanistan are rare( &nl! "$ per'ent of drug users sur4e!ed had re'ei4ed an! treatment.J said Antonio . e=e'uti4e dire'tor of the 7(2( &ffi'e on 8rugs and Crime( Afghanistan supplies . a''ording to the sur4e!( At one fa'ilit!. ha4ing relapsed( Her "?-!ear-old daughter. an offi'ial of the 7(2(Hs drug offi'e in Kabul( +he said a #$$? sur4e! found about "(G per'ent of Afghan adults %ere opiate addi'ts( The data suggest that e4en as the 7(+( and its allies pour billions of dollars into programs to tr! to %ean the Afghan e'onom! off of drug mone!. though . %hi'h helps pa! for the Taliban insurgen'!( JThe human fa'e of AfghanistanHs drug problem is not onl! seen on the streets of .J said +hirin Lul( Then.$ per'ent of the %orldHs opium. Lul Paris. the main ingredient in heroin. %hi'h %as based on sur4e!s of about #.$ per'ent said the! %anted it. a''ording to +arah Waller.! brother-in-la% used opium( He sa% me 'r!ing and suggested I tr! it. as %ell as 'annabis and tran3uilizers. tea'hers and do'tors( B! 'omparison. said Abdul Bair Ibrahimi. /ondon or Paris( It is in the e!es of its o%n 'itizens.Afghan opiate use has doubled in ? !ears. a''ording to a stud! b! the 7(2( &ffi'e on 8rugs and Crime( The 7(2( defines addi'ts as regular users( That puts Afghanistan.os'o%. pain0illers and tran3uilizers. t%o !ears ago. a''ording to the report.( Ket almost " million Afghans R @ per'ent of the "? to >G age group R are regular drug users R addi'ted to opiates. a fe% dozen %omen and 'hildren are treated e4er! da!( The %omen %ait on 'ots to see do'tors %hile 'hildren spend the da! 'oloring. Afghanistan 6 8rug addi'ts as !oung as a month old( . #$"$ KAB7/. opium and heroin ha4e be'ome more entren'hed in the li4es of ordinar! Afghans( That 'reates !et another barrier to international efforts to 'ombat the drug trade. a nephe% 'ame to li4e at her house %ho %as a heroin addi't and she s%it'hed to the harder drug( +he %as at the treatment fa'ilit! for the se'ond time. the +an<a Ama< WomenHs Treatment Center in Kabul.aria Costa.

%hile regular heroin users more than doubled to "#$. a''ording to a 7(+( go4ernment report issued in .JI didnHt 0no% if it %as bad for me or not. the number of regular opium users <umped ?A per'ent to #A$. she said.$$$( . said 7(+( drug 'zar Lil Kerli0o%s0e. after her brother started using it again( A''ording to the 7(2( report. %earing a blue go%n and a la4ender heads'arf( +he had relapsed t%o months earlier. the deput! 7(2( en4o! in Afghanistan( ItHs un'lear if the lo%er international pri'e of opium in re'ent !ears has made dealers more li0el! to push their produ't inside Afghanistan.J the girl said.$$$ from ?$.$$$ in #$$.J Kerli0o%s0e said( JIf the! be'ome addi'ted. a''ording to 'ommunit! leaders inter4ie%ed for the stud!( The! said drug use had in'reased 4iolen'e.J said Ibrahim Azhaar. %ho toured the +an<a Ama< 'enter in Debruar!( JClearl!.ar'h( 7(+( troops 'omplain their Afghan 'ounterparts are sometimes high during militar! operations( JIt is a national traged!.$$$ in #$$?. the!Hll find %a!s to pa! for that drug(J +our'eI httpIFFne%s(!ahoo('omFsFapF#$"$$>#"FapNonNreNasFasNafghanNdrugNaddi'ts +uspe'ted Taliban terrorists (CIA assetsO) appear in an opium field( . sitting barefoot on a bed. multiplied effe't on the rest of Afghanistan. from "?$.u'h of the rise in heroin use %as in the south %here most of the opium poppies are gro%n( Bet%een "# per'ent and G" per'ent of Afghan poli'e re'ruits test positi4e for drugs at regional training 'enters. this is an e=panding addi'ti4e population here in this 'ountr!( It reall! doesnHt matter to a drug dealer that the people be'oming addi'ted are poor.J said Cobert Wat0ins. inse'urit! and theft in their areas( JIt has a de4astating effe't on so'ial de4elopment in the 'ountr!( It has a de4astating personal effe't on indi4iduals %ho are affe'ted b! this addi'tion( And it has a larger. AfghanistanHs deput! minister of 'ounternar'oti's( The in'reasing drug use has alread! had destabilizing effe'ts on 'ommunities.

/anguages of Afghanistan Apercentages are from 4+A World FactbookB ?$[ 8ari (Eastern Persian) 7zbe0 A[ Tur0men G[ Balo'hi #[ other (2uristani.[ to . Hind0i. 2uristani. Pashai. Brahui. Brahui.(#[ other (Pashai. Hind0o%ans. et'() A?[ Pashto @[ Ethni' groups of Afghanistan (largest ethni' group of ea'h distri't) A>(G[ to G#($[ Pashtun #5[ to A@($[ Ta<i0 @($[ to "$($[ Hazara >($[ to . et'() .(#[ 7zbe0 "(5 to A[ Tur0men $(?[ to G[ Balo'h $("[ to G[ Aima0 "(.

#$$" 6 first entr! into Afghanistan b! 7(+( +pe'ial &perations Dor'es 8e'ember "A.A map of Afghanistan. #$$" 6 beginning of Ameri'an %ar in Afghanistan ()&peration Enduring Dreedom*) &'tober ". but &sama bin /aden-s death remains un'onfirmed( 2AT& offi'ials reported in &'tober #$"$ that &sama bin /aden li4es in a lu=urious house in north%estern Pa0istan( . #$$" 6 Battle of Tora Bora1 &sama bin /aden is missing in a'tion 8e'ember ##. an Ameri'an prote'torate )&peration Enduring Dreedom* TimelineI &'tober 5.. #$$" 6 Hamid Karzai and his pro4isional go4ernment are installed in Afghanistan 2oteI Benazir Bhutto reported that &sama bin /aden is dead.

#$$#( The program of instru'tion is appro=imatel! "$ %ee0s long.Trainees from the "st Battalion Afghanistan 2ational Arm! are pra'ti'ing drill and 'eremon! in Kabul. Ard +pe'ial Dor'es Lroup from Dort Bragg. during %hi'h time Afghan trainees learn basi' soldier s0ills and progress to more 'omple= tas0s( The training is led b! appro=imatel! #5? 7(+( Arm! +pe'ial Dor'es soldiers from the "st Battalion.inistr! of 8efense( The purpose of this training is to establish the 'ore of the ne% Afghanistan 2ational Arm! that %ill foster a safe. 2(C( The 7(+( has pro4ided these soldiers %ith uniforms and indi4idual e3uipment( The soldiers are armed %ith AKG5s and other small arms from the . Afghanistan on ul! "?. se'ure and stable en4ironment in Afghanistan and %ill help to pre4ent the re-emergen'e of terrorist for'es( (7(+( Air Dor'e photo b! +enior Airman Bethann Hunt) (Celeased) .

eer are seen at L$ton train station in central &n"land in this +$ly G( 1332 losed irc$it 7ele%ision %ideo foota"e released by London." the s$b.orkin" for the M!EP Were the bombin" s$s0ects merely 0atsiesP (V Scotland Jard='ando$t=Re$ters= orbis) . Were the bombin" s$s0ects .han and Sheh-ad 7an.adrid. 7he death toll from the London s$b.ay and b$s bombin"s . London bombin" s$s0ects (L?R) 'asib Mir '$ssain( Germaine Lindsay( Mohammed SadiD$e . /ondon.ay (Kt$beL) bombin"s on +$ly G( 1332.s Scotland Jard on +$ly 4E( 2E 0eo0le( incl$din" the s$icide bombers.Terrorism in . Q Tur0e! &mer"ency %ehicles at R$ssell SD$are in London follo.

In4estigators inspe't the floor of a sub%a! train that %as destro!ed in a bombing atta'0 in /ondon on ul! 5, #$$?(

&ne of the sub%a! trains that %as destro!ed in the 5F5 in'ident in /ondon on ul! 5, #$$?(

The Bali Bombings in Indonesia o''urred in Kuta, Indonesia (a tourist resort on Bali island) on &'tober "#, #$$#(

An Indonesian arm! soldier in Kuta, Indonesia (lo'ated in Bali pro4in'e) stands in front of debris in &'tober #$$#( ,embers of Indonesian ,uslim terrorist organization of emaah Islami!ah atta'0ed t%o lo'al night'lubs in Kuta, Indonesia on &'tober "#, #$$# %ith a 'ar bomb1 #$# people died from the e=plosion, and o4er #$$ people %ere in<ured from the e=plosion( Another bombing in'ident o''urred outside the 7(+( Consulate in 8enpasar, Indonesia ('apital 'it! of Bali pro4in'e) on &'tober "#, #$$#1 no one %as 0illed during that in'ident( ( onathan 8ra0eFCeuters)

Policemen and amb$lance 0ersonnel stand at the front of the +W Marriot 'otel in +akarta( !ndonesia on +$ly 4G( 133F after hi"h? eA0losi%e bombs tore thro$"h the l$A$ry hotel( and another in +akarta killin" at least nine 0eo0le( incl$din" forei"ners. 7he +W Marriot 'otel ,as bombed once before on #$"$st 2( 133<( lea%in" 41 0eo0le dead and 423 0eo0le in>$red. (Getty !ma"es)

The #$$G ,adrid Train Bombings o''urred in ,adrid, +pain on ,ar'h "", #$$G1 ";" people %ere 0illed that da!(

7he #$stralian fla" from the #$stralian &mbassy flies in front of a b$ildin" that ,as badly dama"ed in a bomb attack in +akarta( !ndonesia on Se0tember F( 133C. # bomb blast o$tside the #$stralian &mbassy killed $0 to siA 0eo0le. (D#D#6G 7R!=Re$ters= orbis)

Police forensic eA0erts eAamine the scene after an eA0losion at G$n"oren district in !stanb$l( 7$rkey on +$ly 1G( 133B. #t least 4G 0eo0le died in this attack. (7ol"a Bo-o"l$=e0a= orbis)

# man mo$rns (L) as 0eo0le sift thro$"h the debris after a bomb eA0loded at a syna"o"$e in !stanb$l( 7$rkey on 6o%ember 42( 133<. #t least 1G 0eo0le died in this attack. ('URR!J&7=Re$ters= orbis)

7he destroyed 'SB Bank B$ildin" and its s$rro$ndin" area are seen after t,in eA0losions occ$rred in !stanb$l( 7$rkey on 6o%ember 13( 133<. ('$rriet=Strin"er=Re$ters= orbis)

# street lam0 li"hts a blo,n $0 taAi as it lies in a side alley o$tside the British ons$late in !stanb$l( 7$rkey on 6o%ember 13( 133<. 7,in bomb attacks in !stanb$l tar"eted the British ons$late and the local headD$arters of 'SB ( a London?based "lobal bank( killin" at least 1E 0eo0le and in>$rin" h$ndreds. (Dylan Martine-=Re$ters= orbis)

military to in%ade !raD March F( 133E5 President Geor"e W.orked for M!2( a British intelli"ence a"ency( before ser%in" as Prime Minister of Great Britain.s conference in London on 6o%ember 13( 133<. ons$late in !stanb$l attack siA dead (incl$din" < "$nmen) +$ly 1G( 133B W !stanb$l Bombin"s( 4G dead( 42C in>$red 7errorist !ncidents in !ndonesia5 )ctober 41( 1331 W Bali bombin"( 131 dead( 1C3 in>$red #$"$st 2( 133< W +W Marriot 'otel in +akarta( 41 dead( 423 in>$red Se0tember F( 133C W #$stralian &mbassy bombin" in +akarta( F dead( 423 in>$red )ctober 4( 1332 W Bali bombin"( 13 dead +$ly 4G( 133F W +W Marriot 'otel in +akarta( F dead Global War on 7errorism 7imeline5 )ctober 1E( 13345 President Geor"e W. 7ony Blair re0ortedly .U. B$sh si"ns the 6o hild Left Behind #ct )ctober 4E( 13315 President Geor"e W. Geor"e W. B$sh si"ns the US# P#7R!)7 !m0ro%ement and Rea$thori-ation #ct .s Prime Minister 7ony Blair shake hands after holdin" a >oint ne.S. President Geor"e W. B$sh is a member of Sk$ll I Bones( a secret society at Jale Uni%ersity. B$sh si"ns the US# P#7R!)7 #ct +an$ary B( 13315 President Geor"e W.S. B$sh (left) and Britain. (Peter MacDiarmid=Re$ters= orbis) 7errorist !ncidents in 7$rkey5 March 4<?4C( 4FFF W !stanb$l Bombin"s( 4< dead( 1 in>$red 6o%ember 42( 133< W !stanb$l Syna"o"$e Bombin"s (7r$ck Bombs)( 1G dead( <33 in>$red 6o%ember 13( 133< W British ons$late Bombin" in !stanb$l( <3 dead( C33 in>$red May 11( 133G W #nkara Bombin"( E deaths( 414 in>$red +$ly F( 133B W U. B$sh orders the U.S. B$sh si"ns the +oint Resol$tion to #$thori-e the Use of United States #rmed *orces #"ainst !raD 6o%ember 12( 13315 President Geor"e W. B$sh si"ns the 'omeland Sec$rity #ct of 1331 March 11( 133<5 President Geor"e W.

(#P Photo) Ma>or 6idal Malik 'asan( the in%ol%ed in the massacreP (Re$ters) .hich an #rmy 0sychiatrist trained to treat .S. (Re$ters) Ri"ht 0hoto5 Soldiers from the <rd #rmored a%alry Re"iment 0lan o$t their co$rse of action at *ort 'ood( 7eAas in front of the Soldier Resiliency enter as they try to locate U.S. 7he U. 7he s$s0ected "$nman( U. #rmy 0ost in *ort 'ood( $nconscio$s b$t in stable condition( altho$"h he .aist do. #rmy Ma>or 6idal Malik 'asan( a M$slim born in the United States of immi"rant 0arents( . #rmy doctor identified by a$thorities as the s$s0ect in a mass shootin" at the re0ortedly 0araly-ed from the . enforcement officers r$n to.hile shot fo$r times by 0olice( a base s0okesman said8 he .ar . !n%esti"ators searched for the moti%e on *riday behind a mass shootin" at *ort 'ood army 0ost( in .ard the so$nd of the "$n.ith m$rder. Was 'asan a Klone "$nmanLP Was 'asan a 0atsyP Was there more than one shooter that .S.Left 0hoto5 Bystanders cro$ch for co%er as shots ran" o$t from the Soldier Readiness Processin" enter at *ort 'ood( 7eAas on 6o%ember 2( 133F( .S.n.ho alle"edly shot and killed 4< 0eo0le on 6o%ember 2( 133F.o$nded is s$s0ected of killin" 4< 0eo0le. #rmy Ma>or 6idal Malik 'asan( . #rmy char"ed 'asan .

Assistant Attorne! Leneral for 2ational +e'urit! 8a4id Kris. +e'retar! of the 8epartment of Homeland +e'urit! anet 2apolitano. and 7(+( Attorne! for the +outhern 8istri't of 2e% Kor0 Preet Bharara( (Lett! Images) .7(+( Attorne! Leneral Eri' Holder holds a press 'onferen'e at 8epartment of usti'e head3uarters regarding the in4estigation into the re'ent attempted Times +3uare 'ar bombing . #$"$ in Washington. 8eput! 8ire'tor of the DBI ohn +( Pistole.a! G. 8C( Daisal +hahzad. a naturalized 7(+( 'itizen from Pa0istan %as arrested in 'onne'tion %ith the 'ase %hile on board a flight lea4ing the 'ountr! last night( oining Holder (/-C) are 7(+( Attorne! for the 8istri't of Conne'ti'ut 2ora C( 8anneh!. A$. 2e% Kor0 Cit! Poli'e Commissioner Ca!mond Kell!.

#$"$. . #$"$( Pa0istani offi'ials sa! 7(+( la% enfor'ement offi'ers ha4e <oined them in 3uestioning four alleged members of an al-. the suspe't a''used of the failed Times +3uare 'ar bombing in 2e% Kor0 Cit! on .a! #. sho%s the 2issan Pathfinder used in the attempted atta'0 on Times +3uare in 2e% Kor0 Cit! passing through Times +3uare earl! on +aturda! e4ening. Pa0istan on .a! ".a! >.aida-lin0ed militant group o4er possible lin0s to the Times +3uare bombing suspe't( Is Daisal +hahzad another CIA-trained )pats!*O (AP Photo) . #$"$.a! ". . in Kara'hi.This still photo from a sur4eillan'e 'amera released b! the 2e% Kor0 Cit! Poli'e 8epartment on +unda!. #$"$( (AP Photo) +upporters of the !outh %ing of the Pa0istani religious part! amat-e-Islami rall! to support Daisal +hahzad.

s?and?0olitics=1CBF2=her-liya?diary= . Meir Da"an is the c$rrent head of the Mossad( !srael/s s0y a"ency. (Jaako% Saar=GP)=Getty !ma"es) htt05==.and Martin !ndyk are members of the o$ncil on *orei"n Relations8 Martin !ndyk is a nat$rali-ed #merican citi-en. *rom left to ri"ht( Da%id !%ry( !sraeli #mbassador to the United States8 Pa$l D.. Wolfo.tabletma". Secretary of Defense8 and Martin !ndyk( U. Pa$l D.. #mbassador to !srael( 0ose for a "ro$0 0hoto at the Penta"on near Washin"ton( Q WAC &2 TECC&CI+..ECICA. (Photo5 Robert D. Ward=U. .ith Prime Minister of !srael #riel Sharon (center) and o$t"oin" Mossad chief &0hraim 'ale%y on )ctober <3( 1331. Wolfo. De0artment of Defense) Meir Da"an (left) celebrates his a00ointment as Mossad chief .S. R$msfeld( U. De0$ty Secretary of Defense8 #riel Sharon( Prime Minister of !srael8 Donald '. on March 4F( 1334.

ith !sraeli Defense Minister Lt. Gen. Do$"las *eith sits to the ri"ht of Mofa-.(left) meets .n to formal disc$ssions in the Penta"on on )ctober 11( 1334. Peter W. Rodman sits neAt to Do% Hakheim.(ri"ht fore"ro$nd) at the Penta"on on +an$ary 4B( 1331. . Sha$l Mofa. Do% Hakheim sits across from *eith. De0$ty Defense Secretary Pa$l Wolfo.Secretary of Defense Donald R$msfeld and !sraeli De0$ty Prime Minister Shimon Peres share some 0ri%ate tho$"hts before sittin"

.*ormer Prime Minister of !srael Ben>amin 6etanyah$( flanked by sec$rity "$ards( s0eaks at a rally for solidarity . on #0ril 42( 1331.( U. B$sh on May G( 1331. )r"ani-ers said that more than 433(333 0eo0le attended the e%ent( makin" it the bi""est rally e%er in s$00ort of !srael. on May E( 1331.S.ard from #DL 6ational Director #braham *oAman in Washin"ton( D.#. (Photo5 Ron #"am=Getty !ma"es) #riel Sharon (ri"ht)( the Prime Minister of !srael( recei%es the #nti?Defamation Lea"$e.ith !srael on a0itol 'ill in Washin"ton( D. #riel Sharon met . (Photo by Stefan Haklin=Getty !ma"es) . #braham *oAman is a member of the o$ncil on *orei"n Relations.S.s Distin"$ished Statesman #.ith U. . President Geor"e W.

on Se0tember 4C( 1334. B$sh shake hands .ith his father and former President Geor"e '.+K7// Q B&2E+ A28 THE WAC &2 TECC&CI+. . Barbara B$sh .W. B$sh at the 6ational athedral in Washin"ton D.atches her son President Geor"e W. . *ormer President Bill linton is seen on the far ri"ht.

S.S. on #0ril 1B( 133F.erry( the Senate *orei"n Relations ommittee chairman( talks .U. . Strate"y 7o.ith former Secretary of State +ames #. 'olbrooke testified on the to0ic of XU.ers in the 14st cent$ry in Washin"ton( D. on May 41( 133F. +ohn . (Getty !ma"es) .X +ohn . .ard Pakistan. (#P Photo) Richard 'olbrooke ( )( s0ecial re0resentati%e for #f"hanistan and Pakistan( "reets 0o.erry (left) 0rior to testifyin" before the Senate *orei"n Relations ommittee in Washin"ton( D.erry is a member of Sk$ll I Bones at Jale Uni%ersity. Senator +ohn . Baker !!! (left) before a Senate *orei"n Relations ommittee hearin" on .

(Getty !ma"es) . . Left to ri"ht5 Dennis Blair( :ice President +oe Biden( Da%id Boren( Barack )bama( h$ck 'a"el( and Rahm &man$el. Da%id Boren is a member of Sk$ll I Bones at Jale Uni%ersity. Senators h$ck 'a"el (R?6&) (<rd R) and Da%id Boren (<rd L) co?chairmen of the President/s !ntelli"ence #d%isory Board in the abinet Room of the White 'o$se in Washin"ton( D. (#P Photo) hairman of President Barack )bama names former U. 'a"el and Boren are members of the o$ncil on *orei"n Relations.S.erry( the Senate *orei"n Relations ommittee( on May G( 133F( before a l$ncheon on a0itol 'ill in Washin"ton( D. Senator +ohn . entral ommand( shakes hands . . Blair and Boren are Rhodes Scholars. on )ctober 1B( 133F. #rmy Gen. 7he board re0orts directly to the 0resident as an inde0endent so$rce of ad%ice on intelli"ence matters incl$din" the D$ality and D$antity of intelli"ence acti%ities and the effecti%eness of or"ani-ation str$ct$re( mana"ement and 0ersonnel.S.S.ith U. Da%id Petrae$s (left)( ommander of the U.U.S.

com=.S.latimes. President Barack )bama and former U.W. B$sh "reet one another at the Points of Li"ht for$m at 7eAas #IM Uni%ersity in olle"e Station( 7eAas on )ctober 4E( 133F.erry a00la$ds. President Geor"e '. Senator +ohn .S.ashin"ton=military=) .S. (Photo5 htt05==latimesblo"s.U. (Re$ters) Barack )bama deli%ers a s0eech as U.

.htm) Ri"ht 0hoto5 #f"hanistan/s President 'amid ...a-akhstan on +$ne C( 1331.Global War on 7errorism I !nternational Di0lomacy( Part 45 'amid .ar-ai (L) shakes hands .ith #f"hanistan/s leader 'amid . @$een BeatriA of the 6etherlands is a re"$lar 0artici0ant at the eAcl$si%e Bilderber" Meetin" I #f"hanistan #f"hanistan/s 0resident 'amid . (Photo5 at the Re"ional Sec$rity S$mmit in .ar-ai "reets Red hina/s ommissar '$ +intao.s.ith @$een BeatriA of the 6etherlands in 0alace '$is ten Bosch in 7he 'a"$e( d$rin" a United 6ations international conference on #f"hanistan( on March <4( (Getty !ma"es) Left 0hoto5 R$ssia/s President :ladimir P$tin Meets ..se0tember44ne.

#$"$( Karzai %as in /ondon to attend a 'onferen'e on the future of Afghanistan to be held the ne=t da!( (Andre% WinningFCeuters) .Prince harles( Prince of Wales "reets #f"hanistan/s President 'amid .ar-ai as he arri%es for dinner at larence 'o$se in London on +an$ary <4( 133E. (Pool Photo"ra0h= orbis) Britain-s Prime .inister Lordon Bro%n (left) %el'omes AfghanistanHs President Hamid Karzai to "$ 8o%ning +treet in /ondon on anuar! #5.

#f"hanistan/s President 'amid .ar-ai "reets 6#7) Secretary General +aa0 de 'oo0 Scheffer( and United 6ations Secretary General Ban . . (Re$ters) #f"hanistan/s President 'amid .ar-ai (left) "reets British Prime Minister 7ony Blair.i? Moon at the 6#7) S$mmit in B$charest( Romania on March C( 133B.

!ran and #f"hanistan ha%e obser%er stat$s in S )( . !ranian President Mahmo$d #hmadine>ad iss$ed a scathin" attack on 6#7)( sayin" the Western alliance .a-akhstan( .R$ssia/s President Dmitry Med%ede% (R) shakes hands .hich .ith #f"hanistan/s President 'amid . #hmadine>ad made the remarks at a s$mmit of the Shan"hai oo0eration )r"anisation (S ))( a re"ional "ro$0in" consistin" of R$ssia( hina( .ei"ht to 6#7) in the strate"ic entral #sian re" fo$nded in 1334 as a co$ (L)( hairman of the !nterim #dministration of #f"hanistan( %isit an eAhibition of #f"hani art in Paris on *ebr$ary 1B( failin" to brin" sec$rity to #f"hanistan and fannin" tension .ar-ai (L) d$rin" their bilateral meetin" in D$shanbe on #$"$st 1B( 133B.ith its eA0ansion dri%e. (#*P=Getty !ma"es) *rench President +acD$es hirac (R) and 'amid . (+acD$es Lan"e%in=Sy"ma= orbis) .yr"y-stan( 7a>ikistan and U-bekistan.

ab$l( #f"hanistan( on December G( 133C. #ir *orce Master Ser"eant +ames M.ho once ser%ed as hairman and &) of 'allib$rton( and #f"hanistan/s President 'amid . (Photo by U.:ice President Richard B. Bo.S.S. KDickL heney (left)( . (#P Photo=:ahid Salemi) .ar-ai (left)( !ran/s President Mahmo$d #hmadine>ad (center)( and Pakistan/s President #sif #li Hardari smile for the cameras d$rin" a s$mmit in 7ehran( !ran on S$nday( May 1C( 133F. De0artment of Defense) #f"hanistan/s President 'amid .man( shake hands after a 0ress conference at the Presidential Palace in .

ar-ai (left) meets .ar-ai( President of the !slamic State of #f"hanistan( at the State De0artment on May 1<( 1332.ith 'amid . (6#7) Photo) Secretary of State ondolee--a Rice shakes hands .ith 6#7) Secretary General +aa0 de 'oo0 Scheffer at a 6#7) meetin" in !stanb$l( 7$rkey on +$ne 1F( 133C. (Michael Gross( State De0artment) .#f"hanistan/s President 'amid .

ar-ai (R) listens as &U *orei"n Policy chief +a%ier Solana talks at the Presidential Palace in .ab$l( #f"hanistan on December 1<( 133G.!taly/s Prime Minister Romano Prodi shakes hands . (&ttore *errari =&P#= orbis) #f"hanistan/s President 'amid .ab$l( #f"hanistan on +$ly 14( 133F.ith the #f"han President 'amid . (Re$ters) . Prodi arri%ed in .ab$l to meet .ar-ai and !talian at the Presidential 0alace in .

Senator +ack Reed and Senator h$ck 'a"el are sittin" on the left side.ith Democratic Party 0residential contender Barack )bama (third from left) d$rin" a meetin" at 7he Presidential Palace in .World Bank President +ames (third from ri"ht) talks . .ab$l( #f"hanistan on +$ly 13( 133B. on +an$ary 1B( (left) at the World Bank headD$arters in Washin"ton( D. Wolfensohn embraces #f"hanistan/s President 'amid .=#*P=Getty !ma"es) #f"han President 'amid .n 7he. +ack Reed and h$ck 'a"el are members of the o$ncil on *orei"n Relations. (#*P=Getty !ma"es) . (Sha.

ar-ai.ith United 6ations Secretary?General .S.S.hatami. Secretary of Defense Robert Gates (ri"ht) d$rin" a %ideo teleconference . . Ri"ht 0hoto5 President Geor"e W.ofi #nnan.ith U.halil-ad( an #f"hanistan?born #merican di0lomat and a member of the o$ncil on *orei"n "reets U. (White 'o$se 0hoto by &ric Dra0er) Left 0hoto5 #f"hanistan/s President 'amid . B$sh is >oined by President 'amid .ar-ai %isits !ran/s r$ler Mohammed .ar-ai of #f"hanistan (left) and U.S. Ri"ht 0hoto5 #f"hanistan/s President 'amid . Pro%incial Reconstr$ction team leaders( 6ational G$ard #"ric$lt$re De%elo0ment team re0resentati%es and #f"han "o%ernors in the Roose%elt Room at the White 'o$se on Se0tember 1E( 133B. #mbassador to #f"hanistan Halmay .Left 0hoto5 Senator 'illary linton "reets President of #f"hanistan 'amid .ar-ai meets . #f"hanistan/s President 'amid .

ar-ai at a 6#7) meetin" in !stanb$l( 7$rkey on +$ne 1F( the President of #f"hanistan. +ones( the S$0reme #llied ommander of &$ro0e( shakes hands . (6#7) Photo) o$ncil on *orei"n Relations hairman Peter G. 'aass (ri"ht) talk to 'amid . Peterson (left) and o$ncil on *orei"n Relations President Richard 6.General +ames L. 7his 0hoto a00ears in the 133C o$ncil on *orei"n Relations #nn$al Re0ort. .ith President of #f"hanistan 'amid .

ab$l( #f"hanistan on +an$ary 4E( 133G. (6#7) Photo) Left 0hoto5 Senators +ohn Mc ain and Bill *rist "i%e an a.Secretary of State olin Po. .ith #f"hanistan/s President 'amid .atches Secretary of Defense Donald R$msfeld (left) "reet #f"hanistan/s President 'amid .ar-ai in .ar-ai in Washin"ton D. on *ebr$ary 1G( 133<. Ri"ht 0hoto5 Defense Secretary Robert Gates meets . .ell (center) .ard to 'amid .ar-ai at a 6#7) meetin" in !stanb$l( 7$rkey on +$ne 1F( 133C.

Jork ity on Se0tember 4<( 0$blished on the back co%er of the 1331 o$ncil on *orei"n Relations #nn$al Re0ort. 7his 0hoto .atches #f"hanistan/s President 'amid .S. Senator Geor"e Mitchell . . (Photo by S0encer Platt=Getty !ma"es) o$ncil on Da%id Rockefeller( the honorary hairman of the o$ncil on *orei"n Relations( "reets #f"hanistan/s President 'amid .ar-ai (left) deli%er a s0eech at the *orei"n Relations in*ormer U.

ith U.S. (Re$ters) #f"hanistan/s President 'amid . President Barack )bama (second from ri"ht) s0eaks in the Grand *oyer of the White 'o$se as he is flanked by (from left to ri"ht) U. on May G( 133F.S. :ice President +oe Biden( #f"hanistan/s President 'amid .U. Senator +ohn . (#P Photo) . .ar-ai( left talks . on May E( 133F. S0ecial Re0resentati%e for #f"hanistan and Pakistan( Richard 'olbrooke( before their l$nch on a0itol 'ill in Washin"ton( and Pakistan/s President #sif #li Hardari after their meetin" in Washin"ton( D.ith U.erry (D?Massach$setts)( as Pakistan/s President #sif #li Hardari( second from ri"ht( talks . .S." U.s President #sif #li Hadari before U. (Re$ters) . Secretary of State 'illary linton ( ) s0eaks alon"side #f"han President 'amid .o?day conference re%ie.S. entral ommand( arri%e for a conference at .ab$l( #f"hanistan on #0ril 44( 1343. Richard 'olbrooke and Da%id Petrae$s are members of the o$ncil on *orei"n Relations. (Photo by Win Mc6amee=Getty !ma"es) #f"han President 'amid .S.U. on May E( (L) and Pakistan.S. S0ecial Re0resentati%e for #f"hanistan and Pakistan Richard 'olbrooke (L)( and ( )( U. ci%ilian and military in%ol%ement in #f"hanistan for the comin" year.?#f"hanistan?Pakistan trilateral cons$ltations at the State De0artment in Washin"ton( D.ab$l !nternational #ir0ort in .S. . #rmy General Da%id Petrae$s (R)( ommander of U. 'olbrooke and Petrae$s attended a t.

on the r$n?off election by defa$lt .S.hen his o00onent boycotted the r$n?off d$rin" a 0ress conference in .ar-ai .erry( that 0layed a ma>or role in 0ers$adin" President .ab$l( #f"hanistan on )ctober 13( 133F. +ohn .erry is a member of Sk$ll I Bones at Jale Uni%ersity. (#P Photo) .erry (left) shares a li"ht moment .as re0orted to be a dr$" dealer .ho is on the !# 0ayroll. 'amid . Senator +ohn .U.ab$l( incl$din" .ar-ai to a"ree to a r$n?off election after the United 6ations stri00ed the #f"han leader of one?third of his %otes( citin" fra$ .ar-ai/s half?brother Wali . 'amid . 7he White 'o$se has hi"h 0raise for the #merican team in .ith #f"hanistan/s President 'amid .

M$sharraf (left) . 7his 0hoto .Global War on 7errorism I !nternational Di0lomacy( Part 15 0$blished in the 133G o$ncil on *orei"n Relations #nn$al Re0ort. Jork ityN( and o$ncil on *orei"n Relations %ice chairman Robert &. Secretary of State 'enry . 'enry . Peterson (center)( a former hairman and &) of Lehman Brothers Minternational bank in 6e. R$bin (ri"ht)( a former hairman of Goldman Sachs Minternational bank in 6e.ith o$ncil on *orei"n Relations chairman Peter G. .it-erland on +an$ary 1C( 133B.M$sharraf (left) meets .issin"er before a >oint session of the World &conomic *or$m (W&*) in Da%os( S.s President Per%e. (Re$ters) Pakistan/s President Per%e.M$sharraf I Pakistan Pakistan.S. Jork ityN.elcomes former U.issin"er is a member of the o$ncil on *orei"n Relations( a member of the 7rilateral ommission( and a re"$lar Bilderber" Meetin"s 0artici0ant.

Jork ity on Se0tember 13( 133E. 7rade Re0resentati%e arla #. Jork ity on Se0tember 13( 133E.?Pakistan B$siness o$ncil) *ormer 6ational Sec$rity #d%isor Brent taken at 7he Roose%elt 'otel in 6e.?Pakistan B$siness o$ncil) *ormer U. 7his 0hoto .S. (U. Madeleine #lbri"ht is a member of the o$ncil on *orei"n Relations. (U.M$sharraf. Jork ity on Se0tember 13( 133E. 7his 0hoto .?Pakistan B$siness o$ncil) . Secretary of State Madeleine #lbri"ht shakes hands . 'ills stands beside Pakistan/s President Per%e.S.M$sharraf.croft shakes hands .S.M$sharraf.ith Pakistan/s President taken at 7he Roose%elt 'otel in 6e. arla #.S. Brent Sco.*ormer U.S.ith Pakistan/s President Per%e. 'ills is a member of the o$ncil on *orei"n Relations and a member of the 7rilateral ommission. 7his 0hoto .croft is a member of the o$ncil on *orei"n Relations. ( taken at 7he Roose%elt 'otel in 6e.

M$sharraf ahead of a s0rin" offensi%e a"ainst the 7aliban. Robert Gates held talks . (#*P=Getty !ma"es) .M$sharraf in !slamabad( Pakistan on *ebr$ary 1E( 133G.S. (#*P=Getty !ma"es) :ice President Dick heney "reets Pakistan/s President Per%e. Robert Gates is a member of the o$ncil on *orei"n Relations.ith Per%e.M$sharraf (left) shakes hands .al0indi( Pakistan on *ebr$ary 41( 133G.ith U. Jork ity. Secretary of Defense Robert Gates at #rmy 'o$se in Ra.Pakistan/s President Per%e. Dick heney is a member of the o$ncil on *orei"n Relations( an internationalist or"ani-ation in 6e.

M$sharraf at the Presidential Palace in !slamabad( Pakistan on +$ne 1G( 133E. ondolee--a Rice is a member of the o$ncil on *orei"n Relations. Senators h$ck 'a"el( +ohn .ith treason. h$ck 'a"el and +ohn .as killed in Pakistan on May 1( 1344.ith Per%e.erry are members of the o$ncil on *orei"n Relations. M$sharraf is c$rrently li%in" in eAile in Great Britain8 the c$rrent Pakistani "o%ernment has char"ed M$sharraf .S. #rab terrorist and former !# a"ent )sama bin Laden . Secretary of State ondolee--a Rice meets .M$sharraf (ri"ht)( the President of Pakistan( in Ra.ith Pakistan/s President Per%e.S. Per%e.al0indi( Pakistan on *ebr$ary 4F( 133B. (State De0artment 0hoto by +osie D$ckett) Left to ri"ht5 U. (#*P=Getty !ma"es) .M$sharraf ser%ed as President of Pakistan from 13 +$ne 1334 to 4B #$"$st 133B and hief of #rmy Staff of the Pakistani military from E )ctober 4FFB to 1B 6o%ember 133G.erry( and +ose0h Biden meet .U.

'e .elcomes Pakistan/s President General Per%e.ith Pakistan/s President recei%ed in a$dience by @$een BeatriA follo. (Photo by hris +ackson=Getty !ma"es) .M$sharraf( at the Presidency on day t.eek?lon" to$r of the co$ntry on )ctober 1F( 133E in !slamabad( Pakistan.o of a .M$sharraf at 7he 'a"$e( 6etherlands on Se0tember 1G( 133C.ith De0$ty Prime Minister Halm and Minister Bot of *orei"n #ffairs. (Photo by Michel Porro=Getty !ma"es) Prince harles( the Prince of Wales( meets .@$een BeatriA of the 6etherlands .ed by a l$nch meetin" .

s President General Per%e.ith @$een Sofia of S0ain d$rin" a dinner at the Royal Palace in Madrid( S0ain on #0ril 1C( 133G. (Getty !ma"es) Pakistan/s President Gen.M$sharraf( @$een Sofia of S0ain( Saheba M$sharraf and . (#P Photo) .Left to ri"ht5 Prince *eli0e of S0ain( Pakistan. @$een Sofia of S0ain is a re"$lar Bilderber" Meetin"s 0artici0ant.o nations." +$an arlos of S0ain 0ose at 7he )rient Palace in Madrid( S0ain on 1C #0ril 133G.een the leaders of the t.M$sharraf (left) talks . Pakistan and S0ain a"reed to ste0 $0 their coo0eration a"ainst terrorism and h$man traffickin" d$rin" talks in Madrid bet.

General Pervez Musharraf. (Photo by Sang Tan/Pool/Getty Images) The President of Pakistan. Pakistan on his way to Communist China. heD$ers is the co$ntry residence of the British Prime Minister. Arafat called on Musharraf during a three-hour stopover in Islamabad.M$sharraf at heD$ers on Se0tember 1B( 133E near Princes Risboro$"h( &n"land. 2001. (Photo by PPO/Getty Images) . (L) greets Palestine Liberation Organization terrorist Yasser Arafat at the presidential palace in Islamabad.British Prime Minister 7ony Blair (R) meets Pakistan/s President Per%e. 7he t. Pakistan on August 23.o leaders are holdin" talks relatin" to terrorism and the c$rrent sit$ation in #f"hanistan.

following last week's murders of three Chinese engineers in his country. Communist China.M$sharraf after a si"nin" ceremony in the Great 'all of the Peo0le on *ebr$ary 13( 133E in Bei>in"( omm$nist hina.Communist China’s President Hu Jintao (L) accompanies Pakistan’s President Pervez Musharraf to view an honor guard during a welcoming ceremony in the Great Hall of the People on February 20.ere tryin" to h$rt bilateral relations( follo. Musharraf told Communist China's leaders here that terrorists in his country were trying to hurt bilateral relations. (Photo by Guang Niu/Getty Images) omm$nist hina/s President '$ +intao (ri"ht) toasts . 2006 in Beijing.s m$rders of three hinese en"ineers in Pakistan.eek.ith Pakistan/s President Per%e. M$sharraf told Red" last .s leaders here that terrorists in his co$ntry . (Photo by G$an" 6i$=Getty !ma"es) .

M$sharraf at the &lysee Palace in Paris before a l$nch on December B( 133C.):#R!.=#*P=Getty !ma"es) !ran/s r$ler Mohammed . (P#7R! .*rench President +acD$es hirac (L) . .hatami (left) and Pakistan/s r$ler Per%e.elcomes Pakistani/s President Per%e.M$sharraf smile for the camera. .

2005 in New York.M$sharraf at the 'arold Pratt 'o$se in 6e.The President of Pakistan General Pervez Musharraf (L) shakes hands with the Secretary General of the UN Kofi Annan (R) on September 15. .ith President of Pakistan Per%e. Jork ity. World leaders gathered for the second day of the summit marking the 60th anniversary of the United Nations. (Photo by Daniel Berehulak/Getty Images) Richard 'olbrooke (left) a00ears .

s forei"n minister said.M$sharraf (R) shakes hands .M$sharraf (ri"ht) shakes hands .ith !ran/s President Mahmo$d #hmadine>ad as they stand before a 0ortrait of Pakistan. (Re$ters) .s fo$nder Mohammed #li +innah( in !slamabad( Pakistan on #0ril 1B( 133B. !ran and Pakistan a"reed they had settled all iss$es relatin" to 0lans for a QG.ith !ran/s President Mahmo$d #hmadine>ad $0on his arri%al in !slamabad( Paksitan on #0ril 1B( 133B.Pakistan/s President Per%e. (Photo5 !ran Daily) Pakistan.E billion "as 0i0eline d$rin" a %isit to !slamabad on Monday by #hmadine>ad( Pakistan.s President Per%e.

World leaders $nited to demand a "lobal ban on incitement to terrorism b$t they fell short of ambitions for a f$ndamental reform of the United 6ations at a s$mmit on its E3th anni%ersary. Jork ity on Se0tember 4C( 1332.M$sharraf (left) shakes hands .S.M$sharraf.ith MeAico/s President :icente *oA d$rin" a l$ncheon at the 1332 World S$mmit and E3th General #ssembly of the United 6ations in 6e.U. Secretary of Defense Donald R$msfeld (left) %isits President of Pakistan Per%e.S. Per%e. (L#RRJ D)W6!6G=Re$ters= orbis) . (Photo5 U. De0artment of Defense) Pakistan/s President Gen.

(#*P=Getty !ma"es) !ran/s President Mahmo$d #hmadine>ad (R) la$"hs d$rin" a meetin" .remlin chief since World War !!.s office in 7ehran( !ran on )ctober 4E( 133G. P$tin today .hamenei (ri"ht) meets .ith R$ssia/s President :ladimir P$tin (L) at the 0resident. P$tin( attendin" a s$mmit meetin" of as0ian Sea states( arri%ed in the !ranian ca0ital amid hea%y sec$rity and secrecy o%er his tra%el 0lans after re0orts that a sD$ad of s$icide bombers 0lanned to kill him.arned a"ainst military action on !ran and backed its ri"ht to n$clear ener"y d$rin" the first %isit to the co$ntry by a .ith R$ssia/s President :ladimir P$tin (center) and !ran/s President Mahmo$d #hmadine>ad (left) in 7ehran( !ran on )ctober 4E( 133G. P$tin .arned a"ainst military action on !ran and backed its ri"ht to n$clear ener"y( d$rin" the first %isit to the co$ntry by a .remlin chief since World War !!.Global War on 7errorism I !nternational Di0lomacy( Part <5 Mahmo$d #hmadine>ad I !ran !ran. (#*P=Getty !ma"es) .s s$0reme leader #yatollah #li .

nytimes...ith President 'amid . Jork 7imes( htt05==.:isitin" !ranian President Mahmo$d #hmadine>ad (1?R) and #f"han President 'amid .ar-ai (<?L) ins0ect a "$ard of honor 0rior to their meetin" at the Presidential 0alace in .L President Geor"e W. X! do$bt serio$sly if there is any tr$th in it(X #hmadine>ad said at a 0ress conference .ab$l( #f"hanistan on 4C #$"$st 133G.S.orld=middleeast=42di0lo.oon=&$ro0ean Press0hoto #"ency) (So$rce5 6e.ab$l. #hmadine>ad re>ected on 4C #$"$st U. and British claims that !ranian .htmlPRrT4IorefTslo"in) .ith #f"han President 'amid ..ea0ons are bein" s$00lied to 7aliban ins$r"ents fi"htin" the #f"han "o%ernment. Where #hmadine>ad called #f"hanistan Ka brotherly nei"hbor. (#*P=Getty !ma"es) President Mahmo$d #hmadine>ad of !ran( left( meetin" . (Syed +an Saba. B$sh has acc$sed !ran of destabili-in" #f" of #f"hanistan in in .ab$l( #f"hanistan on #$"$st 4C( 133G.

(Getty !ma"es) :isitin" !ranian President Mahmo$d #hmadine>ad (L) shakes hands .ar-ai in . #hmadine>ad re>ected on 4C #$"$st US and British claims that !ranian .ith #f"han President 'amid .ith #f"han President 'amid .ab$l( #f"hanistan on #$"$st 4C( 133G. #hmadine>ad re>ected on 4C #$"$st US and British claims that !ranian .ab$l.ab$l( 4C #$"$st 133G. (#*P=Getty !ma"es) .ar-ai in .ab$ (R) and %isitin" !ranian President Mahmo$d #hmadine>ad (L) lea%e at the end of a 0ress conference at the Presidential 0alace in .ea0ons are bein" s$00lied to 7aliban ins$r"ents fi"htin" the #f"han "o%ernment.een the t.#f"han President 'amid . X! do$bt serio$sly if there is any tr$th in it(X #hmadine>ad said at a 0ress conference .ar-ai (R) after si"nin" a Memoramdom of $nderstandin" on m$t$al co$0eration bet.ith #f"han President 'amid . X! do$bt serio$sly if there is any tr$th in it(X #hmadine>ad said at a 0ress conference .ea0ons are bein" s$00lied to 7aliban ins$r"ents fi"htin" the #f"han "o%ernment.o co$ntries befor a 0ress conference at the Presidential 0alace in .

#hmadine>ad be"an a historic %isit to !raD today ?? the first e%er by an !ranian 0resident ?? ho0in" to boost ties .s President )ffice sho. (#*P=Getty !ma"es) !raDi President +alal 7alabani (R) shakes hands .ith !ranian President Mahmo$d #hmadine>ad $0on his arri%al in Ba"hdad( !raD on March 1( 133B.o nei"hbors fo$"ht a bitter ei"ht?year .s !ran/s President Mahmo$d #hmadine>ad ( ?R) re%ie. (Re$ters) .# hando$t 0ict$re from !raD.hich 7ehran fo$"ht a bitter ei"ht?year .s residency in Ba"hdad on March 1( in the 4FB3s that killed a million 0eo0le.ith .ith Ba"hdad . #hmadine>ad arri%ed in Ba"hdad on S$nday( the first !ranian 0resident to %isit !raD since the" an !raDi hono$r "$ard d$rin" a .elcomin" ceremony alon"side his !raD/s President +alal 7alabani (front L) at the latter.

ith !raD/s Prime Minister 6$ri al?Maliki at the latter. (#*P=Getty !ma"es) (L?R) !ran/s r$ler Mahmo$d #hmadine>ad( his :ene-$ela/s r$ler '$"o ha%e.and Sa$di .!ran/s President Mahmo$d #hmadine>ad (L) shakes hands . leaders from )P& oil?eA0ortin" co$ntries for only the third "atherin" of heads of state in the or" office in the hea%ily fortified Green Hone in Ba"hdad( !raD on March 1( 133B. dollar and attem0ts to "i%e a 0olitical im0et$s to the oil?eA0ortin" cartel.s CG?year history.hich 7ehran fo$"ht a bitter ei"ht?year . #hmadine>ad be"an a historic %isit to !raD today ?? the first e%er by an !ranian 0resident ?? ho0in" to boost ties .a%e as they stand neAt to !raD/s President +alal 7alabani 0rior to the start of the )P& s$mmit in Riyadh( 4G 6o%ember 133G.ith .S.ith the or"ani-ation di%ided o%er the fallin"$d .ith Ba"hdad .s President '$"o ha%e.took the 0odi$m for the o0enin" as he >oined" #bd$llah bin #bd$l #-i. (#*P=Getty !ma"es) . :ene-$ela. )P& heads of state met in Riyadh today for a rare s$mmit( .

o?day )P& s$mmit is only the third in the or"ani-ation/s CG?year history( brin"in" to"ether 41 heads of state from the oil?rich$d (R) "reets !ranian President Mahmo$d #hmadine>ad (L) in Riyadh( 4G 6o%ember 133G( as he arri%es for the t.o?day )r"ani-ation of Petrole$m &A0ortin" o$ntries ()P& ) s$mmit. c$rrency.Sa$di .s President Mahmo$d #hmadine>ad (R) .in" #bd$llah bin #bd$l #-i.ith . (#*P=Getty !ma"es) !ran. !n a 0re? s$mmit meetin" of )P& ministers yesterday a "affe re%ealed a s0at bet. (Re$ters) . 7he t.anin" U.een Sa$di #rabia and !ran abo$t the .alks .s leader S$ltan @aboos bin Said as they arri%e for the o0enin" of the G$lf oo0eration o$ncil (G ) s$mmit in Doha( @atar on December <(" #bd$llah of Sa$di #rabia ( ) and )man.S.

demands from the !ranian side( a so$rce from the 7$rkish 0rime minister.(ri"ht).Ri"ht 0hoto5 !ran. (Re$ters) !ran/s r$ler Mahmo$d #hmadine>ad embraces 'amid . .ar-ai (left) and '$"o ha%e.s office said on 7h$" ne. #hmadine>ad.s President Mahmo$d #hmadine>ad is accom0anied by his 7$rkey/s President #bd$llah G$l at the ira"an Palace in !stanb$l( #$"$st 4C( 133B.s %isit to 7$rkey may not yield the eA0ected oil and "as deals follo.

n Prince *eli0e of S0ain( @$een Sofia of S0ain( .in" #bd$llah (L) chats .in" #bd$llah of Sa$di #rabia Sa$di #rabia. (Re$ters) Left to ri"ht5" +$an arlos of S0ain( and Princess Leti-ia of S0ain 0ose for 0hoto"ra0hers before their dinner at the Royal Palace in Madrid( S0ain on +$ly 42( 133B.s . @$een Sofia of S0ain is a re"$lar 0artici0ant at the eAcl$si%e Bilderber" Meetin"" #bd$llah of Sa$di #rabia( . (Re$ters) .Global War on 7errorism I !nternational Di0lomacy( Part C5 .ith @$een Sofia of S0ain before their "ala dinner at the Royal Palace in Madrid( S0ain on +$ly 42( 133B.

s @$een &li-abeth (L) and her h$sband Prince Phili0( 7he D$ke of &dinb$r"h ( )( arri%e for a "ro$0 0hoto"ra0h ahead of a State BanD$et at B$ckin"ham Palace in London on )ctober <3( 133G. 7he D$een( alon"side her h$sband Prince Phili0 and Prime Minister Gordon Bro. (#*P=Getty !ma"es) . (Re$ters) Ri"ht 0hoto5 .s .in" #bd$llah met the @$een on 7$esday at the start of a t.o?day state %isit that has attracted . Sa$di #rabia.elcomed the kin" at 'orse G$ards Parade in central London( .s Prince Phili0( (*ront R) re%ie.n( formally .in" #bd$llah of Sa$di #rabia( (*ront L) accom0anied by Britain.Left 0hoto5 Sa$di #rabia. .here he ins0ected an honor "$ard in bearskin hats.s a G$ard of 'ono$r in 'orse G$ards( before a state carria"e 0rocession alon" the Mall in London on )ctober <3( 133G.ides0read criticism of the Sa$di h$man ri"hts record.s .in" #bd$llah (R)( Britain.elcome from @$een &li-abeth !! 7$esday as he started a state %isit amid an"ry 0rotests and headlines after acc$sin" Britain of anti?terrorism fail$" #bd$llah recei%ed a la%ish .

.ith the Po0e in the :atican.ith %isitin" Sa$di .in" #bd$llah sto00ed in &"y0t for talks . (#*P=Getty !ma"es) Sa$di #rabia.&"y0t/s President 'osni M$barak (R) "est$res as he s0eaks . (Re$ters) .al?Sa$d in airo( &"y0t on 6o%ember 43(" a &$ro0ean to$r that incl$ded a historic meetin" .ith M$barak" #bd$llah (L) is "reeted by Po0e Benedict S:! on his arri%al for their meetin" at the :atican on 6o%ember E( 133G.s .in" #bd$llah bin #bd$l #-i.

in" #bd$llah of Sa$di #rabia as he %isits 43 Do. (#*P=Getty !ma"es) .ith Sa$di #rabia.nin" Street( London on )ctober <4( 133G.ith .in" #bd$llah after their meetin" at the :illa Madama( in Rome on E 6o%ember 133G. (#*P=Getty !ma"es) Prime Minister Gordon Bro.!talian Prime Minister Romano Prodi (R) shakes hands .n (L) "reets . Po0e Benedict S:! raised the iss$e of hristians li%in" in Sa$di #rabia in a historic meetin" 7$esday .s .in" #bd$llah( the first monarch of the $ltra?conser%ati%e M$slim kin"dom to %isit the :atican.

in" #bd$llah of Sa$di #rabia.s hi"hest ci%ilian a.ard( X.s . P$tin( makin" the first %isit by a R$ssian leader to Sa$di #rabia( met .ard(X to %isitin" R$ssian President :ladimir P$tin in Riyadh( Sa$di #rabia( S$nday( *" #bd$l" #bd$llah( ri"ht( hands o%er his co$ntry.Sa$di #rabia. (#P Photo=!7#R?7#SS) !ran/s r$ler Mahmo$d #hmadine>ad "reets .in" #bd$llah and other senior officials S$nday for talks on the sit$ations in !raD and the Palestinian territories.#. 44( 133G. .

in" #bd$llah of Sa$di #rabia "reets Red hina/s r$ler '$ +intao at the Peo0le/s Great 'all in Bei>in" on +an$ary 1<( +eddah( Sa$di #rabia on +$ly <4( 133G.ith . .in" of Sa$di #rabia #bd$llah bin #bd$l?#-i. (Photo5 U. De0artment of Defense) . Gates (left) and Secretary of State ondolee--a Rice (1nd from left) attend a meetin" .S.Secretary of Defense Robert M.

in" #bd$llah of Sa$di #rabia "reets !ran/s r$ler Mahmo$d #hmadine>ad (ri"ht).s half?brother .alks . (White 'o$se 0hoto by Da%id Bohrer) .in" the death of #bd$llah. heney and Po.ned .in" #bd$llah( former President Geor"e '.ell are members of the o$ncil on *orei"n Relations ( *R)8 B$sh is a former *R member.ith ne. B$sh( and former Secretary of State olin" #bd$llah of Sa$di" *ahd( .Senator h$ck 'a"el %isits .ly cro.ay on #$"$st 4( 1332." #bd$llah/s *arm in Riyadh( Sa$di #rabia on *riday( #$"$st 2( 1332( follo.ho 0assed a. :ice President Dick heney .ell d$rin" a retreat at .

ay on #$"$st 4( 1332. B$sh .in" #bd$llah( ri"ht( d$rin" a retreat at .ho 0assed a. (White 'o$se 0hoto by Da%id Bohrer) :ice President Dick heney and former President Geor"e '.*ormer President Geor"e '.alks .in" #bd$llah at" the death of his half?brother .ned .ay on #$"$st 4( 1332. B$sh( left( shake hands .ly cro.s *arm in Riyadh( Sa$di #rabia on *riday( #$"$st 2( 1332( follo.ith" *ahd( .in" *ahd( .ned .in" the death of his half?brother .in" #bd$" #bd$llah/s *arm in Riyadh( Sa$di #rabia on *riday( #$"$st 2( 1332( follo.ith ne.W.ho 0assed a. (White 'o$se 0hoto by Da%id Bohrer) .

B$sh (left) la$"hs d$rin" a meetin" .al?Sa$d (R) at #l? +anadryiah Ranch in Riyadh( Sa$di #rabia on May 4E( 133B.S.ith Sa$di #rabia/s . President +immy arter "reets Sa$di . (#*P=Getty !ma"es) .in" #bd$llah at the royal 0alace in Riyadh( Sa$di #rabia on #0ril 4F( 133B.*ormer U. (#P Photo) President Geor"e" #bd$llah bin #bd$l #-i.

..s0ie""el=3(424B("rossbild?E231<4?C11F44(33..html) .Global War on 7errorism I !nternational Di0lomacy( Part 25 Bashar #ssad I Syria R$ssia/s President :ladimir P$tin "reets Syria/s President Bashar #ssad at the .. (Photo5 htt0s5==.remlin in Mosco.

X (#*P=Getty !ma"es) !ran.ork to"ether to confront U. #ssad is in !ran for a t.hamenei (R) meets .er in #$"$st 1332.ith Syria/s President Bashar al?#ssad ( ) and !ran/s President Mahmo$d #hmadine>ad (L) in 7ehran on *ebr$ary 4B( 133G.ith !ranian President Mahmo$d #hmadine>ad (R) after a >oint 0ress conference in 7ehran( !ran on #$"$st <( 133B.Syrian President Bashar al?#ssad (L) shakes hands . lose allies #ssad and #hmadine>ad yesterday 0led"ed they . and !sraeli X0lotsX in the Middle &ast.ill Xbear 0ractical res$lt.S.o?day %isit aimed at f$rther bolsterin" already rob$st ties( his second tri0 to the !slamic re0$blic since #hmadine>ad took 0o. #hmadine>ad told sta$nch re"ional ally #ssad today that 7ehran is serio$s in n$clear talks and ho0es it . (#*P=Getty !ma"es) .s s$0reme leader #yatollah #li .o$ld .

#l?Maliki.s #"ency (S#6#)( Syrian President Bashar al?#ssad (R) shakes hands .ed to . .maintain coordination.!n this hando$t from the Syrian #rab 6e.hich are enemies of !raD and Syria( are "$ilty of so.s Prime Minister 6o$ri al?Maliki in Damasc$s( 7$esday( #$".in" dissent bet. 14( 133G. (Photo by S#6# %ia Getty !ma"es) Syria.s President Bashar #ssad( ri"ht( shakes hands . (#P Photo) .!srael( the United States and Britain( .ith !raD.ith Shiite radical leader MoDtada Sadr at the Presidential Palace in Damasc$s( Syria on *ebr$ary E( 133E.s three?day so>o$rn in Syria comes as 0art of his efforts to seek nei"hbors.ith Damasc$s. hel0 in stemmin" the %iolence ra%a"in" !raD.een the Syrian and !raDi 0eo0les. #ccordin" to re0orts( Sadr stated . and %o. #l?Maliki and #ssad said in a meetin" 7$esday d$rin" the embattled !raDi leader.s first official %isit here that des0ite their differences( both are interested in stabili-in" !raD.

nin" Street. Ri"ht 0hoto5 British Prime Minister 7ony Blair entertains Syria/s President Bashar #ssad.ife( and 7ony Blair stand to"ether on 43 Do. . (#*P=Getty !ma"es) Left 0hoto5 (left to ri"ht)5 Bashar #ssad( Blair/s .ife( #ssad/s .ith !raD/s President +alal 7alabani d$rin" their meetin" at the 0residential 0alace in Damasc$s( Syria on +an$ary 4C( 133G.Syrian President Bashar al?#ssad (R) shakes hands . 7alabani arri%ed in Syria today on the first s$ch hi"h?le%el %isit in three decades to a co$ntry acc$sed by the United States of f$ellin" the %iolence in his homeland.

(Re$ters) .ife #sma al?#ssad attends the Gala Dinner held in honor of President Bashar al?#ssad and his .s &mir Sheikh 'amad bin .in" a s$mmit to eAamine .ards 0eace in the Middle &ast in Damasc$s( Syria on Se0tember C( 133B.halifa al?7hani and 7$rkish Prime Minister 7ayyi0 &rdo"an lea%e a 0ress conference" +$an arlos (L)( @$een Sofia of S0ain (R)( Syria/s President Bashar al?#ssad( and his .ays to mo%e to.*rom L?R( *rench President 6icolas Sarko-y( Syria. ( arlos #l%are-=Getty !ma"es) .ife at the Har-$ela Palace in Madrid( S0ain on +$ne 4( 133C.s President Bashar al?#ssad( @atar.

the hinese omm$nist military.S. 'o$se S0eaker 6ancy Pelosi in Damasc$s( Syria on #0ril C( 133G. . Left5 Syria/s President Bashar #ssad "reets U.S0eaker of the 'o$se 6ancy Pelosi %isits Syria/s President Bashar #ssad in Damasc$s( Syria. Syria/s President Bashar #ssad and omm$nist hina/s President '$ +intao re%ie. Ri"ht5 President of Syria Bashar #ssad "reets President of !ran Mahmo$d #hmadine>ad.

s President Bashar al?#ssad (L) chats .ith Bashar #ssad. +ohn .*ormer U.ith Senator +ohn . arter met .ith Syria/s President Bashar #ssad (ri"ht) at the Presidential Palace in Damasc$s( Syria on *riday( #0ril 4B( 133B.S.haled Meshaal in the Damasc$s( Syria after he s0oke . President +immy arter (left) meets .erry( chairman of the U.ith eAiled 'amas terrorist . (Re$ters) . Senate *orei"n Relations ommittee( in Damasc$s( Syria on *ebr$ary 14( 133F. (Re$ters) Syria.S.erry is a member of the o$ncil on *orei"n Relations.

Ri"ht 0hoto5 #rab terrorist Jasser #rafat %isits Libya/s r$ler M$ammar Gaddafi.ith Libya/s lon"time r$ler M$ammar Gaddafi.rite off QC.s old War?era debt in ret$rn for military and ci%ilian contracts bet.2 billion . R$ssia.Global War on 7errorism I !nternational Di0lomacy( Part E5 M$ammar Gaddafi I Libya Left 0hoto5 British Prime Minister 7ony Blair shakes hands .orth of Libya. (Re$ters) . R$ssia a"reed on 7h$rsday to .een Libya and R$ssian com0anies( officials said.ith Libya/s r$ler M$ammar Gaddafi in 7ri0oli( Libya on #0ril 4E( 133B.s President :ladimir P$tin (left) meets .

Jork ity on 7h$rsday( Se0tember 1C( 133F.U. 2011< :a**afi $as assassinate* by the =ibyan people in =ibya on >ctober 20. Secretary of State ondolee--a Rice %isits Libya/s lon"time r$ler M$ammar Gaddafi in 7ri0oli( Libya on Se0tember 2( 133B.. (State De0artment Photo=Da%id J. 'aass( the President of the o$ncil on *orei"n Relations8 Richard 6. ondolee--a Rice is a member of the o$ncil on *orei"n Relations and a member of the 7rilateral ommission. (uammar :a**afi ab*icate* on Au ust 2. 'aass is a Rhodes Scholar( a member of the o$ncil on *orei"n Relations( and a member of the 7rilateral ommission. Lee) !n this 0hoto 0ro%ided by the o$ncil on *orei"n Relations( Libya/s r$ler M$ammar Gadhafi (left) s0eaks to the a$dience at the o$ncil on *orei"n Relations in 6e.S. #t ri"ht is Richard 6. 2011& (#P Photo) .

o?day #rab S$mmit in Damasc$s( Syria on March 1F( 133B.s @$een Sofia (L)( Libyan leader M$ammar Gaddafi (center) and S0ain.adhafi to seal a coo0eration accord .ith . (#*P=Getty !ma"es) Ri"ht 0hoto5 S0ain. Berl$sconi a0olo"ised to Libya for dama"e inflicted by !taly d$rin" the colonial era and si"ned a fi%e?billion?dollar in%estment deal by .adhafi and !talian Prime Minister Sil%io Berl$sconi (L) 0ose for a 0ict$re after si"nin" an a"reement in the eastern city of Ben"ha-i on Libya.ay of com0ensation. (Re$ters) Left 0hoto5 Libya/s r$ler Moamer .s Royal Palace on December 4B( 133G. (Re$ters) arlos 0re0are to .elcomes Libya/s r$ler M$ammar Gaddafi at the o0enin" of the t.elcome "$ests .s Mediterranean coast on #$"$st <3(" +$an before a l$ncheon 0arty at Madrid.s President Bashar al?#ssad (R) . 7he !talian 0remier made the a0olo"y after a meetin" .ith the oil?rich north #frican nation.s .

ith Libya/s r$ler M$ammar Gaddafi (left) at the 0residential 0alace in airo( &"y0t on +$ly <( 133B.alks . (Getty !ma"es=PP)) &"y0t/s President 'osni M$barak .!n this hando$t ima"e 0ro%ided by the Palestinian Press )ffice (PP))( Palestinian President Mahmo$d #bbas meets Libyan President M$ammar Gaddafi( d$rin" the 44th #frican Union S$mmit in Sharm el?Sheikh( &"y0t on +$ne <3( 133B. (Re$ters) .

*rance. Gaddafi is in Lisbon to 0artici0ate in the &U?#frica s$mmit. +ose Socrates attended the Bilderber" Meetin"s in the 0ast. (Re$ters) Libya.s President 6icolas Sarko-y (R) and Libyan leader M$ammar Gaddafi lea%e the room after the si"nat$re of 43 billion &$ros of trade contracts bet.een the t. (Re$ters) .o co$ntries at the &lysee Palace in Paris on December 43( 133G.elcomed by Port$"$ese Prime Minister +ose Socrates at St. Bento 0alace in Lisbon on December E( 133G.s President M$ammar Gaddafi (ri"ht) is . Libya and *rance si"ned contracts for the 0$rchase of 14 #irb$s aircraft d$rin" the start of the fi%e day %isit of the Libyan leader.

. hairman of the #frican Union in *ebr$ary 133F.Libya/s r$ler M$ammar Gaddafi chats . M$ammar Gaddafi is the c$rrent hairman of the #frican Union8 M$ammar Gaddafi became the ne. 2011& (Getty !ma"es) . 2011< :a**afi $as assassinate* by the =ibyan people in =ibya on >ctober 20.S. (uammar :a**afi ab*icate* on Au ust 2.ith U. President Barack )bama d$rin" the Gro$0 of &i"ht (GB) s$mmit in L/#D$ila( !taly on +$ly F( 133F.

S.oman.ith the hinese on )ctober 4F( 1332. Secretary of Defense Donald R$msfeld shakes hands . De0artment of Defense) omm$nists at the Bayi B$ildin" in Bei>in"( Red hina .#dditional KWar on 7errorismL Photos 7he hinese omm$nists en"a"e in an act of terrorism a"ainst an innocent hinese . (Photo5 U.

7he hinese omm$nists en"a"ed in a br$tal act of terrorism on 7iananmen SD$are in Bei>in"( Red hina and other ma>or hinese cities on +$ne C( 4FBF. More than 2333 hinese 0eo0le died at the hands of the hinese omm$nists that day.Members of the hinese omm$nist Peo0le/s Liberation #rmy 0re0are to terrori-e the hinese 0eo0le in Bei>in" in +$ne 4FBF. . Secretary of Defense Donald R$msfeld ins0ects omm$nist hina/s Peo0le/s Liberation #rmy.

R$ssia/s President Boris Jeltsin (left) meets .ere still b$ried $nder r$bble after a "as eA0losion ri00ed thro$"h a o%er the .hile ser%in" as Prime Minister of R$ssia in an attem0t to establish and consolidate his 0o. a0artment block.ith R$ssia/s Prime Minister :ladimir P$tin in the . (V J$ri . :ladimir P$tin is a former . :ladimir P$tin has been acc$sed by R$ssian dissidents of en"a"in" in false?fla" o0erations by indirectly 0artici0atin" in a series of a0artment bombin"s in Mosco. (V &P#= orbis) #t first dayli"ht( resc$e .ath of territory.remlin in Mosco.ork contin$es amid the r$ins of a destroyed block of a0artment b$ildin" in Pechatniki district of Mosco. #t least 4< 0eo0le died( 2B in>$red and 4C3 .ochetko%=e0a= orbis) .( R$ssia on Se0tember G( 4FFF to disc$ss the sit$ation in Da"estan( R$ssia.GB a"ent.remlin. Jeltsin lambasted the military o%er the Da"estani crisis( acc$sin" them of ne"li"ence in the bombin" of an army a0artment b$ildin" and the ca0t$re by rebels of a s.( R$ssia on Se0tember F( 4FFF. that occ$rred in Se0tember 4FFF .

hen the G=G Bombin"s occ$rred. Petersb$r"( R$ssia on #0ril 44( 133<.as stayin" in London .ay for a deal by month.(L)( !sraeli *inance Minister Ben>amin 6etanyah$ ( )( and &Aec$ti%e hairman of #0aA Partners Sir Ronald ohen( 0ose at the !sraeli ambassador. !srael and the b$yers of a controllin" share of Be-eD !srael 7elecom said on S$nday they reached a settlement re"ardin" an ind$strial es0iona"e scandal( 0a%in" the . Ben>amin 6etanyah$ . (V :icki #lhadeff='ando$t=Re$ters= orbis) . R$ssia( *rance and Germany( o00onents of #merica/s military in%asion of !raD( held s$mmit talks to create 0lans for 0ost?Saddam reconstr$ction of !raD( $0hold the United 6ation/s role in !raD( and reconcile . (Gri"ory D$kor=Re$ters= )RB!S) !sraeli #mbassador to the United .s residence in London on +$ly 43( 1332.ith #merica.s"dom H%i 'eifet.R$ssia/s President :ladimir P$tin ( ) meets .ith Germany/s hancellor Gerhard Schroeder (R) and *rance/s President +acD$es hirac in St.

(Pa$l +. . on +an$ary 14( 1333.ish banker( after a si"nin" ceremony May 4( 4FFE at the World Bank in Washin"ton( D. 7he World Bank a00ro%ed a Q13 million credit loan to hel0 Kalle%iateL the economic crisis in Ga-a and the West Bank. .ish banker( 0re0ares to shake hands .ith World Bank President +ames Wolfensohn (left)( a +e.ith Palestinian Liberation )r"ani-ation terrorist Jasser #rafat d$rin" a 0ress conference in the lobby of the !M* b$ildin" in Washin"ton( D. Richards=#*P=Getty !ma"es) #rab terrorist Jasser #rafat (ri"ht) s0eaks at a >oint 0ress conference .*irst De0$ty Mana"in" Director of the !nternational Monetary *$nd (!M*) Stanley *ischer (left)( a +e. (+oyce 6altchayan=#*P=Getty !ma"es) .

(Re$ters) Prince harles of Wales (left)( the son of @$een &li-abeth !! of Great Britain( %isits President of !ran Mohammad .Prince harles of Wales (left)( the son of @$een &li-abeth !! of Great Britain( shakes hands .hatami in 7ehran( !ran on *ebr$ary F( 133C. Prince harles of Wales .hatami in 7ehran( !ran on *ebr$ary F( 133C. (#*P=Getty !ma"es) .as the first British monarch e%er to %isit the !slamic Re0$blic of !ran.ith President of !ran Mohammad .

(Getty !ma"es) .hatami in 1332. President of !ran Mahmo$d #hmadine>ad (left) a00ears .ith former President of !ran Mohammad .hatami attends a Royal !nstit$te of !nternational #ffairs (R!!#) conference held at hatham 'o$se in London.*ormer President of !ran Mohammad .

Jork ity on Se0tember 1C( 133G.s President Mahmo$d #hmadine>ad after s0eakin" at ol$mbia Uni%ersity in 6e. (#P Photo=:ir"inia Mayo) +ohn '.S.erry (ri"ht) take the sta"e for a disc$ssion on K7he *$t$re of the Middle &astL at the World &conomic *or$m in Da%os( S.*ormer President of !ran Mohammad .orth is a member of the o$ncil on *orei"n Relations. +ohn . oats.erry is a member of the o$ncil on *orei"n Relations. Senator +ohn *.hatami (left) and U. +ohn '.orth (left)( the Dean of School of !nternational #ffairs at ol$mbia Uni%ersity( shakes hands .it-erland on +an$ary 1G( 133G. . oats. (Getty !ma"es) .ith !ran.

ar-ai are described as #merican allies in the Global War on 7errorism. Ri"ht 0hoto5 Mahmo$d #hmadine>ad( Per%e.S.M$sharraf( and 'amid .L M$sharraf and .ith President of !ran Mohammed . President Geor"e W. President Geor"e W. U. the !ranian army in 7ehran( !ran.ith #f"hanistan/s President 'amid .President of Pakistan Per%e. B$sh once described !ran as an KaAis of e%il. B$sh meets . Per%e.M$sharraf (left) and President of #f"hanistan 'amid .ar-ai (ri"ht) meet . Left 0hoto5 !ran/s President Mahmo$d #hmadine>ad and #f"hanistan/s President 'amid .M$sharraf. stand at (left) and Pakistan/s President Gen. *ormer re%ie.

+eptember #$. or !ou are %ith the terrorists( Drom this da! for%ard.Syria/s President Bashar #ssad "reets *rench President +acD$es hirac. #$$" . B$sh "reets *rench President +acD$es hirac. #merica/s President Geor"e W. an! nation that 'ontinues to harbor or support terrorism %ill be regarded b! the 7nited +tates as a hostile regime(* 6 7(+( President Leorge W( Bush. )Either !ou are %ith us.

Ri"ht 0hoto5 Red hina/s ommissar '$ +intao "reets !ran/s r$ler Mahmo$d #hmadine>ad.:ice President Dick heney "reets Red hina/s ommissar '$ +intao. . B$sh "reets Red hina/s ommissar '$ +intao at @in"h$a Uni%ersity on *ebr$ary 11( 1331. Left 0hoto5 President Geor"e W.

GB a"ent. ). Left 0hoto5 R$ssia/s President :ladimir P$tin "reets !ran/s President Mahmo$d #hmadine>ad.oreo4er. %e must be prepared to fight limited a'tions oursel4es( &ther%ise %e shall ha4e made no ad4an'e be!ond )massi4e retaliation.Left 0hoto5 !ran/s President Mahmo$d #hmadine>ad "reets R$ssia/s President :ladimir P$tin( a former .* %hi'h tied our hands in 'onfli'ts in4ol4ing less than our sur4i4al( And %e must be prepared to lose limited a'tions( 2o limitation 'ould sur4i4e our disposition to ele4ate e4er! 'onfli't in %hi'h our interests are affe'ted to the le4el of total 'onfli't %ith sur4i4al at sta0e( Armed 'onfli't 'an be limited onl! if aimed at limited ob<e'ti4es and fought %ith limited means( If %e or our enem! rela= the limits on either ob<e'ti4es or means.S. Ri"ht 0hoto5 U. Ri"ht 0hoto5 President Geor"e W. B$sh admires R$ssia/s President :ladimir P$tin. p( #?> . sur4i4al %ill be at sta0e. anuar! ".?5 issue of Foreign Affairs. )2u'lear Plent! and /imited War*.GB a"ent. President Geor"e W. B$sh "reets R$ssia/s President :ladimir P$tin( a former . %hether the issue is %orth it or not(* 6 ames E( King r(.

. President of !raD Saddam '$ssein (ri"ht) embraces President of :ene-$ela '$"o ha%e.Geor"e '. B$sh "reets :ene-$ela/s r$ler '$"o ha%e-.W.(left) in an $ndated 0hoto.

:ene-$ela/s r$ler '$"o ha%e. :ene-$ela/s r$ler '$"o ha%e.embraces R$ssia/s r$ler :ladimir P$tin (left) and !ran/s r$ler Mahmo$d #hmadine>ad (ri"ht). President Geor"e W.embraces !ran/s r$ler Mahmo$d #hmadine>ad. ."reets R$ssia/s r$ler :ladimir P$tin in 133E. B$sh (left) and #rab terrorist Jasser #rafat (ri"ht) deli%er a s0eech at the United 6ations.:ene-$ela/s r$ler '$"o ha%e.

France on July 2.ith !raD d$rin" a meetin" in Ba"hdad( !raD on December 1( 4FGC.French President Jacques Chriac (right) shakes hands with Pakistan’s President Pervez Musharraf at the courtyard of the Elysee Palace in Paris. ('enri B$rea$=Sy"ma= orbis) . 2003. (Photo by Pascal Le Segretain/Getty Images) *rench Prime Minister( +acD$es hirac and President Saddam '$ssein si"n an a"reement "i%in" 0riority to *rance for commercial eAchan"e .

atch *rench President +acD$es hirac kiss Secretary of State ondolee--a Rice/s hand at the Po0e/s f$neral in 1332. (#ndre.hatami (ri"ht) sho. +acD$es hirac their K*rench connection. .ondolee--a Rice dis0lays her K*rench connection. B$sh .ofi #nnan( *irst lady La$ra B$sh (center)( and Geor"e W. Bill linton is seen standin" neAt to his belo%ed Geor"e.L Saddam '$ssein "reets +acD$es hirac in *rance in the late 4FG3s.L U6 Secretary?General . Medichini=#ssociated Press) La$ra B$sh (left) and !ran/s r$ler Mohammed .

are of the leader .s the mind.ith hate and the mind is closed( the leader . Secretary of State Madeleine . #nd .hen the dr$ms ha%e reached fe%er 0itch( and the blood boils .hi0 the citi-enry into 0atriotic fer%or( for 0atriotism is indeed a do$ble?ed"ed s. 'o.ill offer $0 all of their ri"hts $nto the leader( and "ladly so.ith fear and blinded by 0atriotism( ..ho ban"s the dr$ms of .S.ord.hat ! ha%e to . (R&U7&RS= hien?min h$n"=Pool) President Bill linton toasts Red hina/s ommissar +ian" Hemin. #lbri"ht toasts 6orth . .ill ha%e no need in sei-in" the ri"hts of the citi-enry( rather( the citi-enry( inf$sed .P *or this is .U.orea/s r$ler . KBe.orea on )ctober 1C( 1333. !t both emboldens the blood( >$st as it narro. #nd ! am +on" !l at a dinner in Pyon"yan"( 6orth . do ! kno.L W +$li$s aesar.

President B$sh told his host( K!/%e been readin" and st$dyin" abo$t yo$r co$ntry and ! ha%e seen no.President Geor"e W. firsthand the "reat %ibrancy and the eAcitement that/s takin" 0lace in :ietnam.L (White 'o$se 0hoto by &ric Dra0er) . B$sh and Red :ietnamese President 6"$yen Minh 7riet meet in the Great 'all of the Presidential Palace in 'anoi on *riday( 6o%ember 4G( 133E.

on *ebr$ary B( 133G.ith homeland sec$rity officials in Washin"ton( D.President Geor"e W. (Photo by #leA Won"=Getty !ma"es) President Geor"e W. (Re$ters) . on March E( 133B. . B$sh (left) shakes hands .S. De0artment of 'omeland Sec$rity in Washin"ton( D.ith De0artment of 'omeland Sec$rity Secretary Michael hertoff after B$sh deli%ered remarks to commemorate the fifth anni%ersary of the U. . B$sh s0eaks as Secretary of 'omeland Sec$rity Michael hertoff (left) looks on d$rin" a meetin" .

hile Secretary of State ondolee--a Rice testifies d$rin" a 'o$se #00ro0riations ommittee hearin" on a0itol 'ill in Washin"ton D. .a%ed blood?colored hands in Rice.of 7eAas( 23( >$m0s $0 in front of U. (Re$ters) .ar 0rotester .s face at a con"ressional hearin" on Wednesday and sho$ted X. *airoo-( an anti?.ar 0rotesters from ode Pink hold $0 their red 0ainted hands . on March 41( 133B. 7om Lantos (D? #).ay and detained by 0olice. (Getty !ma"es) R6PS P! 7UR&S )* 7'& J&#R ? Desiree *airoo. 7he committee is hearin" testimony on forei"n o0erations and international affairs b$d"et. Secretary of State ondolee--a Rice before Rice testifies before the 'o$se *orei"n #ffairs ommittee on a0itol 'ill in Washin"ton )ctober 1C( criminalYX( b$t .#nti?.S. #t ri"ht is the committee hairman 0$shed a.

on Se0tember 42( 133B. (#P Photo) :ice President Dick heney (ri"ht) talks to Secretary of State ondolee--a Rice (left) d$rin" a State #rri%al So$th La. on +$ly 43( 133B( .here President Geor"e W.) smile as they take 0art in a ceremony in the Rose Garden of the White 'o$se in Washin"ton( D.Left to ri"ht5 Senator )rrin 'atch (R?Utah)( :ice President Dick heney( and Senator +ose0h Lieberman (!? onn.n of the White 'o$se in Washin"ton( D. (#P Photo) eremony on the . B$sh si"ned the *orei"n !ntelli"ence S$r%eillance #ct (*!S#). . .

s *ifth *leet. B$sh (left) holds $0 a s. Bahrain is his second sto0 in a to$r of US?allied G$lf #rab monarchies aimed at dr$mmin" $0 s$00ort a"ainst .US President Geor"e W.hich ser%es as home to the U.$. (#*P=Getty !ma"es) .$.ith his host .hat he calls an !ranian XthreatX.ait today in the tiny G$lf kin"dom .halifa of Bahrain d$rin" an arri%al ceremony at Sakhir Palace in the ca0ital Manama on +an$ary 41(" 'amad bin !ssa al?. (#*P=Getty !ma"es) President Geor"e W. B$sh arri%ed from .ait today in the tiny G$lf kin"dom .in" 'amad bin !ssa al?. 6a%y.halifa of Bahrain d$rin" an arri%al ceremony at Sakhir Palace in the ca0ital Manama on +an$ary 41( 133B.ord as he 0oses for a 0ict$re .ord as he 0oses for a 0ict$re .hich ser%es as home to the US 6a%y.hat he calls an !ranian XthreatX. B$sh arri%ed from .ith his host . Bahrain is his second sto0 in a to$r of US?allied G$lf #rab monarchies aimed at dr$mmin" $0 s$00ort a"ainst .S. B$sh (L) holds $0 a s.s *ifth *leet.

!ouHre <ust as guilt! as the terrorist(* 6 President Leorge W( Bush. #$$G.ith Sa$di #rabia/s Prince Salman( brother of Sa$di . on 2BC-s E=oday Sho. #$$# )&ur enemies are inno4ati4e and resour'eful. and neither do %e(* 6 President Leorge W( Bush.atchin" a traditional s. +eptember #?. )Well.ord dance at the #l M$rabba Palace and 6at$ral 'istory M$es$m in #l +anadriyah( Sa$di #rabia on 7$esday( +an$ary 42( 133B. I thin0 most people in the %orld understand that I %as 4er! serious. and the!Hre'h "A.those %ho use terror as a tool are -. on August ?. #$$G )I don-t thin0 !ou 'an %in it 9the %ar on terror:( But I thin0 !ou 'an 'reate 'onditions so that the" #bd$llah( . and so are %e( The! ne4er stop thin0ing about ne% %a!s to harm our 'ountr! and our people. August A$. %hen %e sa! if !ou harbor a terrorist.hile .F . . #$$" )I trul! am not that 'on'erned about him 9&sama:(* 6 President Leorge W( Bush.less a''eptable in parts of the %orld(* 6 President Leorge W( Bush. B$sh (left) shares a la$"h .President Geor"e W.

Myles $llen) htt05==.ith Prince ..S. #ir *orce Staff S"t.S. D.html . #ir *orce Gen.. De0artment of Defense 0hoto by U. #ir *orce Staff S"t.defense.s Prince . Myles $llen) htt05==.?Sa$di military relationshi0. D.S. Peter Pace meets .S.."o%=home=0hotoessays=1332?3<=013323<4Fa4. De0artment of Defense 0hoto by U.U.halid bin S$ltan at the Prince. Richard Myers( chairman the +oint hiefs of Staff( meets .."o%=home=0hotoessays=133E?3<=0133E3<1<a4. (U.S.#l?Sa$d( #ssistant Minister of Defense and #%iation( in Riyadh( Sa$di #rabia on March 11( 133E..s 0ri%ate residence o$tside the city of Riyadh( Sa$di #rabia( on March 4E( 1332.ith Sa$di #rabia.. Marine in Sa$di #rabia to disc$ss m$t$al iss$es and stren"then the U. (U.S.html hairman of the +oint hiefs of Staff U.halid bin?S$ltan bin #bd$l #-i. Myers .S.

arine Corps Leneral Peter Pa'e (left).ullen (right). 8(C( on Debruar! #. and +e'retar! of 8efense Cobert Lates (right) laugh before testif!ing at a +enate Appropriations Committee hearing regarding President Leorge W( Bush-s funding re3uests for Ira3 and Afghanistan on Capitol Hill in Washington. the Chairman of the oint Chiefs of +taff. #$"$. #$$5( (\ ason CeedFCeutersFCorbis) 8efense +e'retar! Cobert Lates (left) and Admiral . share laugh on Capitol Hill in Washington. 8(C( on Debruar! #5. prior to testif!ing before the +enate Armed +er4i'es Committee hearing on the 8efense 8epartment-s budget( (AP Photo) .i'hael .7(+( . the Chairman of the oint Chiefs of +taff.

B$sh s0eakin" at the ceremonial s. .inister of 8efense Prof( 8r( Ir( Purnomo Kusgiantoro (right) share a laugh during a meeting in a0arta.7(+( +e'retar! of 8efense Cobert Lates (left) and Indonesia-s . #$"$( +e'retar! Lates parti'ipated in meetings %ith the . Indonesia on ul! ##.inister of 8efense and President of Indonesia 8r( +usilo Bambang Kudho!ono( (Lett! Images) *B! Director Robert M$eller (left)( Defense Secretary Robert Gates (center)( and !# Director Michael 'ayden (ri"ht) share a la$"h 0rior to President Geor"e W. (#P Photo= harles Dhara0ak) .earin"?in for Director of 6ational !ntelli"ence Mike Mc onnell at Bollin" #ir *orce Base in Washin"ton( D. on *ebr$ary 13( 133G.

+arah Palin. the Lo4ernor of Alas0a met Wednesda! %ith President Asif Ali Yardari of Pa0istan at the Inter'ontinental Hotel in 2e% Kor0 Cit! on +eptember #G. #$$@( (Henn! Ca! AbramsFAsso'iated Press) . #$$@( (T!ler Hi'0sFThe 2e% Kor0 Times) Cepubli'an Part! 4i'e presidential 'andidate +arah Palin meets %ith the Afghanistan-s President Hamid Karzai in 2e% Kor0 Cit! on +eptember #A.

ith omm$nist hina/s :ice Premier Li . (Photo5 htt05==.htm .=tCE4F13.china?embassy.or"=en"=A.Bi" Media and the Military?!nd$strial om0leA5 Rupert (ur*och ?left@.americana$stralian... chats .or"=benefitdinner133G=) +ames Mc6erney (left)( hairman( President and hief &Aec$ti%e )fficer of Boein" om0any( meets . Jork ity on )ctober 11( 133G.ith Jim (c#erney ?ri ht@.. (Sinh$a=*an R$>$n) htt05==.... Chairman an* C+> of #e$s Corporation AFoB #e$sC.eDian" (ri"ht) in Bei>in"( the ca0ital of comm$nist?occ$0ied mainland hina( on +$ne C( 133B( the 4F th anni%ersary of the 7iananmen SD$are Massacre. Chairman an* C+> of 8he Doein Company( at 7he #merican #$stralian #ssociation (###) 0arty in 6e.

ea0ons of mass destr$ction or face 0ossible . President Geor"e W.ith President of #-erbai>an 'eydar #liye% in the )%al )ffice in Washin"ton( a former . (Photo5 +#S)6 R&&D=Re$ters= orbis) .raft= orbis) #-erbai>an/s President !lham #liye% (left) meets . military cam0ai"n in #f"hanistan after the Se0tember 44( 1334 attacks. .n for its oil fields. 7he former So%iet re0$blic has s$00orted #merican efforts to force !raD to destroy its alle"ed . #-erbai>an also offered $se of its air s0ace for the U.S. 'eydar #liye% . . on #0ril 1B( in char"e of the So%iet Union.hen Leonid Bre-hne% .S. B$sh in the )%al )ffice of the White 'o$se in Washin"ton( D. President Geor"e W.( U.S.U. B$sh meets .S.#.GB a"ent .ith U. (Photo5 Brooks . on *ebr$ary 1E( 133<.#.( U. 7he ca0ital of #-erbai>an is Bak$8 Bak$ is kno.

ITT ."o%=.htm) #aeda O$erati%e Arrested in Pa&istan B! A2E PEC/EY and ECIC +CH. Azzam Al-Amri0i $B*2.aeda( CEWAC8 The Ce%ards Dor usti'e Program.ale /ight 7nited +tates Adam Kahi!e Ladahn %as indi'ted in the Central 8istri't of California for treason and material support to Al .fbi..32AC BM-A**D 1.5@ (air: 7nited +tates Byes: ?H""J *eJ: #"$ pounds 2om"leJion: .MB$ AC$ $ACGB.emar9s: +eptember ". Adam Pearlman.. is offering a re%ard of up to T" million for information leading to the arrest of Adam Kahi!e Ladahn( *(1EL$ -B 21C*3$B. English Ladahn has s'ars on his 'hest and right forearm( 2one 2AE431C Bro%n Hazel .aeda and ser4i'es for Al .*1C.3AL *EPP1..B*4 AMB. 21C*ELA4B ] /os Angeles Dield &ffi'e ] . Ka!ah. Abu +uhail Al-Amri0i.4 41 AL 7AB$A < 1% E * 2 G 2HHF-I A3$3CG AC$ A--B443CG < 1% E * 2 G 2 A$AM DA(3DB GA$A(C Aliases: Abu +uha!b Al-Amri0i.C3CG 4(3* PB.edium 2iti'enshi": Arabi'. (So$rce5 htt05==. ". 7nited +tates 8epartment of +tate.163$3CG MA4B. in'luding pro4iding aid and 'omfort to Al .4..1E* 3F D1E (A6B ACD 3CF1.3P431C $ate of -irth Esed: Pla0e of -irth: (eight: &eight: -uild: Languages: *0ars and Mar9s: .MA431C 21C2B. Kih!a .as a member of the board of directors of the #nti?Defamation Lea"$e. L12AL F-3 1FF32B 1.B$ A.a<adin Adams.ost Wanted Terrorists ]] DBI Home Page ] DBI Dield &ffi'es ] #dam Gadahn/s "randfather( arl .anted=terrorists="adahnRa. PLBA*B 21C4A24 D1E. 4(B CBA. Pearlman( . Abu +uha!b. Azzam the Ameri'an.BA*1C < 1% E * 2 G 2H%1I P.aeda( The 'harges are related to LadahnHs alleged in4ol4ement in a number of terrorist a'ti4ities.

and it %as not immediatel! 'lear that Ameri'an offi'ials %ere in4ol4ed in the arrest( There %as no 'onfirmation that the arrested man %as in fa't an Ameri'an( 3nitial re"orts seemed to ha@e 0onfused him 5ith Adam Gadahn.ali0 Hasan. the 2o( # offi'ial in the Afghan Taliban leadership( A senior &bama administration offi'ial in Washington said that Pa0istani authorities had . the Inter-+er4i'es Intelligen'e 8ire'torate( Ameri'an offi'ials also assume that the I+I tends to some of .ABA8.r( Ladahn( Dor hours.aeda belie4ed to be an Ameri'an %as arrested in the spra%ling southern 'it! of Kara'hi in re'ent da!s b! Pa0istani se'urit! offi'ials. but later learned the! %ere most li0el! not 'orre't( .r( Ladahn urged . he said.ullah Baradar than Ameri'an offi'ials. Pa0istan R An operati4e of Al .uslims to follo% the e=ample of .* the offi'ial said( The arrest of . information %as diffi'ult to 'onfirm from Pa0istan( President &bama %as briefed on ne%s reports of the arrest. in 2o4ember( While the importan'e of the latest arrest %as not 'lear. %ho %as des'ribed as ha4ing been born in Penns!l4ania and %ho %as thought to be affiliated %ith the operations di4ision of Al . 'ommanding fighters in Afghanistan( &ne Ameri'an offi'ial briefed on the arrest des'ribed the operati4e in 'ustod! as fair-s0inned and someone %ho spo0e both English and Pashto( /ittle else %as 0no%n about'h 5.* the offi'ial said( )&ne theor! is that this %as a 'onfluen'e of ta'ti'al operations(* Another theor!. it builds on the 'apture of se4eral senior Afghan Taliban leaders in re'ent %ee0s.r( Ladahn has been on the D(B(I(-s most %anted list sin'e #$$G %ith a T" million re%ard for information leading to his 'apture.* the offi'ial said. spea0ing on 'ondition of anon!mit! be'ause the interrogation results are 'onfidential( )He-s not gi4ing us an! a'tionable intelligen'e(* The offi'ial said that Pa0istani authorities %ere li0el! to ha4e more le4erage o4er . be'ause of the longstanding relationship bet%een the Taliban and Pa0istan-s main sp! agen'!.ullah Baradar 'ould not be transferred to the Afghan go4ernment.aeda figure from Pa0istani 'ustod! to Afghanistan %ould be tantamount to a transfer to the 7nited +tates. in'luding .ullah Baradar and the other 'aptured Taliban leaders %ere purged b! hard-liners in the Afghan Taliban leadership.PublishedI .ullah Baradar in 'ustod! and still allo%ed Ameri'an interrogators to 3uestion him regularl!( )He-s tal0ing to us but %e-re still in the trust-building phase. but %e ha4en-t 'on'luded there-s some ma<or shift. Ameri'an offi'ials said.aeda.ullah Baradar or an! other Taliban or .o4ing .ullah Baradar( )The! 0no% %hat he 0no%s. Pa0istani offi'ials said +unda!( Ameri'an and Pa0istani offi'ials said the man arrested %as Abu Kah!a . Ameri'an offi'ials said( . Te=(.a<( 2idal . its longtime pro=! against Indian interests in Afghanistan( But the senior administration offi'ial 4oi'ed s0epti'ism that there had been an! strategi' shift b! the highest le4els of the Pa0istani sp! agen'!( )It-s still not 'lear %hat-s going on. despite efforts b! the Afghans to see0 his e=tradition( . a 2alifornia nati@e 5ho has +een a 7aeda s"o9esman and often a""ears on @ideos 0alling for stri9es against targets in the Enited *tates +enior administration offi'ials said on +unda! that the! did not belie4e the arrest %as of . %ho gre% distrustful of them( A Pa0istani 'ourt ruled last month that . the Ameri'an 'harged %ith the shooting that 0illed "A people in Dort Hood. and he is the first Ameri'an to be 'harged %ith treason in more than half a 'entur!( He %as belie4ed to ha4e been operating in the area of the Pa0istani-Afghan border( In a re'ent 4ideo. #$"$ I+/A. .u<ahdeen al-Adam.ullah Baradar-s famil! members( The offi'ials dis'ounted the li0elihood that Pa0istani authorities %ere using harsh interrogation methods on .ullah Baradar and about a half-dozen other senior Afghan Taliban leaders in Pa0istan in re'ent %ee0s ha4e prompted some anal!sts to de'lare that the Pa0istani intelligen'e ser4i'e has 'ommitted itself to %or0ing against the Afghan Taliban. is that .ullah Abdul Lhani Baradar.

com=1343=3<=3B=... So$rce5 htt05==.ane "erle/ reported from +slamabad' "akistan' and 6ric Schmitt from Washington1 Mark Ma//etti contributed reporting from Ne..htmlPh0 #merican +e.. Jork edition.nytimes.arachi( Pakistan on March G( 1343. Gork1 # %ersion of this article a00eared in 0rint on March B( 1343( on 0a"e #F of the 6e. .ish al?@aida terrorist #dam Gadahn .ho is alle"edly from Pennsyl%ania. "o%ernment has yet to confirm his arrest8 the man arrested in Pakistan .as K#b$ Jahya M$>ahdeen al?#damL( or K#b$ Jahya #-amL( . 7he )bama administration and the re0ortedly arrested by Pakistani intelli"ence officers in .S.orld=asia=3BDaeda.

(#ssociated Press 0hoto) 3ran (ostage 2risis: Iranian 'ollege students detain ?# Ameri'an Embass! staff members and hold them as hostages in Tehran. Iran b! on 2o4ember G.American Political'Militar( Inter%ention in the Middle )ast Ri"ht 0hoto5 *ormer Premier of !ran Mohammed MossadeD MMossade"hN is hel0ed alon" as he entered co$rt in 7ehran( !ran on 6o%ember B( 4F2< .@"( This in'ident %as in response to the +hah of Iran being admitted to Ameri'a for medi'al treatment on &'tober ##. 7he entral !ntelli"ence #"ency( led by o$ncil on *orei"n Relations director #llen W. ".as tryin" him as a traitor.( (Bettmann Ar'hi4es) .5. ".5. D$lles( 0layed a 0rominent role in the co$0 that remo%ed Mohammed MossadeD from office and installed the Shah as the head of !ran.( The Iran Hostage Crisis ended on anuar! #$. ".here a military trib$nal .<=#merican?soldiers?0atrollin"?streets?of?a?%illa"e?in?Lebanon?+$ly) U.i"ht &isenho.assem and his K*ree )fficersL assassinated .arim . . (U.britannica.hen !raDi army "eneral #bd$l .er ordered the U. # co$0 d/etat in !raD occ$rred on +$ly 4C( 4F2B( . military to inter%ene in Lebanon to allo.S.een the hristians and M$slims from er$0tin" and to 0re%ent Lebanon from fallin" into the hands of 0ro?So%iet 0an? #rabists led by &"y0t/s stron"man Gamal #bd$l 6asser. #rmy Photo) (So$rce5 htt05==st$dent. amille hamo$n( a Maronite hristian( to com0lete his term as President of Lebanon and 0re%ent a ci%il .ar bet. Marines and Lebanese #rmy soldiers ins0ect %ehicles at a check0oint in Lebanon in 4FB1 d$rin" the Lebanese i%il War.#merican soldiers 0atrol the streets of a %illa"e in Lebanon in +$ly 4F2B d$rin" )0eration Bl$e 'at.S. President" *aisal !! of !raD and !raD/s Prime Minister 6$ri al?Said.

S. Marines assist a .# "ro$0 of U.o$nded comrade. . # total of 1C4 Marines died in Beir$t( Lebanon on )ctober 1<( 4FB<.

soldiers.html .S.S..ar0lanes to bomb n$mero$s tar"ets . (Wolf"an" Mrot-ko..hom the leader said he ado0ted. forces on Libyan %essels in the 0recedin" years( incl$din" the sinkin" of a Libyan na%y 0atrol boat one month = #*P = Getty !ma"es) htt05==.html #n"ered by M$ammar Gaddafi.. 7ho$"h at the time no concl$si%e e%idence emer"ed linkin" Gaddafi to the attack( the leader .time.time.)n #0ril 2( 4FBE( a bomb eA0loded inside the La Belle ni"htcl$b( a Berlin discoth9D$e that . soldiers.S.s alle"ed com0licity in the Berlin bombin"( President Ronald Rea"an labeled him the Xmad do" of the Middle &astX and a$thori-ed U.ithin Libya( incl$din" Gaddafi. 7he ni"htcl$b blast killed one ci%ilian and"allery=3(1F<3G(4F13FFBR4F<43<B( 0o0$lar amon" held res0onsible by the Rea"an #dministration( .ell = 7ime I Life Pict$res = Getty !ma"es) htt05==. strikes claimed the life of 'anna Gaddafi( a baby "irl . # 0ortion of the f$nds set aside in the 133B a"reement com0ensatin" %ictims of the Lockerbie bombin" .S.hich belie%ed that Libya had acted in retaliation for a series of strikes by U.. 7he"allery=3(1F<3G(4F13FFBR4F<43C<(33.o U.ere earmarked for %ictims of the La Belle attack. .s residence in 7ri0oli( abo%e. (7homas 'art.

$k=onthisday=hi=dates=stories=a0ril=2=defa$lt.S. President Ronald Rea"an ordered the U. .as im0licated for its role in the bombin" of the 0assen"er fli"ht..oman( immediately.S.hen a bomb destroyed the 0assen"er 0lane on December 14( 4FBB. military to bomb Libya and Libya/s ca0ital of 7ri0oli (abo%e) in a military o0eration on #0ril 42( 4FBE in retaliation for the West Berlin disco bombin" that took 0lace ten days earlier and for Libya/s K%iolationL of its territorial claims to the G$lf of Sidra.0base.S.. #nother U.$k=ne...stm . (#*P Photo) htt05==. soldier( 12?year?old S" 7he Libyan "o%ernment . +ames &.html) Ri"ht 0hoto5 7he #0ril 2( 4FBE( bombin" eA0losion at the La Belle disco killed S"t.enneth 7.s=africaandindianocean=libya=1EC<1<C= ol?Gaddafis?son?brands?relati%es?of? Lockerbie?%ictims?"reedy. Photo5 (htt05==. (Photo5 #ssociated Press) htt05==ne.tele"ra0h.. *ord( 14( and 6ermin 'annay( a 1F?year?old 7$rkish"e=BF3C2F42) Left 0hoto5 12F 0eo0le died aboard 0assen"er fli"ht Pan #m *li"ht 43< near Lockerbie( Scotland .s.o$nded.s=.U.ere Goins( died later of his in>$ries( and 11F 0eo0le .

er 4 (6orth 7o. cas$alties.hen a tr$ck bomb eA0loded belo. #dditionally( o%er 133 ha%e been treated for in>$ries and released. 7he facility ho$ses U.ere dama"ed and there .ere n$mero$s" #bd$l #-i. 7o. #ir * on *ebr$ary 1E( 4FF<( killin" siA 0eo0le and in>$rin" 4(3C1 0eo0le. and Sa$di military 0ersonnel s$r%ey the dama"e to .#ir Base near Dhahran( Sa$di #rabia( at 1522 0.s CC3Cth Win" (Pro%isional)( So$ 0artially destroyed .ers ca$sed by the eA0losion of a f$el tr$ck o$tside the northern fence of the facility on .World 7rade enter . 7he latest information from Dhahran indicates that 4F 0eo0le are dead and EC 0eo0le are hos0itali-ed.S. Se%eral b$ildin"s . (#ssociated Press 0hoto) U.S.est #sia. ser%ice members and ser%es as the headD$arters for the U. (De0artment of Defense 0hoto) . &D7( 7$esday( +$ne 12( 4FFE.S.hobar 7o.

ere in>$red in 6airobi( . 14B 0eo0le . &mbassy in .enya.S.enya on #$"$st G( 4FFB 7he bombin" of the U. &mbassy bombin" in 6airobi( .7he U.ere detonated almost sim$ltaneo$sly before 435C2 am local time (<5C2 am Washin"ton time). ar bombs in %ehicles ad>acent to the embassies .enya and 7an-ania on #$"$st G( 4FFB.S.o$nded B2 0eo0le. .ere killed and an estimated C333 0eo0le . !n Dar es Salaam( 7an-ania the attack killed at least 44 0eo0le and .

6a%y sailors died after the USS ole attacked d$rin" a 0ort call in #den( Jemen on )ctober 41( 1333.Se%enteen #merican U. .

Hia a00ear in ross 'all 0osin" for 0hotos d$rin" State :isit of President Mohammad Hia Ul 'aD of Pakistan on December G( 4FB1. (Photo5 Ronald Rea"an Presidential Library) .President Ronald Rea"an( Pakistan/s President Mohammad Hia Ul 'aD( 6ancy Rea"an( and Mrs. (Photo5 Ronald Rea"an Presidential Library) President Ronald Rea"an meets .ith #f"hanistan/s m$>ahideens at the White 'o$se.

')UG'7)6 +R.ere retreatin" back into !raD d$rin" the *irst Persian G$lf War ()0eration Desert Storm) in *ebr$ary 4FF4. #merican and %ario$s allied military forces sla$"htered !raDi soldiers .ords made for the "$ns of dead !raDi soldiers( melted and recast into the 1C?ton blades. #rmy (US#) M4#4 #brams MB7 (Main Battle 7ank)( and 0ersonnel from # om0any ( ))( 7ask *orce 4st Battalion( <2th #rmor Re"iment (4?<2 #rmor)( 1nd Bri"ade ombat 7eam (B 7)( 4st #rmored Di%ision (#D)( 0ose for a 0hoto $nder the X'ands of :ictoryX in eremony SD$are( Ba"hdad( !raD d$rin" )0eration !R#@! *R&&D)M (in circa 133<?133C).ho .n and s$rro$nded . 7he s. (7SG7 +)'6 L. U. 7he hand and arm are modeled after former !raDi r$ler Saddam '$ssein/s marks the entrance to a lar"e 0arade "ro$nd in central Ba"hdad.ay of Death in !raD in 4FF4.'i"h.( US#*) .ith tho$sands of !ranian helmets taken from the battlefield.S. 7he 'ands of :ictory mon$ment b$ilt at the end of the !ran?!raD .

as!mmetri' threats in4ol4ing proliferation. *"ea9er: ames /( ones 9Cetired Leneral. I %ould spend a fe% moments tr!ing to dis'uss ho% the 7(+( 2ational +e'urit! Coun'il intends to reorganize itself in order to be supporti4e( Dor de'ades. engaging and building stronger partnerships %ith all of our friends and allies be'ause the President feels that the transatlanti' allian'e is a 'ornerstone to our 'olle'ti4e se'urit!( As man! of !ou 0no%. our e'onomies. life %as simpler then( It %as 'ertainl! more organized( It %as 'ertainl! more s!mmetri'( Kear in and !ear out. %e must understand the terms national se'urit! and international se'urit! are no longer limited to the ministries of defense and foreign ministries1 in fa't.@$ and I ha4e been pri4ileged to %or0 and 0no% man! of !ou here( I %ould li0e to salute m! militar! 'olleagues %ith %hom I ha4e not onl! a deep friendship but shared man! of the issues that %e are dis'ussing in a positi4e %a! toda!( And I am delighted to be ba'0 in an altered state. this 'onferen'e in .Cemar0s b! 2ational +e'urit! Ad4iser ones at G?th . and the li0e( Borders are no longer re'ognized and the simultaneit! of the threats that fa'e us are o''urring at a more rapid pa'e( And as the President has detailed. is a "ragmatist (e 9no5s that 5e must deal 5ith the 5orld as it is And he 9no5s that the 5orld is a @ery different "la0e than it 5as !ust a fe5 years ago As he said in his inaugural address. 7(+( . ethni'. in4ol4ing the illegal shipment of arms and nar'o-terrorism. 3 ta9e my daily orders from $r Kissinger. so to spea0( I 0no% there is great 'uriosit! about President &bama among man! here( And there has been %onderful enthusiasm and ne% energ! %ith regard to his ele'tion from people all o4er the %orld( I %ould li0e to ta0e <ust a moment to spea0 to !ou about his approa'h to national se'urit! and in fa't international se'urit! and the role that I see the 2ational +e'urit! Coun'il pla!ing( Dirst and foremost the President-s strategi' approa'h %ill be grounded in the real understanding of the 'hallenges %e fa'e in the #"st 'entur!( &e must sim"ly +etter understand the en@ironment that 5e are in 4he President. e4er!thing %as 4ie%ed through the prism of the Cold War( And in retrospe't. I ha4e been here 'oming to this 'onferen'e sin'e ". 5ho is also here &e ha@e a 0hain of 0ommand in the Cational *e0urity 2oun0il that eJists today I thin0 m! role toda! is a little bit different than !ou might e=pe't( Dollo%ing the spee'h of the Mi'e President and the presen'e of our distinguished members from the 7(+( House of Cepresentati4es.arine Corps: 31S1 National Security Ad!iser .uni'h has pro4ided a trul! e='eptional forum for the 0ind of open dialogue and 'andid dis'ussions that 'an onl! ta0e pla'e among 'lose friends and allies( The Mi'e President-s attendan'e and his spee'h !esterda! should send I thin0 a 4er! strong and sin'ere signal about the seriousness of our purpose %hen it 'omes to listening.ones ga!e these remarks at the 7<th Munich 4onference on Security "olicy at the Hotel 5ayerischer Hof on February >' &**)1 JThan0 !ou for that %onderful tribute to Henr! Kissinger !esterda!( Congratulations( As the most re0ent Cational *e0urity Ad@isor of the Enited *tates.uni'h Conferen'e on +e'urit! Poli'! Published Debruar! @. and religious 'onfli'ts( . the strategi' en4ironment %as fairl! 'onsistent and predi'table( Threats %ere J'on4entional(J The transatlanti' se'urit! partnership %as largel! designed to meet the threats of a 4er! s!mmetri' %orld( It %as rea'ti4e( The 2AT& partnership %as 'on'ei4ed to be a defensi4e and fairl! stati' allian'e( And I spent a good deal of m! 'areer in uniform ser4ing %ithin this frame%or0( But to mo4e for%ard. if nothing else.The o4erdependen'e on fossil fuels that endangers our se'urit!. #$$. it en'ompasses the e'onomi' aspe'ts of our so'ieties( It en'ompasses energ!( It en'ompasses ne% threats. the 5orld has 0hanged and 5e must 0hange 5ith it And 5e 0ertainly agree that the 5orld is a multi"olar "la0e in the time frame of the moments 5e are in It is hard to o4erstate the differen'es bet%een the #$th and the #"st 'enturies( We ha4e alread! e=perien'ed man!.Protra'ted tribal. and the health of the planet( . I thought that I %ould spend m! time tal0ing to !ou about ho% ta0ing the President-s guidan'e and the Mi'e President-s 'omments !esterda!. filtered do5n through General -rent *0o50roft and *andy -erger. man! differen'es in the #"st 'entur!( When this 'onferen'e first met. a 'omprehensi4e approa'h to our national se'urit! and international se'urit! in the #"st 'entur! must identif! and understand that the %ider arra! of e=isting threats that threaten us( To name a fe%I -Terror and e=tremism has ta0en man! li4es and on man! 'ontinents a'ross the globe( -The ongoing struggle in Afghanistan and the a'ti4it! along the Pa0istani border is an international se'urit! 'hallenge of the highest order( .The spread of nu'lear and 'hemi'al biologi'al and '!ber-te'hnologies that 'ould upset the global order and 'ause 'atastrophe on an unimaginable s'ale is real( It is pressing and it is time that %e dealt %ith it( .

our 4alues( Li4en this role. both in terms of ho% poli'! has de4eloped in Washington and ho% it is in fa't e=e'uted( The 2+C must therefore fun'tion as a strategi' integrator b! doing se4eral things( &ne. the 2+C is b! definition at the ne=us of that effort( It integrates on a strategi' sense all elements of our national se'urit! 'ommunit! to%ards the de4elopment of effe'ti4e poli'! de4elopment and interagen'! 'ooperation( But to better 'arr! out the president-s priorities. instead of shaping them( And that re3uires strategi' thin0ing( The 2ational +e'urit! Coun'il I thin0 is uni3ue in its abilit! to step ba'0 and ta0e a longer and %ider 4ie% of our Ameri'an national se'urit! and our role in the shared 'onte=t of our international se'urit! as %ell( +e'ond.F""( And our 'apa'it! to meet these 'hallenges in m! 4ie% does not !et mat'h the urgen'! of %hat is re3uired( To be blunt. our e'onom! and our intelligen''o-terrorism that pro4ides the e'onomi' fuel for insurgen'ies( . %e ha4e others(J Dirst.Po4ert!. as I mentioned( It is eas! to get bogged do%n in the ta'ti'al 'on'erns that 'onsume the da!-to-da! 'ondu't( As a matter of fa't. JThese are our prin'iples( And if !ou don-t li0e them. and disease stands in the %a! of progress and 'auses great suffering in man! parts of the %orld( .r( ohn Brennan( The 2ational +e'urit! Coun'il %ill be at the table as our go4ernment forges a ne% approa'h to energ! se'urit! and 'limate 'hange that demand broad 'ooperation a'ross the 7(+( Lo4ernment and more persistent Ameri'an leadership around the %orld( And the 2+C is e4aluating ho% to update our 'apa'it! to 'ombat the proliferation of %eapons of mass destru'tion %hile also pla'ing a far higher priorit! on '!ber se'urit!( There is no fi=ed model that 'an 'apture the %orld in all of its 'omple=it!( What-s right toda! %ill ha4e to be different four !ears from no% or eight !ears from no%( And that-s pre'isel! the point( The 2+C-s 'omparati4el! small size gi4es it a uni3ue 'apa'it! to rein4ent . the 2+C must be strategi'. so that our response to the e'onomi' 'risis is 'oordinated %ith our global partners and our national se'urit! needs( The 2+C has %or0ed 'losel! %ith the White House Counsel-s offi'e as %e implement the President-s orders to ban torture and 'lose the detention 'enter at Luantanamo Ba!( The 2ational +e'urit! Coun'il is underta0ing a re4ie% to determine ho% best to unif! our efforts to 'ombat terrorism around the %orld %hile prote'ting our homeland( And this effort %ill be led b! . and this is the good ne%s( In our 'ountr!. the 2ational +e'urit! Coun'il must be agile( We fa'e nimble ad4ersaries and all of us %ill ha4e to 'onfront fast-mo4ing 'rises 6 from 'onfli't and terrorism to ne% diseases and en4ironmental disasters( To 0eep pa'e. the po%er of our moral e=ample. and integrate all elements of national influen'eI our militar! and our diploma'!. Lrou'ho . the 7nited +tates must use. and as %as mentioned !esterda!. the 2+C toda! %or0s 4er! 'losel! %ith President &bama-s 2ational E'onomi' Coun'il. the institutions and approa'hes that %e forged together through the #$th 'entur! are still ad<usting to meet the realities of the #"st 'entur!( And the %orld has definitel! 'hanged. the 2+C must be transparent( We ser4e the President( We also ser4e other prin'ipal agen'ies of our go4ernment( And that-s %h! I am 'ommitted to managing a pro'ess that is as open as possible so that %e forge poli'ies that are %idel! understood throughout our go4ernment b! our people and b! our partners around the %orld( Dourth. on'e said. 'orruption. but %e ha4e not 'hanged %ith it( But it is not too late. %e %ill ha4e to mo4e faster in de4eloping poli'! and priorities than did our prede'essors( The %orld is a smaller pla'e( Communi'ations is more rapid( And therefore our rea'tions must be s%ifter( And %e must be able to 'ommuni'ate rapidl! throughout the go4ernment and around the %orld in order to effe'ti4el! respond( And finall!.. the 2ational +e'urit! Coun'il must respond to the %orld the %a! it is and not as %e %ish it %ere( And it must 'onsider the fusion of our national priorities %ithin the broader international 'onte=t and interest( The 2+C-s mission is relati4el! simple( It should perform the fun'tions that it alone 'an perform and ser4e as a strategi' 'enter 6 and the %ord strategi' is operati4e here 6 for the President-s priorities( To a'hie4e those goals %e %ill be guided b! se4eral prin'iples( As one of our great 'omedians in the 7nited +tates. the 2+C must manage 'oordination a'ross different agen'ies of the go4ernment 6 in'reasing numbers of agen'ies( We ha4e learned the hard %a! that this has real impli'ations. our 'ultural outrea'h. b! monitoring poli'! implementation to ensure that agen'ies are 'oordinating effe'ti4el! in the field. the 2ational +e'urit! Coun'il must adapt to e4ol4ing 'hallenges( There are traditional priorities that %e %ill manage( But %e must also update our outloo0 and sometimes our organization to 0eep pa'e %ith the 'hanging %orld( To gi4e !ou <ust a fe% e=amples. and that the President-s priorities are being 'arried out in pra'ti'e( Third. e4en after the terrible e4ents of . in short.r( /arr! +ummers. %hi'h is led b! . balan'e. b! ensuring that dissenting 4ie%s are heard and 'onsidered throughout the poli'!-ma0ing pro'ess( T%o.And an e'onomi' 'risis that ser4es as the foundation of our strength( This list is b! no means e=hausti4e( The 'hallenges that %e fa'e are broader and more di4erse than %e e4er imagined. one of the institutions that is 'hanging is the 2ational +e'urit! Coun'il. it is mu'h more en<o!able to be in4ol4ed at the ta'ti'al le4el( But %e %on-t effe'ti4el! ad4an'e the priorities if %e spend our time rea'ting to e4ents. and la% enfor'ement 'apa'it!. %hi'h li0e so mu'h of our national and international se'urit! ar'hite'ture %as formed in the %a0e of World War II and during the Cold War( +o let me sa! a fe% %ords about %hat the 2ational +e'urit! Coun'il does and ho% President &bama has as0ed that I approa'h m! <ob as 2ational +e'urit! Ad4iser( The President has made 'lear that to su''eed against #"st 'entur! 'hallenges.

so too must %e 'hange our international partnerships in order to adapt to the #"st 'entur!( . the time has 'ome to do so( There is no doubt that 2AT&-s in4ol4ement in Afghanistan poses an enormous tas0 for 2AT&. it is an international problem( And as %e %or0 to meet these short-term tests. %e 'annot afford failure in Afghanistan( And that-s %h! the &bama Administration %ill %or0 'losel! %ith 2AT& and %ith the Afghan and Pa0istani Lo4ernments to forge a ne% 'omprehensi4e strateg! to meet a'hie4able goals( This %ill be a shared effort %ith our allies( Afghanistan is not simpl! an Ameri'an problem. %e must sho% the same strategi' 4ision that mar0 2AT&-s founding si= de'ades ago( &ur prede'essors had the 4ision to build institutions that %ere durable. the &bama Administration %ill listen 'losel!. not less. and %or0 hard to find 'ommon ground and de4elop 'ommon 'apabilities( I ha4e no doubt that %e are at another 'rossroads in histor!( Together %e ha4e fought %ars and torn do%n %alls of di4ision and together I 0no% that %e 'an meet the 'hallenges of this moment in histor! if %e ha4e the 'ourage and the 'ommitment to 'hange %ith the times( Than0 !ou 4er! mu'h(J 6ssential Documents are !ital primary sources underpinning the foreign policy debate1 +our'eI httpIFF%%%('fr(orgFpubli'ationF"@?"?F .editerranean( And I 'an tell !ou this( 2AT& is as rele4ant to our 'ommon se'urit! in the first half of the #"st 'entur! as it %as to our 'ommon defense in the se'ond half of the #$th 'entur!( &e 9no5 that CA41 is a strong allian0e. %e are strongest %hen %e a't alongside our partners( I 0no% there %ill be mu'h dis'ussion o4er the ne=t fe% months as to the future of 2AT&. %at'hing 2AT& troops patrol the streets of Kabul and else%here in Afghanistan and the Bal0ans and the s0ies and in the . "erha"s the strongest the 5orld has e@er 9no5n Its 'apa'it! does not <ust 'ome from the strength of its arms but from the enduring demo'rati' 4alues that bind our nations together( And from the iron-'lad 'ommitment that ensures our 'olle'ti4e se'urit!( But I also 0no% this( 2AT& must also 'hange( It needs to be'ome less rea'ti4e and more proa'ti4e( I thin0 it needs to be'ome less rigid and more fle=ible( It needs to be'ome less stationar! and more e=peditionar!( And it needs to be'ome more.itself as re3uired and to pi4ot on the 0e! priorities of our time( ust as %e 'hange our %a!s at home. essential to our 'olle'ti4e se'urit!( &ur +e'retar!-Leneral has been a strong 4oi'e for de4eloping a ne% strategi' 4ision for the allian'e1 and <udging from this 'onferen'e. but not <ust 2AT&. %e must do( President &bama is 'ommitted to pursuing a national se'urit! strateg! that is full! responsi4e to the 'hallenges that %e fa'e( That means fa'ing do%n 'urrent threats. drugs and proliferation.inister ung <ust pointed out some 4er! good e=amples of ho% 2AT& 'ould 'hange( If there is one o4erriding 'hara'teristi' to the %orld %e fa'e.uni'h1 and <udging from this 'onferen'e. although I am passionate about it( I do 0no% that the President loo0s for%ard to addressing the future of the allian'e at the >$th anni4ersar! summit in April( I ha4e been a fan and a parti'ipant in 2AT& sin'e I %as a 'hild. %hile forging the lasting stru'tures and 'apabilities that %ill prote't our people and ad4an'e our interests %ell into the future( As part of that effort. for indeed all international institutions lo'ated on the ground in an effort to bring this to a happ! and satisfa'tor! 'on'lusion( Li4en the ne=us of terror and e=tremism. %at'hing 2AT& during the Cold War as I %as gro%ing up and as a militar! 'ommander. and histor! has 'alled on us to 'hange on'e more 6 and this. that 'ould meet the 'hallenges of the da! %hile adapting o4er the 'ourse of se4eral de'ades( 2o% the %orld has 'hanged. so I am not going to d%ell on the topi'. this has been one of the finest 'onferen'es I ha4e attended in . %e %ill ta0e steps that I ha4e outlined to be stronger at home and %e %ill see0 stronger partnerships %ith our friends abroad( Those partnerships %ill re3uire 'ontinuous and rapid 'onsultation( As part of that 'onsultation. it is the truth that se'urit! is shared( And as President &bama has said time and again. be 'lear about %hat %e are doing.

an ad4iser to the Afghan minister of mines( Ameri'an and Afghan offi'ials agreed to dis'uss the mineral dis'o4eries at a diffi'ult moment in the %ar in Afghanistan( The Ameri'an-led offensi4e in . 'obalt. pro4iding the possibilit! of <obs that 'ould distra't from generations of %ar( )There is stunning potential here. Ameri'an offi'ials said( While it 'ould ta0e man! !ears to de4elop a mining industr!. for e=ample. gold and 'riti'al industrial metals li0e lithium R are so big and in'lude so man! minerals that are essential to modern industr! that Afghanistan 'ould e4entuall! be transformed into one of the most important mining 'enters in the %orld.E+ CI+E2 PublishedI une "A. far be!ond an! pre4iousl! 0no%n reser4es and enough to fundamentall! alter the Afghan e'onom! and perhaps the Afghan %ar itself.* a 0e! ra% material in the manufa'ture of batteries for laptops and Bla'0Berr!s( The 4ast s'ale of Afghanistan-s mineral %ealth %as dis'o4ered b! a small team of Pentagon offi'ials and Ameri'an geologists( The Afghan go4ernment and President Hamid Karzai %ere re'entl! briefed. said in an inter4ie% on +aturda!( )There are a lot of ifs. #$"$ WA+HI2LT&2 R The 7nited +tates has dis'o4ered nearl! T" trillion in untapped mineral deposits in Afghanistan. and . but I thin0 potentiall! it is hugel! signifi'ant(* The 4alue of the ne%l! dis'o4ered mineral deposits d%arfs the size of Afghanistan-s e=isting %ar-bedraggled e'onom!.* Len( 8a4id H( Petraeus. but a Pentagon stud! sa!s it ma! ha4e among the %orld-s largest deposits of lithium( B! A.r( Karzai seems in'reasingl! embittered to%ard the White House( .* said alil umrian!. the potential is so great that offi'ials and e=e'uti4es in the industr! belie4e it 'ould attra't hea4! in4estment e4en before mines are profitable. a''ording to senior Ameri'an go4ernment offi'ials( The pre4iousl! un0no%n deposits R in'luding huge 4eins of iron. %hi'h is based largel! on opium produ'tion and nar'oti's traffi'0ing as %ell as aid from the 7nited +tates and other industrialized 'ountries( Afghanistan-s gross domesti' produ't is onl! about T"# billion( )This %ill be'ome the ba'0bone of the Afghan e'onom!. 'ommander of the 7nited +tates Central Command.*+.+ Identifies -ast Riches of Minerals in Afghanistan (PhotoI T!ler Hi'0sFThe 2e% Kor0 Times) A blea0 Lhazni Pro4in'e seems to offer little.ean%hile. 'opper. of 'ourse. the 7nited +tates offi'ials belie4e( An internal Pentagon memo. states that Afghanistan 'ould be'ome the )+audi Arabia of<a in southern Afghanistan has a'hie4ed onl! limited gains( . 'harges of 'orruption and fa4oritism 'ontinue to plague the Karzai go4ernment.

it %ill ta0e de'ades for Afghanistan to e=ploit its mineral %ealth full!( )This is a 'ountr! that has no mining 'ulture.@$s. in a %a! that is en4ironmentall! and so'iall! responsibleO* .+o the &bama administration is hungr! for some positi4e ne%s to 'ome out of Afghanistan( Ket the Ameri'an offi'ials also re'ognize that the mineral dis'o4eries %ill almost 'ertainl! ha4e a double-edged impa't( Instead of bringing pea'e. Ameri'an geologists. the 7nited +tates Leologi'al +ur4e! began a series of aerial sur4e!s of Afghanistan-s mineral resour'es in #$$>. an Afghan engineer %ho %or0ed for the . using ad4an'ed gra4it! and magneti' measuring e3uipment atta'hed to an old 2a4! &rion P-A air'raft that fle% o4er about 5$ per'ent of the 'ountr!( .* said a'0 . but 'ast aside %hen the +o4iets %ithdre% in ". stumbled a'ross an intriguing series of old 'harts and data at the librar! of the Afghan Leologi'al +ur4e! in Kabul that hinted at ma<or mineral deposits in the 'ountr!( The! soon learned that the data had been 'olle'ted b! +o4iet mining e=perts during the +o4iet o''upation of Afghanistan in the ".$s.inistr! of . and returned them to the Leologi'al +ur4e!-s librar! onl! after the Ameri'an in4asion and the ouster of the Taliban in #$$"( )There %ere maps.inistr! of .* obser4ed Paul A( Brin0le!. gi4en its hea4! in4estment in the region( After %inning the bid for its A!na0 'opper mine in /ogar Pro4in'e. be'ause !ou had A$ to A? !ears of %ar. %hi'h 'ould upset the 7nited +tates. sent to Afghanistan as part of a broader re'onstru'tion effort. %hen Afghanistan %as mired in 'i4il %ar and later ruled b! the Taliban. Ameri'an offi'ials said( Another 'ompli'ation is that be'ause Afghanistan has ne4er had mu'h hea4! industr! before.ines is not read! to handle this.@. some %ith personal ties to the president.. in'luding in the southern and eastern regions along the border %ith Pa0istan that ha4e had some of the most intense 'ombat in the Ameri'an-led %ar against the Taliban insurgen'!( The Pentagon tas0 for'e has alread! started tr!ing to help the Afghans set up a s!stem to deal %ith mineral de4elopment( International a''ounting firms that ha4e e=pertise in mining 'ontra'ts ha4e been hired to 'onsult %ith the Afghan .* . Ameri'an offi'ials fear resour'e-hungr! China %ill tr! to dominate the de4elopment of Afghanistan-s mineral %ealth.5$s( Armed %ith the old Cussian 'harts. deput! underse'retar! of defense for business and leader of the Pentagon team that dis'o4ered the deposits( At the same time. parti'ularl! if a handful of %ell-'onne'ted oligar'hs. 4er! large mines that %ill re3uire more than <ust a gold pan(* The mineral deposits are s'attered throughout the 'ountr!. China 'learl! %ants more. it has little or no histor! of en4ironmental prote'tion either( )The big 3uestion is. a small group of Afghan geologists prote'ted the 'harts b! ta0ing them home.inistr! of . but no% there 'ould be some 4er!. and te'hni'al data is being prepared to turn o4er to multinational mining 'ompanies and other potential foreign in4estors( The Pentagon is helping Afghan offi'ials arrange to start see0ing bids on mineral rights b! ne=t fall. gain 'ontrol of the resour'es( ust last !ear. but the de4elopment did not ta0e pla'e.edlin.ines in the ".( 8uring the 'haos of the ". the ne%found mineral %ealth 'ould lead the Taliban to battle e4en more fier'el! to regain 'ontrol of the 'ountr!( The 'orruption that is alread! rampant in the Karzai go4ernment 'ould also be amplified b! the ne% %ealth. offi'ials said( )The . a geologist in the 7nited +tates Leologi'al +ur4e!-s international affairs program( )The!-4e had some small artisanal mines. Afghanistan-s minister of mines %as a''used b! Ameri'an offi'ials of a''epting a TA$ million bribe to a%ard China the rights to de4elop its 'opper mine( The minister has sin'e been repla'ed( Endless fights 'ould erupt bet%een the 'entral go4ernment in Kabul and pro4in'ial and tribal leaders in mineral-ri'h distri'ts( Afghanistan has a national mining la%.r( Brin0le! said( )We are tr!ing to help them get read!(* /i0e mu'h of the re'ent histor! of the 'ountr!.* said Ahmad Hu<abre. %ritten %ith the help of ad4isers from the World Ban0. the stor! of the dis'o4er! of Afghanistan-s mineral %ealth is one of missed opportunities and the distra'tions of %ar( In #$$G.r( Brin0le! said( )2o one 0no%s ho% this %ill %or0(* With 4irtuall! no mining industr! or infrastru'ture in pla'e toda!. but it has ne4er fa'ed a serious 'hallenge( )2o one has tested that la%1 no one 0no%s ho% it %ill stand up in a fight bet%een the 'entral go4ernment and the pro4in'es.ines. 'an this be de4eloped in a responsible %a!.

r( . a Pentagon tas0 for'e that had 'reated business de4elopment programs in Ira3 %as transferred to Afghanistan. 4er!. and then briefed 8efense +e'retar! Cobert .* .( Lates and . httpIFF%%%(n!times('omF#$"$F$>F"GF%orldFasiaF"Gminerals(htmlOnoNinterstitial .. ignored b! offi'ials in both the Ameri'an and Afghan go4ernments( In #$$. the geologists returned for an e4en more sophisti'ated stud!. it-s prett! amazing(* # %ersion of this article a00eared in 0rint on +$ne 4C( 1343( on 0a"e #4 of the 6e. it-s 4er!.The data from those flights %as so promising that in #$$5. no one besides the geologists had bothered to loo0 at the information R and no one had sought to translate the te'hni'al data to measure the potential e'onomi' 4alue of the mineral deposits( +oon. Jork edition. using an old British bomber e3uipped %ith instruments that offered a three-dimensional profile of mineral deposits belo% the earth-s surfa'e( It %as the most 'omprehensi4e geologi' sur4e! of Afghanistan e4er 'ondu'ted( The handful of Ameri'an geologists %ho pored o4er the ne% data said the results %ere astonishing( But the results gathered dust for t%o more !ears. Ameri'an geologists %or0ing %ith the Pentagon team ha4e been 'ondu'ting ground sur4e!s on dr! salt la0es in %estern Afghanistan %here the! belie4e there are large deposits of lithium( Pentagon offi'ials said that their initial anal!sis at one lo'ation in Lhazni Pro4in'e sho%ed the potential for lithium deposits as large of those of Boli4ia. there is a gro%ing sense that the! are in the midst of one of the great dis'o4eries of their 'areers( )&n the ground. %hi'h no% has the %orld-s largest 0no%n lithium reser4es( Dor the geologists %ho are no% s'ouring some of the most remote stret'hes of Afghanistan to 'omplete the te'hni'al studies ne'essar! before the international bidding pro'ess is begun. and the 3uantities are large enough to ma0e Afghanistan a ma<or %orld produ'er of both. a soft metal used in produ'ing super'ondu'ting steel. rare earth elements and large gold deposits in Pashtun areas of southern Afghanistan( ust this month. promising. and 'ame upon the geologi'al data( 7ntil then. the Pentagon business de4elopment tas0 for'e brought in teams of Ameri'an mining e=perts to 4alidate the sur4e!-s findings.r( Karzai( +o far.edlin said( )A'tuall!. 7nited +tates offi'ials said( &ther finds in'lude large deposits of niobium. the biggest mineral deposits dis'o4ered are of iron and 'opper.

adding that Washington gi4es him )bags of mone!* too be'ause his offi'e la'0s funds( In Washington. The 2e% Kor0 Times reported that Iran %as gi4ing bags of 'ash to President KarzaiHs 'hief of staff. +tate 8epartment spo0esman P( ( Cro%le! said some of the 7(+( aid to Afghanistan is in 'ash( 7(+( offi'ials asserted the mone! flo%ing from Tehran %as proof that Iran is pla!ing a double game in Afghanistan R %ooing the go4ernment %hile helping Taliban insurgents fighting 7(+( and 2AT& for'es( Iran denies that( )Iran has pro4ided the 'ountr! %ith plent! of help. to bu! his lo!alt! and promote Iranian interests in Afghanistan( The Times 3uoted unidentified sour'es as sa!ing the 'ash amounted to a slush fund that Karzai and 8audzai used to pa! la%ma0ers. President Bara'0 &bamaHs press se'retar!. go4ernment funds sent abroad. denied that( )We-re not in the big bags of 'ash business.Iran a'0no%ledges it funds Afghan go4ernment 5y NASS6R -AR+M+' Associated "ress 6 Tuesda!. #$"$. #$$".otta0i appear before parliament to 'larif! the pa!ments.onda! that he had instru'ted 8audzai.ehmanparast said Iran-s help began !ears ago( He said pea'e and stabilit! in Afghanistan is important for Iran( The a'0no%ledgment prompted a 'hallenge from se4en Iranian la%ma0ers %ho demanded that Doreign . &'tober #>. must get parliamentar! appro4al( In a letter. in'luding aid donations and loans.inistr! spo0esman Camin . to a''ept the mone! from Tehran( Before Karzai spo0e. terrorist atta'0s in the 7nited +tates. %here it 'ame from. 'alling them )ridi'ulous and insulting(* Iran publi'l! opposed the 7(+(-led offensi4e that toppled the Taliban after the +ept( "".* he said Tuesda!( Earlier.inister . 5I"# pm ET TEHCA2.anou'hehr . the la%ma0ers demanded to 0no% the amount of mone! sent o4er the past fi4e !ears.onda! he re'ei4es millions of dollars in 'ash from Iran. too(* . a former ambassador to Iran. the Iranian Embass! in Afghanistan dismissed the allegations that the Iranian go4ernment %as ma0ing 'ash pa!ments to 8audzai. 7mar 8audzai. Cobert Libbs.* Doreign . not to bu! influen'e in the offi'e of Afghan President Hamid Karzai( Karzai said . though its relations %ith the Taliban regime had been frost!( Iran is belie4ed to not %ant the Taliban to return to po%er( But it remains %ar! of a long-term 7(+( militar! presen'e on its doorstep in both Ira3 and Afghanistan( +our'eI httpIFFne%s(!ahoo('omFsFapF#$"$"$#>FapNonNreNmiNeaFmlNiranNafghan .ehmanparast said Tuesda! in his %ee0l! ne%s briefing in Tehran( )Iran has helped 'onstru'tion of Afghanistan and the preparation of its e'onomi' infrastru'ture and it %ill pursue it in the future. a''ording to the ne%s %ebsite httpIFF%%%(Khabaronline(ir( The 'all indi'ated that la%ma0ers R %ho ha4e the po%er to impea'h ministers R %ere una%are of the pa!ments( 7nder IranHs 'onstitution. Iran 6 Iran a'0no%ledged Tuesda! it has been sending funds to neighboring Afghanistan for !ears. tribal elders R and e4en Taliban 'ommanders R to se'ure their lo!alt!( Karzai told reporters . the %a! it %as transferred and the legal basis for the pa!ments( &n +aturda!. but said the mone! %as intended to aid re'onstru'tion.

are follo%ing a similar timetable( +ome are %ithdra%ing troops and others are loo0ing to mo4e from 'ombat to training roles( While Afghan President Hamid Karzai has set a target of #$"G. Taliban strongholds %here fighting remains fier'est..J IC&+ President 2orine .J . 2AT&Hs 'i4ilian representati4e in Afghanistan.Fe5 Afghans 9no5 reason for 5ar.F"" atta'0s that 0illed about A.%idel! seen as so 'orrupt and inept that it is unable to support itself -.issing MariablesJ report to be released later on Drida!( The report b! The International Coun'il on +e'urit! and 8e4elopment (IC&+) poli'! thin0-tan0 sho%ed .$$$ people( The %ar has no% dragged into its "$th !ear and 4iolen'e is at its %orst. despite a re'ord number of foreign troops. %ith @$ per'ent of ?$$ men inter4ie%ed in Par%an and Pan<shir pro4in'es thin0ing the 'entral go4ernment %as prote'ting their interests( (Editing b! +ugita Kat!al) httpIFFne%s(!ahoo('omFsFnmF#$"$""".# per'ent of ".aeda %ould again use the 'ountr! to laun'h atta'0s against the West( IC&+ senior poli'! anal!st orrit Kamminga said the )negati4e blo%ba'0* of the foreign presen'e 'ould be managed b! addressing the 'hroni' po4ert!. .no% at about "?$. #$"$. %ho thought 2AT&-led for'es %ere %inning the %ar almost doubling to >G per'ent bet%een une and &'tober #$"$( It %as also a 4er! different pi'ture in the north.FtsNnmFusNafghanistanNreport .a'8onald said( The report said there %as a 'ontinued Jrelationship gapJ bet%een Afghans and the international 'ommunit!. . %ith leaders to dis'uss a #$"G target date set b! Kabul( De% Afghans in Helmand and Kandahar pro4in'es. under pressure at home to <ustif! their 'ontinued 'ommitment to an in'reasingl! unpopular %ar. sa!s the JAfghanistan TransitionI .$$$ Afghan men sur4e!ed in Helmand and Kandahar 0no% nothing of the hi<a'0ed airliner atta'0s on 7(+( targets in #$$"( JThe la'0 of a%areness of %h! %e are there 'ontributes to the high le4els of negati4it! to%ard the 2AT& militar! operations and made the <ob of the Taliban easier. and that 5# per'ent thought al . des'ribing the la'0 of understanding as Jdramati'J( 7(+(-ba'0ed Afghan for'es toppled the Islamist Taliban go4ernment in late #$$" for sheltering al .$$$ -. said this %ee0 Je!e-%atering le4els of 4iolen'e b! Western standardsJ might mean the transition spills into #$"?( That thro%s the emphasis ba'0 on the Afghan go4ernment -.a'8onald told Ceuters from Washington( JWe need to e=plain to the Afghan people %h! %e are here. unemplo!ment and displa'ement fa'ed b! ordinar! Afghans( The report noted impro4ements in some areas of the south. %ith militar! and 'i4ilian 'asualties at their highest le4els( EZIT TI. food shortages.ar0 +ed%ill.and the readiness of Afghan for'es to ta0e o4er( The IC&+ report sho%ed >" per'ent of respondents in Helmand and Kandahar belie4e Afghan se'urit! for'es %ould not be able to pro4ide ade3uate se'urit! %hen foreign for'es %ithdra%. a ne% report sho%ed on Drida!( 2AT& leaders gathered in /isbon for a summit on Drida! %here the transition from foreign for'es -. a 0e! battleground in Helmand. and that ?> per'ent belie4e the Afghan poli'e are helping the Taliban( It noted there %as 'lear )potential for the Afghan se'urit! for'es to s%it'h sides* after being trained b! 2AT& for'es( The report said @" per'ent of those inter4ie%ed in the south thought al .to Afghan se'urit! responsibilit! %ill be at the top of the agenda. and both 'on4in'e them and sho% them that their future is better %ith us than the Taliban. 2o4ember ". 0no% %h! foreign troops are in Afghanistan.aeda %ould return to Afghanistan if the Taliban regained po%er.I"5 am ET (Ceuters) KAB7/ (Ceuters) 6 Afghans in t%o 'ru'ial southern pro4in'es are almost 'ompletel! una%are of the +eptember "" atta'0s on the 7nited +tates and donHt 0no% the! pre'ipitated the foreign inter4ention no% in its "$th !ear. %ants to begin %ithdra%ing 7(+( troops from ul! #$""( European 2AT& leaders. %ho %ill re4ie% his Afghanistan %ar strateg! ne=t month.ETAB/E Attention is no% fo'used on an e=it timetable( President Bara'0 &bama. %ith the number of people in .ar<ah.aeda leaders %ho plotted the . ne5 study sho5s 5y "aul =ait 6 Drida!.

it-erland on +an$ary 1C( 133B. .elcomes former Secretary of State 'enry .issin"er before a >oint session of the World &conomic *or$m (W&*) in Da%os( S.M$sharraf (left) .o$ncil on *orei"n Relations I #f"hanistan and Pakistan Pakistan.s dictator Per%e. (Re$ters) 7his 0hoto .as 0$blished in the 133G o$ncil on *orei"n Relations #nn$al Re0ort.

as taken at 7he Roose%elt 'otel in 6e.M$sharraf.croft shakes hands .M$ taken at 7he Roose%elt 'otel in 6e.?Pakistan B$siness o$ncil) .ith Pakistan/s dictator Per%e.*ormer Secretary of State Madeleine #lbri"ht shakes hands . 7his 0hoto . (U.S.?Pakistan B$siness o$ncil) *ormer 6ational Sec$rity #d%isor Brent Sco. (U. Jork ity on Se0tember 13( 133E. Jork ity on Se0tember 13( 133E.?Pakistan B$siness o$ncil) *ormer U.S.ith Pakistan/s dictator Per%e. Jork ity on Se0tember 13( 133E. ( taken at 7he Roose%elt 'otel in 6e.M$sharraf. 7his 0hoto . 7his 0hoto . 'ills stands beside Pakistan/s dictator Per%e. 7rade Re0resentati%e arla #.S.S.

(#*P=Getty !ma"es) :ice President Dick heney "reets Pakistan/s des0ot Per%e.Pakistan/s dictator President Per%e. Robert Gates held talks . (#*P=Getty !ma"es) .M$sharraf in !slamabad( Pakistan on *ebr$ary 1E( 133G.ith Secretary of Defense Robert Gates at #rmy 'o$se in Ra.ith Per%e.M$sharraf (left) shakes hands .al0indi( Pakistan on *ebr$ary 41( 133G.M$sharraf ahead of a s0rin" offensi%e a"ainst the 7aliban.

ith Pakistan/s dictator Per%e. listens at the Harvard University's John F. Massachusetts on September 8. Dean of Kennedy School of Government.M$sharraf at the Presidential Palace in !slamabad( Pakistan on +$ne 1G( 133E. (State De0artment 0hoto by +osie D$ckett) Pervez Musharraf. the dictator of Pakistan. (Photo By Douglas McFadd/Getty Images) . speaks to guests about his vision of Pakistan in the 21st century as Joseph Nye (left). 2002.Secretary of State ondolee--a Rice meets . Kennedy School of Government in Cambridge.

ick( #ssistant U. 7his 0hoto a00ears in the 1332 o$ncil on *orei"n Relations #nn$al Re0ort.S.ith Pakistan/s des0ot Per%e.M$sharraf( President of !slamic Re0$blic of Pakistan8 former Secretary of State Madeleine . 7rade Re0resentati%e #mbassador arla 'ills a00ear at a l$ncheon held at 7he Roose%elt 'otel in 6e. Left to ri"ht5 #mbassador Do$"las #. #lbri"ht8 M$hammad #li D$rrani( #mbassador of Pakistan to the United States8 and former U. 'art. 7rade Re0resentati%e for So$th and So$th.S.S.S. Shaheen( hairman of the Board of Directors of U. (U. #lbri"ht and 'ills are members of the o$ncil on *orei"n Relations and members of the 7rilateral ommission.est #sia #ffairs8 Gerald L.Richard 'olbrooke (left) a00ears .?Pakistan B$siness o$ncil) . Jork ity on Se0tember 13( 133E. hamber of ommerce8 Per%e..M$sharraf at the 'arold Pratt 'o$se.

Senators h$ck 'a"el( +ohn .ith former U.erry( and +ose0h Biden meet . 7his 0hoto a00ears in the 133C o$ncil on *orei"n Relations #nn$al Re0ort.ith Per%e.M$sharraf meets .S. 'aass (center). Left to ri"ht5 U. h$ck 'a"el and +ohn .al0indi( Pakistan on *ebr$ary 4F( 133B.S.erry are members of the o$ncil on *orei"n Relations.M$sharraf (ri"ht)( the Dictator of Pakistan( in Ra. #mbassador to Pakistan 6icholas Platt (left) and o$ncil on *orei"n Relations President Richard 6. (#*P=Getty !ma"es) .Pakistan/s des0ot Per%e.

(Getty !ma"es) .M$sharraf s0eaks to the a$dience d$rin" a meetin" at the o$ncil on *orei"n Relations in 6e. Jork ity on 6o%ember F( 1343.Pakistan/s former President Per%e.

ith U.Pakistani Defence Minister #hmed M$khtar (L) and !nterior Minister Rahman Malik ( ) chat .ith US &n%oy for #f"hanistan and Pakistan Richard 'olbrooke (R) $0on their arri%al for a meetin" . (Getty !ma"es) Pakistani *orei"n Minister Shah Mehmood @$reshi (left) shakes hands . (Getty !ma"es) .ith 0rime minister in !slamabad( Pakistan on +$ne 2( 133F. S0ecial Re0resentati%e for Pakistan and #f"hanistan Richard 'olbrooke $0on his arri%al for a meetin" in !slamabad( Pakistan on +$ly 4G( 1343.S.

(Getty !ma"es) . on May G( 133F.s Pakistan/s President #sif #li Hardari (R) s0eakin" .S.ith U. S0ecial en%oy for Pakistan and #f"hanistan Richard 'olbrooke (L) d$rin" a meetin" in !slamabad( Pakistan on +$ne <( 133F. (#P Photo) 7his hand o$t 0ict$re released by Press !nformation De0artment (P!D) sho.Pakistan President #sif #li Hardari talks . +ohn .erry before their l$nch on a0itol 'ill in Washin"ton( D.ith Senate *orei"n Relations ommittee hairman Sen. .

(Getty !ma"es) !n this 0hoto released by Pakistan.S. entral ommand( meets Pakistan.S.s Ministry of Defence( U. #shfaD Par%e.ith Pakistani officials on Monday.2 billion dollar aid 0acka"e. Petrae$s disc$ssed bilateral and sec$rity iss$es .. 7he bill 0re%ents the f$ndin" from bein" $sed for n$clear 0roliferation( to s$00ort militants or to attack nei"hborin" co$ntries ?? namely !ndia ?? and calls for a c$t?off in aid if Pakistan fails to crack do..General Da%id Petrae$s (L)( commander of the US entral ommand is "reeted by Pakistani Prime Minister Jo$s$f Ra-a Gilani (1nd L) $0on his arri%al in !slamabad( Pakistan on )ctober 4F( 133F( as Pakistani Defence Minister ha$dhry #hmad M$khtar ( ) looks on..erry and a to0 U.al0indi( Pakistan on December 4C( 133F.ayani at General 'eadD$arters in Ra.s hief of #rmy Staff( Gen.S. "eneral held talk .n on eAtremists. Leadin" U. Senator +ohn*7G-4P DTda%idU0etrae$sUashfaD . Da%id Petrae$s( left( chairman of the U.ith Pakistani officials as Washin"ton tried to co$nter 0rotests o%er a contro%ersial G. #rmy Gen. (#P Photo) htt05==..

Jork ity on #$"$st 42( 133G. Bena-ir Bh$tto . (#P Photo by Mary #ltaffer) . (#P Photo by Mary #ltaffer) *ormer Prime Minister of Pakistan Bena-ir Bh$tto addresses members and "$ests of the o$ncil on *orei"n Relations in 6e. Jork ity on #$"$st 42( assassinated in Pakistan on December 1G( 133G.*ormer Prime Minister of Pakistan Bena-ir Bh$tto (left) s0eaks to Richard 'aass( President of the o$ncil on *orei"n Relations( in 6e.

*red Ber"sten( Brent Sco. Shaheen( hairman of the Board of Directors of U. *red Ber"sten( Director of !nstit$te for !nternational &conomics8 Per%e. (#P Photo) o$ncil board member .M$sharraf( President of !slamic Re0$blic of Pakistan8 Gerald L.S.. #lbri"ht8 and Mr.S.Left to ri"ht5 M$hammad #li D$rrani( #mbassador of Pakistan to the United States8 +ay ollins( hairman of taken at 7he Roose%elt 'otel in 6e.?Pakistan B$siness o$ncil8 . #lbri"ht( and arla #. +ay ollins( . Jork ity on Se0tember 13( 133E. 'ills8 former Secretary of State Madeleine .?Pakistan B$siness o$ncil) Pakistani *orei"n Minister Makhdoom Shah Mahmood @$reshi( left( res0onds to a D$estion from *orei"n Relations +ami( Miscik at the o$ncil on *orei"n Relations in 6e. 6a>eeb Gha$ri( hairman of 6etSol 7echnolo"ies( !nc. 'ills are members of the o$ncil on *orei"n Relations. hamber of ommerce8 former 6ational Sec$rity #d%isor Brent Sco.croft8 former U. (U. 7rade Re0resentati%e arla #.S..S.croft( Madeleine . Jork ity on Se0tember 14( 1343. 7his 0hoto .

atches #f"hanistan/s President 'amid .as 0$blished on the back co%er of the 1331 o$ncil on *orei"n Relations #nn$al Re0ort. (Photo by S0encer Platt=Getty !ma"es) Da%id Rockefeller "reets #f"hanistan/s President 'amid .ar-ai (left) deli%er a s0eech at the o$ncil on *orei"n Relations in 6e. Jork ity on Se0tember 4<( 1331. . 7his 0hoto .*ormer Senator Geor"e Mitchell .ar-ai.

oichi .#f"hanistan/s President 'amid . Wolfensohn embraces #f"hanistan/s President 'amid . (Sha. .ith World Bank President +ames Wolfensohn at a dinner "i%en by Wolfensohn follo.n 7he.amoshida=Getty !ma"es) World Bank President +ames D. (Photo by .ar-ai (left) at the World Bank headD$arters in Washin"ton( (left) shakes hands . on +an$ary 1B( 1331.=#*P=Getty !ma"es) .in" a session of the !nternational onference on Reconstr$ction #ssistance to #f"hanistan in 7okyo( +a0an on +an$ary 14( 1331.

ar-ai( the President of #f"hanistan.ith 'amid . 7his 0hoto a00ears in the 133C o$ncil on *orei"n Relations #nn$al Re0ort. Peterson (left) and o$ncil on *orei"n Relations President Richard 6. . 'aass (ri"ht) talk to 'amid . o$ncil on *orei"n Relations hairman Peter G. 7his 0hoto .o$ncil on *orei"n Relations President Richard 'aass shakes hands 0$blished in the 133G o$ncil on *orei"n Relations #nn$al Re0ort.

Secretary of State olin Po. .ard to 'amid .atches Secretary of Defense Donald R$msfeld (left) "reet #f"hanistan/s President 'amid .ar-ai at the 'arold Pratt 'o$se.ell (center) . on *ebr$ary 1G( 133<. . (6#7) Photo) Left5 Senators +ohn Mc ain and Bill *rist "i%e an at a 6#7) meetin" in !stanb$l( 7$rkey on +$ne 1F( in Washin"ton D. Ri"ht5 *areed Hakaria talks to #f"hanistan/s President 'amid .

ay. (Re$ters) . President Barack )bama/s to0 en%oy for #f"hanistan( meets .ar-ai (R) shakes hands .ab$l( #f"hanistan on #0ril 2( 133F.s conference in .S.ith U. .ar-ai (R) at the 0residential 0alace in .s President 'amid .#f"han President 'amid .ab$l( #f"hanistan on +an$ary 41( 1332.ere $nder .S. Senate Ma>ority Leader Bill *rist d$rin" a ne. (V #'M#D M#S))D=Re$ters= orbis) Richard 'olbrooke (left)( U.ith #f" 0led"ed on Wednesday to ens$re delayed 0arliamentary 0olls that had been d$e in #0ril are held as soon as 0ossible( sayin" necessary 0re0arations .

uni'h +e'urit! Conferen'e in . at the G?th . Lerman! on Debruar! @.( ames /( ones is a member of the Coun'il on Doreign Celations( . #$$. greets Hamid Karzai (right).arine Corps Len( ames /( ones (left). President of the Islami' Cepubli' of Afghanistan.Cetired 7(+( .uni'h. 7(+( 2ational +e'urit! Ad4isor.

ar-ai at a 6#7) meetin" in !stanb$l( 7$rkey on +$ne 1F( 133C.S. (6#7) Photo) Halmay .ar-ai d$rin" a 0ress conference at the Presidential Palace in . (Shah Marai=#*P=Getty !ma"es) .General +ames L.ith President of #f"hanistan 'amid . #mbassador to #f"hanistan( and #f"han *orei"n Minister Dr.ab$l( #f"hanistan on March 4G( 1332.atch Secretary of State ondolee--a Rice (second from left) shake hands .ith #f"han President 'amid . +ones( the S$0reme #llied ommander of &$ro0e( shakes hands . #bd$llah #bd$llah (ri"ht) .halil-ad (left)( the U.

De0artment of Defense) Secretary of State ondolee--a Rice shakes hands .man( President of the !slamic State of #f"hanistan( at the State De0artment on May 1<( 1332.ith 'amid . KDickL heney (left) and #f"hanistan/s President 'amid . #ir *orce Master Ser"eant +ames shake hands after a 0ress conference at the Presidential Palace in . (Michael Gross( State De0artment) . Bo.S. (Photo by U.S.:ice President Richard B.ab$l( #f"hanistan( on December G( 133C.

arl &ikenberry( ommander of ombined *orces ommand( at the G$l .S. entral ommand( .S.ards a medal to #rmy Lie$tenant General .Donald R$msfeld meets #f"han President 'amid .ab$l( #f"hanistan on +an$ary 4E( 133G. *rom left to ri"ht5 Gen.hana Palace in #f"hanistan on +an$ary 13( 133G. Ri"ht 0hoto5 #rmy General +ohn #bi-aid( ommander of U. #bi-aid and &ikenberry are members of the o$ncil on *orei"n Relations.ith #f"hanistan/s President 'amid .ar-ai a. Richard in . (Photo5 U. L$ti is not a member of the o$ncil on *orei"n Relations8 L$ti has attended the Bilderber" Meetin"s in the 0ast. De0artment of Defense) Left 0hoto5 Defense Secretary Robert Gates meets .ar-ai (ri"ht fore"ro$nd) at the Penta"on on +$ne 4C( 133C. Myers( Donald R$msfeld( Do$"las *eith( Peter Rodman( and William L$ti.atches #f"hanistan/s President 'amid . .

(Photo5 U.S. (Shah Marai=#*P=Getty !ma"es) .ith #f"hanistan/s President 'amid .ab$l( #f"hanistan( on December C( 133<.ar-ai and U.S.Secretary of Defense Donald R$msfeld (left) s0eaks .halil-ad (left) attend a 0ress conference at the Presidential Palace in .ar-ai in . Defense De0artment) #f"han President 'amid . #mbassador to #f"hanistan Halmay .ab$l( #f"hanistan on March 12( 133C to disc$ss a 0ro0osal abo$t a US#!D 0ro"ram to b$ild and rehabilitate some <GB medical clinics aro$nd the co$ntry.

(#*P=Getty !ma"es) .ar-ai (left) d$rin" a meetin" at the 0residential Palace in .ab$l( #f"hanistan on +$ly 13( 133B. Senator +ack Reed and Senator h$ck 'a"el are sittin" on the left side.erry listens to President of #f"hanistan 'amid . (#P Photo by RafiD MaDbool) #f"han President 'amid . +ack Reed and h$ck 'a"el are members of the o$ncil on *orei"n Relations.ith Democratic Party 0residential contender Barack )bama (third from left) d$rin" a meetin" at 7he Presidential Palace in .ab$l( #f"hanistan on *ebr$ary 13( (third from ri"ht) talks .Senator +ohn .

.ar-ai (R) at a for$m at the Woodro. Wilson !nternational enter for Scholars( a00ears . Wilson enter in Washin"ton( D. on Se0tember . . +ohn .ith #f"han President 'amid .e%in Wolf) a0itol on in Washin"ton( D.s President 'amid .( ri"ht( meets . on Se0tember 1E( 133B.ith #f"hanistan.erry( D?Mass.*ormer on"ressman Lee 'amilton (D?!6) (left)( 0resident and director of the Woodro. (#P Photo by . (Re$ters) at the 12( 133B.

Members of the !slamic #lliance of #f"hanistan %isit the 'arold Pratt 'o$se in 4FBG.M$sharraf (center) and Prime Minister Sha$kat #-i.(left) in !slamabad( Pakistan on *ebr$ary G( 1332. . (Photo5 o$ncil on *orei"n Relations #nn$al Re0ort) 7his 0hoto .ith Pakistani des0ot Per%e. Left5 World Bank President +ames Wolfensohn talks to President of #f"hanistan 'amid .as 0$blished in the 4FBF o$ncil on *orei"n Relations #nn$al at a dinner in 7okyo( +a0an on +an$ary 14( 1331. Ri"ht5 World Bank President +ames Wolfensohn (ri"ht) meets .

M$sharraf 0re0are for dinner at the White 'o$se on Se0tember 1G( 133E. B$sh( Secretary of State ondolee--a Rice( and Pakistan/s dictator Per%e.ith the 7aliban in .ar-ai( :ice President Dick heney( President Geor"e W. (White 'o$se 0hoto by &ric Dra0er) . (So$rce5 Between "orlds: The &aking of #n #merican Life by Bill Richardson) President of #f"hanistan 'amid .S. Re0resentati%e to the United 6ations Bill Richardson ne"otiates .ab$l( #f"hanistan in 4FFB.U. heney and Rice are members of the o$ncil on *orei"n Relations.

former Lo4ernor of 2e% Kor0.>>). Richard 'olbrooke and Da%id Petrae$s are members of the o$ncil on *orei"n Relations.?@ 6 #" &'tober ".#f"han President 'amid .ab$l( #f"hanistan on #0ril 44( 1343. meets %ith Len( .inister of 8efense of Pa0istan (#@ &'tober ". Pa0istan on . President of Pa0istan (reign. during their meeting in Kara'hi.ohammed A!ub ( )( U. entral ommand( arri%e for a conference at . S0ecial Re0resentati%e for #f"hanistan and Pakistan Richard 'olbrooke (L)( and U.) and . ci%ilian and military in%ol%ement in #f"hanistan for the comin" year.S.>. #rmy General Da%id Petrae$s (R)( ommander of'h ". 'olbrooke and Petrae$s attended a t. ".?@ 6 #? .S.('h #5.ab$l !nternational #ir0ort in . (Re$ters) A4erell Harriman (left).?. #5 &'tober ".in" U.o?day conference re%ie.

ith Pakistan/s President and Defense Minister #y$b .innard) Geor"e .er a00ears at a 0arty . (So$rce5 Ike '()*+'))*: # Pictorial History .i"ht &isenho.arachi( Pakistan in 4F2F.nvoys to the &iddle "orld: #dventures in %i0lomacy by (#mbassador) Geor"e McGhee) . (So$rce5 . McGhee (left) meets .President D.dition/ by Do$"las .ith Pakistan/s Prime Minister LiaD$at #li .han (ri"ht) in .han (ri"ht) and &leanor Roose%elt in 4F23.-ommemorative .

Gates (ri"ht) recei%es the 'enry M.ish !nstit$te for 6ational Sec$rity #ffairs (+!6S#) ann$al dinner in Washin"ton( D. +ackson Distin"$ished Ser%ice #. Secretary of Defense Robert M. Robert M. . De0artment of Defense) .S. on )ctober 42( 133G.S0ecial?!nterest Lobbyists I 7heir Role in the Global War on 7errorism5 4amn %ankees or 5ar )rofiteers. (Photo5 U.ard from Robert Ste%ens( hairman and &) of Lockheed Martin( at the +e. Gates and Robert Ste%ens are members of the o$ncil on *orei"n Relations.

.. Jork on March 4C( 133B.econcl$bny. (Photo5 htt05==. B$sh deli%ers a s0eech at the &conomic l$b of 6e..as0P#lb$m6oTC) .com=0hotoalb$m.President Geor"e W.


D$berstein (Director( 4FFG?0resent)( (#dm.enneth M.ab (1343?0resent). +ohnson( hairman and &) of General Dynamics or0.) +ay L. Myers (Director( 133E?0resent)( and hristine 7odd Whitman (Director( 133<?0resent). Daley (Director( 133E?0resent)( . Myers also ser%es on the board of directors of 6orthro0 Gr$mman8 Myers . G$tierre. S.) +ose0h W.anson( hairman and &) of Raytheon om0any (133C?0resent) Members of the board of directors of United 7echnolo"ies or0.BR (133G?0resent) Second from left5 Lo$is R. Daley( D$berstein( Giambastiani( and Sch. .Left5 William P.(Director( 133F?0resent)( ( elected director of 6orthro0 Gr$mman in 133E. Ste%ens ( hairman and &) of Lockheed Martin (1332? 134<))( (Gen. Loy (Director( 1332?0resent) Members of the board of directors of 7he Boein" om0any in 1343( left to ri"ht5 William M. Ralston (Director( 133<?0resent)( (#dm. (1343?0resent) Ri"ht5 William '. hZne%ert ( hairman and hief &Aec$ti%e )fficer of United 7echnolo"ies or0. Sch.) Richard B. +ames (+im) Mc6erney( +r. Members of the board of directors of Lockheed Martin in 1343( left to ri"ht5 Robert +. (1343?0resent)) enter5 W. Giambastiani (Director( 133F?0resent)( and S$san . Jale 4FG4)( hairman and &) of Boein" (1332?0resent) Second from ri"ht5 (#dm. (B. in 1343( left to ri"ht5 +amie Gorelick (Director( 1333?0resent)( arlos M. Utt( hairman( President( and hief &Aec$ti%e )fficer of . Richard B.) &dm$nd P.ab are members of the o$ncil on *orei"n Relations.) +ames M.#.

7(+( +enator Hillar! Codham Clinton spea0s at a Center for a 2e% Ameri'an +e'urit! e4ent in une #$$5( 7(+( Arm! Leneral 8a4id Petraeus. Commander of 7(+( Central Command. an internationalist organization in 2e% Kor0 Cit!( .( Leneral 8a4id Petraeus is a member of the Coun'il on Doreign Celations. spea0s a Center for a 2e% Ameri'an +e'urit! e4ent in une #$$.

and +hultz are members of the Coun'il on Doreign Celations.hen its ori"inal leaders and others belie%ed that #merica/s .ay.hether in its Shia or S$nni %ariants( seeks to c$rtail free s0eech and reli"ion( s$b>$"ate . !n times of "reat challen"e( #mericans of all stri0es ha%e come to"ether to defend U.S. PD/s leaders and members W indi%id$als of di%erse back"ro$nd and 0olitical 0ers$asion W ha%e come to"ether to ed$cate free 0eo0le abo$t the threat that militant !slamism 0oses to the United States and the free .hich transcends state borders and reco"ni-es no la. !n the face of this "lobal threat( .as fla""in" and that the United States sho$ld 0$rs$e 0olicies to brin" that .ill to . K0resent dan"erL W militant !slamism and the terrorism that it is s0a. Second( they t$rn #merican la.riters( and other forei"n 0olicy eA0erts. 7he PD then re?emer"ed in 4FGE .orld to their ri"hts( and ener"y inde0endence.o distinct .ith other "ro$0s interested in resistin" tyranny and terror W "ro$0s . Militant !slamism( .omen( eradicate homoseA$als( and .as bro$"ht home #mericans on Se0tember 44( 1334( b$t most remain ill?informed abo$t the ideolo"y behind it. Per%ertin" one of the . Senators +oe Lieberman and +on ..ho stands in their .ith ca$ses as di%erse as free s0eech( . 7errorism .ith "ro$0s and indi%id$als that share its "oal.nin".hich the terrorists emanate.7he ommittee on the Present Dan"er is a non?0artisan or"ani-ation .n( the PD reaches across 0olitical lines to .in the old War .eakness. Woolse!. 7he ommittee . So$rce5 htt05==.ho resist these "oals (incl$din" the %ast ma>ority of M$slims and co$ra"eo$s M$slim reformers in the Middle &ast and else.or" formed in 4F23 as a bi0artisan ed$cation and ad%ocacy or"ani-ation to b$ild a national consens$s behind President 7r$man/s 0olicy of KcontainmentL a"ainst So%iet eA0ansionism.. 6o.a"e %iolent >ihad a"ainst those .yl ser%e as 'onorary o? hairs. 7(+( +enator on K!l. 7he PD 0artners .ays that militant !slamists 0$rs$e their "oals.0h0Po0tionTcomRcontentI%ie. interests.ork .orld/s "reat reli"ions( militant !slamists seek to bend the . 7he ommittee on the Present Dan"er is 0ro$d to foc$s attention a"ain on the K0resent dan"erL that #merica faces. C( ames Woolse! (Co-Chairman). +ames Woolsey( Director of the !# $nder President linton.orld8 to co$nsel a"ainst the a00easement of terrorists and the states that s0onsor them8 to s$00ort 0olicies to confront this menace8 and to enco$ra"e the de%elo0ment of ci%il society and democracy in re"ions from . With no 0hiloso0hical bent of its o. 7oday( the PD incl$des o%er 433 former White 'o$se officials( #mbassadors( abinet Secretaries( academics( .. 7his "oal reflects the im0ortant role that the PD has 0layed for more than half a cent$ry.( the PD has ret$rned to confront the ne.( com0lacency and i"norance are as dan"ero$s as military . left to rightI 7(+( +enator oe /ieberman. !ts o? hairmen are the 'onorable Geor"e Sh$lt-( Secretary of State $nder President Rea"an( and to a s$ccessf$l concl$sion. 7he PD ed$cates the 0$blic not only abo$t this ideolo"y( b$t also abo$t the t.ith one "oal W to stiffen #merican resol%e to confront the challen"e 0resented by terrorism and the ideolo"ies that dri%e it. 7hey are ea"er to attack W indeed( to kill W anyone . *irst( they $se the traditional tools of terrorism W "$ns( eA0losi%es( and( as #mericans sa. and Leorge P( +hultz (Co-Chairman)( /ieberman. first?hand( hi>acked airliners. an internationalist organization in 2e% Kor0 Cit!( .TarticleIidT23I!temidT2< /eaders of The Committee on the Present 8anger.s( liberties( and sensiti%ities a"ainst $s( demandin" Kres0ectL and le"al sanction for 0ractices that threaten o$r sec$rity( o$r %al$es( and o$r traditions.committeeonthe0resentdan"er.

S. We a"ree .oran.ith the dan"er decisi%ely.hat they call a K>ihadL a"ainst KinfidelsL based on their readin" of the . !f . 'o$se of Re0resentati%es =a$rence J& Eaas( Senior *ello.ith no 0$nches 0$lled( and s$00ort the necessary actions to deal . *orei"n Policy( #merican *orei"n Policy o$ncil )eter Eannafor*( member( PD board of directors8 a$thor8 0$blic affairs eAec$ti%e Eon& Jerome (& Eauer( *ormer #ssistant Secretary P$blic 'ealth &mer"ency Pre0aredness( ''S Amoretta (& ?Amie@ Eoeber( former De0$ty Under Secretary( U.S.( '$dson !nstit$te8 *ormer General o$nsel( )MB )eter Euessy( President( GeoStrate"ic #nalysis Genneth (& Jensen( &Aec$ti%e Director( #merican ommittees on *orei"n Relations A!i Jorisch( *ormer Policy #d%isor( 7reas$ry De0artment )ffice of 7errorism and *inancial !ntelli"ence8 Senior *ello. #rmy (ichael Eoro$it"( Senior *ello. for U.#0ril 1B( 1343 President Barack )bama Secretary of State 'illary linton De0$ty 6ational Sec$rity #d%isor +ohn Brennan Washin"ton( D. #mbassador and 0residential ad%isor )hyllis Gaminsky( *ormer Director( United 6ations !nformation enter Anne Gorin( o?director( !nstit$te for the #nalysis of Global Sec$rity (!#GS) Charles Gupperman( :ice President( Strate"ic !nte"ration and )0erations( Missile Defense Systems :al =uft. 6e"otiator( Gene%a Defense and S0ace 7alks Jack 4a!i*( former De0$ty #ssistant Secretary of Defense for ombatin" Wea0ons of Mass Destr$ction and 6e"otiations Policy Can*ace *e Russy( .ith the neb$lo$s term K%iolent eAtremismL. #ttorney General Ee*ieh (irahma*i( President( W)RD& . Res0ectf$lly( Members of the ommittee on the Present Dan"er Eon& :eor e -hult"( (co? hairman) former Secretary of State Eon& R& James 5oolsey( (co? hairman) former Director of entral !ntelli"ence (orrie Amitay( :ice hair( +e. Brennan5 We( the $ndersi"ned members of the ommittee on the Present Dan"er( . yo$r enemy.( '$dson !nstit$te (ark Denson( President( #P ) !nsi"ht 0lan Derman( :ice President( #merican *orei"n Policy o$ncil Eon& Dill Drock( former Member of the U.ho ha%e dedicated themsel%es to . # non?0artisan or"ani-ation of former White 'o$se officials( ambassadors( cabinet secretaries( academics( and other members of the forei"n 0olicy comm$nity( the PD belie%es that militant !slamic re"imes and mo%ements re0resent a serio$s threat to the United States and other free nations.ish !nstit$te for 6ational Sec$rity #ffairs (ichael Auslin( Resident Scholar( #merican &nter0rise !nstit$te Feyno Daran( Senior *ello.has stated5 KWe face a clear and 0resent dan"er( so .L We $r"e yo$ to reconsider this decision and acc$rately identify the threat . . 4irector( enter for #merican ommon $lt$re8 Senior *ello.( '$dson !nstit$te Eon& Frank :affney( President( enter for Sec$rity Policy Jeffrey :ayner( hairman( #mericans for So%erei"nty Fari* :ha*ry( &Aec$ti%e Member of Reform Party of Syria Eon& #e$t :in rich( *ormer S0eaker of the U.holeheartedly . Dear Mr. Sh$lt. Senate Eon& Eenry Cooper( former hief U.e face.( *o$ndation for Defense of Democracies John 8& Joyce( :ice hair( ommittee for *ree 7rade Unionism Eon& (aB Gampelman( former U. Jork (ark 4ubo$it"( &Aec$ti%e Director( *o$ndation for Defense of Democracies Rachel +hrenfel*( Director( #merican enter for Democracy Richar* Fairbanks( former #mbassador at Lar"e Al!in -& Fel"enber ( former Director of omm$nications( F?44 ommission John Fonte. President( Madame Secretary( and Mr.riter and former tr$stee of the State Uni%ersity of 6e. Lieberman to De0$ty 6ational Sec$rity #d%isor +ohn Brennan re"ardin" the remo%al of the term K!slamic eAtremismL from the 6ational Sec$rity Strate"y re0ort and re0lacin" it .e are to meet this challen"e( .S.rite to endorse and s$00ort the si"nificant 0oints made in the letter sent on #0ril F( 1343 by Senator +ose0h !.S.S.S. and o$nterterrorism( *o$ndation for Defense of Democracies Eon& Robert (cFarlane( *ormer 6ational Sec$rity #d%isor Eon& +*$in (eese 000( former U.e m$st $nderstand the beliefs and moti%ations of those .e m$st identify the dan"er acc$rately and realistically( . 4irector( !nstit$te for the #nalysis of Global Sec$rity 4ana (& (arshall( former Senior #d%isor for !nternational &conomic Policy to the :ice President Cliffor* (ay( President( *o$ndation for Defense of Democracies An*re$ (cCarthy( o? hair( enter for La.S. #s PD o? hairman Geor"e P.ith the Senator/s assertion that this action contradicts the acce0ted military intelli"ence doctrine to 0ro0erly identify( define( and kno.

ett hair &merit$s( #merican &nter0rise !nstit$te Eon& (ark )almer( former De0$ty #ssistant Secretary of State for &$ro0ean #ffairs 4aniel )ipes( Director( Middle &ast *or$m8 #$thor and ommentator 4anielle )letka( :ice President( *orei"n and Defense Policy St$dies( 7he #merican &nter0rise !nstit$te #orman )o*horet"( #$thor( Reci0ient of Presidential Medal of *reedom Druce (& Ramer( Member( o$ncil on *orei"n Relations Eon& )eter R& Rosenblatt( former U.committeeonthe0resentdan"er.or"= . 8i'0 Chene! (Mi'e President of the 7(+().( &sD$ire( Professor of La. left to rightI ohn Bolton (7(+( Cepresentati4e to the 7nited 2ations). and Paul Wolfo%itz (8eput! 7(+( +e'retar! of 8efense) .D. #mbassador #icholos Rosto$( *ormer Staff Director( Senate Select ommittee on !ntelli"ence Eon& +*$ar* =& Ro$ny( *ormer #mbassador=L7G( US# (Ret.. 4irector( '$dson !nstit$te/s enter for Reli"io$s *reedom Eon& John E& -henefiel*( former #ssociate #ttorney General of the United States (aB -in er( fo$nder and Senior *ello.Joshua (ura!chik( *ello.s !ntelli"ence )%ersi"ht Board( the White 'o$se Eon& (ichael 5il*es( &sD. Professor &merit$s( #merican Uni%ersity Robert F& 8urner( former o$nsel( President. Secretary of State for '$man Ri"hts I '$manitarian #ffairs So$rce5 htt05==.S. 8onald Cumsfeld (7(+( +e'retar! of 8efense).) Genneth -ch$art"( board of directors( *o$ndation for Defense of Democracies Jonathan -chan"er( :ice President of Research( *o$ndation for Defense of Democracies Ran*y -cheunemann Eon& Richar* -chifter( former #ssistant Secretary of State for '$man Ri"hts and '$manitarian #ffairs )eter -ch$ei"er( 'oo%er !nstit$tion #ina -hea.( Ph. of +$stice Arnol* -& 8rebach( +.( *orei"n Policy !nstit$te( +ohn/s 'o0kins S#!S Chet #a le( *ormer De0artment of Defense )fficial (!S#) Eon& (ichael #o!ak( Geor"e *rederick +e.D. of 7he '$dson !nstit$te Eon& James -trock( former alifornia Secretary for &n%ironmental Protection Genneth R& 8immerman( President( *o$ndation for Democracy in !ran Hictoria 8oensin ( former De0$ty #ssistant #ttorney General( riminal Di%ision( U.D. De0t.( Mana"in" Partner( Wildes I Weinber"( P 8 *ormer *ederal Prosec$tor Francisco 5on 94ia"( Ph.S. and Politics James Fum$alt( former Senior #d%isor( #sst.. Yalma! Khalilzad (7(+( Ambassador to Afghanistan and 7(+( Ambassador to Ira3).embers of the Pro<e't for the 2e% Ameri'an Centur! %ho ser4ed in the Leorge W( Bush administration..

7hey ha%e also resisted isolationist im0$lses from . )f co$rse( the United States m$st be 0r$dent in ho. !f .orld.or"=statementof0rinci0les.ithin their o. "lobal res0onsibilities. cent$ry. )$r aim is to remind #mericans of these lessons and to dra. cent$ry fa%orable to #merican 0rinci0les and interestsP We are in dan"er of sD$anderin" the o00ort$nity and failin" the challen"e.s to a close( the United States stands as the . #nd they ha%e not fo$"ht for a defense b$d"et that .. #merica has a %ital role in maintainin" 0eace and sec$rity in &$ro0e( #sia( and the Middle &ast. B$t conser%ati%es ha%e not confidently ad%anced a strate"ic %ision of #merica. 7he history of the 13th cent$ry sho$ld ha%e ta$"ht $s that it is im0ortant to sha0e circ$mstances before crises emer"e( and to meet threats before they become dire.ith 0otentially "reater challen"es that lie ahead. S$ch a Rea"anite 0olicy of military stren"th and moral clarity may not be fashionable today. Rodman Ste0hen P. We seem to ha%e for"otten the essential elements of the Rea"an #dministration.e need to stren"then o$r ties to democratic allies and to challen"e re"imes hostile to o$r interests and %al$es8 [ . Bennett +eb B$sh Dick heney &liot #.e in%ite challen"es to o$r f$ndamental interests.n ranks.s $niD$e role in 0reser%in" and eAtendin" an international order friendly to o$r sec$rity( o$r 0ros0erity( and o$r 0rinci0les. 'ere are fo$r conseD$ences5 [ .ed differences o%er tactics to obsc$re 0otential a"reement on strate"ic ob>ecti%es.itSo$rce5 &lliott #brams Gary Ba$er William +.halil-ad !.s s$ccess5 a military that is stron" and ready to meet both 0resent and f$t$re challen"es8 a forei"n 0olicy that boldly and 0$r0osef$lly 0romotes #merican 0rinci0les abroad8 and national leadershi0 that acce0ts the United States. Rosen 'enry S.e cannot safely a%oid the res0onsibilities of "lobal leadershi0 or the costs that are associated ..s role in the . ohen Mid"e Decter Pa$la Dobriansky Ste%e *orbes #aron *riedber" *rancis *$k$yama *rank Gaffney *red . $ts in forei"n affairs and defense s0endin"( inattention to the tools of statecraft( and inconstant leadershi0 are makin" it increasin"ly diffic$lt to s$stain #merican infl$ence aro$nd the .americancent$ry. We aim to chan"e this.orld.e need to acce0t res0onsibility for #merica.o$ld maintain #merican sec$rity and ad%ance #merican interests in the ne. Ro. it eAercises its 0o.e are >eo0ardi-in" the nation. We aim to make the case and rally s$00ort for #merican "lobal leadershi0.ith its eAercise.htm . We are li%in" off the ca0ital ?? both the military in%estments and the forei"n 0olicy achie%ements ?? b$ilt $0 by 0ast administrations. Le. #s the 13th cent$ry Libby 6orman PodhoretDan @$ayle Peter W. B$t it is necessary if the United States is to b$ild on the s$ccesses of this 0ast cent$ry and to ens$re o$r sec$rity and o$r "reatness in the neAt. B$t .e shirk o$r res0onsibilities( .e need to 0romote the ca$se of 0olitical and economic freedom abroad8 [ . 7he history of this cent$ry sho$ld ha%e ta$"ht $s to embrace the ca$se of #merican leadershi0..s ability to meet 0resent threats and to deal . their conseD$ences for today. 7hey ha%e allo.a"an Halmay .e need to increase defense s0endin" si"nificantly if . #nd the 0romise of short?term commercial benefits threatens to o%erride strate"ic considerations.e are to carry o$t o$r "lobal res0onsibilities today and moderni-e o$r armed forces for the f$t$re8 [ . !kle Donald .en Donald R$msfeld :in Weber Geor"e Wei"el Pa$l Wolfo. #s a conseD$ence( . 7hey ha%e not set forth "$idin" 0rinci0les for #merican forei"n 0olicy. 'a%in" led the West to %ictory in the old War( #merica faces an o00ort$nity and a challen"e5 Does the United States ha%e the %ision to b$ild $0on the achie%ements of 0ast decadesP Does the United States ha%e the resol%e to sha0e a of Prin'iples of the Pro<e't for the 2e% Ameri'an Centur! (P2AC) +$ne <( 4FFG #merican forei"n and defense 0olicy is adrift. onser%ati%es ha%e critici-ed the incoherent 0olicies of the linton #dministration.s 0reeminent 0o.

+an$ary 1E( 4FFB 7he 'onorable William +. linton President of the United States Washin"ton( D Dear Mr. President5 We are ,ritin" yo$ beca$se ,e are con%inced that c$rrent #merican 0olicy to,ard !raD is not s$cceedin"( and that ,e may soon face a threat in the Middle &ast more serio$s than any ,e ha%e kno,n since the end of the old War. !n yo$r $0comin" State of the Union #ddress( yo$ ha%e an o00ort$nity to chart a clear and determined co$rse for meetin" this threat. We $r"e yo$ to sei-e that o00ort$nity( and to en$nciate a ne, strate"y that ,o$ld sec$re the interests of the U.S. and o$r friends and allies aro$nd the ,orld. 7hat strate"y sho$ld aim( abo%e all( at the remo%al of Saddam '$ssein/s re"ime from 0o,er. We stand ready to offer o$r f$ll s$00ort in this diffic$lt b$t necessary endea%or. 7he 0olicy of KcontainmentL of Saddam '$ssein has been steadily erodin" o%er the 0ast se%eral months. #s recent e%ents ha%e demonstrated( ,e can no lon"er de0end on o$r 0artners in the G$lf War coalition to contin$e to $0hold the sanctions or to 0$nish Saddam ,hen he blocks or e%ades U6 ins0ections. )$r ability to ens$re that Saddam '$ssein is not 0rod$cin" ,ea0ons of mass destr$ction( therefore( has s$bstantially diminished. &%en if f$ll ins0ections ,ere e%ent$ally to res$me( ,hich no, seems hi"hly $nlikely( eA0erience has sho,n that it is diffic$lt if not im0ossible to monitor !raD/s chemical and biolo"ical ,ea0ons 0rod$ction. 7he len"thy 0eriod d$rin" ,hich the ins0ectors ,ill ha%e been $nable to enter many !raDi facilities has made it e%en less likely that they ,ill be able to $nco%er all of Saddam/s secrets. #s a res$lt( in the not?too?distant f$t$re ,e ,ill be $nable to determine ,ith any reasonable le%el of confidence ,hether !raD does or does not 0ossess s$ch ,ea0ons. S$ch $ncertainty ,ill( by itself( ha%e a serio$sly destabili-in" effect on the entire Middle &ast. !t hardly needs to be added that if Saddam does acD$ire the ca0ability to deli%er ,ea0ons of mass destr$ction( as he is almost certain to do if ,e contin$e alon" the 0resent co$rse( the safety of #merican troo0s in the re"ion( of o$r friends and allies like !srael and the moderate #rab states( and a si"nificant 0ortion of the ,orld/s s$00ly of oil ,ill all be 0$t at ha-ard. #s yo$ ha%e ri"htly declared( Mr. President( the sec$rity of the ,orld in the first 0art of the 14st cent$ry ,ill be determined lar"ely by ho, ,e handle this threat. Gi%en the ma"nit$de of the threat( the c$rrent 0olicy( ,hich de0ends for its s$ccess $0on the steadfastness of o$r coalition 0artners and $0on the coo0eration of Saddam '$ssein( is dan"ero$sly inadeD$ate. 7he only acce0table strate"y is one that eliminates the 0ossibility that !raD ,ill be able to $se or threaten to $se ,ea0ons of mass destr$ction. !n the near term( this means a ,illin"ness to $ndertake military action as di0lomacy is clearly failin". !n the lon" term( it means remo%in" Saddam '$ssein and his re"ime from 0o,er. 7hat no, needs to become the aim of #merican forei"n 0olicy. We $r"e yo$ to artic$late this aim( and to t$rn yo$r #dministration;s attention to im0lementin" a strate"y for remo%in" Saddam;s re"ime from 0o,er. 7his ,ill reD$ire a f$ll com0lement of di0lomatic( 0olitical and military efforts. #ltho$"h ,e are f$lly a,are of the dan"ers and diffic$lties in im0lementin" this 0olicy( ,e belie%e the dan"ers of failin" to do so are far "reater. We belie%e the U.S. has the a$thority $nder eAistin" U6 resol$tions to take the necessary ste0s( incl$din" military ste0s( to 0rotect o$r %ital interests in the G$lf. !n any case( #merican 0olicy cannot contin$e to be cri00led by a mis"$ided insistence on $nanimity in the U6 Sec$rity o$ncil. We $r"e yo$ to act decisi%ely. !f yo$ act no, to end the threat of ,ea0ons of mass destr$ction a"ainst the U.S. or its allies( yo$ ,ill be actin" in the most f$ndamental national sec$rity interests of the co$ntry. !f ,e acce0t a co$rse of ,eakness and drift( ,e 0$t o$r interests and o$r f$t$re at risk. Sincerely( &lliott #brams Richard L. #rmita"e William +. Bennett +effrey Ber"ner +ohn Bolton Pa$la Dobriansky *rancis *$k$yama Robert .a"an Halmay .halil-ad William .ristol Richard Perle Peter W. Rodman Donald R$msfeld William Schneider( +r. :in Weber Pa$l Wolfo,it- R. +ames Woolsey Robert B. Hoellick

+our'eI httpIFF%%%(ne%ameri'an'entur!(orgFira3'lintonletter(htm

Se0tember 13( 1334 7he 'onorable Geor"e W. B$sh President of the United States Washin"ton( D Dear Mr. President( We ,rite to endorse yo$r admirable commitment to Klead the ,orld to %ictoryL in the ,ar a"ainst terrorism. We f$lly s$00ort yo$r call for Ka broad and s$stained cam0ai"nL a"ainst the Kterrorist or"ani-ations and those ,ho harbor and s$00ort them.L We a"ree ,ith Secretary of State Po,ell that the United States m$st find and 0$nish the 0er0etrators of the horrific attack of Se0tember 44( and ,e m$st( as he said( K"o after terrorism ,here%er ,e find it in the ,orldL and K"et it by its branch and root.L We a"ree ,ith the Secretary of State that U.S. 0olicy m$st aim not only at findin" the 0eo0le res0onsible for this incident( b$t m$st also tar"et those Kother "ro$0s o$t there that mean $s no "oodL and Kthat ha%e cond$cted attacks 0re%io$sly a"ainst U.S. 0ersonnel( U.S. interests and o$r allies.L !n order to carry o$t this Kfirst ,ar of the 14st cent$ryL s$ccessf$lly( and in order( as yo$ ha%e said( to do f$t$re K"enerations a fa%or by comin" to"ether and ,hi00in" terrorism(L ,e belie%e the follo,in" ste0s are necessary 0arts of a com0rehensi%e strate"y. >sama bin =a*en We a"ree that a key "oal( b$t by no means the only "oal( of the c$rrent ,ar on terrorism sho$ld be to ca0t$re or kill )sama bin Laden( and to destroy his net,ork of associates. 7o this end( ,e s$00ort the necessary military action in #f"hanistan and the 0ro%ision of s$bstantial financial and military assistance to the anti?7aliban forces in that co$ntry. 0raI We a"ree ,ith Secretary of State Po,ell/s recent statement that Saddam '$ssein Kis one of the leadin" terrorists on the face of the &arth\.L !t may be that the !raDi "o%ernment 0ro%ided assistance in some form to the recent attack on the United States. B$t e%en if e%idence does not link !raD directly to the attack( any strate"y aimin" at the eradication of terrorism and its s0onsors m$st incl$de a determined effort to remo%e Saddam '$ssein from 0o,er in !raD. *ail$re to $ndertake s$ch an effort ,ill constit$te an early and 0erha0s decisi%e s$rrender in the ,ar on international terrorism. 7he United States m$st therefore 0ro%ide f$ll military and financial s$00ort to the !raDi o00osition. #merican military force sho$ld be $sed to 0ro%ide a Ksafe -oneL in !raD from ,hich the o00osition can o0erate. #nd #merican forces m$st be 0re0ared to back $0 o$r commitment to the !raDi o00osition by all necessary means. Ee"bollah 'e-bollah is one of the leadin" terrorist or"ani-ations in the ,orld. !t is s$s0ected of ha%in" been in%ol%ed in the 4FFB bombin"s of the #merican embassies in #frica( and im0licated in the bombin" of the U.S. Marine barracks in Beir$t in 4FB<. 'e-bollah clearly falls in the cate"ory cited by Secretary Po,ell of "ro$0s Kthat mean $s no "oodL and Kthat ha%e cond$cted attacks 0re%io$sly a"ainst U.S. 0ersonnel( U.S. interests and o$r allies.L 7herefore( any ,ar a"ainst terrorism m$st tar"et 'e-bollah. We belie%e the administration sho$ld demand that !ran and Syria immediately cease all military( financial( and 0olitical s$00ort for 'e-bollah and its o0erations. Sho$ld !ran and Syria ref$se to com0ly( the administration sho$ld consider a00ro0riate meas$res of retaliation a"ainst these kno,n state s0onsors of terrorism. 0srael an* the )alestinian Authority !srael has been and remains #merica/s sta$nchest ally a"ainst international terrorism( es0ecially in the Middle &ast. 7he United States sho$ld f$lly s$00ort o$r fello, democracy in its fi"ht a"ainst terrorism. We sho$ld insist that the Palestinian #$thority 0$t a sto0 to terrorism emanatin" from territories $nder its control and im0rison those 0lannin" terrorist attacks a"ainst !srael. Until the Palestinian #$thority mo%es a"ainst terror( the United States sho$ld 0ro%ide it no f$rther assistance. 3&-& 4efense Du* et # serio$s and %ictorio$s ,ar on terrorism ,ill reD$ire a lar"e increase in defense s0endin". *i"htin" this ,ar may ,ell reD$ire the United States to en"a"e a ,ell?armed foe( and ,ill also reD$ire that ,e remain ca0able of defendin" o$r interests else,here in the ,orld. We $r"e that there be no hesitation in reD$estin" ,hate%er f$nds for defense are needed to allo, $s to ,in this ,ar. 7here is( of co$rse( m$ch more that ,ill ha%e to be done. Di0lomatic efforts ,ill be reD$ired to enlist other nations/ aid in this ,ar on terrorism. &conomic and financial tools at o$r dis0osal ,ill ha%e to be $sed. 7here are other actions of a military nat$re that may ,ell be needed. 'o,e%er( in o$r >$d"ement the ste0s o$tlined abo%e constit$te the minim$m necessary if this ,ar is to be fo$"ht effecti%ely and bro$"ht to a s$ccessf$l concl$sion. )$r 0$r0ose in ,ritin" is to ass$re yo$ of o$r s$00ort as yo$ do ,hat m$st be done to lead the nation to %ictory in this fi"ht. Sincerely( William .ristol( Richard :. #llen( Gary Ba$er( +effrey Bell( William +. Bennett( R$dy Bosh,it-( +effrey Ber"ner( &liot ohen( Seth ro0sey( Mid"e Decter( 7homas Donnelly( 6icholas &berstadt( 'illel *radkin( #aron *riedber"( *rancis *$k$yama *rank Gaffney( +effrey Gedmin( Re$el Marc Gerecht( harles 'ill( Br$ce P. +ackson( &li S. +acobs( Michael +oyce( Donald .a"an( Robert .a"an +eane .irk0atrick( harles .ra$thammer( +ohn Lehman( lifford May( Martin Peret-( Richard Perle( 6orman Podhoret-( Ste0hen P. Rosen( Randy Sche$nemann( Gary Schmitt( William Schneider( +r.( Richard '. Sh$lt-( 'enry Sokolski( Ste0hen +. Solar-( :in Weber( Leon Wieseltier( Marshall Wittmann So$rce5 htt05==,,,.ne,americancent$ry.or"=B$shletter.htm

+an$ary 1<( 133< 7he 'onorable Geor"e W. B$sh President of the United States Washin"ton( D Dear Mr. President5 We ,rite to endorse the bold ne, co$rse yo$ ha%e charted for #merican national sec$rity strate"y. Jo$r administration has sho,n im0ressi%e leadershi0 in reco"ni-in" ne, threats and sei-in" ne, o00ort$nities to create an end$rin" Xbalance of 0o,er that fa%ors freedom.X Jet a "reat risk remains5 a contin$in" lack of military means. *or the fact is this5 )$r c$rrent le%el of defense s0endin" is inadeD$ate to meet the demands of the B$sh Doctrine. #merican stren"th is key to b$ildin" the ne, ,orld yo$ ha%e en%isioned. 7he %ictory o%er the 7aliban in #f"hanistan ,as an essential first ste0 in stabili-in" that chaotic co$ntry and to,ard destroyin" the al @aeda terrorist net,ork. 7he international comm$nity and an o%er,helmin" military coalition are no, ready to end the threat of Saddam '$ssein;s re"ime in !raD. Jet a m$ltit$de of threats else,here call into D$estion o$r ability no,( and in the f$t$re( to defend adeD$ately o$r interests and o$r 0rinci0les aro$nd the "lobe. Remo%in" Saddam is b$t the first ste0 to,ard reconstr$ctin" a decent "o%ernment in !raD and carryin" o$t yo$r strate"ic %ision for the Middle &ast. )ther ro"$e states remain a ma>or 0roblem. !ndeed( ,e no, confront the t,o?,ar scenario5 &%en as ,e de0loy forces for ,ar a"ainst !raD( 6orth .orea has abro"ated its a"reement to terminate its n$clear ,ea0ons de%elo0ment and threatens ,ar if it is not a00eased. 7he third member of the XaAis of e%il(X !ran( has like,ise ste00ed $0 its n$clear efforts. Mean,hile( the ,ar on terrorism( as yo$ 0redicted( is bein" Xfo$"ht on many fronts a"ainst a 0artic$larly el$si%e enemy o%er an eAtended 0eriod of time.X We ha%e de0ri%ed al @aeda of its sanct$ary in #f"hanistan and are 0re0arin" to eA0and o$r 0resence o$t of .ab$l into the s$rro$ndin" 0ro%inces. B$t the ,ar is also carryin" U.S. troo0s across the border into Pakistan( and ,e also ha%e committed o$rsel%es to a lon"?term military 0resence in entral #sia. #nd the attacks in Bali ? intended in 0art to tar"et #mericans ? and in the Phili00ines ? ,here ,e ha%e troo0s aidin" and ad%isin" the *ili0ino army ? sho, ho, this ,ar has s0read to So$theast #sia. !n &ast #sia( hina( as yo$r o,n administration says( is X0$rs$in" ad%anced military ca0abilities that can threaten its nei"hborsX ? o$r democratic allies ? and derail its o,n internal 0olitical and economic moderni-ation. With U.S. troo0s stretched as they are( it is a serio$s D$estion of ,hether ,e co$ld res0ond adeD$ately to a .orean crisis or a s$dden confrontation in the 7ai,an Strait. #nd( lest ,e for"et( #merican troo0s contin$e to kee0 the 0eace in the Balkans and in the Sinai( and 0atrol co$ntless other "lobal hots0ots. !n s$m( there is an increasin"ly dan"ero$s "a0 bet,een o$r strate"ic ends and o$r military means( and the B$sh Doctrine cannot be carried o$t effecti%ely ,itho$t a lar"er military force. By e%ery meas$re( c$rrent defense s0endin" is inadeD$ate for a military ,ith "lobal res0onsibilities. 7en years a"o( #merica;s defense b$rden ,as C.B] of GDP. #ltho$"h the decline in defense s0endin" has been halted( ,e ha%e not done nearly eno$"h to make $0 for this decade of ne"lect. 7he modest increase 0lanned for neAt year ,ill still lea%e Penta"on s0endin" at abo$t <.C ] of GDP( and on"ressional B$d"et )ffice 0ro>ections are that the 0ro0ortion ,ill decline to a00roAimately <] by 133G. !nadeD$ate f$ndin" res$lts in an inadeD$ate force. 7oday;s military is sim0ly too small for the missions it m$st 0erform. # red$ced acti%e?d$ty force means an increasin" reliance on reser%e troo0s( not >$st in times of ,ar b$t to meet daily 0resence reD$irements. !nadeD$ate moderni-ation 0ro"rams ha%e also slo,ed the normal and necessary re0lacement of 0lanes( shi0s and eD$i0ment8 indeed( to make $0 for the X0roc$rement holidayX of the 0ast decade( tens of billions more o%er the neAt decade ,ill ha%e to be s0ent than is c$rrently b$d"eted. #nd( finally( inadeD$ate research s0endin" has ham0ered the de%elo0ment of missile defenses and is delayin" the transformation of o$r con%entional forces and the eA0loitation of ne, technolo"ies. 7o reb$ild( transform( and man o$r military adeD$ately for its many missions and res0onsibilities( defense s0endin" ,ill need to be increased by an additional QG3 to Q433 billion. 7his ,o$ld brin" defense eA0endit$res to <.B] ? C.3] of GDP in 133G. Less than a nickel on the dollar for #merican sec$rity in the 14st cent$ry is chea0 at the 0rice. We $r"e yo$( Mr. President( to make it a le"islati%e and b$d"etary 0riority to increase defense s0endin" to these le%els o%er the neAt fe, years in order to ens$re that the sec$rity challen"es ,e face are met. Sincerely( William .ristol( Gary Ba$er( MaA Boot( *rank arl$cci( &liot ohen( Mid"e Decter( 7homas Donnelly( *rank Gaffney( Daniel Go$re( Br$ce P. +ackson( Donald .a"an( Robert .a"an( Le,is &. Lehrman( 7od Lindber"( Rich Lo,ry( Daniel Mc.i%er"an( +osh$a M$ra%chik( Danielle Pletka( 6orman Podhoret-( Ste0hen P. Rosen( Gary Schmitt( Randy Sche$nemann( William Schneider( +r.( Richard Sh$lt-( 'enry Sokolski( hris Williams( R. +ames Woolsey

So$rce5 htt05==,,,.ne,americancent$ry.or"=defense?133<341<.htm

e%ish /obb! Q Llobal War on TerrorismI 2o% and Dore4erO

De0$ty U.S. Secretary of Defense Pa$l Wolfo,it- s0eaks d$rin" a 0ro?!srael rally on a0itol 'ill in Washin"ton( D. .( U.S.#. on #0ril 42( 1331. Pa$l Wolfo,it- is a member of the o$ncil on *orei"n Relations. (Photo5 #leA Won"=Getty !ma"es)

U.S. Senator 'illary linton( a member of the Kleft?,in"L Democratic Party( and !srael/s Prime Minister #riel Sharon( a member of the Kri"ht? ,in"L Lik$d Party( la$"h to"ether at an #merican !srael P$blic #ffairs ommittee (#!P# ) conference in Washin"ton D. . in 1332. (Photo5 #%i )hayon=!srael Go%ernment Press )ffice (GP)))

Prime Minister of !srael &h$d )lmert (left) and former U.S. #mbassador to !srael Martin !ndyk attend the 6ational Sec$rity St$dies ;Sec$rity hallen"es of the 14st. ent$ry; onference in 7el #%i%( !srael on December 44( 133G. Martin !ndyk is a member of the o$ncil on *orei"n Relations. (Pool=Getty !ma"es)

Shimon Peres (L)( President of !srael( s0eaks ,ith Robert Hoellick( President of 7he World Bank Gro$0( at the linton Global !nitiati%e ( G!) in 6e, Jork ity on Se0tember 12( 133B. Robert Hoellick is a member of the o$ncil on *orei"n Relations and a re"$lar Bilderber" Meetin"s 0artici0ant. (#*P=Getty !ma"es)

6e,s or0 hairman and &) R$0ert M$rdoch (left)( o,ner of *oA 6e,s hannel( stands ,ith !srael;s President Shimon Peres d$rin" the Presidential onference in +er$salem on May 42( 133B. R$0ert M$rdoch is a member of the o$ncil on *orei"n Relations. (Re$ters)

Conald /auder (left), the President of World e%ish Congress, appears %ith Israel-s President +himon Peres at a World e%ish Congress meeting in erusalem in anuar! #$$;( Conald /auder is a member of the Coun'il on Doreign Celations1 Conald /auder-s mother is Estee /auder, the 'o-founder of Estee /auder 'osmeti' 'ompan!( (PhotoI httpIFF%%%(%orld<e%ish'ongress(orgFenFmainFsho%PhotoFidFA#?Fgaller!F#G) a member of the Lik$d Party. 7he #DL headD$arters is located across the street from the United 6ations headD$arters.issin"er "reets Prime Minister of !srael Ben>amin 6etanyah$ in +er$salem on +an$ary 43( 4FFF.issin"er talks to !srael/s Prime Minister #riel Sharon at the !sraeli ons$l General/s home in 6e. (Photo5 #%i )hayon( !srael Go%ernment Press )ffice (GP))) Ri"ht 0hoto5 'enry . (Photo5 !sraeli 7s%ika( GP)) Michael Salbert (left)( Director for !nternational #ffairs of the #nti?Defamation Lea"$e (#DL)( United 6ations Secretary?General Ban . Both +acob *renkel and Stanley *ischer are members of the 7rilateral ommission( members of the Gro$0 of 7hirty (G?<3)( and directors of the !nstit$te for !nternational &conomics.Left 0hoto5 !srael/s Prime Minister #riel Sharon (ri"ht) meets . (U6 Photo=&skinder Debebe) . #braham *oAman is a member of the o$ncil on *orei"n Relations. (Photo5 #%i )hayon( GP)) Left 0hoto5 'enry . #riel Sharon .ith Prime Minister of !srael Jit-hak Shamir in 6e. (Photo5 #mos Ben Gershom( GP)) Ri"ht 0hoto5 'enry . Jork ity on June 25. 2001. Ben>amin 6etanyah$ is a member of the Lik$d Party.ith +acob *renkel (left)( then the Go%ernor of the Bank of !srael( Stanley *ischer (second from left)( then the *irst De0$ty Mana"in" Director of the !nternational Monetary *$nd( and Gaby *ishman at the . Jit-hak Shamir . Jork ity on #0ril 2( 133G. Jork ity on December 43( 4FF3.issin"er la$"hs .i?Moon (center)( and #braham *oAman( 6ational Director of the #DL( stand to"ether at the United 6ations 'eadD$arters in a member of the Lik$d Party and a member of the Stern Gan"( a terrorist or"ani-ation.nesset in +er$salem on (ay 14.

on #0ril 42( 1331.Left 0hoto5 Ben>amin 6etanyah$ deli%ers a s0eech at a 0ro?!srael rally on a0itol 'ill in Washin"ton( D.ard by #nti?Defamation Lea"$e (#DL) 6ational Director #braham *oAman (center) and #DL 6ational hair Barbara Balser d$rin" a l$ncheon of the #DL.S. Ri"ht 0hoto5 6ational Sec$rity #d%isor ondolee--a Rice addresses the #nti?Defamation Lea"$e. a%ana$"h=Getty !ma"es) *ormer Secretary of State olin Po.( U. .s Democratic Le"acy 'otel in Washin"ton( D. on May C( 133C. (Photo by #leA Won"=Getty !ma"es) . on #0ril C( 1332.#. .ell (left) is 0resented .s national leadershi0 conference in Washin"ton( D.ell and #braham *oAman are members of the o$ncil on *orei"n Relations. olin Po.s ann$al 6ational Leadershi0 onference at the Mayflo. .ith the #merica. (Photo by Matthe.

Je5ish Po5er+ro9ers : 4heir 100u"ation during the Glo+al &ar on 4errorism

Ben Shalom Bernanke B.#. 'ar%ard 4FG2 hairman of the *ederal Reser%e (133E?134C)

Lloyd . Blankfein B.#. 'ar%ard 4FG2 +.D. 'ar%ard 4FGB hairman and &) of Goldman Sachs MbankN (133E?0resent)

Michael hertoff B.#. 'ar%ard 4FG28 +.D. 'ar%ard 4FGB U.S. Secretary of 'omeland Sec$rity (1332?133F)

Do$"las +. *eith B.#. 'ar%ard 4FG2 Under U.S. Secretary of Defense for Policy (1334?1332)

ass R. S$nstein B.#. 'ar%ard 4FG2( +.D. 'ar%ard 4FGB #dministrator of )ffice of !nformation and Re"$latory #ffairs (133F?1341)

Robert &. R$bin B.#. 'ar%ard 4FE3 o? hairman of the o$ncil on *orei"n Relations (133G?0resent)8 Secretary of the 7reas$ry (4FF2?4FFF)

Martin *eldstein B.#. 'ar%ard 4FE4 President of 6ational B$rea$ of &conomic Research (4FGG?4FB1( 4FBC?133B)

Peter R. .ann B.#. 'ar%ard 4FEC hairman of Do, +ones I o. M"all Street 1ournalN (4FF4?133G)

Donald &. Graham B.#. 'ar%ard 4FEE hairman and &) of 7he Washin"ton Post o. (4FF<?0resent)

&lliott #brams B.#. 'ar%ard 4FEF8 +.D. 'ar%ard 4FG< De0$ty 6ational Sec$rity o$ncil #d%iser for Global Democracy Strate"y (1332?133F)

S$mner Redstone B.#. 'ar%ard 4FCC8 LL.B. 'ar%ard 4FCG hairman of the board of :iacom (4FBG?0resent)

'enry .issin"er B.#. 'ar%ard 4F23 Ph.D. 'ar%ard 4F2C U.S. Secretary of State (4FG<?4FGG)8 &lder Statesman

+ames B. Steinber" B.#. 'ar%ard 4FG< De0$ty Secretary of State (133F?1344)

+acob +. Le, B.#. 'ar%ard 4FGB Secretary of the 7reas$ry (134<?0resent)8 White 'o$se hief of Staff (1341?134<)

Penny Prit-ker B.#. 'ar%ard 4FB4 U.S. Secretary of ommerce (134<?0resent)

harles Sch$mer B.#. 'ar%ard 4FG48 +.D. 'ar%ard 4FGC U.S. Senator (D?6e, Jork( 4FFF?0res.)

#lan S. K#lL *ranken B.#. 'ar%ard 4FG< U.S. Senator (D?Minnesota. 133F?0resent)

William .ristol B.#. 'ar%ard 4FG<8 Ph.D. 'ar%ard 4FGF &ditor of 7he Weekly Standard

Barney *rank B.#. 'ar%ard 4FE18 +.D. 'ar%ard 4FGG U.S. on"ressman (D?Mass.( 4FB4?134<)

Richard Bl$menthal B.#. 'ar%ard 4FEG U.S. Senator (D? onnectic$t( 1344?0resent)

Go%ernment )fficials5

Phili0 D. Heliko, o$nselor of the State De0artment (1332?133E)

Richard 6. Perle hairman of the Defense Policy Board (1334?133<)

Pa$l D. Wolfo,itPresident of 7he World Bank (1332?133G)8 De0$ty Secretary of Defense (1334?1332)

Do% S. Hakheim B.#. ol$mbia 4FG3 om0troller of the De0artment of Defense (1334?1332)

Le,is KScooterL Libby B.#. Jale 4FG1 hief of Staff to the :ice President of the U.S. (1334?1332)

Pa$la +. Dobriansky Ph.D. 'ar%ard 4FF4 Under Secretary of State for Democracy and Global #ffairs (1334?133F)

.risten Sil%erber" B.#. 'ar%ard 4FF1 U.S. #mbassador to the &$ro0ean Union (133B? 133F)8 #ssistant U.S. Secretary of State for !nternational )r"ani-ation #ffairs (1332?133B)

Daniel . .$rt-er Ph.D. ol$mbia U.S. #mbassador to &"y0t (4FFB?1334) U.S. #mbassador to !srael (1334?1332)

Michael M$kasey B.#. ol$mbia 4FE< LL.B. Jale 4FEG U.S. #ttorney General (133G?133F)8 hief +$d"e of U.S. District o$rt for the So$thern District of 6e, Jork (1333?133E)

&liot #. ohen B.#. 'ar%ard 4FGG8 Ph.D. 'ar%ard 4FB1 o$nselor of the U.S. State De0artment (133G?133F)

Gen. 6orton #. Sch,art#ir *orce hief of Staff (133B?1341)

Lee #. *einstein U.S. #mbassador to Poland (133F?1341)

Da%id #Aelrod Senior #d%isor to the President of the United States (133F?1344)

Peter R. )rs-a" #.B. Princeton 4FF4 Director of the )ffice of Mana"ement and B$d"et (133F?1343)

Rahm &man$el U.S. on"ressman (D? !llinois( 133<?133F)8 White 'o$se hief of Staff (133F?1343)8 Mayor of hica"o (1344?0resent)

Dianne *einstein U.S. Senator (D? alif.( 4FF1?0resent)

+ose0h Lieberman B.#. Jale 4FEC +.D. Jale 4FEG U.S. Senator (D? onn.( 4FBF?134<)

+ane 'arman +.D. 'ar%ard 4FEF U.S. on"ress,oman (D? alifornia( 4FF<?4FFF( 1334?1344)

'o,ard L. Berman U.S. on"ressman (D? alifornia( 4FB<?134<)

&ric antor Member of the U.S. 'o$se of Re0resentati%es (Re0$blican?:ir"inia( 1334?0resent)

Bankers and B$sinessmen5

+ames D. Wolfensohn M.B.#. 'ar%ard 4F2F President of the World Bank (4FF2?1332)

Ma$rice R. Greenber" hairman and &) of #merican !nternational Gro$0 (4FBF?1332)

Geor"e Soros hairman of Soros *$nd Mana"ement (4FFE?0res.)

Sir #lan Greens0an hairman of the *ederal Reser%e (4FBG?133E)

Stanley *ischer Go%ernor of the Bank of !srael Mcentral bank of !sraelN (1332?134<)

Michael Bloomber" Mayor of 6e, Jork ity (1331?134<)

Da%id M. R$benstein *o$nder of the arlyle Gro$0

Larry Sil%erstein Landlord of the World 7rade enter in 6e, Jork ity

Ste0hen #. Sch,ar-man B.#. Jale 4FEF hairman and &) of 7he Blackstone Gro$0 (4FB2?0resent)

Robert B. Hoellick +.D. 'ar%ard 4FB4 President of 7he World Bank (133G?1341)

'arold 7anner hairman( onference of Presidents of Ma>or #merican +e,ish )r"ani-ations

Malcolm 'oenlein &Aec$ti%e :ice hairman of onference of Presidents of Ma>or #merican +e,ish )r"ani-ations

#braham '. *oAman 6ational Director of the #nti?Defamation Lea"$e (#DL) (4FBG?0resent)

&d"ar M. Bronfman Sr. President of World +e,ish on"ress (4FB4?133G)8 Died December 14( 134<

Ronald S. La$der President of World +e,ish on"ress (133G?0resent)

6orman Pearlstine &ditor?in? hief of Time ma"a-ine (4FF2?1332)

Gordon ro%it+.D. Jale 4FBE P$blisher of The "all Street 1ournal (133E?133G)

R$0ert M$rdoch hairman and &) of 6e,s or0. (*oA 6e,s) (4FF4?0resent)

Mortimer B. H$ckerman LL.B. 'ar%ard 4FE1 &ditor?in? hief of $2S2 ews and "orld !e0ort (4FBC?0resent)

Michael &isner hairman and &) of 7he Walt Disney o. (4FBC?133C)

+$d"es( +o$rnalists( and )r"ani-ation &Aec$ti%es5

Ste0hen G. Breyer LL.B. 'ar%ard 4FEC +$stice of the U.S. S$0reme o$rt (4FFC?0resent)

R$th Bader Ginsb$r" LL.B. ol$mbia 4F2F +$stice of the U.S. S$0reme o$rt (4FF<?0resent)

&lena .a"an +.D. 'ar%ard 4FBE +$stice of U.S. S$0reme o$rt (1343?0resent)8 Dean of 'ar%ard La, School (133<?133F)

La,rence '. S$mmers Ph.D. 'ar%ard 4FB1 Secretary of the 7reas$ry (4FFF?1334)8 President of 'ar%ard Uni%ersity (1334?133E)

Richard . Le%in Ph.D. Jale 4FGC President of Jale Uni%ersity (4FF<?134<)

7homas L. *riedman *orei"n #ffairs ol$mnist of The ew 3ork Times (4FF2?0resent)

harles .ra$thammer
Syndicated ol$mnist for The "ashington Post (4FBC?0resent)

Robert W. .a"an B.#. Jale 4FB3 ol$mnist for The "ashington Post

Wolf Blit-er 66 >o$rnalist

+$dith Miller *ormer 6e, Jork 7imes >o$rnalist

6adine Strossen B.#. 'ar%ard 4FG18 +.D. 'ar%ard 4FG2 President of #merican i%il Liberties Union (4FF4?133B)

+$dith Rodin President of 7he Rockefeller *o$ndation (1332?0resent)

+essica 7. Mathe,s President of arne"ie &ndo,ment for !nternational Peace (4FFG?0resent)

+ames S. 7isch President and &) of Loe,s or0. M6e,0ort ci"arettesN (4FFF?0resent)

Richard 6. 'aass President of the o$ncil on *orei"n Relations (133<?0resent)

Donald L. .ohn :ice hairman of the *ederal Reser%e (133E?1343)

+acob #. *renkel Go%ernor of the Bank of !srael (4FF4?1333)

Seymo$r KSyL Sternber" hairman and &) of 6e, Jork Life !ns$rance o. (4FFG?133B)

Br$ce Wasserstein hairman and &) of La-ard *reres MbankN (1334?133F)8 Died )ctober 4C( 133F

Martin S. !ndyk U.S. #mbassador to !srael (4FF2?4FFG( 1333?1334)

#merican President Barack )bama (ri"ht) meets ,ith members of the onference of Presidents of Ma>or #merican +e,ish )r"ani-ations in the State Dinin" Room of the White 'o$se in Washin"ton( D. .( U.S.#. on (arch 1, 2011. !#?trained al? @aida terrorist )sama bin Laden ,as killed in a 0re?da,n raid in #bbottabad( Pakistan on (ay 2, 2011. ()fficial White 'o$se Photo by Pete So$-a)

)/ea4e Ameri'a di4ided into thirteen or, if !ou please, into three or four independent go4ernments -- %hat armies 'ould the! raise and pa! -- %hat fleets 'ould the! e4er hope to ha4eO If one %as atta'0ed, %ould the others fl! to its su''or, and spend their blood and mone! in its defenseO Would there be no danger of their being flattered into neutralit! b! its spe'ious promises, or sedu'ed b! a too great fondness for pea'e to de'line hazarding their tran3uillit! and present safet! for the sa0e of neighbors, of %hom perhaps the! ha4e been <ealous, and %hose importan'e the! are 'ontent to see diminishedO Although su'h 'ondu't %ould not be %ise, it %ould, ne4ertheless, be natural( The histor! of the states of Lree'e, and of other 'ountries, abounds %ith su'h instan'es, and it is not improbable that %hat has so often happened %ould, under similar 'ir'umstan'es, happen again( But admit that the! might be %illing to help the in4aded +tate or 'onfedera'!( Ho%, and %hen, and in %hat proportion shall aids of men and mone! be affordedO Who shall 'ommand the allied armies, and from %hi'h of them shall he re'ei4e his ordersO Who shall settle the terms of pea'e, and in 'ase of disputes %hat umpire shall de'ide bet%een them and 'ompel a'3uies'en'eO Marious diffi'ulties and in'on4enien'es %ould be inseparable from su'h a situation1 %hereas one go4ernment, %at'hing o4er the general and 'ommon interests, and 'ombining and dire'ting the po%ers and resour'es of the %hole, %ould be free from all these embarrassments, and 'ondu'e far more to the safet! of the people( -ut 5hate@er may +e our situation, 5hether firmly united under one national go@ernment, or s"lit into a num+er of 0onfedera0ies, 0ertain it is, that foreign nations 5ill 9no5 and @ie5 it eJa0tly as it isI and they 5ill a0t to5ard us a00ordingly If the! see that our national go4ernment is effi'ient and %ell administered, our trade prudentl! regulated, our militia properl! organized and dis'iplined, our resour'es and finan'es dis'reetl! managed, our 'redit re-established, our people free, 'ontented, and united, the! %ill be mu'h more disposed to 'ulti4ate our friendship than pro4o0e our resentment( If, on the other hand, the! find us either destitute of an effe'tual go4ernment (ea'h +tate doing right or %rong, as to its rulers ma! seem 'on4enient), or split into three or four independent and probabl! dis'ordant republi's or 'onfedera'ies, one in'lining to Britain, another to Dran'e, and a third to +pain, and perhaps pla!ed off against ea'h other b! the three, %hat a poor, pitiful figure %ill Ameri'a ma0e in their e!es^ Ho% liable %ould she be'ome not onl! to their 'ontempt but to their outrage, and ho% soon %ould dear-bought e=perien'e pro'laim that %hen a people or famil! so di4ide, it ne4er fails to be against themsel4es(* 6 ohn a!, Federalist 2o( G

o$ncil on *orei"n Relations Members I 7heir Primary )cc$0ation d$rin" the Global War on 7errorism

Robert M. Gates U.S. Secretary of Defense (133E?1344)8 Director of entral !ntelli"ence #"ency (4FF4?4FF<)

ondolee--a Rice U.S. Secretary of State (1332?133F)8 6ational Sec$rity #d%isor (1334?1332)

Dick heney :ice President of the U.S. (1334?133F)8 U.S. Secretary of Defense (4FBF?4FF<)

Pa$l D. Wolfo,itPresident of 7he World Bank (1332?133G)8 De0$ty U.S. Secretary of Defense (1334?1332)

Halmay .halil-ad U.S. #mbassador to !raD (1332?133G)8 U.S. #mbassador to #f"hanistan (133<?1332)

+ohn D. 6e"ro0onte U.S. Re0. to the United 6ations (1334?133C)8 U.S. #mbassador to !raD (133C?1332)

+ohn R. Bolton U.S. Re0resentati%e to the United 6ations (1332?133E)

'enry M. Pa$lson +r. hairman and &) of Goldman Sachs (4FFF? 133E)8 Secretary of the 7reas$ry (133E?133F)

Do$"las +. *eith Under U.S. Secretary of Defense for Policy (1334?1332)

Do% S. Hakheim om0troller of the U.S. De0artment of Defense (1334?1332)

Geor"e +. 7enet Director of entral !ntelli"ence #"ency (4FFG?133C)

Gen. Michael 'ayden Director of entral !ntelli"ence #"ency (133E?133F)

(Gen.) Da%id '. Petrae$s Director of entral !ntelli"ence #"ency (1344?1341)8 ommander of U.S. entral ommand (133B?1343)

(Lt. Gen.) .arl &ikenberry U.S. #mbassador to #f"hanistan (133F?1344)

Gen. Stanley Mc hrystal ommander( U.S. *orces #f"hanistan (133F?1343)

Robert +. Ste%ens hairman and &) of Lockheed Martin (1332?134<)

Lo$is :. Gerstner +r. hairman of the arlyle Gro$0 (133<?133B)

Geor"e Soros hairman of Soros *$nd Mana"ement (4FFE?0res.)

'enry R. .ra%is Senior Partner of .ohlber" .ra%is Roberts I o. (4FBG?0resent)

'enry #. .issin"er *o$nder and hairman of .issin"er #ssociates( !nc. (4FB1?0resent)

Senator (D? onnectic$t( 4FB4?1344) +ay Rockefeller U. +ohn P. Secretary of State (134<?0resent)8 U. Senator (D? alifornia( 4FF1?0resent) +ack Reed U. +ohn P. #bi-aid ommander( U.erry U. Senator (D?Mass. Richard B. Warner U. +ones +r. . S$0reme #llied ommander of &$ro0e (133<?133E)8 6ational Sec$rity #d%isor (133F?1343) .S.( 4FB2?134<) 7imothy *. *orce hief of Staff (133B?1341) Gen.S.S. Jork ity (1331?134<) Gen. entral ommand (133<?133G) Gen. Senator (R?#ri-ona( 4FBG?0resent) +oe Lieberman U.S. Senator (D? onnectic$t( 4FBF?134<) hristo0her +. Senator (D?West :ir"inia( 4FB2?0resent) Dianne *einstein U. 6orton #. Hoellick President of 7he World Bank (133G?1341) +ohn P. Geithner Secretary of the 7reas$ry (133F?134<)8 President of the *ederal Reser%e Bank of 6e. +ames L.S.S.S. +$m0er #ir *orce hief of Staff (1334?1332) Gen.S. Dodd U.Lloyd . Jork (133<?133F) Michael Bloomber" Mayor of 6e. Senator (R?:ir"inia( 4FGF?133F) +ohn Mc ain U.S. Blankfein hairman and &) of Goldman Sachs (133E?0resent) +amie Dimon hairman and &) of +P Mor"an hase (133G?0resent) Stanley *ischer Go%ernor of the Bank of !srael Mcentral bank of !sraelN (1332?134<) Robert B. Myers hairman of the +oint hiefs of Staff (1334?1332) Gen. Senator (D?Rhode !sland( 4FFG?0resent) +ohn *.S. Li0sky *irst De0$ty Mana"in" Director of !nternational Monetary *$nd (133E?1344) +ohn W.

S. #mbassador to #f"hanistan (6o%ember 1B( 133<?+$ne 13( 1332) U.) Do$"las &.S.S. 7enet 4FFB?0resent Director of entral !ntelli"ence #"ency (+$ly 44( 4FFGW+$ly 44( 133C) Porter +. Secretary of Defense (December 4B( 133EW+$ly 4( 1344) President of 7eAas #IM Uni%ersity (#$"$st 4( 1331WDecember 4E( 133E) olin L.)8 White 'o$se hief of Staff (1341?4<) Director of the )ffice of Mana"ement and B$d"et (4FFB?1334( 1343?1341) Gene B.halil-ad 4FBE?0resent U.S.S.enneth W.S. Secretary of State (+an$ary 13( 1334W+an$ary 1E( 1332) &laine L. hao 4FB<?4FBB( 4FF3?0resent U. Re0resentati%e to the United 6ations (#$"$st 4( 1332WDec.S. Wolin 4FF<?0resent De0$ty U. 'adley 4FGE?4FB4( 4FF<?0resent 6ational Sec$rity #d%isor (+an$ary 1E( 1332W+an$ary 13( 133F) De0$ty 6ational Sec$rity #d%isor (+an$ary 13( 1334W+an$ary 1E( 1332) .is KScooterL Libby 4FB2?4FF3( 4FF1?0resent hief of Staff to the :ice President of the U. Re0resentati%e to 6#7) (134<?0resent) R. Secretary of State (+an$ary 1E( 1332W+an$ary 13( 133F)8 6ational Sec$rity #d%isor (+an$ary 13( 1334W+an$ary 1E( 1332) Pa$l D. *roman 4FFE?0resent De0$ty #ssistant to the President for 6ational Sec$rity and &conomic Policy (133F?134<)8 U.S. 6e"ro0onte 4FB4?0resent U. 'ayden( US#* 133<?0resent Director of entral !ntelli"ence #"ency (133E?133F) Ste0hen W.S. KDickL heney 4FB1?0resent :ice President of the United States (+an$ary 13( 1334?+an$ary 13( 133F) ondolee--a Rice 4FBC?0resent U. Hoellick 4FF4?0resent President of 7he World Bank (+$ly 4( 133GW+$ne <3( 1341) U. Rice 4FF1?4FFG( 4FFF?0resent U. Secretary of the 7reas$ry (133F?134<) General o$nsel of 'artford *inancial Ser%ices Gro$0( !nc. arter 4FBC?0resent Under Sec. 7rade Re0resentati%e (+an$ary 13( 1334W*ebr$ary 11( 1332)8 De0$ty U.G. L$te 1344?0resent U. Richard B.S. #mbassador to R$ssia (1332?133B) Under Secretary of State for Political #ffairs (133B?1344) De0$ty U.S. of State for #rms ontrol and !nt/l Sec$rity #ffairs (1334?1332) U. #mbassador to Pakistan (6o%ember 12( 133CWMarch 1B( 133G) U. 4FF1?0resent o$nselor of the State De0artment (1332?133E) &Aec$ti%e Director of the F=44 ommission Do$"las +.S.S.S.S. #mbassador to Greece (4FFG?1334)8 U. S0erlin" 133<?0resent Director of 6ational &conomic o$ncil (4FFE?1334( 1344?134C)8 o$nselor to the Secretary of the 7reas$ry (133F?1344) Michael B. Le. (1334?133G) Lael Brainard 1332?0resent Under Secretary of the 7reas$ry for !nternational #ffairs (1343?134<) S$san &. Goss 4FFF?133C Director of entral !ntelli"ence #"ency (133C?133E) U.S. #mbassador to #f"hanistan (+$ly 12( 1344W+$ly 4<( 1341) . *eith 4FB4?4FBE( 4FF3?0resent Under Secretary of Defense for Policy (1334?1332) Do% S. Re0resentati%e to 6#7) (1334?1332)8 Under Secretary of State for Political #ffairs (1332?133B) Ryan . rocker 1343?0resent U. #mbassador to !srael (+$ly 4B( 1334?+$ly 4G( 1332) L. Secretary of Labor (+an$ary 13( 1334W+an$ary 13( 133F) Ste0hen +. Rossotti 4FBF?0resent ommissioner of !nternal Re%en$e Ser%ice (4FFG?1331) Geor"e +. #mbassador to !raD (133C?1332)8 De0$ty Secretary of State (133G?133F) +ohn R. .S. 6icholas B$rns 4FF2?0resent U. Michael :.S. of Defense for #cD$isition( 7echnolo"y and Lo"istics (133F?1344) De0$ty U. 7rade Re0resentati%e (134<?0resent) 6eal S.S. Gates 4FB<?0resent U. Daalder 4FFF?0resent U. Gen. B$rns 4FFC?0resent #ssistant Secretary of State for 6ear &astern #ffairs (1334?1332) U. on"ressman (Re0$blican?*lorida( 4FBF?133C) Gen. Pa$l Bremer !!! 4FF3?0resent U. F( 133E) Halmay . Pro? ons$l of !raD (133<?133C) +ohn D.S. Re0resentati%e to the United 6ations (#0ril 1<( 133GW+an$ary 13( 133F) Pa$la +. Re0resentati%e to the United 6ations (1334?133C) U. #mbassador to &"y0t (1334?1332) #ssistant Secretary of State for 6ear &astern #ffairs (1332?133F) William +.S.ell 4FBE?0resent U. Re0resentati%e to 6#7) (133F?134<) (Lt. Donilon 4FFE?0resent Senior :ice President and General o$nsel of *annie Mae (4FFF?1332) 6ational Sec$rity #d%isor ()ctober B( 1343W+$ly 4( 134<) De0$ty 6ational Sec$rity #d%isor (+an$ary 13( 133FW)ctober B( 1343) Robert M.S.it4FGC?4FGF( 4FB4?0resent President of 7he World Bank (+$ne 4( 1332W+$ne <3( 133G)8 De0$ty U.S.S. Po. Preston 1331?0resent General o$nsel of the entral !ntelli"ence #"ency (133F?134<) #shton B. 133E?0resent Secretary of the 7reas$ry (134<?0res.$rt-er 4FBF?1331( 133E?0resent U. Secretary of State (*ebr$ary 11( 1332W+$ly G( 133E) +acob +. Re0resentati%e to the United 6ations (+an$ary 11( 133FW+$ly 4( 134<)8 6ational Sec$rity #d%isor (+$ly 4( 134<?0resent) 7homas &.S. Bolton 1333?0resent Under Sec. #mbassador to !raD (+$ne 14( 1332?March <4( 133G) U.S. Dam 4FB1?0resent De0$ty Secretary of the 7reas$ry (1334?133<) harles ).S. Secretary of Defense (+an$ary 13( 1334W+$ne 4( 1332) Robert B. Dobriansky 4FBC?4FBF( 4FFC?0resent Under Secretary of State for Democracy and Global #ffairs (1334?133F) Phili0 D.o$ncil on *orei"n Relations Members and 7heir )cc$0ation d$rin" the Global War on 7errorism (1334?0resent) 6ame *R Membershi0 (Jear) Primary )cc$0ation :o!ernment >fficials. Wolfo.S.S. Secretary of State (1344?0resent) !%o '.S. (1334?1332) &lliott #brams 4FGF?0resent 6S Senior Director for 6ear &ast and 6orth #frican #ffairs (1331?1332) De0$ty 6S #d%iser for Global Democracy Strate"y (1332?133F) .S. Secretary of Defense ()ctober 2( 1344WDecember <( 134<) Daniel . Hakheim 4FB<?0resent om0troller of the De0artment of Defense (1334?1332) Le. Da%id Welch 4FFC?0resent U. Heliko. #mbassador to !raD (March 1E( 133GW*ebr$ary 4<( 133F) U.

Williams Mona S$t0hen +anet #. Senator (Democrat? onnectic$t( 4FBF?134<) U. Sch$mer #mory 'o$"hton +r.S. Senator (Democrat? onnectic$t( 4FB4?1344) U.S. Roche +eh harles +ohnson 133<?0resent 1334?0resent 4FF1?0resent 1334?0resent Richard 6.S. on"ressman (Democrat? alifornia( 4FF<?4FFF( 1334?1344) U. on"ressman (Democrat?Washin"ton( 4FGG?134<) U.on" (1332?133B) U. Berman Donald M.S. Michael Mc*a$l +ames G.ard L.S. Senator (Democrat?West :ir"inia( 4FB2?0resent) U. on"ressman (Democrat?7ennessee( 4FB<?4FF2( 133<?0resent) U.S. Payne +im Leach harles B. firmN (4FFC?4FFB( 1334?133F( 134<) hairman of the Defense Policy Board (1334?133<) hief S0eech. Warner h$ck 'a"el hristo0her +.S.S. KDickL Ge0hardt 'o. Richard #.S. #mbassador to Pakistan (#$"$st 4E( 1331W6o%ember 2( 133C) U. Dicks +im McDermott +ane 'arman +ames '. Senator (Democrat?Mass. on"ressman (Re0$blican?#ri-ona( 4FB2?133G) U.S.S.aren Gordon Mills #aron S.S. 4FF2?0resent 4FFC?0resent 4FFB?0resent 133E?0resent 1333?0resent U.S. to MeAico (133F?1344) U. Senator (Re0$blican?:ir"inia( 4FGF?133F) U.S.S.S.S. Bisho0 +r. Jork( 4FG4?0resent) U. on"ressman (Democrat?Washin"ton( 4FBF?0resent) U.S. S$0reme o$rt (4FF<?0resent) +$stice of the U.olbe . Ran"el Do$"las .S. Rockefeller !: )lym0ia +.S.S.7atiana . on"ressman (Democrat?#ri-ona( 4FF4?0resent) U. Senator (Re0$blican?#ri-ona( 4FBG?0resent) U.S.S.S. +ersey( 4FFG?133<) U.. K+imL . Senator (Democrat?6e. Secretary of State (134<?0resent) U.S. Senator (Democrat? alifornia( 4FF1?0resent) U.( 4FB2?134<)8 U. on"ressman (Democrat?6e. Robert 7. Secretary of 'omeland Sec$rity (December 1<( 134<?0resent) General o$nsel of the U. on"ressman (Democrat? alifornia( 4FGF?1332) U. Sno.S. #mbassador to omm$nist hina (1334?133F) U.S.S. '$me arlos &. on"ressman (Re0$blican?Wisconsin( 4FGF?0resent) U. $nnin"ham ameron R. Senator (Re0$blican?Maine( 4FF2?134<) U. #mbassador to So$th #frica (1334?133C) U.S. Randt +r.S. .S. #mbassador to #f"hanistan (#$"$st 1( 1341?0resent) U. #mbassador to !srael (+$ne <3( 133BW+$ne 1344) U.S. #mbassador to !ndonesia (133G?1343) U.S.riter for the President of the United States (133C?133F) U.S.e +ose0h Lieberman +ohn *. Breyer hristine 7odd Whitman #lan D.S.S. 7hiessen Robert G. Senator (Democrat?Rhode !sland( 4FFG?0resent) U. #mbassador to Ghana (Se0tember 4C( 1334?May 1E( 1331) U. Senator (Democrat?!ndiana( 4FFF?1344) U.ell 4FFE?0resent 1334?0resent 4FFF?0resent 1334?0resent 1343?0resent lark 7.S. on"ressman (Democrat? alifornia( 4FB<?134<) U. #mbassador to .erry +ohn S. on"ressman (Democrat?Geor"ia( 4FF<?0resent) U. ons$l General in +eddah( Sa$di #rabia (133C?133B) U.S. De0artment of Defense (133F?1341) Partner of Pa$l( Weiss( Rifkind( Wharton I Garrison Mla. on"ressman (Democrat?Misso$ri( 4FGG?1332) U. Mc ain !!! +ack Reed Dianne *einstein harles &.S.S. 7orricelli Bob Graham +ohn W. +ames 7. on"ressman (Democrat?6e.S.S. #mbassador to Ukraine (1333?133<)8 U. Bersin Mar"aret #nn 'amb$r" .S.a( 4FGG?133G) U. Dodd &%an Bayh +ohn D. +ersey( 4FBF?1341) U.S.S. Small B$siness #dministration (133F?134<) Director of Peace or0s (133F?1341) White 'o$se De0$ty hief of Staff for Policy (133F?1344) U. #mb.S. #mbassador to 6e0al (#$"$st F( 133G?+$ly F( 133F) Director General of the United States *orei"n Ser%ice (133F?1341) U. Pasc$al 6ancy +o Po. Gfoeller +ames B. S0ratt +r. 6a0olitano +ane 'oll L$te 4FGB?133< 4FFG?0resent 4FFC?0resent 4FB4?0resent 4FFF?0resent 4FFF?0resent 4FB2?0resent 133C?0resent 4FGB?0resent 4FF4?0resent 4FF4?0resent 4FF1?0resent 4FFG?0resent 1334?0resent 133<?0resent 4FF2?133C 4FG3?0resent 4FBB?133C 4FBF?0resent 4FF3?0resent 4FF3?0resent 4FF4?0resent 4FF1?1332 4FFC?0resent 4FF2?133< 4FF2?0resent 4FF2?0resent 4FF2?0resent 4FF2?0resent 4FF2?0resent 4FFE?133< 4FFE?1332 4FFE?133G 4FFE?0resent 1334?1343 4FG<?0resent 4FB<?0resent 4FF2?0resent 4FFF?0resent 4FBE?4FF4( 4FF<?0res.S. S$0reme o$rt (4FFC?0resent) #dministrator of &n%ironmental Protection #"ency (1334?133<) ommissioner of $stoms and Border Protection (1343?1344) ommissioner of *ood and Dr$" #dministration (133F?0resent) #dministrator of U. Secretary of 'omeland Sec$rity (+an$ary 14( 133F?Se0tember E( 134<) Go%ernor of #ri-ona (+an$ary E( 133<W+an$ary 14( 133F) De0$ty Secretary of 'omeland Sec$rity (133F?134<) .S.S. on"ressman (Re0$blican?6e. on"ressman (Re0$blican?6ebraska( 4FGF?133C) U.S.S.S. Senator (R?6ebraska( 4FFG?133F)8 U. Perle Marc #. Jork( 4FBG?1332) U. Mats$i 7homas &. on"ressman (Re0$blican?!o.S.yr"y-stan ()ctober 4C( 133B?March B( 1344) U. Bere$ter 6orman D. on"ressman (Re0$blican?*lorida( 133<?133G) +$stice of the U. Secretary of Defense (134<?0resent) U.S. on"ressman (Democrat?So$th arolina( 4FB<?1344) U. on"ressman (Democrat?Massach$setts( 4FB4?134<) U.S. #mbassador to !ndia (#0ril 1C( 1341?0resent) U.atherine 'arris R$th Bader Ginsb$r" Ste0hen G. ons$l General in 'on" . oo0er Barney *rank &d Pastor Sanford D. Senator (Democrat?*lorida( 4FBG?1332) U.riter for the Secretary of Defense (1334?133C)8 hief S0eech. Senator (Democrat?6e.S. #mbassador to R$ssia (+an$ary 43( 1341?134C) Secretary of the #ir *orce (+$ne 4( 1334?+an$ary 13( 1332) U.S. Jork( 4FFF?0resent) U. Petri +ohn M.

Gen. 'ess 4FFB?1331 1331?0resent 4FF2?0resent 4FB2?4FF3( 133C?0resent 4FFE?0resent 4FF2?0resent 1334?0resent 4FBE?4FF4( 1331?0resent 1333?0resent 4FFG?0resent 1331?1332 1333( 133<?1332( 1344? 0resent 4FFF?0resent 1334?0resent 4FBC?4FBF( 1332?0resent 133F?0resent 133F?0resent 133F?0resent 4FFB?0resent 133<?0resent 4FFE?0resent 4FF2?0resent 133C?0resent 1343?0resent 4FFE?0resent 1334?0resent 133<?0resent 4FGG?0resent 133<?0resent 1334?133B 1331?0resent 1331?0resent 1334?133C 133C?0resent 4FFG?0resent 4FBB?0resent 133B?0resent 4FBC?0resent . MeAico (133<?1344) Go%ernor of Mississi00i (133C?1341) Mayor of 6e. Ren$art +r. entral ommand (133<?133G) ommander( U. Baker Daniel S. 6orthern ommand (1331?133C) ommander of U. Gen. *o. Gen. . Da%id M. Pacific *leet (133F?1341) ommander( 6orth #merican #eros0ace Defense ommand (133C?133G) ommander( 6orth #merican #eros0ace Defense ommand (133G?1343) ommander( ombined *orces ommand?#f"hanistan (1332?133G) U.S. Marine or0s (+$ly 4( 4FFF?+an$ary 41( 133<) S$0reme #llied ommander of &$ro0e (+an$ary 4G( 133<WDec.S. #rmy &$ro0e (1331?1332) ommander( U.orea (133E?133B) #ir *orce hief of Staff (1334?1332) #ir *orce hief of Staff (1332?133B) ommander( U.S. +ames 7. :ice #dm. Military #cademy (1334?133E) S$0erintendent of U. Michael Moseley Gen. ). Bell !!! Gen. Rondea$ Lt. *rank G. Lt. 'ill( #rmy #dm. Secretary of :eterans #ffairs (+an$ary 14( 133F?0resent) ommander( U. . Stanley #. (4FFE?133<) &) of Lockheed Martin or0. LennoA +r. White 7h$rbert &. Sta%ridis #dm. Walsh #dm. Mi-e Ma>. 6orton #. E( 1344W6o%ember F( 1341) hief of Staff( S:!!! #irborne or0s and *ort Bra"" (1334?1331) :ice Director for )0erations( +<( 7he +oint Staff (1331?133<) ommander( +oint S0ecial )0erations ommand (133<?133B) Director of 7he +oint Staff (133B?133F) ommander( U. #ir *orces in &$ro0e (133<?133E) ommander( U. Myers( US#* Gen. Petrae$s 4FB2?0resent 1343?0resent 4FFF?0resent 1333?0resent 1334?0resent 133F?0resent 4FBE?4FF4( 4FFB?0resent Go%ernor of 6e. Raymond Da%id +. +ones +r. +ohnson Lee R.arl W.ler Dusinessmen. 'enry '. Patrick M. *orces #f"hanistan (+$ne 1<( 1343W+$ly 4B( 1344) Director of entral !ntelli"ence #"ency (Se0t. #frica ommand (133G?1344) President of 6ational Defense Uni%ersity (133F?1341) S$0erintendent of U. S0ace ommand (1333?1331) ommander( U. hristo0her orteGen. Sch.S.S.S.William B. Da%id '.S.) +ay L. Richard B. &ric . S$lli%an (ilitary >fficers. +ohn P.S. Ma$rice R. Ral0h &. #mbassador to #f"hanistan (#0ril 1F( 133F?+$ly 12( 1344) ommander( 4Cth #ir *orce and #ir *orce S0ace ommand (1331?1332) :ice ommander( #ir Mobility ommand (1331?1332) ommandin" General( Marine or0s Base am0 Le>e$ne (1334?133<) ommandin" General( Marine or0s Recr$itin" ommand (133<?133C) ommander( U. Gen. *orces #f"hanistan (133F?1343) hairman of the +oint hiefs of Staff ()ctober 4( 4FFG?Se0tember <3( 1334) hairman of the +oint hiefs of Staff ()ctober 4( 1334? Se0tember <3( 1332) ommander( 6)R#D (1333?133C) ommander( U. +ohn P. lark Gen. Baker Ma>. entral ommand ()ctober <4( 133BW+$ne <3( 1343) ommander( U. Jork ity (+an$ary 4( 1331? December <4( 134<) Mayor of 'o$ston (133C?1343) #ttorney General of Geor"ia (4FFG?1344) #ttorney General of #laska (133F?1343) ommandin" General( 434st #irborne Di%ision (1331?133C) ommander( M$lti?6ational Sec$rity 7ransition ommand in !raD (133C?133G) ommander( M$ltinational *orces !raD (133G?133B) ommander of U.lotGen. Gen. Ward( #rmy :ice #dm. M$lcahy Phili0 M. Greenber" Seymo$r KSyL Sternber" Robert '. Benmosche #nne M. Shelton Gen. Robert '.Reilly +ohn B.ell B.S.S. *o"leson" #dm.S. #bi-aid( #rmy Gen.S. (4FFG?133B) &) of MetLife !nc.artGen. :ernon &. (1331?1343) &) of Boein" o.S. &ikenberry Lt. &berhart( US#* Gen. KBillL Richardson 'aley Barbo$r Michael R.. MMetro0olitan LifeN (4FFB?133E) &) of SeroA or0. G( 133E) 6ational Sec$rity #d%isor (+an$ary 13( 133F W )ctober B( 1343) :ice ommander( #ir *orce S0ace ommand (1332?133G) #ir *orce #ssistant :ice hief of Staff (133G?133F) ommander of #ir *orce Global Strike ommand (133F?1344) #ir *orce :ice hief of Staff (1334?133<) ommander( U. Michael #. 7. Jork Life !ns$rance o. 'amel Lt. #nn &. So$thern ommand (133E?133F) S$0reme #llied ommander of &$ro0e( S'#P& (133F?134<) ommander of U. . *orces . Shinseki Gen. (1343?1341) &) of &AAonMobil Moil com0anyN (4FFF?133E) &) of he%ron7eAaco Moil com0anyN (1333?133F) &) of 'ess or0oration Moil com0anyN (4FF2?0resent) Gen. +$m0er Gen. (1332?134<) &) of General Dynamics or0. Gen. +effrey L. Gen. Mc hrystal 1334?0resent Gen. Bloomber" William '. 6a%al #cademy (133G?1343) hairman and hairman and hairman and hairman and hairman and hairman and hairman and hairman and hairman and hairman and hairman and &) of #merican !nternational Gro$0 Mins$ranceN (4FBF?1332) &) of 6e. William +. (4FFB?1332) &) of Lockheed Martin or0.S. 7rans0ortation ommand (1332?133B) #ir *orce hief of Staff (133B?1341) #rmy hief of Staff (+$ne 14( 4FFF?+$ne 44( 133<) U. So$thern ommand (1331?133C) hief of 6a%al )0erations (1333?1332) ommandant of the U.S. +ames G.( Marines Lt. William &. ondit :ance offman Robert +.S.S. 7imothy +. +ames L.S.S.eatin" Gen. Gen. Ste%ens (#dm. :ictor &. B$r. +ohn R.

ell M6e.enneth M. Lo$ise M. Jork ityN (4FGG?0resent) Partner of Da%is( Polk I Ward. Lockhart Richard S. (4FF<?0resent) General o$nsel of #merican !nternational Gro$0 (#!G) (4FFF?133E) General o$nsel of 6orthro0 Gr$mman or0oration (1343?0resent) Senior Partner of Baker Botts M'o$stonN (4FF<?0resent) Partner of S$lli%an I rom. 'arrison +r. Sec$rities and &Achan"e ommission (133<?1332) President of arne"ie &ndo. *ranklin D.ment for !nternational Peace (4FFF?133<) hairman of U. 'ills Robert &. arter Richard #. &rcklentSte0hen #. D$dley Michael '. Jork ityN (4FBB?0resent) Partner of Milbank( 7. Jork (4FF<?133<) President of the *ederal Reser%e Bank of 6e. Berresford William G. Mosko. &d"ar M. 'eineman +r. *$ld +r. Dr$cker Mel M. hristo0her harlene Barshefsky +amie S. KBillL Donaldson +essica 7$chman Mathe. oleman +r. Prince !!! &. Jork (133F?0resent) President of the *ederal Reser%e Bank of hica"o (4FFC?133G) President of the *ederal Reser%e Bank of Dallas (1332?0resent) President of the *ederal Reser%e Bank of #tlanta (133G?0resent) hairman and &) of Lehman Brothers (4FFC?133B) hairman (133E?133G) and &) (133C?133G) of iti"ro$0 hairman and &) of Merrill Lynch I o. Richard W. Raines #rth$r *. Bo.S. Warren M. Jork (133<?133F) U.ment for !nternational Peace (4FFG?0resent) President of 7he Rockefeller *o$ndation (1332?0resent) President of *ord *o$ndation (4FFE?133B) President of #ndre. Stanley )/6eal William B. >r ani"ation +Becuti!es.enneth hena$lt #leAander 7.eed( 'adley I Mc loy M6e. Ben>amin W. Mellon *o$ndation (4FBB?133E) .N (4FFC?133B) General o$nsel of General &lectric o. *er"$son +r.ish on"ress (4FB4?133G) President of World +e.ell M6e. Secretary of the 7reas$ry (133F?134<) President of the *ederal Reser%e Bank of 6e. (4FGB?0resent) hairman and &) of 7he Blackstone Gro$0 (4FB2?0resent) hairman of 7he arlyle Gro$0 (4FF<?133<) hairman of 7he arlyle Gro$0 (133<?133B) hairman and &) of !nternational B$siness Machines or0.en 4FGB?0resent 4FGE?4FB4( 133E?0resent 133C?0resent 4FG2?0resent 4FFE?0resent 1344?0resent 4FFE?0resent 4FGE?0resent 133B?0resent 4FFE?133F 1333?0resent 133C?0resent 1333?0resent 1333?0resent 1334?0resent 4FB<?133F 1343?0resent 4FBF?0resent 4FBB?0resent 4FF1?0resent 4FGE?0resent 4FB1?0resent 4FBF?0resent 4FFC?1344 4FF3?0resent 1333?0resent 4FF<?0resent 1331?0resent 4FFB?0resent 4FFB?0resent 4FFF?0resent 4FFF?0resent 4FG1?0resent 4FG<?1343 4FFF?0resent 4FFG?0resent 4FGB?0resent 4FGE?134< 4FFB?0resent 133E?0resent 4FC1?0resent 4FG4?0resent 4FF<?0resent 4FFC?0resent 4FB3?4FB2( 4FFC?0resent 4FGC?0resent 4FGB?4FB3( 4FB<?0resent 133E?0resent 4FBF?0resent 4FBG?133G President of 7he World Bank (4FF2?1332) *irst De0$ty Mana"in" Director of !nternational Monetary *$nd (133E?1344) Go%ernor of the Bank of !srael (1332?134<) :ice hairman of the *ederal Reser%e (134C?0resent) Mdesi"natedN hairman of the *ederal Reser%e (4FBG?133E) President of the *ederal Reser%e Bank of San *rancisco (133C?1343) :ice hairman of the *ederal Reser%e (1343?134C) hairman of the *ederal Reser%e (134C?0resent) :ice hairman of the *ederal Reser%e (4FFF?133E) President and &) of 7!##? R&* (133B?0resent) hairman of the &conomic l$b of 6e. Parent &rnest 7. 'aass William '.ar-man *rank . (133<?133G) hairman and &) of +P Mor"an hase (1334?133E) hairman and &) of +P Mor"an hase (133G?0resent) hairman and &) of Goldman Sachs (4FFF?133E) Secretary of the 7reas$ry (133E?133F) hairman and &) of La-ard *reres (1334?133F) hairman and &) of La-ard *reres (133F?0resent) hairman and &) of #merican &A0ress o. heston +ames #. Br$ce Wasserstein . Gorelick :ernon &. Jork (1341?0resent) President of the *ederal Reser%e Bank of 6e. (4FF<?1331) hairman and &) of *annie Mae (4FFF?133C) hairman and &) of Pr$dential *inancial MPr$dential Life !ns. Sch. Geithner William . +ames D. +ordan +r. Ronald S. Baker !!! +ames '. arl$cci Lo$is :. +acobs . McDono$"h 7imothy *. harles ). Patrikis Sheila . !mmer"$t William 7. Gerstner +r. Li0sky 4FF2?0resent Stanley *ischer 4FFC?0resent #lan Greens0an +anet L. Bronfman Sr. Pa$lson +r.s +$dith Rodin S$san :.Global War on 7errorism (1334?0resent)5 Dankers. Jork ityN (4FB3?0resent) Senior Partner of )/Mel%eny I Myers (4FGG?0resent) Senior Partner of )/Mel%eny I Myers (4FFG?1344) Partner of Wilmer( $tler( Pickerin"( 'ale I Dorr (1334?0resent) Partner of Wilmer( $tler( Pickerin"( 'ale I Dorr (133<?0resent)8 Member of F=44 ommission Senior o$nsel of #kin( G$m0( Stra$ss( 'a$er I *eld (1333?0resent)8 Senior Mana"in" Director of La-ard *reres (1333?0resent) President of World +e. Wolfensohn 4FB4?0resent +ohn P.ish on"ress (133G?0resent) 6ational Director of the #nti?Defamation Lea"$e (#DL) (4FBG?0resent) 'onorary hairman of the o$ncil on *orei"n Relations (4FB2?0resent) hairman of the o$ncil on *orei"n Relations (4FB2?133G) o? hairman of the o$ncil on *orei"n Relations (133G?0resent) o? hairman of the o$ncil on *orei"n Relations (133G?0resent) President of the o$ncil on *orei"n Relations (133<?0resent) Director of State De0artment Policy Plannin" Staff (1334?133<) hairman of arne"ie &ndo. +ames K+amieL Dimon 'enry M. Ryan =a$yers.S. Jellen Ro"er W. (1334?0resent) Partner of Bro. *isher Dennis P.n Brothers 'arriman I o. W. *oAman Da%id Rockefeller Peter G. William +. R$bin Richard 6. Peterson arla #. (4FBG?133C) General o$nsel of #merican &A0ress o. La$der #braham '.

Williams 133<?0resent . 7homson Strobe 7albott 6adine Strossen 'enry .s analyst 66 >o$rnalist +effrey L. .n Uni%ersity (133F?0resent) R. 4FF3?0resent 4FBC?0resent 4FBB?0resent 4FG2?0resent 4FFC?0resent 4F2E?133F 4FF4?0resent 4FF2?0resent 1333?0resent 4FF4?0resent 4FFC?0resent 133B?0resent 1334?0resent 4FFC?133G 4FF3?0resent President of #lfred P. Shalala 4FB1?0resent President of Uni%ersity of Miami M*loridaN (1334?0resent) Da%id L. Sloan *o$ndation (4FBF?133G) President of World Peace *o$ndation (4FF<?1343) President of #s0en !nstit$te (133<?0resent) President of +ohn D. Leebron 4FFE?0resent President of Rice Uni%ersity (133C?0resent) +eh$da Reinhar4FFF?0resent President of Brandeis Uni%ersity (4FFC?1343) Ste0hen +. Lari%iere 133E?0resent President of Uni%ersity of )re"on (133F?1344) Mark #. Le%in 1341?0resent President of Jale Uni%ersity (4FF<?134<) Lee . (*oA 6e.issin"er 7homas '. 133<?0resent Mortimer B.itty Pil"rim 1333?0resent Colle e )rofessors. Boren 4FBF?0resent President of Uni%ersity of )klahoma (4FFC?0resent) Da%id W. Rotber" Walter S. on"ressman (4FE2?4FFF) Member of F=44 ommission8 U. and atherine 7. R$0ert M$rdoch &ric Schmidt 'o.yer 4FB4?0resent Brian D. &inhorn 4FG<?0resent Dean( School of #d%anced !nt/l St$dies at +ohns 'o0kins Uni%.les 4FFF?0resent President of Uni%ersity of 6orth arolina (1332?1343) Ste0hen W. 7rachtenber" 4FF3?0resent President of Geor"e Washin"ton Uni%ersity (4FBB?133G) +ohn &d. . Lehman +r.ondrake 4FBB?0resent . . Lancaster 4FBE?0resent Dean( School of *orei"n Ser%ice at Geor"eto.vening ews (133E?1344) hief *orei"n #ffairs orres0ondent for 6B (4FFC?0resent) &ditor of 6e. Robert KBobL .ann 4FB2?0resent .eek !nternational (1333?0resent) BS 6e.ean Lee '. M. Stahl 1331?0resent +$dith Miller 4FGE?0resent 7homas L. (4FF4?133G) P$blisher of The "all Street 1ournal (1331?1332) &ditor?in? hief of Time ma"a-ine (4FF2?1332) &ditor?in? hief of Time ma"a-ine (133E?1341) &ditor?in? hief of $2S2 ews and "orld !e0ort (4FBC?0resent) &ditorial Pa"e &ditor of The "ashington Post (1333?0resent) &ditorial Pa"e &ditor of The ew 3ork Times (133G?0resent)8 #nchor of BS &%enin" 6e.n Uni%ersity (1334?1341) +ohn +.s) (4FF4?0resent) hairman and &) of Goo"le !nc. (133G?0res. *riedman 4FB2?0resent +im 'oa"land 4FGF?0resent Robert alle"edly killed in a raid in #bbottabad( Pakistan on May 1( 1344. DeGioia 133<?0resent President of Geor"eto. Bollin"er 133<?0resent President of ol$mbia Uni%ersity (1331?0resent) R$th +.kes 4FFE?0resent Peter R.s (4FB4?1332) #nchor of 6B 6i"htly 6e. 4FBB?0resent Diane Sa.a"an 4FB2?4FF3( 4FFE?0resent +im Lehrer 4FB3?0resent Morton . (133<?133B) hairman of the board of iti"ro$0 (133F?1341) President (133E?133G) and hairman I &) (133F?0resent) of 7ime Warner hairman of Do. '$ey +r. +ones I o.s (4FB1?133C) #nchor of #B "orld ews Tonight (1343?0resent) #nchor of 6B ightly ews (133C?0resent) #nchor of BS . (1334?0resent) hairman and &) of Sony or0oration (1332?1341) hairman and &) of 7ime Warner( !nc.Ral0h &.s 4* &inutes corres0ondent (4FF4?0resent) 6e.aiser 4FGF?0resent harles . Bos. Gomory Robert !.ra$thammer 4FF3?0resent Robert W.s or0. (4FF<?1331) hairman and &) of 7ime Warner( !nc. *anton :artan Gre"orian +ames #. and Di0lomacy at 7$fts Uni%ersity (1334?134<) +essica P. Jork Uni%ersity (1331?0resent) Richard W. Jork (4FFG?0resent) President of R#6D or0oration (4FBF?1344) President of 7he Brookin"s !nstit$tion (1331?0resent) President of #merican i%il Liberties Union (# LU) (4FF4?133B) Desi"nated hairman of F=44 ommission Mdeclined nominationN hairman of F=44 ommission8 Go%ernor of 6e.n Uni%ersity (1334?0resent) Da%id +. H$ckerman 4FBB?0resent *red 'iatt 4FFG?0resent #ndre. oats.s. Le%in Richard D. Be. !saacson +onathan *. Richard .S.errey +ohn *. Glenn '$bbard 133G?0resent Dean of ol$mbia B$siness School (133C?0resent) 6ote5 #rab terrorist )sama bin Laden .orth 1333?0resent Dean( School of !nternational I P$blic #ffairs at ol$mbia Uni%. Senator (4FBF?1334) Member of F=44 ommission8 Secretary of the 6a%y (4FB4?4FBG) hairman and &) of 6e.) arol +.aren &lliott 'o$se 4FGB?0resent 6orman Pearlstine 4FBC?0resent +ohn W.orth 4FBB?0resent Dean( *letcher School of La.ard Strin"er Gerald M. Mac#rth$r *o$ndation (4FFF?133F)8 hairman of the board of '$man Ri"hts Watch (4FFB?133<) President of arne"ie or0oration of 6e. 'amilton +. +ersey (4FB1?4FF3) :ice hairman of F=44 ommission8 U.S. (1331?1341) +ohn '. Parsons 4FBG?0resent 4FG2?0resent 4FGF?4FBC( 4FBG?0res. .) #ssociate &ditor and Senior orres0ondent( "ashington Post (4FFB?0resent) Syndicated ol$mnist for The "ashington Post (4FBC?0resent) ol$mnist for The "ashington Post #nchor of The ewsHour with 1im Lehrer on PBS (4FF2?0resent) *oA 6e. ro.ard SeAton 133<?0resent President of 6e. 1332?0resent President of #ri-ona State Uni%ersity (1331?0resent) &rskine B. Rosenthal 133G?0resent Dan Rather 4FB3?0resent 7om Broka. Journalists.atie o$ric 133C?0resent #ndrea Mitchell 133C?0resent *areed Hakaria 1331?0resent Lesley R. Skorton 133E?0resent President of ornell Uni%ersity (133E?0resent) S$san 'ockfield 133B?0resent President of Massach$setts !nstit$te of 7echnolo"y (133C?1341) Donna &. Jork 7imes >o$rnalist8 im0risoned d$rin" :alerie Plame e0isode *orei"n #ffairs ol$mnist of The ew 3ork Times (4FF2?0resent) #ssociate &ditor I hief *orei"n orres0ondent( "ashington Post (4FBE?0r. Simmons 4FFG?0resent President of Bro. &mmert 133B?0resent President of Uni%ersity of Washin"ton MSeattleN (133C?1343) Michael M. . Bo.

. &%eryone eAce0t for 6ancy Brinker is a member of the o$ncil on *orei"n Relations. (Photo5 U.ith Saad 'ariri( leader of the Lebanese Parliament( in the )%al )ffice of the White 'o$se in Washin"ton( D. 'ariri( the son of the slain former Prime minister of Lebanon( is in Washin"ton for talks abo$t the f$t$re of Lebanon.hief of Protocol 6ancy Brinker( U.S. B$sh (R) meets . (Getty !ma"es) U.halil-ad (ri"ht) "reets De0$ty Secretary of Defense Pa$l Wolfo. President Geor"e the Penta"on on December 4C( 133C. De0artment of Defense) .it.S. :ice President Dick heney( &lliott #brams( De0$ty #ssistant to the President and De0$ty 6ational Sec$rity #d%isor for Global Democratic Strate"y( Secretary of State ondolee--a Rice( Ste0hen 'adley( #ssistant to the President for 6ational Sec$rity #ffairs stand in the back"ro$nd as U. #mbassador to #f"hanistan Halmay . on )ctober C( 133G.

(Photo5 U. Robert Gates and Gen.k helico0ter to *all$>ah( !raD on #0ril 4F( 133G. #ll three men are members of the o$ncil on *orei"n Relations. De0artment of Defense) #rmy Gen. (Photo5 U. Gates as they fly in a U'?E3 Black 'a. Da%id Petrae$s( ommander of M$ltinational *orce !raD( talks to Secretary of Defense Robert M. De0artment of Defense) .S. Da%id Petrae$s are members of the o$ncil on *orei"n Relations.Secretary of Defense Robert M.S. Gates (left) and Senator +ohn Mc ain (center) listen to Senator +ose0h Lieberman d$rin" the C<rd #nn$al onference on Sec$rity Policy in M$nich( Germany on *ebr$ary 43( 133G.

s0ecial en%oy to Pakistan and #f"hanistan Richard 'olbrooke ( ) and U.S.S.ab$l( #f"hanistan on +$ly 12( 133F. #ir *orce Master S"t.arl &ikenberry d$rin" a meetin" at a 0residential 0alace in . forces in #f"hanistan( ri"ht( d$rin" a meetin" of 6#7) defense ministers in Bratisla%a( Slo%akia on )ctober 1<( 133F.ith (R) s0eaks .S.arl &ikenberry are members of the o$ncil on *orei"n Relations. Defense Secretary Robert M. +erry Morrison) .S. Stanley Mc hrystal( commander of 6#7) and U. Richard 'olbrooke and . (Re$ters) U. +ames G.S. #rmy Gen. De0artment of Defense 0hoto by U. 6a%y #dm.S. Gates( left( s0eaks .ith U. (U.#f"han President 'amid . #mbassador to #f"hanistan . Gates( Sta%ridis( and Mc hrystal are members of the o$ncil on *orei"n Relations.S. Sta%ridis( center( 6#7).S.s S$0reme #llied ommander for &$ro0e( and U.

hile flanked by . 7he committee is hearin" testimony on the ne. (Getty !ma"es) . #ll three men are members of the o$ncil on *orei"n Relations. Da%id Petrae$s (ri"ht)( ommander of U. entral ommand( testifies .ith U. #f"hanistan strate"y since President )bama has committed to sendin" more troo0s to the re"ion. Secretary of Defense Robert Gates ( ) a00ears .U.S.ab$l( #f"hanistan on March B( 1343. on December F( 133F.arl &ikenberry (L)( U.S.S. #rmy Gen. #ll three men are members of the o$ncil on *orei"n Relations.S. (Getty !ma"es) U. #mbassador to #f"hanistan . ( )( De0$ty Secretary of State for Mana"ement and Reso$rces( d$rin" a Senate *orei"n Relations ommittee hearin" on a0itol 'ill in Washin"ton( D. #mbassador to #f"hanistan( and +acob Le.arl &ikenberry (L) ommander of U. .S.S. and 6#7) forces in #f"hanistan General Stanley Mc hrystal (R) d$rin" a meetin" in .

a fe5. and 5hether hereditary. Senate #rmed Ser%ices ommittee on a0itol 'ill in Washin"ton( D. *lo$rnoy and Petrae$s are members of the o$ncil on *orei"n Relations.S. or many.S. or ele0ti@e. in the same hands. on +$ne 4E( 1343. may !ustly +e "ronoun0ed the @ery definition of tyranny * 6 ames . 7he committee is recei%in" an $0date on the c$rrent sit$ation in #f"hanistan. (Getty !ma"es) U. #ll three men are members of the o$ncil on *orei"n Relations. and !udi0iary. Dederalist 2o( G5 .S.S. . Da%id Petrae$s( ommander of U. 5hether of one. eJe0uti@e. #rmy Gen.U. Da%id Petrae$s (R)( ommander of U. legislati@e. 7he committee is recei%in" an $0date on the c$rrent sit$ation in #f"hanistan. entral ommand( looks on d$rin" a hearin" cond$cted by the US Senate #rmed Ser%ices ommittee on a0itol 'ill in Washin"ton( D. than that on %hi'h the ob<e'tion is founded( 4he a00umulation of all "o5ers.ith U. (Getty !ma"es) )2o politi'al truth is 'ertainl! of greater intrinsi' 4alue.adison. on +$ne 42( 1343. self<a""ointed.S. or is stamped %ith the authorit! of more enlightened patrons of libert!.S #rmy Gen. Senator +ohn Mc ain (left( R?#ri-ona) and U. Senator +oe Lieberman (center( !? onnectic$t) before a hearin" cond$cted by the U. Under Secretary of Defense for Policy Michele *lo$rnoy (L) deli%ers o0enin" remarks as U.S.S. entral ommand( s0eaks . .

L$"ar U.S.#merican Rhodes Scholars I 7heir )cc$0ation d$rin" the Global War on 7errorism #lan D. Wilson U.. Senator (R?!ndiana( 4FGG?134<) R$ss *ein"old U.S. Dennis . on"ress. lark S$0reme #llied ommander of &$ro0e( 6#7) (4FFG?1333) R.oman (R? 6e. Rice U. Blair Director of 6ational !ntelli"ence (133F?1343) Gen. on"ressman (D?7ennessee( 4FB<? 4FF2( 133<?0resent) 'eather #. Slocombe Under Secretary of Defense for Policy (4FFC?1334) Richard +.S. Secretary of Defense (1344?134<) S$san &.S.S. 'aass President of the o$ncil on *orei"n Relations (133<?0resent) Da%id L. S.S. Senator (D?Wisconsin( 4FF<?1344) Da%id :itter U. Wesley . #mbassador to R$ssia (1341?134C) #dm. Dan-i" Secretary of the 6a%y (4FFB?1334) +ames '. MeAico( 4FFB?133F) Richard G. Re0resentati%e to the United 6ations (133F?134<)8 6ational Sec$rity #d%isor (134<?0resent) Michael Mc*a$l U.S. Senator (R? Lo$isiana( 1332?0resent) Strobe 7albott President of 7he Brookin"s !nstit$tion (1331?0resent) Walter !saacson President of #s0en !nstit$te Mof '$manistic St$diesN (133<?0resent) Richard 6.S. arter De0$ty U. +ames Woolsey Director of entral !ntelli"ence #"ency (4FF<?4FF2) William +. Bersin ommissioner of $stoms and Border Protection (1343?1344) #shton B. oo0er U. KBillL linton President of the United States (4FF<?1334) Walter B. Boren President of Uni%ersity of )klahoma (4FFC?0resent) hristo0her &is"r$ber President of Princeton Uni%ersity (134<?0resent)8 Pro%ost of Princeton Uni%ersity (133C?134<) .

ard to retired U. Rotber" President of World Peace *o$ndation (4FF<?1343) Left 0hoto5 President Bill linton 0resents an a. Gordon ro%itP$blisher of The "all Street 1ournal (133E?0resent) 6icholas D.. .Lt. &mbassy bombin" in . Gordon hief Military orres0ondent of The ew 3ork Times Robert !. Gen. Wesley .enya and 7an-ania in 4FFB #merican bombin" of Ba"hdad( !raD in December 4FFB . Gen.S.S. +ohnson S$0erintendent of U. De0artment of +$stice (1333?1344) Boisfe$illet +ones +r.oso%o War in 4FFF &lian Gon-ale. #mbassador to #$stralia (133E?133F) Glenn #. *ine !ns0ector General of the U.S.lotommander of #ir *orce Global Strike ommand (133F?1344) Robert D. Mc all$m +r.ristof ol$mnist for The ew 3ork Times Michael R. lark at the White 'o$se.S. #ir *orce #cademy (134<?0resent) Lt.S. 7errorist incidents incl$de5 World 7rade enter bombin" in 4FF< Waco( 7eAas massacre in 4FF< )klahoma ity bombin" in 4FF2 U. *rank G. Miller #ir *orce De0$ty hief of Staff for Strate"ic Plans and Pro"rams (133F?134<) Lt. U. Gen. Michelle D.hile Bill linton ser%ed as the President of the United States. hristo0her D.kidna00in" raid in Miami( *lorida in 1333 USS ole attack in Jemen in 1333 . . P$blisher and &) of The "ashington Post (1333?133B) L. #rmy Gen. Se%eral ma>or terrorist attacks occ$rred .

Gen. Gen. De0artment of +$stice (1333?1344) De0$ty Under Secretary of ommerce for !nd$stry and Sec$rity (133<?133B) De0$ty #ssistant Secretary of :eterans #ffairs for Policy (133B?133F) State De0artment Policy Plannin" Director (1334?133<) ommander of C<Eth #irlift Win" at Do%er #ir *orce Base (133G?133F) #sst.lot. De0artment of the #rmy (1344?0resent) Under Secretary of Defense for #cD$isition( 7echnolo"y and Lo"istics (133F?1344)8 De0$ty U.S. #ttorney for the So$thern District of !llinois (133<?1332) #ssociate De0$ty U. Mark Martins (RS 4FB<) Robert D. Michelle D.ers &$ro0e( 6orth #tlantic 7reaty )r"ani-ation (S'#P&( 6#7)) (1344?0resent) Director of Strate"y( Policy( Pro"rams I Lo"istics( U. Ste%en B. ol.S.. Barr (RS 4FBG) #lan D.S. Bersin (RS 4FEB) (#dm. Patrick (RS 4FBB) Ronald +. Michelle D.S.) 6ational Sec$rity o$ncil Senior Director for &$ro0ean #ffairs (133F?0resent) Director of the State De0artment Policy Plannin" Staff (1344?0resent) De0$ty hief of Staff for Policy to the U. Blair (RS 4FEB) Da%id L. Gen. Da%id S.ansas (133B) Member( State De0artment Policy Plannin" Staff (1331?1332) U.s #ir *orce Base( Maryland (133F?1343) De0$ty hief of Staff for )0erations and !ntelli"ence( S$0reme 'eadD$arters #llied Po. . Gen. De0artment of +$stice (1333?1344) 6ational Sec$rity o$ncil Senior Director for #frican #ffairs (133F?1344) U. (RS 4FBG) :eor e 5& Dush A*ministration (#dm. +ones (RS 4FBE) Lt.S. +ohn .S.S.S.S. Secretary of Defense (1344?134<) Member of the State De0artment Policy Plannin" Staff (133E?1343) Director of White 'o$se )ffice of 'ealth Reform (133F?1344) White 'o$se De0$ty hief of Staff for Policy (1344?0resent) Director for Policy and Strate"y( U. Miller (RS 4FB3) S$san &.S.S.yer in the )ffice of the U. Secretary of 'ealth and '$man Ser%ices for Plannin" and &%al$ation (1334?133C) ommander( 11nd #ir Ref$elin" Win" (1331?133C) Director of P$blic #ffairs( )ffice of the Secretary of the #ir *orce (1332?133G) General o$nsel and Le"al #d%iser on the 6ational Sec$rity o$ncil staff (133E?133G) #ir *orce #ssistant :ice hief of Staff (133G?133F) Staff +$d"e #d%ocate to ommandin" General of 4st #rmored Di%ision (1334?133<) #ssistant U. *adok (RS 4FB1) Glenn #. 133G?133B) ommander of the 4st Battalion( <Cth #rmor at *ort Riley( . Gen. So$thern ommand (133B?1343)8 ommandant of olle"e of #eros0ace Doctrine( Research and &d$cation at #ir Uni%ersity (133C?133E)8 !ns0ector General of Pacific #ir *orces (1331?133C) !ns0ector General of the U. arter (RS 4FGE) +ared ohen (RS 133C) 6ancy?#nn Min DeParle (RS 4FGF) Lt. Boren (RS 4FE<) Brad arson (RS 4FBF) #shton B. (RS 4FEB) Ma>.S. +ohnson (RS 4FB4) Ma$rice #.S. Blair (RS 4FEB) lark . #ttorney General (1332?133G) #ssistant U.lot. Miller (RS 4FB3) a0t. *adok (RS 4FB1) #ssistant Secretary of the 7reas$ry for *inancial !nstit$tions (133F?1343) #ssistant Secretary of 'omeland Sec$rity for !nternational #ffairs (133F?1344) ommissioner of $stoms and Border Protection (1343?1344) Director of 6ational !ntelli"ence (133F?1343) o? hairman of the President/s *orei"n !ntelli"ence #d%isory Board (133F?0resent) General o$nsel of the U.ho re0resented G$antanamo terrorist s$s0ects !ns0ector General of the U. #ttorney General (133<?133E)8 U. #ttorney General for the i%il Di%ision (1334?133<) #ssociate U. hristo0her D. #mbassador to #$stralia (133E?133F) ommander( 23Fth Bomb Win" (1332?133E)8 ommander( C22th #ir &A0editionary Win" (133E?133G)8 6)R#D Director of Plans( Policy and Strate"y (133G?133F) ommander( USS #lb$D$erD$e Military #ssistant to the De0$ty Secretary of Defense (c. Secretary of State (133F?1344) Senior Director for #f"hanistan and Pakistan at 7he White 'o$se (133B?0resent) De0$ty Director of the )ffice of 'omeland Sec$rity (1331) ommander?in? hief of U. 7en0as (RS 4FB2) ol. Gen.S.S. 7ien( +r. +ohnson (RS 4FB4) Richard . *ine (RS 4FGF) Michelle D.ell #ir *orce Base( #labama (1344?0resent) la. #mbassador to R$ssia (1341?134C) #ir *orce De0$ty hief of Staff for Strate"ic Plans and Pro"rams (133F?134<) U. St$art B. 'arrison (RS 4FBB) P. Pacific ommand (4FFF?1331) !ns0ector General of 'omeland Sec$rity De0artment (133<?133C) !ns0ector General of State De0artment (1334?133<) Director for Policy and Strate"y( U.yers .. Sher. #ttorney General (133F?1343)8 one of the se%en anonymo$s +$stice De0artment la.(RS 4FG<) ol. hristo0her D. #ttorney General for the &n%ironment and 6at$ral Reso$rces (133G?133F) ommander of 1nd Battalion( <Gth #rmor Re"iment( *irst #rmored Di%ision (133C?133G) 7ali *arimah *arhadian (RS 4FFG) Glenn #. 'arrison (RS 4FBB) Ma>.S.ood?Randall (RS 4FB4) +acob K+akeL S$lli%an (RS 4FFB) ol.S. Rice (RS 4FBE) &li-abeth M.#merican Rhodes Scholars and 7heir )cc$0ation d$rin" the Global War on 7errorism >bama A*ministration Michael S.ana (1344?0resent) ommander of BFth #irlift Win" at #ndre. 'aass (RS 4FG<) ol. 7ien( +r. *rank G.) Dennis .) harles S. So$thern ommand (133B?1343) ommander( $rtis &. 6a"l( #rmy (RS 4FBB) Ste. Robert KBobbyL +indal (RS 4FF1) Bri".(RS 4FG<) Bri". . M$nsch( 6a%y (RS 4FB2) Lt. +ohn #. Ste%en B. Gen. *rank G. +ohn . LeMay enter for Doctrine De%elo0ment and &d$cation and :ice ommander of #ir Uni%ersity (1343?1344) ommander and President( #ir Uni%ersity at MaA. Mc all$m +r. (RS 4FBG) . Gen. 7rans0ortation ommand (133F?1344) De0$ty Secretary of 'o$sin" and Urban De%elo0ment (1341?0resent) ommander of #ir *orce Global Strike ommand (133F?1344) 6ational Sec$rity o$ncil Senior Director for R$ssian #ffairs (133F?1344)8 U.ent &r%in (RS 4FB3) Bri". #mbassador to Bots.S. Ga%in (RS 4FFE) ol. Gen. Da%id S.S. #bbot (RS 4FEG) #dm. Re0resentati%e to the United 6ations (133F?134<)8 6ational Sec$rity #d%isor (134<?0res. *ine (RS 4FGF) Mark *o$lon (RS 4FGB) Mark Gorenflo (RS 4FB<) Richard 6. Dennis .lin"ler (RS 4FB<) Lt. Mark Martins (RS 4FB<) Michael Mc*a$l (RS 4FBE) Lt.

(RS 4FG2) Syl%ia M.rislo% (RS 4FB<) !ra .S. o""ins (RS 4FG<) W.S. Griffin (RS 4FGC) William #. Raines (RS 4FG4) Br$ce 6. Williamson +r.S. Gen. Michelle D.all (RS 4FBC) Patrick #.S. &akeley (RS 4FEB) ol.n$bel (RS 4FE<) Mar%in . SiAth *leet (4FFE?4FFB) De0$ty #ssistant Secretary of the 7reas$ry for omm$nity De%elo0ment Policy (4FFG?1334) ommander?in? hief of U. +ames Woolsey (RS 4FE<) De0$ty ommander of U.S. #mbassador to !ndia (4FFG?1334) S$0reme #llied ommander of &$ro0e( 6#7) (4FFG?1333) ommander( U. Barr (RS 4FBG) #dm. Bradley . Mathe. . Ma"a-iner (RS 4FEF) Robert Malley (RS 4FBC) Scott M. #mbassador to 6i"er (4FF<?4FFE) hairman of Le"al Ser%ices or0oration (4FF<?133<) ommander( BFth )0erations Gro$0( #ndre. Da%ison (RS 4F22) Do$"las S.S.S.S. &$ro0ean ommand (4FFB?1333) ommander of U.S. (RS 4F2E) *ranklin D. Matheson +r. 7h$rm (RS 4FBC) 7homas S. +ohnson (RS 4FB4) Bri". harles S. Da%id S. Dennis . Gardner (RS 4F24) Lt. #mbassador to S0ain (4FF<?4FFG) S$0erintendent of U. *adok (RS 4FB1) Richard 6.S. arter (RS 4FGE) Richard *. 6ye $tter (RS 4FEC) Richard +. #rmy 4st a%alry Di%ision M*ort 'ood( 7eAasN (4FF1?4FFC) President of the United States (4FF<?1334) U.S. Rice (RS 4FBE) +ohn B. Gra%es (RS 4FE4) Brian . #ttorney for the District of Utah (4FF<?4FFG) #ssistant to the President and De0$ty hief of Staff (4FFG?4FFB) De0$ty Director( )ffice of Mana"ement and B$d"et (4FFF?1334) o? hairman of the President/s ommission on Physical *itness (4FF<?4FFB) Policy #d%iser on Defense Plannin" to the U. 'alter (RS 4FBC) Lt. Military #cademy (4FF4?4FFE) hairman of the #dministrati%e onference of the United States (4FF1?4FFG) De0$ty ommissioner of Social Sec$rity #dministration (4FFF?1334) S$0erintendent of U. Secretary of Labor (4FF<?4FFG) #ssistant Secretary of State for #frican #ffairs (4FFG?1334) 6ational Sec$rity o$ncil Senior Director for #frican #ffairs (4FF2?4FFG) U. &mbassy in Mosco. Wesley .S.(RS 4FE3) +ose0h S.( R$ssia (4FFF?1334) hief *inancial )fficer of De0t. (RS 4FEB) R. Pirie +r.. Gen. eleste (RS 4FE3) Gen.s #ir *orce Base( Maryland (1333?1334) U.e%in L. 6imet. Reed (RS 4FB1) Robert B. #ir *orce #cademy (4FF4?4FFC) ommander of FGth )0erations Gro$0 at #lt$s #ir *orce Base( )klahoma (1333?1331) Defense #ttach^ at the U. Gen. hristo0her D. *rank G.s MB$r. Re0resentati%e to 6#7) (4FFG?1333) #ssociate Director( )ffice of Mana"ement and B$d"et (4FF<?4FFG) #dministrator( 'ealth are *inancin" #dministration (4FFG?1333) &n%oy #ssistant Secretary of Defense for !nternational Sec$rity #ffairs (4FFC?4FF2) #ssistant Secretary of State for &$ro0ean and anadian #ffairs (4FF<?4FFC) Under Secretary of the 6a%y (1333?1334) #ssistant Secretary of the 6a%y for !nstallations and &n%ironment (4FFC?1333) Director of )ffice of Mana"ement and B$d"et (4FFE?4FFB) #ssistant to the President and Director of Domestic Policy o$ncil (4FFG?1334) U. So$thern ommand (4FFE?4FFG) Director for Strate"ic Plans and Policy( +2( the +oint Staff (4FFC?4FFE) ommandin" General( U. of 'o$sin" and Urban De%elo0ment (4FF2?4FFG) De0$ty Solicitor of Labor for 6ational )0erations (4FFE?4FFB) Senior #d%iser to the President for Policy De%elo0ment (4FF<?4FFF) S0ecial #ssistant to the President for #rab?!sraeli #ffairs (4FFB?1334) U. #bbot (RS 4FEG) Michael S. Shea (RS 4FG3) &li-abeth Sher.S.(RS 4FG<) +ohn #. Slocombe (RS 4FE<) Geor"e Ste0hano0o$los (RS 4FBC) Strobe 7albott (RS 4FEB) . Blair (RS 4FEB) #shton B.Clinton A*ministration #dm. Miller (RS 4FB3) 6ancy?#nn Min DeParle (RS 4FGF) Matthe. Dan-i" (RS 4FE2) +ohn S. Re0resentati%e to the United 6ations )ffice in :ienna (4FF<?1334) De0$ty #ssistant Secretary of Defense for Peacekee0in" and '$manitarian #ssistance (4FF<?4FFE) Director of B$rea$ of Land Mana"ement (4FFG?4FFF) De0$ty #ssistant Secretary of Defense for R$ssia( Ukraine( and &$rasia (4FFC?4FFE) Under Secretary of Defense for Policy (4FFC?1334) White 'o$se #d%iser on Policy and Strate"y (4FF<?4FF2) De0$ty Secretary of State (4FFC?1334) De0$ty Secretary of 'ealth and '$man Ser%ices (4FFE?1334) Solicitor of the De0artment of Labor (4FF<?4FFE) Director of entral !ntelli"ence #"ency (4FF<?4FF2) . (RS 4F2B) Ste0hen #.lot. Ritch !!! (RS 4FE2) Sarah Se.S.S. Bo. Pacific ommand (4FFF?1331) #ssistant Secretary of Defense for !nternational Sec$rity Policy (4FF<?4FFE) U.ard D. 'osmer (RS 4F2F) ol. Reich (RS 4FEB) S$san &. lark (RS 4FEE) Bill linton (RS 4FEB) Pa$l &.ellN (RS 4FBG) harles 7homas McMillen (RS 4FGC) ol. . 'o. )Aman (RS 4FEG) Robert B.ood?Randall (RS 4FB4) Walter B.S. #ttorney for the 6orthern District of 7eAas (4FF<?1334) De0$ty Director of the 6ational &conomic o$ncil (4FF<?4FFE) Secretary of the 6a%y (4FFB?1334)8 Under Secretary of the 6a%y (4FF<?4FFG) U.

Re0resentati%es to the United 6ations (4FFF?1334) Mario Monti Prime Minister of !taly (1344?134<)8 &$ro0ean ommissioner for om0etition (4FFF?133C) arl Bildt *orei"n Minister of S. Hoellick President of 7he World Bank (133G?1341)8 U.ra%is *o$ndin" Partner of .S.S.eden (133E?0resent) +ean? la$de 7richet M*ranceN President of &$ro0ean entral Bank (133<?1344) Go%ernor of BanD$e de *rance (4FF<?133<) +aa0 de 'oo0 Scheffer Secretary?General of 6#7) (133C?133F) Pascal Lamy Director?General of the World 7rade )r"ani-ation (1332?0resent) . Secretary of Defense (1334?1332) Richard 6. 'olbrooke S0ecial Re0resentati%e for #f"hanistan and Pakistan (133F?1343)8 U.7he Bilderber" Gro$0 I 7heir )cc$0ation d$rin" the Global War on 7errorism 'enry R. .itPresident of 7he World Bank (1332?133G)8 De0$ty U.S.s President of arne"ie &ndo.issin"er #ssociates( !nc.ohlber" . M6e. Perle hairman of the Defense Policy Board (1334?133<) Robert B.ra%is Senior *ello. Mathe. of '$dson !nstit$te( !nc. 7rade Re0resentati%e (1334?1332) 7homas &.ra%is Roberts I o. Wolfensohn President of the World Bank (4FF2?1332) Da%id Rockefeller hairman and &) of hase Manhattan Bank (4FEF?4FB4) BeatriA( @$een of 7he 6etherlands (4FB3?134<) Sofia( @$een of S0ain (4FG2?0resent) Marie?+osee . +ohnson hairman and &) of *annie Mae (4FF4?4FFB) +essica 7. Donilon 6ational Sec$rity #d%isor (1343?134<)8 General o$nsel of *annie Mae (4FFF?1332) Richard . Wolfo. Senior Mana"in" Director of La-ard *reres (1333?0resent) +ames #.issin"er *o$nder and hairman of . 'enry #. . (4FB1?0resent) :ernon &. +ordan +r.ment for !nternational Peace (4FFG?0resent) Pa$l D. Jork ityN +ames D.

S$therland M!relandN hairman of British Petrole$m (4FFG?133F) Marc$s #"i$s MGreat BritainN hairman of Barclays Bank 0lc (133G?1341) +. (4FF<?0resent) 7ommaso Padoa?Schio00a &conomy and *inance Minister of !taly (133E?133B) 'ilmar .Peter D.edenN hairman of !n%estor #B (1332?0resent)8 4irector of 8he Coca9 Cola Co& ?20089present@ 7hierry de Montbrial M*ranceN President( *rench !nstit$te for !nternational Relations :ictor 'alberstadt M6etherlandsN Professor of &conomics at Leiden Uni%ersity Donald &.it-erlandN hairman of the Board of 6o%artis #G (4FFF?134<)8 4irector of )epsiCo ?20029present@ +acob Wallenber" MS.ontrollbank #G 'enri de astries M*ranceN hairman and &)( #S# M*rench in%estment firmN +orma )llila M*inlandN hairman of Royal D$tch Shell (133E?0resent)8 hairman of 6okia (4FFF?1341) +$r"en Schrem00 MGermanyN hairman of Daimler hrysler (4FFB?1332) Daniel L. Mario Dra"hi President of &$ro0ean entral Bank (1344? 0res.)8 Go%ernor of Banca d/!talia (133E?1344) +ose Man$el Barroso President of the &$ro0ean ommission (133C? 0resent)8 Prime Minister of Port$"al (1331?133C) &tienne Da%i"non MBel"i$mN :ice hairman of S$e-? 7ractebel +$an L$is ebrian MS0ainN &) of PR!S# #nders &ldr$0 MDenmarkN *ormer &)( Danish )il and Gas or0oration (D)6G) .it-erlandN hairman of the Mana"ement Board( De$tsche Bank #G (1331?1341) R$dolf Scholten M#$striaN Member of the Board of &Aec$ti%e Directors( )esterreichische . :asella MS. Graham hairman and &) of 7he Washin"ton Post o.o00er MGermanyN hairman of the S$0er%isory Board( De$tsche Bank #. Martin 7aylor MGreat BritainN hief &Aec$ti%e of Barclays 0lc (4FF<?4FFB)8 hairman of Syn"enta !nternational #G (1332?134<) +osef #ckermann MGermany=S.G.

ood 'oldin"s hairman( Washin"ton Post Mne. U.S. . Mathe. Germany Poland Denmark *rance U.s Matthias 6ass +ean? la$de 7richet arl Bildt Bertrand ollomb Martin S. +ordan +r. Wolfensohn Mario Monti Marie?+osee . !taly S0ain U.S. #ssistant Secretary of Defense for !nternational Sec$rity Policy hairman and &)( 6o%artis #G Member of Board of &Aec$ti%e Directors( )esterreichische .#.#.S.ontrollbank #G hairman of !n%estor #B hairman and &)( *annie Mae Minister of *inance hairman( Daimler hrysler President( arne"ie &ndo.S. Graham o$ntry U. 6etherlands U.itRichard .#.#. Germany *rance S. Donilon 'ilmar . !reland S0ain Great Britain *inland U. Martin 7aylor +orma )llila 'enry R. *rance 6etherlands Port$"al U.o00er #ndr-e> )lecho.#.#.S.eetings Parti'ipants 6ame Da%id Rockefeller :ictor 'alberstadt 'enry . *eldstein Pa$l D.( '$dson !nstit$te( !nc.#. ollins Donald &. 7hierry de Montbrial @$een BeatriA of the 6etherlands *rancisco Pinto Balsemao +ames D. Minister of *orei"n #ffairs of Poland &)( Danish )il and Gas or0oration hairman and &)( #S# &)( Ri00le.G.S.ra%is Roberts I o.s0a0erN .S.#. #nders &ldr$0 'enri de astries 7imothy .S. Bel"i$m U.eden U.ohlber" .ra%is *ranco Bernabe @$een Sofia of S0ain Richard 6.#.Prominent Bilderberg .it-erland #$stria S.ra%is Peter D.s0a0erN President of &$ro0ean entral Bank Senior Mana"in" Director of La-ard *reres President( *rench !nstit$te for !nternational Relations Prime Minister of Port$"al President( 7he World Bank Prime Minister of !taly8 *ormer &$ro0ean ommissioner Senior *ello.S. !taly Germany U. +ohnson 7ommaso Padoa?Schio00a +$r"en Schrem00 +essica 7.S.( World 7rade )r"ani-ation &) of PR!S# hairman( Syn"enta !nternational #G8 *ormer hief &Aec$ti%e of Barclays PL hairman( Royal D$tch Shell *o$ndin" Partner( . Re0resentati%e to the United 6ations8 :ice hairman of Perse$s Partner of )/Mel%eny I Myers LLP hairman of the S$0er%isory Board( De$tsche Bank #. 'olbrooke 7homas &.S. S.#. :ice hairman( Rothschild &$ro0e )cc$0ation hairman( hase Manhattan Bank hairman( 7rilateral ommission hairman( o$ncil on *orei"n Relations Professor of &conomics( Leiden Uni%ersity in the 6etherlands Secretary of State 6ational Sec$rity #d%isor :ice hairman( S$e-?7ractebel Jears #ttended (4F2C?4F22( 4F2G?4F2B( 4FE4?4FG1( 4FGC? 4FG2( 4FGG?4FB2( 4FBG?133E( 133B?133F( 1344) (4FG2( 4FGG?134<) (4F2G( 4FEC( 4FG4( 4FGG?4FGB( 4FB3?4FF1( 4FFC?133B( 1343?134<) (4FG1( 4FGC( 4FGG?4FGB( 4FB3( 4FB<?4FF1( 4FFC?1344( 134<) (4FEF?4FG3( 4FGF?4FB2. Wolfo.issin"er &tienne Da%i"non :ernon &. :asella R$dolf Scholten +acob Wallenber" +ames #. hairman( British Petrole$m Director?Gen.S.S. U.S. !taly anada=U.4FBG( 4FBF?133F( 1344?134<) (4FG2( 4FGG?4FF2( 4FFG( 1333?133E( 133B? 134<) (4FG1( 4FGC( 4FBC( 4FBE?1334( 133<?134<) (4FB4( 4FB<?4FB2( 4FBG?134<) (4FB2( 4FBG?1333( 1331?134<) (4FB<?4FFC( 4FFE( 4FFF( 1334( 133<?1344( 134<) (4FBF?4FFE( 4FFB?134<) (4FBF?4FFB( 1333( 1331?133G( 133F?134<) (4FB<( 4FB2( 4FBG?4FF3( 4FF<( 1334?134<) (4FF<?1334( 133<?1332( 133G?134<) (4FFC( 4FFG?134<) (4FF1?4FF<( 4FFE( 4FFB( 1333?134<) (4FFE( 4FFB?1334( 133<?134<) (4FBF?4FF1( 4FFC( 4FFE( 1334( 133<( 1332( 133G?1344) (4FB<( 4FB2( 1334?134<) (4FFB?1332( 133G?134<) (4FF1( 4FFF?1334( 133<?134<) (4FFB( 1333?134<) (4FFB( 1333?133<( 1332?134<) (4FBE( 4FFB?133E( 133B?1343) (4FFC?4FFF( 1334?133G) (4FFB?1331( 133C?133B( 1343( 1341?134<) (4FFG?1334( 1332?133F( 1344?1341) (4FF2( 4FFF?1332( 133G?133F( 1344) (4FF1?4FF<( 4FFE?4FFG( 4FFF?1333( 133E? 1344( 134<) (4FF4?4FF1( 4FFE?4FFB( 1333?133<( 1332? 133E( 133B) (4FFE( 4FFB?4FFF( 1334?133<( 1332?133B( 1343?1344( 134<) (4FF3( 4FFC?4FFB( 1333( 133<( 1332( 133G? 133F) (4FF2?4FFF( 133C?1343) (4FFB( 4FFF( 1334?133B( 1341) (4FF4?4FF1( 4FFC?4FF2( 4FFB?133<( 1332) (4FFC?4FFF( 1334( 133<?133E) (1334?1344) (1331?134<) (133<?1341) (4FFF?1334( 133C?32( 133B?1343( 1341) Prime Minister8 *orei"n Minister hairman( Lafar"e President( 6ational B$rea$ of &conomic Research President( 7he World Bank De0$ty Secretary of Defense U. U.#. Perle Daniel L. S$therland +$an L$is ebrian +.#.eden *rance U.#.#.ment for !nternational Peace De0$ty &ditor( %ie 5eit Mne.#.

S. Sh$lt_+ames #. _Ma$rice R.( Ma$rice R. Po. Baker !!!( Donald '.enneth 7. (4FF<?4FFC) 6ote5 _Tc$rrent members of the o$ncil on *orei"n Relations . Gerstner +r. (4FBF?4FF<)8 :ice President of the U.n _(Gen. Baker !!! Donald '.W. R$msfeld 6orman R.Bohemian Gro%e Members I 7heir )cc$0ation d$rin" the Global War on 7errorism Da%id Rockefeller( Geor"e '. #$"$stine( Riley P. +ames Woolsey _Da%id Ger"en Camp Sto.W. R$msfeld _6orman R. Webster _R.S. (4FB1?4FBB) Secretary of Defense (4FGG?4FB4)8 Secretary of the #ir *orce (4FE2?4FEF) Secretary of State (1334?1332)8 hairman of the +oint hiefs of Staff (4FBF?4FF<) Director of entral !ntelli"ence #"ency (4FBG?4FF4) Director of entral !ntelli"ence #"ency (4FF<?4FF2) o$nselor to the President of the U. +ames Woolsey( Da%id Ger"en #ame _Da%id Rockefeller Geor"e '. Brady( 'arold Bro.ell _William '.n( (Gen. Derr( Lo$is :.) olin L. Derr _Lo$is :. (4FG2?4FB4) Secretary of State (4FBF?4FF1)8 Secretary of the 7reas$ry (4FB2?4FBB) Secretary of Defense (4FG2?4FGG( 1334?133E) hairman and &) of Lockheed Martin (4FF2?4FFG)8 Under Secretary of the #rmy (4FG2?4FGG) hairman and &) of Bechtel Gro$0 !nc. (4FB4?4FBF)( !# Director (4FGE?4FGG) Secretary of State (4FG<?4FGG)8 6ational Sec$rity #d%isor (4FEF?4FG2) Secretary of State (4FB1?4FBF)8 President of Bechtel or0.ay 'ill Billies Mandalay Mandalay Woof 'ill Billies Pelican Mandalay Mandalay Mandalay Mid.a. (4FFE?0resent) hairman and &) of he%ron7eAaco (1333?133F) hairman and &) of he%ron (4FBF?4FFF) hairman of the arlyle Gro$0 (133<?133B)8 hairman and &) of !BM (4FF<?1331) hairman and &) of #merican !nternational Gro$0 (4FBF?1332) Secretary of the 7reas$ry (4FBB?4FF<)8 hairman and &) of Dillon( Read I o. Bechtel _Da%id +.ay a%e Man Mandalay Lost #n"els Mandalay Wayside Lo" Shoestrin" ).issin"er _Geor"e P. )/Reilly( . Gerstner +r. B$sh 'enry . Bechtel( Da%id +. B$sh( 'enry .issin"er( Geor"e P. Po.S. #$"$stine Riley P.enneth 7. Sh$lt-( +ames #. Greenber" 6icholas *. Brady _'arold Bro.l/s 6est >ccupation hairman and &) of hase Manhattan Bank (4FEF?4FB4) President of the U. )/Reilly _.ell( William '.) olin L. Webster( R. Greenber" _6icholas *.

The mo'0 human sa'rifi'e ritual at the Bohemian Lro4e in California The Abu Lhraib Prison Torture +'andal in Ira3 .

Pa0istan.ap of Abbottabad. that 0illed nearl! A$$$ people.1sama +in Laden: $ead or Ali@e? Part 1 . ending a manhunt that spanned nearl! a de'ade( (AP PhotoFAn<um 2a4eed) . #$""I The )&ffi'ial* 8eath of &sama bin /aden .a! #. %here CIA-trained Arab terrorist &sama bin /aden %as allegedl! 0illed on .a! #. . #$""( &sama bin /aden. Pa0istan on . %as allegedl! slain in his hideout in Pa0istan earl! . #$"" Pa0istani arm! soldiers appear near the house %here it is belie4ed CIA-trained al-. terrorist atta'0s in Ameri'a.onda! in a firefight %ith 7(+( 2a4! +eals.a! #.aida terrorist &sama bin /aden li4ed in Abbottabad. in'luding 2e% Kor0 Cit! and the Pentagon (7(+( 8epartment of 8efense). #$$". the Arab terrorist %ho %as a''used of plotting the +eptember "".onda!.

Jork (#P Photo=Mary #ltaffer) ity on Monday( May 1( 1344. Seated( from left( are5 Bri"adier General Marshall B.ith members of the national sec$rity team( recei%e an $0date on the mission a"ainst )sama bin Laden in the Sit$ation Room of the White 'o$se( May 4( 1344. KBradL Webb( #ssistant ommandin" General( +oint S0ecial )0erations ommand8 De0$ty 6ational Sec$rity #d%isor Denis McDono$"h8 Secretary of State 'illary Rodham linton8 and Secretary of Defense Robert Gates.a%e the #merican fla" in front of #B st$dio on 7ime SD$are in 6e.#mericans celebrate and . Please note5 a classified doc$ment seen in this 0hoto"ra0h has been obsc$red. ()fficial White 'o$se Photo by Pete So$-a) . President Barack )bama and :ice President +oe Biden( alon" . Standin"( from left( are5 #dmiral Mike M$llen( hairman of the +oint hiefs of Staff8 6ational Sec$rity #d%isor 7om Donilon8 hief of Staff Bill Daley8 7ony Binken( 6ational Sec$rity #d%isor to the :ice President8 #$drey 7omason Director for o$nterterrorism8 +ohn Brennan( #ssistant to the President for 'omeland Sec$rity and o$nterterrorism8 and Director of 6ational !ntelli"ence +ames la00er.

onda! that &bama had monitored the raid from the White House +ituation Coom and e=pressed relief that elite for'es had finall! gotten bin /aden %ithout losing an! more Ameri'an li4es( JIt %as probabl! one of the most an=iet!-filled periods of time in the li4es of the people %ho %ere assembled here. #$"" WA+HI2LT&2 6 Proudl! de'laring the 0illing of &sama bin /aden Ja good da! for Ameri'a. the go4ernment said it had no spe'ifi' or 'redible threat to share %ith the Ameri'an publi'( +enior 7(+( offi'ials said bin /aden %as 0illed to%ard the end of the firefight. %hen al-. a top al-. said .J +e'retar! of +tate Hillar! Codham Clinton said at the +tate 8epartment( Her 'omments had e'hoes of President Leorge W( BushHs de'laration nearl! a de'ade ago. in'luding %ashing the 'orpse.aida ideologue 4o%ed re4enge and said the Islami' hol! %ar against the West %as far from o4er( The administration %as in4estigating %ho %ithin Pa0istan pro4ided support to bin /aden to allo% him to li4e. see0ing to erase an! doubt about the ne%s that ri4eted the globe( A'ting on intelligen'e that bin /aden %as holed up in a 'ompound in the 'it! of Abbottabad.ui09ly +uried at sea White House offi'ials %ere mulling the merits. &bama ordered a ris0!. AP White House Correspondent .aida leader on foreign soil( His 'ounterterror 'hief. 'onfirmation b! a %oman belie4ed to be one of bin /adenHs %i4es on site.a! #.J President Bara'0 &bama said . and mat'hing ph!si'al features li0e bin /adenHs height all helped 'onfirmed the identifi'ation( JWe are reminded that as a nation there is nothing %e 'anHt do. 'apping a sear'h that spanned nearl! a de'ade( -in Laden 5as shot in the head during a firefight and then .aida. spea0ing of bin /aden. pla'ing it in a %hite sheet( JThe fight 'ontinues and %e %ill ne4er %a4er. Pa0istan time.J Brennan said from the White House( JThe minutes passed li0e da!s(J The dramati' de4elopments 'ame <ust months ahead of the "$-!ear anni4ersar! of the hi<a'0ed-airliner assaults on the 7nited +tates( Those atta'0s too0 nearl! A. too. in a fortified 'ompound in a to%n. as a result( Brennan.&bamaI Bin /adenHs death a Hgood da!H for Ameri'a B! BE2 DE//EC. and did so again( Bin /aden %ent do%n firing at the 2a4! +EA/s %ho stormed his 'ompound. led the 7(+( into %ar in Afghanistan and Ira3 and fore4er pier'ed the notion that the most po%erful 'ountr! on earth 'ould not be hit on su'h a fero'ious s'ale( 7(+( offi'ials griml! %arned of potential retaliation for bin /adenHs 0illing( Indeed.onda! the %orld %as a safer pla'e %ithout the %orldHs most hunted terrorist( 82A testing helped 'onfirm that Ameri'an for'es in Pa0istan had in fa't 0illed the mastermind of the +ept( "". %hi'h %as bound to lift his politi'al standing and help define his presiden'!( He hailed the pride of those %ho bro0e into o4ernight 'elebrations as %ord spread around the 7(+( and the globe( Those spontaneous e=pressions ha4e gi4en %a! to 3uestions about pre'isel! %hat happened and %hat 'omes ne=t for al.J &bama said of the ne%s.aida atta'0s against Ameri'a led to %ar in . for the 7(+( %ar in Afghanistan. though Islamabad has al%a!s denied it. a 7(+( offi'ial said( Brennan said one of bin /adenHs %i4es %as used as a human shield to tr! to prote't him and she %as 0illed.$$$ li4es. 'onse3uen'es and appropriateness of releasing a photo of the slain bin /aden but said that no one should ha4e an! doubts regardless( +enior administration offi'ials said the 82A testing alone offered near "$$ per'ent 'ertaint!( Photo anal!sis b! the CIA. 7(+( offi'ials said. the offi'ials said. ohn Brennan. said that re4ealed Jthe nature of the indi4idual he %as(J The Ameri'an for'es 0illed bin /aden during a daring raid earl! . not tu'0ed a%a! in a 'a4e as often rumored( Criti's ha4e long a''used elements of Pa0istanHs se'urit! establishment of prote'ting bin /aden. remar0abl!. #$$". the Pa0istani 'apital( His bod! %as put aboard the 7++ Carl Minson and then pla'ed into the 2orth Arabian +ea( An offi'ial familiar %ith the operation said bin /aden fired on 7(+( for'es and %as hit b! return fire( The offi'ial spo0e on 'ondition of anon!mit! be'ause aspe'ts of the operation remain 'lassified( The offi'ial said t%o dozen +EA/s in night-4ision goggles dropped into the high-%alled 'ompound in Pa0istan b! sliding do%n ropes from Chinoo0 heli'opters in the o4ernight raid( The +EA/s retrie4ed bin /adenHs bod! and turned the remaining detainees o4er to Pa0istani authorities( Traditional Islami' pro'edures for handling the remains %ere follo%ed.onda!. %hi'h too0 pla'e in a building at a 'ompound north of Islamabad. for Ameri'aHs strained relations %ith its Pa0istani all! and for the dire'tion of 7(+( politi's( 7(+( offi'ials %arned that the 'ampaign against terrorism %as not nearl! o4er R and that the threat of deadl! retaliation against the 7nited +tates and its allies %as real( Ho%e4er. unilateral mission to 'apture or 0ill the al-.

and the! belie4ed he might be li4ing %ith him in hiding( Dour !ears ago.aida fran'hise in Kemen.onda! morning %ith "$ 4ehi'les amassed near Constitution A4enue %ith their lights flashing and doors and trun0s open( &ffi'ers armed %ith automati' %eapons 0ept %at'h on e4er! 4ehi'le that passed( &bama himself had deli4ered the ne%s of bin /adenHs 0illing in a dramati' White House statement late +unda!( KJusti0e has +een done. intelligen'e from multiple sour'es %as 'lear enough that &bama %anted to pursue a'tion.F"" atta'0s. the manHs residen'e %as found. the! said. a top militar! 'ounter-terrorism unit. some su''essful and some foiled( JWe ha4e rid the %orld of the most infamous terrorist of our time. Brennan said( Also 0illed %ere t%o of bin /adenHs al-. Eri'a Werner. in a 'it! that is home to three arm! regiments and thousands of militar! personnel( Abbottabad is surrounded b! hills %ith mountains in the distan'e( Bin /adenHs death 'ame "? !ears after he de'lared %ar on the 7nited +tates( Al-.aida 'ourier in parti'ular. the president led fi4e meetings of the 2ational +e'urit! Coun'il fo'used solel! on %hether bin /aden %as in that 'ompound and. VWell.aidaHs 'ore in Pa0istan( The Kemen bran'h almost too0 do%n a 7(+(-bound airliner on Christmas #$$. al-. one of his sons. .aida %as also blamed for the ". mar4eledI JAfter su'h a long time. into the 'ompound identified b! the CIA as bin /adenHs hideout R and ba'0 out again in less than G$ minutes( Bin /aden %as shot after he and his bod!guards resisted the assault.K he de'lared( &ffi'ials sa! CIA interrogators in se'ret o4erseas prisons de4eloped the first strands of information that ultimatel! led to the 0illing of bin /aden( 4he military o"eration that ended his life too9 mere minutes 7(+( Bla'0 Ha%0 heli'opters ferried about t%o dozen troops from 2a4! +EA/ Team +i=. offi'ials said( B! mid-Debruar!. Cobert Burns. Pauline eline0.aida fa'ilitators. if so. and nearl! detonated e=plosi4es aboard t%o 7(+( 'argo planes last fall( Those operations %ere 'arried out %ithout an! dire't in4ol4ement from bin /aden( The fe% fier! minutes in Abbottabad follo%ed !ears in %hi'h 7(+( offi'ials struggled to pie'e together 'lues that ultimatel! led to bin /aden. !ou 0ind of gi4e up and sa!. a do'tor from Ar0ansas %ho %as gathering %hat details he 'ould from TM s'reens at &HHare Airport in Chi'ago. ho% to get him. far from al-. Khalid.aida fran'hises in other 'ountries or radi'alized indi4iduals in the 7(+( %ith al-. intelligen'e offi'ials ha4e long 0no%n that bin /aden trusted one al-. thatHs ne4er going to happen(HJ The greatest terrorist threat to the 7(+( is no% 'onsidered to be the al-. in'luding one %ho %as apparentl! listed as the o%ner of the residen'e. as %as the %ife %ho shielded him. the offi'ial said( &bama made a de'ision to laun'h the operation on Drida!.Afghanistan and 'hanged the %a! Ameri'ans 4ie%ed their o%n safet!( Turning to deli4er a dire't message to bin /adenHs follo%ers. and then about t%o !ears later.atthe% /ee. the site %here al-.J CIA 8ire'tor /eon Panetta de'lared to emplo!ees of the agen'! in a memo . a''ording to a Homeland +e'urit! 8epartment intelligen'e alert issued +unda! and obtained b! The Asso'iated Press( In addition to bin /aden. a senior administration offi'ial said( &4er the ne=t t%o and a half months. shortl! before fl!ing to Alabama to inspe't tornado damage. 8a4id Espo.att Apuzzo. %hi'h offi'ials did not dis'lose.. Eileen +ulli4an and Kimberl! 8ozier 'ontributed to this stor!( +our'eI httpIFFne%s(!ahoo('omFsFapFusNbinNladen . offi'ials said( The 'ompound is about a half-mile from a Pa0istani militar! a'adem!.@ bombings of t%o 7(+( embassies in Afri'a that 0illed ##G people and the #$$$ atta'0 on the 7++ Cole that 0illed "5 Ameri'an sailors in Kemen. the 7nited +tates learned the manHs identit!. hundreds of people 'heered and %a4ed Ameri'an flags at ground zero in 2e% Kor0. Brennan said( As ne%s of bin /adenHs death spread. as %ell as 'ountless other plots. %as 0illed in the raid. .an! people said the! %ere surprised that bin /aden had finall! been found and 0illed( ohn Lo'io.aida s!mpathies. and aides set to %or0 on the details( NNN Asso'iated Press %riters Ben Deller.aida hi<a'0ed <ets blasted the t%in to%ers of the World Trade Center( Thousands 'elebrated all night outside the White House gates( .aidaHs 'ore bran'h in the tribal areas of Pa0istan. a''ording to an a''ount pro4ided b! senior administration offi'ials %ho spo0e on 'ondition of anon!mit! be'ause of the sensiti4it! of the operation( Based on statements gi4en b! 7(+( detainees sin'e the . she 4o%edI JKou 'annot %ait us out(J 7(+( Capitol Poli'e put on a 'onspi'uous sho% of for'e . the! identified areas of Pa0istan %here he operated( /ast August.onda! morning( Cetaliator! atta'0s against the 7(+( and Western targets 'ould 'ome from members of al-.

a! ". his de'ision is 'ategori'al(J He said it applied to Jall 4isual e4iden'eJ of bin /adenHs death.J he added( JThe fa't of the matter is. in'luding 4ideo of his burial at sea( Bin /aden ne%s gi4es &bama ""-point appro4al bump Bush de'lines &bama in4itation to ground zero +en( /indse! Lraham. 7pdated >I".J he said( JCertainl! there is no doubt among al .&bamaI I %onHt release bin /aden death photos Posted b! Brian . p(m( Eastern Time /eftI President &bama inter4ie%ed on J>$ . !ou %ill not see bin /aden %al0ing on this earth again(J TCA2+CCIPTI &bama dis'usses de'ision not to release images on J>$ . these are graphi' photographs of someone %ho %as shot in the fa'e -. #$""( (CreditI White HouseFPete +ouza) In an inter4ie% %ith +te4e Kroft for this +unda!Hs J>$ . but he %as 4er! 'lear about his 4ie% on this.J he said( . as he said so 'learl!. . in'luding 8efense +e'retar! Cobert Lates and +e'retar! of +tate Hillar! Clinton.r( &bama said that J%e donHt need to spi0e the football(J He said that Jgi4en the graphi' nature of these photos it %ould 'reate a national se'urit! ris0(J The president told Kroft he sa% the photos follo%ing the raid on the 'ompound and 0ne% that bin /aden had been 0illed( K&e dis0ussed this internally. White House Press +e'retar! Carne! said Jthere are ob4iousl! arguments to be made on either side(J JThe fa't of the matter is. #$""( (CreditI CB+ 2e%s) CightI President Bara'0 &bama deli4ers a statement in the East Coom of the White House on the mission against &sama bin /aden.inutes.the head.J . and that the! agree %ith the de'ision( White House press se'retar! a! Carne! said Wednesda! that . be'ause he belie4es. as the president des'ribed. President &bama said he %onHt release post-mortem images of &sama bin /aden ta0en to pro4e his death( JIt is important to ma0e sure that 4er! graphi' photos of somebod! %ho %as shot in the head are not floating around as an in'itement to additional 4iolen'e or as a propaganda tool.a! G. this is not %ho %e are(J JHe %anted to hear the opinions of others.J . the president said J%e %e monitoring %orld%ide rea'tion(J JThere is no doubt that &sama bin /aden is dead.ontopoli . rather than an aerial bombardment.inutesJ 'ondu'ted toda!. gi4en the potential for national se'urit! ris0s( And further. ob4iousl!.r( &bama added( JThe fa't of the matter is.J he said( JIt is not in our national se'urit! interests to allo% those images. this is somebod! %ho %as deser4ing of the <usti'e that he re'ei4ed(J The president said he had dis'ussed the issue %ith his intelligen'e team.r( &bama made the de'ision toda!( In e=plaining his 'hoi'e not to release the photo.J Carne! added( JAnd.K he said KKee" in mind that 5e are a+solutely 0ertain that this 5as him &e/@e done $CA sam"ling and testing And so there is no dou+t that 5e 9illed 1sama +in Laden K When Kroft noted that there are people in Pa0istan and else%here %ho belie4e bin /aden is still ali4e.aeda members that he is dead( +o %e donHt thin0 that a photograph in and of itself is going to ma0e an! differen'e(J JThere are going to be some fol0s %ho den! it. rather. %as to obtain indisputable proof of bin /adenHs death. #$"" "I#G P. .a! G. 'alled the de'ision a Jmista0e(J JThe %hole purpose of sending our soldiers into the 'ompound. as has been in the past been the 'ase.inutesJ As0ed about the de'ision Wednesda!.J said the president( JWe donHt trot out this stuff as trophies. C-+C. to be'ome i'ons to rall! opinion against the 7nited +tates( The presidentHs number one priorit! is the safet! and se'urit! of Ameri'an 'itizens at home and Ameri'ans abroad( There is no need to release these photographs to establish &sama bin /adenHs identit!( And he sa% no other 'ompelling reason to release them.

in order to pro4e that the al .K she %rote( Palin to &bamaI +top puss!footing. C. right abo4e his left e!e. on'e in the 'hest and on'e in the head.i0e Cogers said earlier in the da! that the &bama administration should not release the gruesome post-mortem images. bin /aden %as shot t%i'e at 'lose range.5A.on . Mi'e Chairman of the +enate Intelligen'e Committee and the Armed +er4i'es Committee. senior administration offi'ials said the bod! %ould be handled a''ording to Islami' pra'ti'e and tradition( That pra'ti'e 'alls for the bod! to be buried %ithin #G hours.onda! on 'ondition of anon!mit! to dis'uss sensiti4e national se'urit! matters.A. and put photos of the bod! on the Internet. e=posing the brain. C-LA.iddle East(J JImagine ho% the Ameri'an people %ould rea't if Al . a member of the Armed +er4i'es Committee . no "oliti09ing. and that bullet opened his s0ull. and it also ble% out his e!e( +o these are not going to be pi'tures for the s3ueamish(J T%o Cepubli'an senators -. didnHt 0no% it Cepubli'an House Intelligen'e Committee Chairman .J he said( JCemember. the! didnHt reall! get him(HJ +arah Palin registered her disappro4al on T%itter( K*ho5 "hoto as 5arning to others see9ing Ameri0a/s destru0tion Co "ussy< footing around. phone numbers se%n in 'lothes White House 'hanges stor!I Bin /aden unarmed CablesI 7(+( near bin /aden in H$@. release photo &sama bin /aden had 'ash. no dramaI itAs "art of the mission. Chairman and CE& of E=e'uti4e A'tion and author of nine boo0s on terrorism. %ho spo0e . and there is a real ris0 that releasing the photos %ill onl! ser4e to inflame publi' opinion in the . did not immediatel! sa! %here that o''urred( +our'eI httpIFFne%s(!ahoo('omFsFapF#$""$?$#FapNonNreNusFusNbinNladenNburial .a! #.aeda 0illed one of our troops or militar! leaders.told CB+ 2e%s Wednesda! the! had seen post-mortem photographs of bin /aden( 2o 8emo'rats ha4e said the! ha4e seen the images( Photoshopped images purporting to sho% bin /aden after he %as 0illed ha4e alread! surfa'ed on the Internet( +en( +'ott Bro%n.aeda might e4en tr! to 0eep his lega'! going and sa! Hthe! got someone else.-?$A?GG(html &ffi'ialI Bin /aden buried at sea 5y Matt Apu//o' Associated "ress 6 . said Wednesda! that he had been fooled b! one su'h false image( It appears A!otte and Chambliss ma! also ha4e been duped( +pe'ial CeportI The 0illing of &sama bin /aden +our'eI httpIFF%%%('bsne%s('omF@A$"-?$A?GGN">#-#$$?. though he said the White House %ould ma0e the final de'ision( CB+ 2e%s national se'urit! 'orrespondent 8a4id . the offi'ial said( +o the 7(+( de'ided to bur! him at sea( The offi'ial.he is dead and letHs no% fo'us on 'ontinuing the fight until Al . the offi'ial said( Dinding a 'ountr! %illing to a''ept the remains of the %orldHs most %anted terrorist %ould ha4e been diffi'ult.J he told CB+ 2e%s( JAl .+a=b! Chambliss.artin has been told the photographs are J4er! gruesomeJ and %onHt be for the Js3ueamish(J JIH4e had it des'ribed to me and it does sound 4er! gruesome. C-2H. also disagreed %ith the de'ision( JIf %e 'anHt 'on'lusi4el! demonstrate that indeed he is dead there %ill be those %ho sa! he is still out there. %ho had 'laimed to ha4e seen the a'tual post-mortem photos.J Cogers said( JConspira'! theorists around the %orld %ill <ust 'laim the photos are do'tored an!%a!.aeda has been eliminated(J .2eil /i4ingstone. sa!ing it 'ould 'ompli'ate the <ob for Ameri'an troops o4erseas( Cogers told CB+ 2e%s he has seen a post-mortem photo( JThe ris0s of release out%eigh the benefits.J Cogers 'ontinued( J&sama bin /aden is not a troph! . #$""1 AIG$ am ET WA+HI2LT&2 6 A E * offi0ial says 1sama +in Laden has +een +uried at sea After bin /aden %as 0illed in a raid b! 7(+( for'es in Pa0istan.aeda leader is reall! dead( The White House had said it %as debating %hether to release the photographs( CIA dire'tor /eon Panetta told CB+ 2e%s Tuesda! that he thought a photo %ould be released. %ho offi'ials sa! %as shot in the fa'e during a raid on his 'ompound. and +en( Kell! A!! in Congress happ! bin /aden photos %onHt be released +0epti's ha4e 'alled on the 7nited +tates to release photos of bin /aden.

1sama +in Laden: $ead or Ali@e? Part 2 8e'ember "A. #$$"I The )&ffi'ial* 8eath of &sama bin /aden Arab terrorist &sama bin /aden reportedl! died in the mountains of Tora Bora. #$$"( Ameri'an air stri0es on Tora Bora in 8e'ember #$$" . Afghanistan during the Battle of Tora Bora on 8e'ember "A.

A map of Tora Bora and %estern Pa0istan The first 7(+( militar! team to enter the Tora Bora mountain range in #$$"( .

The ne"s first came from sources in Afghanistan and Pa&istan almost si.ome $aid because the( belie%ed the( "ere hel$ing $oor and o$$ressed Muslims+ Others $aid so militants "ould go and s$end their energies far a"a( from home+ That eas( mone( is no longer a%ailable1 at least not in large .+ Osa a 'in Laden is dead.ome ha%e been forced to choose bet"een the est1 "here the( ha%e the bul& of their "ealth1 and the troglod(te mu<ahedeen of the 3indu =ush+ The third element that made bin 2adenist terror $ossible "as the encouraging1 or at least com$lacent1 attitude of se%eral go%ernments+ The Taliban in Afghanistan began b( hosting Mr+ bin 2aden and ended u$ becoming his life' and'death buddies+ The Pa&istanis "ere also su$$orti%e because the( "anted to dominate Afghanistan and ma&e life hard for the Indians b( sending hol( "arriors to =ashmir+ The .$ression and dissent+ e no" &no" that 2ondon "as a critical ha%en for Al #aeda+ The murder of the .uantities+ Man( donors ha%e realized the( "ere financing terrorists+ .4he $eath of +in Ladenism By A ir Taheri P&'lished: (&ly ))* +.a((id #utb of )g($t+ Although Mr+ Maudoodi and Mr+ #utb "ere not serious thin&ers1 the( could at least offer a coherent ideolog( based on a narro" reading of Islamic te. months ago! the fugiti%e died in /ecember and "as buried in the mountains of southeast Afghanistan+ Pa&istan0s $resident1 Per%ez Musharraf1 echoed the information+ The remnants of Osama0s gang1 ho"e%er1 ha%e mostl( sta(ed silent1 either to &ee$ Osama0s ghost ali%e or because the( ha%e no means of communication+ ith an ego the size of Mount )%erest1 Osama bin 2aden "ould not ha%e1 could not ha%e1 remained silent for so long if he "ere still ali%e+ 3e al"a(s li&ed to ta&e credit e%en for things he had nothing to do "ith+ ould he remain silent for nine months and not trum$et his o"n sur%i%al? )%en if he is still in the "orld1 bin 2adenism has left for good+ Mr+ bin 2aden "as the $ublic face of a brand of $olitics that committed suicide in 4e" 5or& and ashington on .e$t+ 661 78861 &illing thousands of innocent $eo$le in the $rocess+ hat "ere the &e( elements of that $olitics? The first "as a c(nical misinter$retation of Islam that began decades ago "ith such anti' estern ideologues as Maulana Maudoodi of Pa&istan and .uite o$enl(1 in Muslim countries from Indonesia and Mala(sia to Morocco and Tunisia1 "ithout being bothered b( an(one+ The fall of the Taliban means the gang no longer has a secure base+ All the other countries are also closed1 and in some cases e%en hostile+ The fourth element "as the mista&en $ractice of man( estern $o"ers that sheltered the terrorists in the name of freedom of e..ts+ Their ideas about estern barbarism and Muslim re%i%al1 distilled do"n to bin 2adenism1 became mere slogans designed to incite zealots to murder+ Peo$le li&e Mr+ Maudoodi and Mr+ #utb could catch the ball and run largel( because most Muslim intellectuals of their generation 9and later: had no interest in continuing the "or& of Muslim $hiloso$hers+ Our intellectuals "ere too bus( learning estern ideologies of one &ind or another '' and the( left the ne"l( urbanized Muslim masses to the half'ba&ed ideas of men li&e Mr+ Maudoodi and Mr+ #utb and e%entuall( Mr+ bin 2aden+ 4o"1 ho"e%er1 man( Muslim intellectuals are returning home1 so to s$ea&+ The( are redisco%ering the $hiloso$hical heritage of Islam and the challenges of Muslim $olitical thought+ And Maudoodi'#utbism is no" being seen as a $seudo'Islamic %ersion of estern fascism+ The second element that made Mr+ bin 2aden $ossible "as eas( mone(1 largel( from "ealth( indi%iduals in the Persian Gulf area "ho belie%ed that the( "ere bu(ing a $lace in the hereafter "hile $rotecting themsel%es against $olitical o$$osition in this "orld+ .udanese go%ernment "as s(m$athetic1 if not actuall( su$$orti%e1 and offered at least a safe ha%en+ This "as also the case in 5emen1 "here in 4o%ember 7888 I accidentall( ran into a cro"d of #aeda militants "ho had flo"n in from Pa&istan for a gathering+ 9Page 7 of 7: e no" &no" that #aeda cells o$erated1 often .

ork( LL . .here bin Laden . # %olley of b$llets .ill be adeD$ately re.o$ld ne%er be able to f$lfill their cherished "oal of "ettin" Usama ali%e or dead(X the so$rce said. h$ndred 0eo0le in #f"hanistan . Bin Laden( accordin" to the so$rce( . V134< *)S 6e. 7he so$rce claimed that bin Laden .s face before b$rial said Xhe looked 0ale .X !nstead( he said( bin Laden .hah Massoud "as $lanned in 2ondon+ #aeda militants o$erated in German(1 3olland1 >elgium1 France1 .X 7he 7aliban so$rce .as laid to rest honorably in his last abode and his "ra%e . When asked .X +our'eI httpIFF%%%(fo=ne%s('omFstor!F#$$"F"#F#>Freport-bin-laden-alread!-deadF 7his material may not be 0$blished( broadcast( element of bin 2adenism "as the illusion in most estern nations that the( could someho" remain unaffected b( the %iolence unleashed b( fanatical terrorists against so man( Muslim nations from Indonesia to Algeria+ Mr+ bin 2aden could sur%i%e and $ros$er onl( in a "orld in "hich these elements e. #ll market data delayed 13 min$tes.ho claims to ha%e seen bin b$ried( the so$rce said( X! am s$re that like other 0laces in 7ora Bora( that 0artic$lar 0lace too m$st ha%e %anished.s 6et.. b$t calm( relaAed and confident. Din =a*en Alrea*y 4ea* P$blished December 1E( 1334 * s$fferin" from a serio$s l$n" com0lication and s$cc$mbed to the disease in mid? December( in the %icinity of the 7ora Bora mo$ also fired to 0ay final trib$te to the X"reat made as 0er his Wahabi belief.s.ritten( or redistrib$ted.Afghan resistance leader Ahmed .as 0ro$d that he s$cceeded in his mission of i"nitin" a.ho laid their li%es in creatin" an atmos0here of resistance .X #sked . #bo$t <3 close associates of bin Laden in #l @aeda( incl$din" his most tr$sted and 0ersonal body"$ards( his family members and some X7aliban friends(X attended the f$neral rites.ho alle"edly attended the f$neral of the #l @aeda leader.ists+ The Americans1 su$$orted b( one of the largest coalitions in histor(1 ha%e sho"n the( "ill use force against their enemies e%en if that means a long and difficult "ar+ The si. Bin Laden( he said( held the %ie..$ain and Ital( "ithout significant restraint+ The fifth element that made bin 2adenism $ossible "as the est0s1 es$eciall( America0s1 $ercei%ed "ea&ness if not actual co"ardice+ A <o&e going around militant Islamist circles until last (ear "as that the onl( thing the Americans "ould do if attac&ed "as to sue+ That $erce$tion no longer e.areness amon"st M$slims abo$t he"emonistic desi"ns and cons0iracies of X0a"ansX a"ainst !slam. #ll ri"hts reser%ed.isted+ That "orld is gone+ Mr+ bin 2aden0s ghost ma( linger on '' $erha$s because ashington and Islamabad "ill find it useful+ President >ush0s $art( has a crucial election to "in and Per%ez Musharraf is &een to &ee$ Pa&istan in the limelight as long as $ossible+ B&t the tr&th is that Osa a 'in Laden is dead- +our'eI httpIFF%%%(n!times('omF#$$#F$5F""FopinionFthe-death-of-bin-ladenism(html Co$(right 786? The 4e" 5or& Times Com$an( Report. that the sacrifice of a nothin"( as those . X7he oalition troo0s are en"a"ed in a mad search o0eration b$t they .com Usama bin Laden has died a 0eacef$l death d$e to an $ntreated l$n" com0lication( the Pakistan )bser%er re0orted( citin" a 7aliban leader .arded by #lmi"hty #llah.hether bin Laden had any feelin"s of remorse before death( the so$rce %ehemently said Xno.

uslim %orld and deser4ed dire 'onse3uen'es( It %as the 0ind of rant %e ha4e heard from him before. and the response from British and 7(+( intelligen'e ser4i'es %as e3uall! predi'table( The! insisted that the details on the tape.iddle East tour( E4en before the ne% President alighted at Ci!adh airport to sha0e hands %ith Prin'e Abdullah. Bin /adenHs %ords %ere being aired on TM. of the PresidentHs 4isit and other 'ontemporar! e4ents. %as still ali4e .and that the hunt for him must go on( . radio and the internet a'ross e4er! 'ontinent( %enuine picture@ #sama 5in Haden in #ctober &**( It %as !et another propaganda 'oup for the ?#-!ear-old Al . Ameri'aHs %orst e4er terrorist atro'it!. The last time %e heard a s3uea0 from him %as on une A this !ear( The %orldHs most notorious terrorist outsmarted Ameri'a b! releasing a mena'ing message as Air Dor'e &ne tou'hed do%n on +audi Arabian soil at the start of Bara'0 &bamaHs first and mu'h 4aunted .F"". E+T. "" +eptember #$$. Bin /aden said that Ameri'a and her Western allies %ere so%ing seeds of hatred in the .aeda leader( In the audiotape deli4ered to the Arab ne%s net%or0 Al azeera. pro4ed that the mastermind of .(as 1sama -in Laden +een dead for se@en years < and are the E * and -ritain 0o@ering it u" to 0ontinue 5ar on terror? B! +ue Ceid EP$A4B$: ">I?.

and the a''umulating e4iden'e that supports it . at the 4er! least. telling the publi' to %at'h out for a left-handed.hen he .in %hi'h nearl! A. Bara'0 &bama has laun'hed a fresh operation to find him( Wor0ing %ith the Pa0istani Arm!.F"" is a fa0e .and that he is being 0ept Hali4eH b! the Western allies to stir up support for the %ar on terrorO In'redibl!. there are the plethora of HBin /aden tapesH to pro4e it( Ket %hat if he isnHtO What if he has been dead for !ears. respe'ted a'ademi's and e4en terror e=perts( &f 'ourse. %orth! of e=amination( . gre!-bearded gentleman %ho %al0s %ith a sti'0( FakeI 5in Haden t. elite s3uads of 7(+( and British spe'ial for'es %ere sent into Waziristan this summer to Hhunt and 0illH the shado%! figure intelligen'e offi'ers still 'all Hthe prin'ipal targetH of the %ar on terror( This ne% offensi4e is. and the British and 7(+( intelligen'e ser4i'es are a'tuall! pla!ing a game of double bluffO What if e4er!thing %e ha4e seen or heard of him on 4ideo and audio tapes sin'e the earl! da!s after .o months later' .F"".Bin /aden has al%a!s been blamed for or'hestrating the horrifi' atta'0 . the ". infamousl! promising %ith a Wild West flourish to ta0e him Hdead or ali4eH( The 7(+( +tate 8epartment offered a re%ard of T?$million for his %hereabouts( The DBI named him one of their ten Hmost %antedH fugiti4es.ma0es the notion. there ha4e been an! number of 'onspira'! theories 'on'erning .as supposedly dead Ket this master terrorist remains elusi4e( He has es'aped the most e=tensi4e and e=pensi4e man-hunt in histor!.eight !ears ago this %ee0( President Leorge W( Bush made his 'apture a national priorit!.$$$ people perished . stret'hing a'ross Waziristan. this is the breathta0ing theor! that is gaining 'reden'e among politi'al 'ommentators. of 'ourse. and it 'ould be this is <ust another one( But the %eight of opinion no% s%inging behind the possibilit! that Bin /aden is dead . based on the premise that the .?$$ miles of mountainous badlands on the borders of Pa0istan and Afghanistan( 7ndeterred.F"" terrorist is ali4e( After all.

ohammed) are in'onsistent %ith his stri't Islami' religion. Bin /aden %ears golden rings on his fingers. head of 8u0e 7ni4ersit!Hs religious studiesH department and the foremost Bin /aden e=pert. a professor of international relations at Boston 7ni4ersit!. Wahhabism( He notes that.The theor! first re'ei4ed an airing in the Ameri'an +pe'tator magazine earlier this !ear %hen former 7(+( foreign intelligen'e offi'er and senior editor Angelo . too( Professor Bru'e /a%ren'e. argues that the in'reasingl! se'ular language in the 4ideo and audio tapes of &sama (his earliest ones are littered %ith referen'es to Lod and the Prophet .H he asserted( HThe gu! <ust does not loo0 li0e &sama( +ome 4ideos sho% him %ith a +emiti'. all inter'eptions b! the West of 'ommuni'ations made b! the Al .( Code4illa. %hile others sho% him %ith a shorter. stated bluntl!I HAll the e4iden'e suggests El4is Presle! is more ali4e toda! than &sama Bin /aden(H )J((@ 5in Haden originally insisted in official press statements that he had played no role in the atrocity Prof Code4illa pointed to in'onsisten'ies in the 4ideos and 'laimed there ha4e been no reputable sightings of Bin /aden for !ears (for instan'e. broader one( 2e=t to that. on one 4ideo. an adornment banned among Wahhabi follo%ers( .aeda leader suddenl! 'eased in late #$$")( Prof Code4illa assertedI HThe 4ideo and audio tapes alleged to be &samaHs ne4er 'on4in'e the impartial obser4er. a3uiline nose. differen'es bet%een the 'olours and st!les of his beard are small stuff(H There are other doubters.

on +eptember #@ and a fortnight after the atro'it!. I tr! m! best to a4oid telling a lie( I had no 0no%ledge((( nor do I 'onsider the 0illing of inno'ent %omen. &'tober 5. 'hildren and other humans as an appre'iable a't(H Within hours of the &'tober 5 stri0es b! the 7(+( on Tora Bora.F"".uslim religious rules.uslim.5in Haden in ())> AlB and' allegedly' in &**&@ Sceptics ha!e pointed to a thicker nose and the ring on his right hand as proof it is an imposter This %ee0. or a lin0ed 'omplaint.for it goes into far more detail about his supposed death and suggests there has been a 'o4er-up b! the West( The boo0 'laims that Bin /aden died of 0idne! failure. on +unda!.F""( . former emeritus professor at CaliforniaHs Claremont +'hool of Theolog!.F""( Indeed. and %ith an Islami' head-dress.aeda statements made to the Arab press that he pla!ed no role in . Bin /aden made his first e4er appearan'e on 4ideo tape( 8ressed in Arm! fatigues. he on'e again re<e'ted responsibilit! for . that fateful sunn! +eptember da! in #$$"( Within a month. still more 3uestions ha4e been raised %ith the publi'ation in Ameri'a and Britain of a boo0 'alled &sama Bin /adenI 8ead or Ali4eO Written b! politi'al anal!st and philosopher Professor 8a4id Ca! Lriffin. on the fourth o''asion. in line %ith . %hi'h is a Wahhabi 'ustom( The author insists that the man! Bin /aden tapes made sin'e that date ha4e been 'on'o'ted b! the West to ma0e the %orld belie4e Bin /aden is ali4e( The purposeO To sto0e up %aning support for the %ar on terror in Ira3 and Afghanistan( To understand LriffinHs thesis. and in an unmar0ed gra4e. he loo0ed pale and gaunt( Although he 'alled President Leorge W( Bush Hhead of the infidelsH and poured s'orn on the 7(+(. %hile li4ing in AfghanistanHs Tora Bora mountains 'lose to the border %ith Waziristan( His burial too0 pla'e %ithin #G hours. on 8e'ember "A. he had an assault rifle propped behind him in a broadl! lit mountain hideout( +ignifi'antl!. %e must remember the WestHs rea'tion to . he de'lared emphati'all!I HI ha4e alread! said I am not in4ol4ed( As a . the 7(+( and Britain laun'hed massi4e retaliator! air stri0es in the Tora Bora region %here the! said Hprime suspe'tH Bin /aden %as li4ing Has a guest of AfghanistanH( This militar! offensi4e ignored the fa't that Bin /aden had alread! insisted four times in offi'ial Al . it is pro4o0ing sho'0 %a4es . #$$".

#$$" . from its %est to its east( Than0 Lod for that(H Then 'ame a se'ond 4ideotape on 2o4ember A.uslims to 'elebrate the atta'0s . the 7(+( Lo4ernment released a ne% 4ideo of the terror 'hief( In this tape. #$$"( 5ush made 5in Haden's capture a national priority' claiming he could get his man 0 dead or ali!e The tape sho%s Bin /aden tal0ing %ith a 4isiting shei0( In it. after anti-Taliban for'es too0 o4er the 'it!( A label atta'hed to it 'laimed that it had been made on 2o4ember .F""( The Washington Post 3uoted 7(+( offi'ials sa!ing that the 4ideo Hoffers the most 'on4in'ing e4iden'e of a 'onne'tion bet%een Bin /aden and the +eptember "" atta'0sH( A euphori' President Bush addedI HDor those %ho see this tape. an ailing Bin /aden lashed out at the 7nited +tates( He urged true ..F""( The tape had reportedl! been found b! 7(+( troops in a pri4ate home in alalabad. the! realise that not onl! is he guilt! of in'redible murder.HAmeri'a %as hit b! Lod in one of its softest spots( Ameri'a is full of fear. but he has no 'ons'ien'e and no soul(H In /ondon. not a gre! one( His pale s0in had suddenl! be'ome dar0er. addedI HThere is no doubt it is the real thing( People 'an see Bin /aden there. Afghanistan. and suddenl! admitted to his in4ol4ement in the atro'it! of . a'0 +tra%. 8o%ning +treet said that the 4ideo %as H'on'lusi4e proof of his in4ol4ementH( The then Doreign +e'retar!. Bin /aden 'ontradi'ted all his pre4ious denials.but did not at an! time a'0no%ledge he had been in4ol4ed in the atro'it!( And then there %as silen'e until 8e'ember "A. #$$"( &n'e again.the date Lriffin 'laims Bin /aden died( That 4er! da!. the Bin /aden in this 4ital film testimon! loo0s different( He is a %eight! man %ith a bla'0 beard. but had planned e4er! detail personall!( What manna for the Western authorities^ This put the terrorist ba'0 in the frame o4er . from its north to its south.F"" atro'ities in ad4an'e. ma0ing those utterl! 'hilling %ords of admission about his guilt for organising the atro'ities of +eptember ""(H Ket Professor Lriffin 'laims this H'onfessionalH 4ideo pro4o0es more 3uestions than ans%ers( Dor a start. he 'learl! states that he not onl! 0ne% about the . and he had a different shaped nose( His artisti' hands %ith slender fingers had transformed into those of a pugilist( He loo0ed in e='eedingl! good health( .

The . although he is left-handed( Bizarrel!. four months after .ail on +unda! Q .F"" and both men %ere tr!ing to %in international publi' support.and goes along %ith the m!th that its 'harismati' figurehead is still ali4e to en'ourage re'ruitment to its 'ause( As for the matter of %hat happened to him. the Al . 'lose members of his famil! and friends from the Taliban( B! the Wahhabi tradition..H said the report( The Taliban offi'ial.F"" than he had e=pe'ted( He goes onI H8ue to m! e=perien'e in this field. #$$" in the Eg!ptian ne%spaper Al-WafdO It said a prominent offi'ial of the Afghan Taliban had announ'ed that &sama Bin /aden had been buried on or about 8e'ember "A( HHe suffered serious 'ompli'ations and died a natural. for the anti-terrorist 'ampaign(H Lriffin suggests that Western go4ernments used highl! sophisti'ated. in his e=plosi4e boo0. first appeared on anuar! ". #$$#. at the Ameri'an Hospital in 8ubai in ul! #$$". sa!s this tape is fa0e.@$$ deg D(H Lriffin. and he goes further( HA reason to suspe't that all of the post-#$$" Bin /aden tapes are fabri'ations is that the! often appeared at times that boosted the Bush presiden'! or supported a 'laim b! its 'hief H%ar on terrorH all!. be'ause of the ob4ious mista0es( HLi4en his e=perien'e as a 'ontra'tor. %ho %as not named.a man %ith a 'i4il engineering degree %ho had made his fortune (before mo4ing into terrorism) from building 'onstru'tion in the .aeda 0ept 3uiet about itO And %hat e=a'tl! happened to the real Bin /adenO The ans%er to the first 3uestion ma! be that the amorphous terrorist organisation is happ! to %age its o%n propaganda battle in the fa'e of %aning support . Bin /aden 'an be seen %riting a note %ith his right hand.ail. a funeral attended b! A$ Al . 3uiet death( He %as buried in Tora Bora.H he sa!s( HHe %ould also 0no%n that steel and iron do not begin to melt until the! rea'h #. on the run in sno%! mountain 'a4es. no mar0 %as left on the gra4e.F"" %hi'h Lriffin 'laims %ould ne4er ha4e 'ome from the mouth of the real Bin /aden .F""( This %as %hen Pa0istanHs President Per4ez . small ne%s item that bro0e on 8e'ember #>. often lin0ed to 0idne! disease. or that he might be dead. fran0l!. sa!s Lriffin. British Prime . parti'ularl! in the Islami' %orld. for !ears. ha4e used the ma'hine that man! belie4e %as essential to 0eep him ali4eO 8o'tors %hom Lriffin 'ites on the sub<e't thin0 it %ould ha4e been impossible( He %ould ha4e needed to sta! in one spot %ith a team of medi's.aeda fighters. the Bin /aden tapes ha4e emerged %ith 'lo'0%or0 regularit! as billions ha4e been spent and mu'h blood spilt on the hunt for him( Bin /aden has been the 'entral plan0 of the WestHs H%ar on terrorH( Could it be that. too. Professor Lriffin also endorses this theor!( He sa!s Bin /aden %as treated for a urinar! infe'tion. heHs <ust been smo0e and mirrorsO +our'eI httpIFF%%%(dail!mail('o(u0Fne%sFarti'le-"#"#@?"FHas-&sama-Bin-/aden-dead-se4en-!ears--7-+-Britain-'o4ering-'ontinue%ar-terror(html Published b! Asso'iated 2e%spapers /td Part of the 8ail! .etro . %h! has Al . he %ould ha4e 0no%n the T%in To%ers %ere framed %ith steel. spe'ial effe'ts film te'hnolog! to morph together images and 4o'al re'ordings of Bin /aden( +o if the! are fa0es.aeda leader trumpets that far more people died in . and 'ould not ha4e rea'hed abo4e ".Durthermore. rela=ed and 'onfident(H It %as Christmas in Washington 8C and /ondon and the report hardl! got a mention( +in'e then.edia Lroup . not iron. said triumphantl! that he had seen Bin /adenHs fa'e in his shroud( HHe loo0ed pale. he ordered a mobile dial!sis ma'hine to be deli4ered to Afghanistan( Ho% 'ould Bin /aden. but 'alm. t%o months before .F""( At the same time. I %as thin0ing that the e=plosion from the gas in the plane %ould melt the iron stru'ture of the building and 'ollapse the area %here the plane hit and all the floors abo4e it onl!( That is all %e had hoped for(H (In realit! the T%in To%ersH 'ompletel! fell do%n)( The %ords of the true Bin /adenO 2o. he is dead for the reason he is a 0idne! patient( The images of him sho% he is e=tremel! %ea0(H In his boo0.usharraf told Ameri'aHs ne%s sho% C22I HI thin0 no%. he ma0es statements about . and a regular maintenan'e programme for the dial!sis unit itself( And %hat of the telling. hints of Bin /adenHs 0idne! failure.@$$ deg D( Ket a building fire fed b! <et fuel is a h!dro'arbon fire.iddle East( Dor e=ample. h!gieni' 'onditions.inister Ton! Blair( HThe 'onfession tape 'ame e=a'tl! %hen Bush and Blair had failed to pro4e Bin /adenHs responsibilit! for .

e%er( and the contin$in" threat al?@aeda 0oses aro$nd the .hen he li%ed in #f"hanistan.n Uni%ersity.%e read all the same conflictin" re0orts Mon bin Laden.nsend( .) !f bin Laden really is dyin"( the ne. )n the one hand( his demise is .ho no.time. B$t death by kidney disease is not eAactly . officials familiar .t that be a tra"ic sit$ation if( .M$sharraf said bin Laden had kidney disease( and that he had reD$ired a dialysis machine ..atchers of the al?@aeda terror net.s .ork find s$ch re0orts inherently $nreliable. the !# has 0rod$ced a re0ort sayin" that bin Laden has lon"?term kidney disease and may ha%e only months to li%e( t. B$sh.s tryin" to make a dia"nosis from tho$sands of miles a.itho$t it ha00enin" at the hands of coalition forcesPX says one c$rrent senior co$nterterrorism official. lose .s(X he says. X7he fact that anonymo$s so$rces attrib$te %ie. .com=time=nation=article=3(B2FF(4B4F1B3(33. Monday( +$ne <3( 133B &sama Bin /aden (PhotoI +alah . 7hat same year( the *B!. X! ha%e fo$nd no one here familiar .hat the U.n last 6o%ember as chief of President Geor"e W. Says *rances *ra"os 7o. !n 1331( Pakistani President Per%e.ith this alle"ed re0ort or the analytic line it s$00osedly con%eys(X says Pa$l Gimi"liano( a !# s0okesman.hich came o$t bet.ill "et yo$ a dead terrorist leader.ith some ambi%alence..S.s co$nterterrorism center( . teaches at Geor"eto.ay .ith $s anymore. So$rce5 htt05==.s door.s 'omeland Sec$rity o$ncil( X!.S.) 7hat 0ro"nosis( alon" . XWo$ldn.s effort to catch himP 6othin" has characteri-ed the fr$itlessness of the h$nt for the al? @aeda leader so m$ch as the rec$rrent O and mostly inacc$rate O re0orts that he is serio$sly ailin"( or e%en at death.ith some on?the?"ro$nd intelli"ence and a .s to0 co$nterterrorism official( Dale Watson( said( X! 0ersonally think he is 0robably not .orld( that may be the least of #merica.s to the !# is not( by itself( reason to belie%e the a"ency act$ally holds those %ie. Gi%en the reliability of 0ast lon"?distance dia"noses( ho.ith all this effort( bin Laden died .ith the re0ort( .( U.X (See 0ict$res of )sama Bin Laden.s .o$ld eA0ect that he has no more than siA to 4B months to li%e and im0endin" kidney fail$re. 6o.een siA and nine months a"o( says it concl$ded( XBased on his c$rrent 0harmace$tical intake( M. ! ne%er fo$nd one set of re0ortin" more 0ers$asi%e than another.o U.ell?aimed 'ellfire missile( .s healthN that 0eo0le ha%e talked to yo$ abo$t.al0a%i F Lett!) Which is closer to dyin"5 )sama bin Laden or the !#..X 7he !#( for its 0art( is disa%o.Is &sama bin /aden 8!ing ((( AgainO By Massimo alabresi Washin"ton( D.X Since then( of co$rse( bin Laden has a00eared on m$lti0le %ideos lookin" healthier than e%er.eN .hat it had in mind.orries. X!t.ho ste00ed do.ith the re0ort told 7!M&. (See 0ict$res of a Bin Laden family alb$m.o$ld do$btless be "reeted .S.html . official familiar .#. "o%ernment has been fer%ently tryin" to hasten O since before F=44. )ne U.ith only fra"ments of the medical chart(X says Pa$l Pillar( former to0 analyst and de0$ty director of the !#. 7he a"ency ostensibly mana"ed to "et the names of some of the medications bin Laden is takin".in" the claims attrib$ted to the re0ort.S.

2CC= << Pa9istan/s "resident says he thin9s 1sama +in Laden is most li9ely dead +e0ause the sus"e0ted terrorist has +een una+le to get treatment for his 9idney disease JI thin0 no%. pla'ing bin /aden in Afghanistan.usharrafHs statements on bin /adenHs 'ondition( The 7nited +tates has said that bin /aden is the prime suspe't in the +eptember "" atta'0s on the World Trade Center and the Pentagon that 0illed about A.essentiall! one of their asso'iates turning them in( Top CIA anal!sts %ho tra'0 bin /aden and &mar ha4e been as0ed for their best assessment on the t%o menHs %hereabouts( That has led to a 4ariet! of thoughts.ullah . the 'ommander of 7(+( for'es in 'entral and south%est Asia. a senior Bush administration offi'ial said . Pa9istan . on the open o'ean onboard a ship. (but) %e donHt 0no% (bin /aden) is dead. E+T ($AAG L.possibl! going north to Tora Bora( .usharraf rea'hed Jreasonable 'on'lusionJ but %arned it is onl! a guess( JHe is using 4er! reasonable dedu'ti4e reasoning. %ho re3uested anon!mit!( JWe donHt ha4e remains or e4iden'e of his death( +o it is a de'ent and reasonable 'on'lusion -.$$$ people( (unt for +in Laden The 7nited +tates laun'hed its 'ampaign in Afghanistan after the 'ountr!Hs ruling Taliban refused to turn o4er bin /aden( Earlier this %ee0 7(+( 8efense +e'retar! 8onald Cumsfeld said he belie4ed bin /aden and Taliban spiritual leader .J Len( Per4ez . said Drida! that he had not seen an! intelligen'e 'onfirming or den!ing .usharraf said Pa0istan 0ne% bin /aden too0 t%o dial!sis ma'hines into Afghanistan( J&ne %as spe'ifi'all! for his o%n personal use.Pa9istan/s Musharraf: -in Laden "ro+a+ly dead anuar! "@. #$$# PostedI "$IAG P. and fa'ing the idea of needing to generate ele'tri'it! in a mountain hideout(J &ther 7(+( offi'ials 'ontradi'ted the reports of bin /adenHs health problems.J he said( JI donHt 0no% if he has been getting all that treatment in Afghanistan no%( And the photographs that ha4e been sho%n of him on tele4ision sho% him e=tremel! %ea0( ((( I %ould gi4e the first priorit! that he is dead and the se'ond priorit! that he is ali4e some%here in Afghanistan(J E * offi0ials s9e"ti0al In Washington.usharraf said on Drida! in an inter4ie% %ith C22( . in Pa0istan or Iran. he is dead for the reason he is a ((( 0idne! patient.if he is still ali4e( The 4ideotape seen %orld%ide se4eral %ee0s ago of bin /aden tal0ing about the +eptember "" atta'0s %as made in Kandahar( He then apparentl! disappeared -. sa!ing there is Jno e4iden'eJ the suspe'ted terrorist mastermind has e4er suffered 0idne! failure or re3uired 0idne! dial!sis( The offi'ials 'alled su'h suggestions a Jre'urrent rumor(J Len( Tomm! Dran0s. fran0l!.a good guess but it is a guess(J The offi'ial said 7(+( intelligen'e is that bin /aden needs dial!sis e4er! three da!s and Jit is fairl! ob4ious that that 'ould be an issue %hen !ou are running from pla'e to pla'e.T) 3*LAMA-A$. or headed north through Ta<i0istan or 7zbe0istan -.ost of the reports are based on sightings b! lo'al Afghans that 'annot be 4erified( There are reports that bin /aden and his 'on4o!s ha4e been sighted re'entl! b! a Predator unmanned aerial 4ehi'le( A senior 8efense 8epartment sour'e said the la'0 of 'redible information about the t%o %as so se4ere that man! offi'ials belie4e the 7(+( %ould 'at'h bin /aden or &mar onl! through pure lu'0.ohammed &mar %ere inside Afghanistan but J%e are loo0ing at some other pla'es as %ell from time to time(J Cumsfeld noted there %ere dozens of 'onfli'ting intelligen'e reports ea'h da! and said most of them %ere %rong( . or an Jintelligen'e brea0J -.J said the offi'ial.

aeda terrorism net%or0. said &mar is a diffi'ult man to tra'0 do%n Jbe'ause nobod! 0no%s him b! fa'e( 2obod! 'an re'ognize him( If !ou 'ame a'ross him toda!. Afghanistan . ma0ing it diffi'ult for the 7nited +tates to determine his lo'ation and laun'h an atta'0 against him( +our'eI httpIFFedition('nn('omF#$$#FW&C/8Fasiap'fFsouthF$"F"@Fgen(musharraf(binladenF Gar"ai. %ho %as the target of an assassination attempt +eptember ?.Dran0s said there %as e4iden'e bin /aden %as in Tora Bora but he ga4e no indi'ation of %hen that might ha4e been( In &'tober. bin /aden mo4ed around fre3uentl!. there is the li0elihood that he probabl! is either dead or seriousl! %ounded some%here(J But he said &mar is 'ertainl! ali4e( JWe 0no% of that.J Karzai said on C22Hs J/ate EditionJ on +unda!( JBut still. bin =a*en 7probably7 *ea* . !ou %ouldnHt re'ognize him( +o thatHs part of the problem %ith him( JI belie4e he is most of the time inside Afghanistan( He 'ould go. a''using it of e=panding and de4eloping %eapons of mass destru'tion( JBut I %ould li0e to remind our friends in the 7nited +tates and in the international 'ommunit! that %e ha4e to reall! finish the <ob in Afghanistan 'ompletel!. the group blamed for the +eptember "" atta'0s( JI %ould 'ome to belie4e that 9bin /aden: probabl! is dead. &'tober 5. I thin0 it %ill be 4er!. 4er! 'lose to the Taliban(J He insisted he is not afraid for his lifeI JI trust LodHs 0eeping. I ha4e no fears(J Karzai said 7(+( and allied for'es are helping to stabilize and 0eep Afghanistan Ja%a! from dangers. espe'iall! in the re'onstru'tion of the basi' infrastru'ture of Afghanistan(J Karzai said his 'ountr! has not re'ei4ed the e'onomi' support it e=pe'ted from the international 'ommunit! for rebuilding efforts( It is not 'lear ho% mu'h longer the 7nited +tates and its allies %ill need to 0eep a militar! presen'e in Afghanistan.2CC= << 1sama +in Laden is K"ro+a+lyK dead. to%ard our borders. %hi'h the 7nited +tates designated a JterroristJ group. %hi'h the 7nited +tates said harbored bin /adenHs al . and he %ould ha4e been e4en harder to spot if he mo4ed %ithout his telltale large se'urit! 'ontingent( E4en before the %ar. and %hen he de'ides IHll not be here an!more. !ou ne4er 0no%( He might be ali4e( Di4e months ago. and the more time passes. Afghan President (amid Kar'ai has said KarzaiHs 'omments 'ame on the e4e of the anni4ersar! of the start of the 7(+(-led militar! 'ampaign in Afghanistan as part of the %ar on terrorism( The 'ampaign ousted the Taliban regime. but heHs been able to es'ape(J 7(+( for'es also ha4e sear'hed for &mar( Karzai. but not a politi'al or militar! threat an!more(J Karzai. sometimes 'lose to the borders. E8T ($>AG L.J Karzai said( +our'eI httpIFFedition('nn('omF#$$#FW&C/8Fasiap'fF'entralF"$F$>F0arzai(binladenF . the! ma! tr! to stri0e and the! ma! tr! to assassinate or shoot people or lob bombs( That 0ind of a'ti4it! the! 'an do.J Karzai said( JWe donHt see them as a danger in an! %a!.T) KA-EL. from time to time.J Karzai said( Co threat He 'ontended the Taliban. 4er! un%ise to thin0 that Afghanistan 'an be left alone(J In the midst of a 7(+( debate o4er possible militar! a'tion against the +addam Hussein regime in Ira3. +ut former 4ali+an leader Mullah 1mar is ali@e. Karzai said he is un'on'erned that the 7nited +tates might shift its attention from Afghanistan to that 'ountr!( President BushHs administration has threatened Ira3 %ith militar! a'tion. but he sta!s around the Afghan area. as terrorist indi4iduals. si= months ago. of 'ourse( As a terrorist organization. said the perpetrator has been identified and is Jsomeone 4er!. that %ill be the moment( Before that.J he said( JAnd %e ha4e 'ome 'lose to arresting him se4eral times. #$$# PostedI #IAG A. Karzai said( But Jat this point. leader of AfghanistanHs interim go4ernment. intelligen'e offi'ials thought the! had bin /aden pinned do%n to a "$-s3uare-mile area in the eastern 'entral mountains of Afghanistan( T%o senior militar! offi'ers told C22 it %ould not ha4e been hard for bin /aden to 'hange lo'ation se4eral times be'ause 4ast areas of Afghanistan are 4irtuall! unseen b! the 7(+( militar!. I %as thin0ing that he %as ali4e( The more %e donHt hear of him.J partl! b! training Afghan se'urit! for'es( But Jthere are other areas in %hi'h the international 'ommunit! has not deli4ered the promises that the! made. some%here in Afghanistan or in the rest of the %orld.onda!. is a minimal threat to his go4ernment( JThe! are no% a group on the run( The! are no longer a go4ernment( The! are no longer a politi'al mo4ement( The! are no longer a realit! in Afghanistan.

turned out to belong to a %oman( Pri4atel!. #$$# B! oel Coberts (CB+) DBI 'ounterterrorism 'hief 8ale Watson said Wednesda! he belie4es &sama bin /aden is dead R the first time a senior 7(+( la% enfor'ement offi'ial has publi'l! gi4en an opinion on the al .F-3 1ffi0ial 4hin9s -in Laden 3s $ead But ThereHs 2o E4iden'e To Pro4e It. ul! "5. re'o4ered from Afghan battlefields( The s0ull. in'luding a s0ull. #$"". 8(C(. if he is ali4e. but Jthere is no 3uestion in m! mind ((( %e %ill be atta'0ed again(J Watson. spea0ing at a 'onferen'e of la% enfor'ement offi'ials at a do%nto%n hotel.ansehra R about "# miles a%a! from Abbottabad. 3ui'0l! emphasized that he had no e4iden'e that bin /aden %as dead. but his 'omments suggest that the DBI has no intelligen'e that pro4es bin /aden is ali4e( JIs (bin /aden) ali4e or is he deadOJ Watson said( JI am not reall! sure of the ans%er ((( I personall! thin0 he is probabl! not %ith us an!more but I ha4e no e4iden'e to support that(J Watson also said that bin /adenHs net%or0 of terrorist training 'amps has been dismantled. bin /adenHs spo0esman. 5I"5 pm ET WA+HI2LT&2 6 AfghanistanHs former intelligen'e 'hief sa!s he 0ne% &sama bin /aden %as hiding in Pa0istan four !ears ago.a! "?. %here the terrorist leader %as e4entuall! found and 0illed b! 7(+( 2a4! +EA/s( +aleh has be'ome a prominent 'riti' of Afghan President Hamid Karzai-s efforts to start pea'e tal0s %ith the Taliban( He sa!s Pa0istan should be re'ognized b! the 7nited +tates as Ja hostile 'ountr!(J He told CB+I JThe! ta0e !our mone!( The! do not 'o-operate( The! 'reated the Taliban( The! are number one in nu'lear proliferation(J +our'eI httpIFFne%s(!ahoo('omFsFapF#$""$?"?FapNonNreNusFusNafghanistanNbinNladen .aeda are still 'arr!ing out their responsibilities(J Adding to the spe'ulation is the fa't that itHs been se4eral months sin'e bin /aden has been seen. ho%e4er. but Pa0istanHs leaders re<e'ted his 'laims( In an inter4ie% broad'ast +unda! on CB+H J>$ . Abu Laith. %ho rarel! ma0es publi' appearan'es.aeda response to that is that bin /aden is <ust being patient and a%aiting the results of the ne=t atta'0 on Ameri'a( +our'eI httpIFF%%%('bsne%s('omFstoriesF#$$#F$5F"5Fatta'0Fmain?"?G>@(shtml E=-Afghan sp! 'hiefI I 0ne% %here bin /aden %as 6 +un . &ffi'ial +a!s WA+HI2LT&2. and %ith ea'h taped appearan'e his health and appearan'e seemed to deteriorate( The DBI has obtained samples of bin /adenHs 82A and last month %ere 'he'0ing it against tissue and bod! parts. offi'ials 'anHt understand %h! bin /aden. and those in 'ommand of al .aeda leaderHs status( Watson.J Amrullah +aleh sa!s Afghan intelligen'e thought bin /aden %as in the Pa0istani 'it! of . hasnHt surfa'ed to thumb his nose at the 7(+( The al .inutes. released an audiotape to an Arab tele4ision outlet( He also 'laimed that J+hei0h &sama Bin /aden is in good health. is the top offi'ial for 'ounterterrorism and 'ounterintelligen'e in the DBI( He did not elaborate on his 'omments on bin /aden and rushed a%a! from reporters after he spo0e( CB+ 2e%s Correspondent im +te%art reports spe'ulation o4er bin /aden intensified in re'ent %ee0s largel! be'ause of items in the Arab press( &ne report 'laimed 0no%ledge that bin /aden %as %ounded in the shoulder during fighting at his Tora Bora hideout earl! this !ear and %as treated at a Pa0istani hospital( Another report spe'ulated bin /aden died in the fighting( In une.

another 4ideotape %as released. %ill the people of Ameri'a hold their President to the highest standard in presenting e4iden'e that the person 0illed %as a'tuall! &sama Bin /aden. told a 'onferen'e of la% enfor'ement offi'ials that )I personall! thin0 he 9Bin /aden: is probabl! not %ith us an!more. &sama Bin /aden %as sta!ing in a Pa0istani militar! hospital under the %at'hful e!e of Pa0istan-s I+I. 2011 When &bama pronoun'ed &sama Bin /aden dead in a tele4ised announ'ement heard round the %orld last night. he %as at least the ninth ma<or head of state or high-ran0ing go4ernment offi'ial to ha4e done so( Li4en Bin /aden-s do'umented 0idne! problems and 'onse3uent need for dial!sis. go4ernment offi'ials. he %as promptl! re'alled to Washington( &n the e4e of +eptember "". loo0ing 4isibl! pale and gaunt( In 8e'ember of #$$". 8ale Watson. #$$".ar'h #$$. President &bama has added himself to the mi= of people in positions of authorit! %ho ha4e pronoun'ed &sama Bin /aden dead( +ome might 'harge that none of the pre4ious reports had an! 'redibilit!. as %ell as a'tual reports of his death from the same time frame( In ul! of #$$". and that he a'tuall! died in the %a! des'ribed. Dren'h intelligen'e lea0ed a report suggesting &sama had died in Pa0istan( &n 2o4ember #. this time sho%ing a seriousl! ill Bin /aden %ho %as seemingl! unable to mo4e his left arm( Then on 8e'ember #>. Pa0istani President Per4ez .azeera-s 8a4id Drost that &mar +hei0h had 0illed &sama Bin /aden( In . heads of state and 'ounterterrorism e=perts ha4e repeatedl! opined that &sama Bin /aden has in fa't been dead for some time( These assertions are based on Bin /aden-s failing health in late #$$" and 4isible signs of his deteriorating 'ondition.. #$$5.a! #$$. but as it is no% emerging that &sama-s bod! %as buried at sea less than "# hours after his death %ith no opportunit! for an! independent 'orroboration of his identit!.inister Benazir Bhutto told Al. fran0l!. &sama %ould ha4e been depri4ed of the dial!sis e3uipment that he re3uired to li4e( &n anuar! "@. the onl! e4iden'e %e ha4e been pro4ided that &sama Bin /aden %as 0illed !esterda! are some images on t4 of a burning 'ompound and the %ord of the man 'urrentl! o''up!ing the o4al offi'e( But gi4en that an informed 'onsensus has formed around the opinion that Bin /aden died long ago due to 0idne! failure. Pa0istani President Asif Ali Yardari 'onfirmed that his )'ounterparts in the Ameri'an intelligen'e agen'ies* hadn-t heard an!thing from Bin /aden in se4en !ears and 'onfirmed )I don-t thin0 he-s ali4e(* 2o% in #$"". +enator Harr! Ceid re4ealed that he %as told &sama ma! ha4e died in the Pa0istani earth3ua0e of &'tober that !ear( In +eptember #$$>. the then-head of 'ounterterrorism at the DBI.* before 'arefull! adding that )I ha4e no e4iden'e to support that(* In &'tober #$$#. he is dead(* &n ul! "5. the same 3uestion of 'redibilit! has to be le4eled at this latest 'harge( To this point.&sama Bin /aden Pronoun'ed 8eadP Dor the 2inth Time -y James 2or+ett 4he 2or+ett . Bin /aden appeared in a 4ideotape %earing arm! fatigues and Islami' headdress. #$$#.. former Pa0istani Prime . Do= 2e%s reported on a Pa0istan &bser4er stor! that the Afghan Taliban had offi'iall! pronoun'ed &sama Bin /aden dead earlier that month( A''ording to the report. &sama Bin /aden %as flo%n to the Ameri'an Hospital in 8ubai for 0idne! treatment( A''ording to Dren'h intelligen'e sour'es. the Pa0istani e3ui4alent of the CIA %ith deep ties to the Ameri'an intelligen'e 'ommunit!( In &'tober #$$". #$$#. or %ill this pronoun'ement go un3uestioned li0e so man! other deaths in the ne4er ending %ar of terrorO +our'eI httpIFF%%%(prisonplanet('omFosama-bin-laden-pronoun'ed-dead[e#[@$[a>-for-the-ninth-time(html .usharraf announ'ed 3uite bluntl!I )I thin0 no%. he %as buried less than #G hours later in an unmar0ed gra4e in a''ordan'e %ith Wahabbist +unni pra'ti'es( What follo%ed %as a string of pronoun'ements from offi'ials affirming %hat %as alread! ob4iousI supposedl! li4ing in 'a4es and bun0ers in the mountainous pass bet%een Afghanistan and Pa0istan. he %as there met b! the lo'al CIA atta'hW( When the agent bragged about his en'ounter to friends later. former 7+ foreign intelligen'e offi'er and professor of international relations at Boston 7ni4ersit! Angelo Code4illa statedI )All the e4iden'e suggests El4is Presle! is more ali4e toda! than &sama Bin /aden(* In .e"ort May 2. Afghan President Hamid Karzai told C22 that )I %ould 'ome to belie4e that 9Bin /aden: probabl! is dead(* In 2o4ember #$$?.

J said the unnamed offi'ial( +'heuer. that he %as running from ro'0 to ro'0 and 'a4e to 'a4e.ullen. also do%npla!ed the 'omments( JThereHs al%a!s been a sharp fo'us on ho% do %e 'lose the 'hapter b! 'apturing or 0illing bin /aden.* he said( &n &sama. the! %ould not go publi' %ith it.J +'heuer said( JBin /aden li4es among people %hoI a) regard him as an Islami' hero1 and b) %hose tribal mores re3uire them to prote't a guest %ith their o%n li4es(J +'heuer 'ontinuedI J8espite %hat our leaders are sa!ing.aeda 'hief &sama bin /aden is dead. said itHs unli0el! that the 'omments refle't an! 4aluable ne% pie'e of information( JIf this %ere genuine intel. Yardari. A!man al-Ya%ahiri.aeda 'hief is ali4e and is hiding in Pa0istan-s resti4e tribal areas bordering Afghanistan( Yardari also said the ne% 7+ poli'! that lumps Afghanistan and Pa0istan together is a mista0e( The SAf-Pa0.J he said( JThe! %ould tr! to 0ill him(J Instead. Cehman .umbai terror atta'0s( In an inter4ie% to the BBC to mar0 his first !ear in offi'e as President.i'hael .J +'heuer said( J2obod! in al-. %ould e4entuall! be 'aught( But a''ording to +'heuer. he said. e=pressed optimism that bin /aden and his deput!. denied to C22 that bin /aden and al-Ya%ahiri are in Pa0istan( +our'eI httpIFFne%s(!ahoo('omFsF!blogNupshotF#$"$"$"@FusN!blogNupshotFnato-offi'ial-bin-laden-li4ing-'omfortabl!-in-pa0istan Yardari sa!s &sama dead Press Tr&st of India Tags : Asif Ali .i'hael +'heuer. a 2AT& offi'ial has told C22( The ne%s under'uts the 7(+( go4ernmentHs depi'tion of the al-. gi4e me more time and gi4e me the resour'es that I need and %e %ill deli4er. prote'ted b! lo'al tribespeople and some members of the 'ountr!Hs intelligen'e ser4i'e. a gu! %hoHs not mo4ing around is not 4ulnerable to atta'0(J Pa0istanHs interior minister. a former spe'ial ad4iser to the 'hief of the CIAHs bin /aden unit. . ho%e4er.aida is li4ing in a 'a4e. Yardari-s main emphasis %as on Pa0istan-s ailing e'onom! and to ma0e a pit'h for mu'h more enhan'ed assistan'e from the West( )If the %orld-s armies and the %orld-s budgets 'annot loo0 after (the Afghan) side of the border. the e4iden'e that bin /aden is li4ing in relati4e 'omfort and stabilit! 'uts against that e=pe'tation( JWeHre <ust fa'ing realit! at last.terminolog! is %rong and the t%o 'ountries need to be treated differentl!. he said( +our'eI httpIFF%%%(indiane=press('omFne%sFzardari-sa!s-osama-deadF?"?5#? .J Catulis told The 7pshot( JI donHt 0no% that 9the 2AT& offi'ialHs 'omments: are based on an!thing ne% or real(J Earlier this month..ardari* Osa a 'in Laden* M& Posted: 1ri Se2 )) +. and his part!-led go4ernment are under pressure from the 7nited +tates and international 'ommunit! besides India to a't against the perpetrators of the . told The 7pshot( JIt e=poses the lie that Bush and &bama ha4e been telling us sin'e . the 2AT& offi'ialHs goal is probabl! to put pressure on Pa0istan to mo4e its arm! into 2orth Waziristan as part of the fight against the Taliban -.ali0.aida leader as on the run.3* . the 'hairman of the oint Chiefs of +taff.CA41 offi0ial: -in Laden li@ing 0omforta+ly in Pa9istan 5y Kachary Roth Mon #ct (>' &*(* (&@*8 pm 6= &sama bin /aden is li4ing 'omfortabl! in north%est Pa0istan. %ho 'ompleted one !ear in offi'e on Wednesda!. 2a4! Adm( . did not put for%ard an! e4iden'e or details in support of his 'laim that he %as no longer ali4e( His remar0s on &sama being dead run 'ontrar! to Ameri'an belief that al-.something 2AT& has been urging the Pa0istani go4ernment to do for %ee0s no%( Brian Katulis.aida leader has had to mo4e fre3uentl! from one safehouse to another. a national se'urit! e=pert at the Center for Ameri'an Progress. one terror e=pert tells The 7pshot( 7(+( intelligen'e offi'ials ha4e long belie4ed that bin /aden is li4ing in the remote tribal region of north%est Pa0istan( But at times. in areas %here Ameri'ans belie4e he ma! be hiding( Yardari.aida. but has sought more international aid to e=pand militar! operations against Taliban.4:)3 hrs Isla a'ad 'ai terror atta/0s Pa0istan President Asif Ali Yardari has said that al-. %ho has been an outspo0en 'riti' of the 7(+( approa'h to fighting al-.F"". impairing his abilit! to plot atta'0s( The 2AT& offi'ialHs 'omments undermine that 'laim. the go4ernment has also 'laimed that the al-.

bin /adenHs se'ond in 'ommand.ell and li%in" comfortably in a ho$se in the north?.onda! repeated their long standing denials that the +audi-born terrorist mastermind %as being gi4en safe ha4en( Ho%e4er. B+T "@ &'t #$"$ #ccordin" to a senior 6#7) official )sama bin Laden is ali%e and .1sama +in Laden /li@ing 0omforta+ly in Pa9istan/ 1sama +in Laden is ali@e and 5ell and li@ing 0omforta+ly in a house in the north<5est of Pa9istan "rote0ted +y lo0al "eo"le and elements of the 0ountry/s intelligen0e ser@i0es.aeda for'es in 2orth WaziristanJ( A senior Pa0istani se'urit! offi'ial denied that bin /aden %as being prote'ted and said the latest allegations %ere designed to heap pressure on Islamabad ahead of tal0s in Washington this %ee0 that %ould fo'us on strengthening 'o-operation bet%een the t%o 'ountries( JE4er! time something important is happening then things li0e this 0eep 'reeping out.J he said( JIf itHs not bin /aden itHs something else(J +our'eI /ondon Telegraph httpIFF%%%(telegraph('o(u0Fne%sF%orldne%sFasiaFpa0istanF@$5$@A>F&sama-bin-/aden-li4ing-'omfortabl!-in-Pa0istan(html . to the Kurram Malle! %hi'h borders AfghanistanHs Tora Bora.est of Pakistan (Photo5 #*P=G&77J) The latest assessment 'ontradi'ts the belief that the al-. has be'ome a ne=us for Afghan.aeda leader is roughing it in underground bun0ers as he dodged CIA drones hunting him from the air( J2obod! in al-. Pa0istani and Arab militants as the! plot atta'0s against 2ato for'es a'ross the border in Afghanistan( Earlier this month a lea0ed White House report a''used its all! Pa0istan of pla!ing a double game b! a4oiding Jmilitar! engagements that %ould put it in dire't 'onfli't %ith Afghan Taliban or al-.aeda is li4ing in a 'a4e. the 2ato offi'ial said bin /aden %as thought to ha4e ranged from the mountainous Chitral area near the Chinese border. %as also li4ing in a house 'lose b! some%here in the 'ountr!Hs mountainous border regions( Pa0istani offi'ials on . one of the Taliban strongholds during the 7+ in4asion in #$$"( 2orth Waziristan.J a''ording to an unnamed 2ato offi'ial 3uoted b! C22( He added that A!man al-Ya%ahiri. in parti'ular. a00ording to a senior Cato offi0ial B! Cob Crill! in Islamabad PublishedI "I"$P.

A!man al-Ya%ahiri. is also in Pa0istan. %hi'h neighbours Tora Bora in Afghanistan.ali0. and Hnot li4ing in a 'a4eH E%en . refused to 'onfirm or den! the C22 report( The offi'ial said Bin /aden and his deput!.aida and Pa0istan targets ha4e ta0en pla'e in 2orth Waziristan( The Pentagon. a''ording to a 2AT& offi'ial %ho has da!-toda! responsibilit! for the %ar in Afghanistan( The offi'ial. a'0no%ledging that a senior offi'ial had gi4en a ba'0ground briefing on the issue.ullah &mar. . %ho has a''ess to sensiti4e intelligen'e information. says CA41 offi0ial &ffi'ial sa!s al-. the offi'ial said( The Pa0istan go4ernment has repeatedl! denied there is an! e4iden'e that Bin /aden or his deput! are in the 'ountr!( Pa0istanHs interior minister.aida leader %as mo4ing bet%een houses in the far north-%est of Pa0istan. he said. but has been mo4ing bet%een houses in the Chitral distri't and the Kurram 4alle!. are both in the same region 6 but not at the same lo'ation( Both are li4ing in relati4e 'omfort( J2obod! in al-. the base for man! Taliban insurgents mo4ing ba'0 and forth a'ross the Afghanistan-Pa0istan border( . . mo4ing bet%een . from %hi'h he fled in #$$"( Ce'ent reports had pla'ed him mu'h further south. told C22 that Bin /aden %as not holed up in a 'a4e.aida is li4ing in a 'a4e.1sama +in Laden li@ing in 0omfort in Pa9istan. Cehman .J said Holbroo0e( The 7+ administration has pri4atel! e=pressed 'on'ern that the Pa0istan go4ernment and intelligen'e ser4i'es are not doing enough to 'ombat the Taliban and al-. the spe'ial 7+ en4o! to Pa0istan and Afghanistan.uetta and Kara'hi o4er the last fe% months. said toda! that similar reports in the past about the %hereabouts of al-.J the offi'ial said( The Taliban! of the 7+ drone atta'0s on suspe'ted al-. in 2orth Waziristan. the! should inform the Pa0istan go4ernment so Jimmediate a'tionJ 'ould be ta0en to 'apture them( Ci'hard Holbroo0e.aida( 7(+( and Pa0istani offi'ials are to hold tal0s in Washington this %ee0 on impro4ing 'o-operation( +our'eI /ondon Luardian1 httpIFF%%%(guardian('o(u0F%orldF#$"$Fo'tF"@Fosama-bin-laden-pa0istan-nato .a'As0ill in Washington guardian('o(u0. said there %as nothing ne% in %hat the offi'ial %as sa!ing( JWe hardl! ha4e a da! that goes b! %here somebod! doesnHt sa! the! 0no% %here &sama bin /aden is.onda! "@ &'tober #$"$ #$(#? B+T Arti'le histor! The Pentagon refused to 'onfirm or den! the 'laim that &sama bin /aden %as li4ing in relati4e 'omfort in north-%est Pa0istan( PhotographI ADPFLett! Images &sama bin /aden is li4ing in relati4e 'omfort in the far north-%est of Pa0istan.aidaHs leadership had pro4ed false( If an!one had an! information about the %hereabouts of Bin /aden or Al-Ya%ahari.

'hildren and A %omen. Afghanistan) on +unda!. allegedl! 0illed "> Afghans.13415 7he Be"innin" of the &ndP A'ti4ists of Bangladesh Islami &0!a ote (an Islami' Part!) 'hant anti-Ameri'an slogans %ith pla'ards in 8ha0a. as the! demonstrate o4er . Afghanistan (lo'ated in Kandahar pro4in'e south of Kabul. #$"#( A''ording to the offi'ial stor!. %as later arrested for absen'e %ithout lea4e and for his in4ol4ement in the massa're( (AP PhotoFAllauddin Khan) . #$"#. Bangladesh on Debruar! #G. in'luding . in a shooting rampage( The soldier. allegedl! a )lone gunman*. an unidentified Ameri'an soldier (a staff sergeant).ar'h "". .uran burnings b! Ameri'an troops based in Afghanistan( (Corbis) Afghan men stand ne=t to blood stains and 'harred remains inside a home in Pan<%ai.

a senior Afghan poli'e offi'ial said( (AP PhotoF.usade3 +ade3) . Afghanistan on . #$"#( An Afghan "oli0e5oman 9illed an Ameri0an ad@iser at the Ka+ul "oli0e head. in Kabul. follo%ing the 0illing of an Ameri'an ad4isor in Kabul. 8e'ember #G. %here an Ameri'an ad4isor %as 0illed. 8e'ember #G.usade3 +ade3) Afghan poli'emen stand guard outside of Kabul poli'e head3uarters.onda!. #$"#( An Afghan poli'e%oman 0illed an Ameri'an ad4iser at the Kabul poli'e head3uarters on .onda!. Afghanistan on . a senior Afghan "oli0e offi0ial said (AP PhotoF.uarters on Monday.onda!.Afghan poli'emen %at'h do%n from top of the Kabul poli'e head3uarters.

on +an$ary 43( 134<. (Photo5 said that #merican forces . months. #mbassador to #f"hanistan +ames B.#.S. (Photo5 +&W&L S#M#D=#*P=Getty !ma"es) . $nnin"ham( hosts a .S. President Barack )bama (ri"ht) shakes hands . Secretary of State 'illary Rodham linton (Cth ri"ht)( alon" . )bama and . $nnin"ham is a member of the o$ncil on *orei"n Relations( a 0ri%ate or"ani-ation in 6e.S.ith U.S. on +an$ary 44( 134<.S. .S.U. +ames B.#.S. De0artment of State) U. Secretary of Defense Leon Panetta (2th ri"ht) and U. .( after a >oint 0ress conference in the &ast Room at the White 'o$se in Washin"ton( D. Jork at the U.ith his #f"han co$nter0art 'amid .( U. De0artment of State in Washin"ton( D.o$ld hand the lead in the fi"ht a"ainst the 7aliban to #f"han forces in the neAt fe.orkin" dinner for #f"han President 'amid .

said in an AP inter4ie% . In this Deb( #. %as shot in the ba'0 of the head on Deb( " %hile standing guard at an Afghan7(+( base in the . another offi'ial said( Toolan did not further identif! the 4i'tim( He mentioned the 'ase %hile e=plaining the importan'e of stopping Afghan trea'her! as 7(+( for'es step ba'0 from a dire't 'ombat role in Helmand and other areas of Afghanistan to a ne% mission of ad4ising and assisting Afghan soldiers and poli'e( That role. of Lreen4ille. the transfer 'ase 'ontaining the remains of . it said he died J%hile 'ondu'ting 'ombat operationsJ in Helmand( It made no mention of trea'her!. the Ameri'ans turned him o4er to Afghan go4ernment 'ustod!. 8el( (AP) WA+HI2LT&2 6 An Afghan soldier shot to death a ##-!ear-old .a<( Len( ohn Toolan. puts 7(+( and other 2AT& troops in 'loser . Toolan said.iss(.AP: Marine 9illed Fe+ 1 +y Afghan soldier .arine at an outpost in south%estern Afghanistan last month in a pre4iousl! undis'losed 'ase of apparent Afghan trea'her! that mar0ed at least the se4enth 0illing of an Ameri'an militar! member b! his supposed all! in the past si= %ee0s.arine offi'ials said( /an'e Cpl( Ed%ard ( 8!'us of Lreen4ille. ##. upon arri4al at 8o4er Air Dor'e Base. the top . .ar<a distri't of Helmand pro4in'e( The e=a't 'ir'umstan'es ha4e not been dis'losed. #$"#. shot in the ba'0 of the'h 5 that the Afghan go4ernment has been embarrassed b! re'ent 'ases of Afghan soldiers turning their guns on their supposed partners( JI had one <ust a month ago %here a lan'e 'orporal %as 0illed. file photo. and the Afghan minister of defense %as here the ne=t da!J to dis'uss 'ustod! of the shooter.arine offi'ials dis'ussed the matter on 'ondition of anon!mit! be'ause it is still under in4estigation( When the Pentagon announ'ed 8!'usH death the da! after the shooting. sits at the end of the loader ramp. spea0ing from his Cegional Command-+outh%est head3uarters at Camp /eatherne'0( After a negotiation aimed at ensuring the Afghan suspe't is prose'uted.arine 'ommander in Afghanistan at the time.arine /an'e Cpl( Ed%ard ( 8!'us. %hi'h is in full s%ing in Helmand. #$"# GIG# A. .ar'h ">. but the 8!'us famil! has been notified that he %as 0illed b! an Afghan soldier( . .iss(. %hi'h has be'ome a gro%ing problem for 7(+( and allied for'es as the! %or0 'losel! %ith Afghan for'es to %ind do%n the %ar( MideoI Afghan president %ants 7(+( troops out The Asso'iated Press in3uired about the 8!'us 'ase after .

dro4e it at high speed onto an airfield ramp and 'rashed it <ust as a plane 'arr!ing 8efense +e'retar! /eon Panetta %as landing Wednesda!( . #nd . for'h "( In none of those 'ases did the PentagonHs 'asualt! announ'ement mention that the Ameri'ans %ere 0illed b! their supposed Afghan allies( It said.ississippi state +enate resolution honoring his life and ser4i'e.arines and soldiers that are doing the ad4ising %or0 out here understand that if the! 'anHt li4e side b! side and operate da! in and da! out %ith the Afghans.@>"$Fap-marine-0illed-feb-"-b!-afghan-soldierF . 2(C( Kno%n to friends and famil! as JEddie. #$""( 8!'usH 0illing happened nearl! three %ee0s before the burning of . an Afghan 'i4ilian interpreter at a British base in Helmand pro4in'e stole a 'oalition pi'0up tru'0.arines nor others in PanettaHs %el'oming part! %ere in<ured1 the Afghan died of burns sustained in the 'rash( 8!'us %as assigned to #nd battalion. 8e'( "#.arine 8i4ision from Camp /e<eune.arines assembled on the tarma' for PanettaHs arri4al( 2either the .th . the 2o( # o4erall 'ommander in Afghanistan. an e4ent that Ameri'an offi'ials said %as a''idental but that triggered a %a4e of protests a'ross Afghanistan and is lin0ed to si= other 0illings of Ameri'an troops b! Afghans( T%o 7(+( soldiers %ere gunned do%n b! an Afghan soldier Deb #A in 2angahar pro4in'e1 an Air Dor'e lieutenant 'olonel and an Arm! ma<or %ere 0illed inside the Afghan go4ernment offi'e in Kabul and t%o Arm! paratroopers %ere 0illed b! Afghan soldiers in Kandahar pro4in'e on . 8!'us deplo!ed to Afghanistan on his ##nd birthda!. then the! are not going to be able to a'hie4e %hat the! need to a'hie4e as far as relationship building. .J Toolan said( A 'entral premise of the %ar strateg! is that su''ess 'annot be a'hie4ed until Afghan for'es are 'apable of pro4iding se'urit! largel! on their o%n and that this %ill not happen unless Ameri'an and other 'oalition for'es partner %ith Afghans at e4er! le4el to train.ilitar!I Afghan Jintended harmJ in run%a! atta'0 /t( Len( Curtis +'aparotti.'onta't %ith Afghans at a time %hen tensions bet%een the t%o sides ha4e been heightened b! an Ameri'an soldierHs alleged 0illing +unda! of "> Afghan 'i4ilians( JThe .uslim hol! boo0s at Bagram air base.J he graduated from Ci4erside High +'hool in Lreen4ille in #$$@( A''ording to a . ad4ise and mentor them( In the latest setba'0.arine regiment. that the t%o 0illed Deb( #A died of J%ounds suffered %hen their unit 'ame under small arms fire(J It happened amid an anti-Ameri'an protest outside the Ameri'ansH base( T%o protesters %ere 0illed b! Afghan poli'e there before the Afghan soldier turned his gun on 7(+( troops( +our'eI httpIFF%%%('bsne%s('omF@A$"-#$#N">#-?5A. told reporters that the tru'0 %as headed to%ard a group of 7(+( .

o US officers in the heart of the #f"han !nterior Ministry last . 7he Penta"on .o years a"o( the lar"e 0resence of forei"n troo0s and the %ast c$lt$ral "$lf bet. "a%e #f"hanistan a more honest 0olitical system( far more ca0ability in "o%ernance( effecti%e sec$rity forces( and a better economy. 7he m$rder of t. Widmar Roman eA0lains5 X7he amo$nt of sec$rity do.itho$t hands?on o%ersi"ht from those nations. of the )!6 strate"y ado0ted in #f"hanistan can be read here). B$t stories of Xslo.ho takes s$ch a drastic ste0( there are s$rely more .hen talkin" to the 0ress..Afghan troops 0eep 0illing 7+ troops 8$o more 3.classic co$nterins$r"ency ( )!6).X Perha0s.een them and most #f"hans( make them con%enient tar"ets for 0$blic the .ar-ai( . 0# )E>8>. days a"o titled XStability takes root in .ants to 0resent a %ie.eek 0rom0ted the .riter = March 4( 1341 hristian Science Monitor #n #f"han soldier and an #f"han ci%ilian em0loyee m$rdered"( not decreasin"( n$mbers of #f"hans an"ry at the forei"n occ$0ation.illin"ness of #f"han soldiers to t$rn their "$ns on US forces( $s$ally in hea%ily fortified installations in .rote at the end of *ebr$ary. . 7he hei"htened le%els of %iolence since then( .nation b$ildin".n here is $n0aralleled com0ared to . strate"y that no n$mber of tactical %ictories co$ld brin" sec$rity and stability to #f"hanistan $nless a massi%e effort in .in tem0orary control in s0arsely 0o0$lated areas like 'elmand O the strate"ic eD$i%alent of Kink s0otsLO for a . ordesman .eek a"o.ith their aims.hat amo$nt to s$icide missions( is a dark indication of the fra"ility of the local forces bein" b$ilt W and of their loyalty to the state. b$t steady 0ro"ressX ha%e been common o%er the 0ast decade of . 7hat brin"s the total so?called "reen on bl$e killin"s in #f"hanistan to siA since an #f"han .itnessed US soldiers d$m0in" @$rans into a b$rn bit at Ba"ram #ir Base a .sol*iers $ere kille* in a unfi ht $ith an Af han sol*ier to*ay. X!t . became a farce that co$ld .Af hanistan in 5inter 7ho$"h m$ch of the blame for the failin"s of the #f"han "o%ernment lie . 7o be s$re( 6#7) 0ress releases and embedded re0orters contin$e to 0$m0 o$t anecdotes of steady 0ro"ress( like this 0iece from a fe. 7he !nterior Ministry and the rest of the #f"han "o%ernment are almost entirely financed by &$ro0ean and #merican taA0ayers and are #nthony ordesman at the enter for Strate"ic and !nternational St$dies( . #t the end of +an$ary( Penta"on officials told a Senate hearin" that G3 6#7) soldiers ha%e been killed by #f"han forces since 133G.ho has been minin" data on both the . !t co$ld ne%er .ar. brin in the total to siB Americans kille* in inci*ents since Jurans $ere burne* at a 3. 7here are "ro.ith #f"hans like President 'amid .in" distr$st bet.base& By Dan M$r0hy( Staff ... X7he reality. #nd the .ars in !raD and #f"hanistan since their ince0tion( has a far "rimmer o$tlook.hat 0eo0le ha%e seen in the 0ast. #nd it. .ithdra.andahar today.ho are sym0athetic .ho o.X (# lon" clear from the start in formin" the ne. of 0ro"ress to maintain s$00ort for the . B$t D$antitati%e analysis is somethin" else a"ain.. is that the strate"y de%elo0ed $nder General Stanley Mc rystal has been dyin" for a lon" time and for many more reasons than the "ro.andahar.X !n the article( a0t.s nat$ral that mission?foc$sed soldiers and officers re0ort 0ro"ress in the areas $nder their control.ards o0timism( 0artic$larly . Witho$t s$ch s$ccess( .ithin the #f"han "o%ernment installed and 0rotected by 6#7) remain ram0ant and the 7aliban remain acti%e across lar"e 0arts of the co$ntry. orr$0tion and th$""ery . *or e%ery #f"han soldier .ar( and the can?do D$alities of soldiers inc$lcates in them a bias to.o US soldiers at a base near the so$thern city of .al of h$ndreds of US and other forei"n ad%isers from #f"han "o%ernment installations.ith mobs besie"in" 6#7) and U6 com0o$nds across #f"hanistan( brin"s into stark relief the f$ndamental fail$re of the US?led mission in #f"hanistan ):&R the 0ast 43 his c$rrent 0osition to a fra$d?marred election t.een US and !S#* 0ersonnel and the #f"hans(X Mr.hile.

ill soldier on as lon" as it.ell a. Mean. ordesman . Until it crosses the line( tho$"h( it looks like soldiers .X 7hese realities ha%e seen an increased $r"ency to backchannel talks .itho$t a massi%e 6#7) lo"istics and s$00ly backsto0. had to r$sh there to s$00ort.hile it no.ard a 0olitical deadline at the end of 134C for . Whether a deal can be reached or not( the c$rrent mood of electorates in both the US and &$ro0e indicates the #f"han .ill allo.rites that )bama Xfaced hard choices in terms of b$d"et 0ress$res( a .ar is headin" into the home stretch.hile( there is little e%idence that #f"han forces can act effecti%ely in the field . !n his 0iece( ordesman says that the latest US a00roach co$ld ha%e .as :ietnam( at 43< months.ed had lost the s$00ort of the #merican 0eo0le( as . at 41C months and co$ntin".ill kee0 dyin"( and some of them . )$r mission .ar is on the decline as the co$ntry steams is no.ill be killed by #f"han troo0s they. Last +$ne President )bama 0romised to ha%e <<(333 US troo0s o$t of #f"hanistan by this comin" s$mmer( and 0romised that Xafter this initial red$ction( o$r troo0s .7he recent %iolence in #f"hanistan comes as the )bama administration is re%ie. 7he 0re%io$s record .orked .as no transition 0lan or s$00ortin" analysis.ard 0residential elections( somethin" )bama and his ri%als are .X 7he US 0$blic a00etite for the #f"han .ar is already the lon"est in US history.ill no.ill chan"e from combat to s$00ort.ith a tr$ly o0en?ended commitment( and all the losses in blood and treas$re that it im0lies. +our'eI httpIFF%%%('smonitor('omFWorldFBa'0'hannelsF#$"#F$A$"FAfghan-troops-0eep-0illing-7+-troops .in" its commitment to #f"hanistan.ill contin$e comin" home at a steady 0ace as #f"han sec$rity forces mo%e into the lead. B$t the US 0$blic has ne%er tolerated that kind of military commitment and the #f"han . While the US military . Xlack the forces to eAec$te its c$rrent cam0ai"n 0lan in both the east and the so$th in 1341( .are of.hich there .ith the 7aliban on a 0eace settlement( .s asked to( the US %oter .ar that 0olls sho. 7he #f"han .hich last year .ell as the 0o0$lations of most of United States/ alliesX b$t that the conseD$ence of those choices means the US .ed to o0en a 0olitical office in @atar.

#f"han 0olice officers stand "$ard to maintain sec$rity on the .ay in . Many #f"hans in .an 0ro%ince.oran and other !slamic reli"io$s materials.ere 0rotestin" a"ainst the alle"ed b$rnin" of the 'oly @$ran by #merican troo0s at Ba"ram #ir Base in central Par. 7he to0" the inad%ertent b$rnin" of the .here h$ndreds of 0rotesters sta"ed a demonstration.ab$l?+alalabad hi"h. ( orbis) #f"hans 0rotest o$tside Ba"ram #ir Base( #f"hanistan on *ebr$ary 14( 1341 follo. ommander in #f"hanistan a0olo"i-ed and ordered an in%esti"ation.ab$l( #f"hanistan on *ebr$ary 14( 1341 .S. .ab$l .

8a4id Cameron (left). greets Cussia-s President Mladimir Putin (right) at "$ 8o%ning +treet (Prime .inister-s &ffi'e) in /ondon on August #. the Prime . #$"#( .inister of Lreat Britain.

com=indeAR%ie..British Prime Minister 7ony Blair "reets R$ssia/s President :ladimir P$tin $0on his arri%al at 43 orbis) R$ssia.s President Dmitry Med%ede%( #f"hanistan/s President 'amid . (V Richard Le. (Photo5 and Pakistan/d President #sif #li Hardari meet at a conference in Jekatrinb$r"( R$ssia on +$ne 4E( 133F.as0PcodeT4FEF3F) .nin" Street in London on )ctober 2( 1332.

(V #B&D!6 7#'& (left)( !ran/s President Mahmo$d #hmadine>ad (center)( and Pakistan/s President #sif #li Hardari attend a s$mmit in 7ehran( !ran on S$nday( May 1C( 133F. #mon" the a"enda disc$ssed at the s$mmit .&6#R&'=e0a= orbis) .#f"hanistan/s President 'amid .ere fi"htin" terrorism and dr$" traffickin".

s b$siest o0en?air market( b$stles .. (Photo5 6ational Geo"ra0hic) Dee0 ethnic and reli"io$s di%ides are briefly brid"ed at the 'a-rat #li mosD$e in Ma-ar?e Sharif( #f"hanistan( .here S$nni and Shiite alike come to decades of .Manda.ith sho00ers and %endors.i ba-aar( .lin" net. (Photo5 6ational Geo"ra0hic) .s son?in?la. streets and sho0s mana"ed to esca0e ma>or dama"e d$rin" #f"hanistan.ork of narro. 7he shrine is belie%ed by many to be the tomb of the Pro0het M$hammad. 7his s0ra.ab$l.

(U..han at the Presidential Palace in .. Gen.ith President of #f"hanistan 'amid . Dem0sey (left)( hairman of the +oint hiefs of Staff (since )ctober 4( 1344)( meets .ab$l( #f"hanistan on +$ne C( and an 'ono$r G$ard "reets 'is 'i"hness the #"a .S. #rmy Gen. Martin &. Myles $llen) .S.or"=0ro"rammesReecR0hotos. De0artment of Defense 0hoto by U.President of #f"hanistan 'amid . Martin Dem0sey ser%ed as the #rmy hief of Staff from #0ril 44( 1344 $ntil Se0tember G( at the Presidential Palace in .ab$l( #f"hanistan( on +$ly 11( 134<. (Photo5 htt05==.

hich occ$rred from 4BGB to 4BB3.1%)%<1%%0= Left 0ict$re5 # British?!ndian force attacks the Gha-ni fort d$rin" the *irst #f"han War in 4B<F Ri"ht 0ict$re5 #rtistic de0iction of #f"han tribesmen sla$"hterin" British and !ndian troo0s d$rin" the *irst #n"lo?#f"han War in 4BC1.ithdra. 67ford $niversity Press '))8) .ith the British &m0ire at the end of the Second #n"lo?#f"han forced to si"n an $neD$al treaty . 7he Second #n"lo?#f"han War occ$rred from 4BGB to 4BB3. F1nd 'i"hlanders and 1nd G$rkhas storm the Ga$di M$llah Sahibdad at . 7he British army inflicted mass cas$alties and destroyed 0arts of .andahar( #f"hanistan on Se0tember 4( 4BB3 d$rin" the Second #n"lo?#f"han War( . 7he *irst #n"lo?#f"han War lasted from 4B<F to 4BC1.Pre4ious Doreign Inter4entions in Afghanistan First Anglo<Afghan &ar .in" from #f"hanistan in 4BC1.)5 7he )Aford !ll$strated 'istory of the British #rmy. #f"hanistan .1%HF<1%L2= : *e0ond Anglo<Afghan &ar .ab$l (0resent?day ca0ital of #f"hanistan) before . 7he British &ast !ndia om0any feared R$ssian encroachment and coloni-ation of #f"hanistan and reD$ested that the British army occ$0y #f"hanistan. (So$rce5 D. handler (ed.

(<pg) . ta0ing refuge in the British 'amp and %as subse3uentl! sent to India in 8e'ember( (+our'eI httpIFFen(%i0ipedia(orgF%i0iFDileI. "@5.( The %ar %as far from o4er despite the treat! and British troops %ere re'alled o4er the mountains to o''up! Kabul. 0illing Ca4agnari and his mission in +eptember "@5.( In . a 4illage <ust outside alalabad and entered into negotiations %ith Ca4agnari as a result of %hi'h the Treat! of Landama0 %as signed %hereb! the Amir 'eded territories to the British and a''epted a British en4o! in Kabul( Ca4agnari too0 up the post of British Cesident in Kabul in ul! "@5..( He %as 0no%n to be re'0less and arrogant rather than dis'reet and his role as en4o! %as 4ie%ed as in<udi'ious e4en b! some of the British( The situation in Kabul %as tense and e4entuall! some Afghan troops %ho had not been paid b! the Amir rebelled and atta'0ed the Cesiden'!. Ka0ub Khan tra4elled to Landama0.a! "@5.a! #>.. se'ure it and laun'h puniti4e a'tion against the Afghans( Ka0ub Khan abdi'ated.ohammadNKa3ubNKhanN%ithNBritishNoffi'ersNinN.a!NofN"@5.ohammad Ka3ub Khan of Afghanistan (in the middle) appears %ith +ir Pierre /ouis 2apoleon Ca4agnari of Britain (#nd left) on .

armisti'e1 Britain regulated Afghanistan-s foreign affairs from "@5.A map of Afghanistan and Pa0istan sho%ing the "@.A Treat! Boundar! (8urand /ine)( The Third Anglo-Afghan War %as fought from .".". ". until August @.".a! >.. until ". ".( .". %hen an armisti'e %as signed( Afghanistan %as allo%ed to 'ontinue to 'ondu't its o%n foreign affairs follo%ing the ".

in" Mohammad Ẓahir Shah and @$een '$maira Be"$m of #f"hanistan in the &ntrance 'all of the White 'o$se in Washin"ton( D.ennedy attends a dinner in honor of .ennedy Shri%er( .eign of King of Afghanistan Mohammed Mahir *hah #merican President +ohn *.4he .n$dsen( White 'o$se Photo"ra0hs( +ohn *.ennedy Presidential Library and M$se$m) . Standin" in front of the Grand Staircase( from left to ri"ht5 President .ennedy/s sister &$nice . . on Se0tember 2( 4FE<. . . (Photo5 Robert .in" Ẓahir( @$een '$maira( and President .ennedy.

".useum) . . White House Photographs.ohammad Ẓahir +hah (right). stands in 'enter( Angier Biddle 8u0e %as a member of the Coun'il on Doreign Celations( (PhotoI Abbie Co%e. Angier Biddle 8u0e.>A( Chief of Proto'ol. ohn D( Kenned! Presidential /ibrar! and .President ohn D( Kenned! (left) sha0es hands %ith King of Afghanistan. upon the King-s arri4al at the 2orth Porti'o of the White House for a dinner in his honor on +eptember ?.

8(C( in +eptember ".>A( The King-s 4isit to the 7(+( 'apital in +eptember ".onar'h as he and ohn D( Kenned! rode through the 'it! in the President-s limousine( The King and . .ohammed Yahir +hah and 7(+( President ohn D( Kenned! greet the 'ro%d %hile riding in an open motor'ade in Washington.inistr! of Information and Culture) httpIFF%%%(meridian(orgFinsmallthingsrememberedF0ing-zahir-shah-and-president-0enned!-greet-the-'ro%d . and Arlington 2ational Cemeter!( (Courtes! of the 2ational Ar'hi4es of Afghanistan.ueen-s s'hedule in'luded appearan'es at the Islami' Center.King of Afghanistan . the Dreer Laller! of Art.>A %as re'ei4ed %ith great enthusiasm( Afghan flags and banners %el'omed the .

?"( 8uring his 4isit to Washington.inister Cornelius Man H( Engert( The highlight of the trip %as a lun'heon %ith President Truman at Blair House( (PhotoI Courtes! of the 2ational Ar'hi4es +till Pi'ture 7nit( Photograph b! &li4er Pfeiffer) httpIFF%%%(meridian(orgFinsmallthingsrememberedFpresident-harr!-s-truman-'onfers-%ith-prime-minister-shah-mahmood-rightand-afghan-'harge-d[E#[@$[..ahmood (right) and Afghan ChargW d-affaires Abdul Hamid Aziz ('enter) in Washington. 8(C(. 8(C(.inister %at'hed a 2e% Kor0 Kan0ees-Washington +enators baseball game %ith then-Ambassador to Afghanistan /ouis L( 8re!fus and toured the 2ational Laller! of Art %ith former .affaires-abdul-hamid-aziz-'enter .inister of Afghanistan +hah .Ameri'an President Harr! +( Truman (left) 'onfers %ith Prime . ". the Prime .

.elations (Courtes! of the 8%ight 8( Eisenho%er Presidential /ibrar! and .ohammed Yahir +hah.useum) httpIFF%%%(meridian(orgFinsmallthingsrememberedFthe-0ing-meets-%ith-former-president-eisenho%er-at-the-gett!sburg-farm . the King of Afghanistan.>A( $5ight $ Bisenho5er 5as a mem+er of the 2oun0il on Foreign . Penns!l4ania in ". meets %ith former 7(+( President 8%ight 8( Eisenho%er at Eisenho%er-s farm in Lett!sburg.

Ameri'an President 8%ight 8( Eisenho%er and King of Afghanistan ,ohammad Yahir +hah %a4e to the 'ro%d during Eisenho%er-s 4isit to Kabul, Afghanistan on 8e'ember ;, ";?;( President 8%ight 8( Eisenho%er met %ith the King of Afghanistan to dis'uss +o4iet influen'e in the region and in'reased 7(+( aid to Afghanistan( (Thomas ( &HHalloran)

Prime ,inister of Afghanistan ,ohammed 8aoud (left) and Mi'e President of the 7nited +tates Ci'hard 2i=on 4isit the 7(+( Capitol Building in Washington, 8(C( in ";?@( ,ohammed 8aoud met %ith 7(+( President 8%ight 8( Eisenho%er, signed an important 'ultural e='hange agreement, and reaffirmed personal relations %ith Mi'e President Ci'hard 2i=on that had begun during the latter-s trip to Kabul, Afghanistan in ";?A( The Prime ,inister also tra4eled around the 7nited +tates 4isiting the 2e% Kor0 +to'0 E='hange, the Empire +tate Building, h!droele'tri' fa'ilities at the Tennessee Malle! Authorit!, and other sites( (PhotoI Courtes! of the 2ational Ar'hi4es +till Pi'ture 7nit1 Photograph b! &li4er Pfeiffer) httpIFF%%%(meridian(orgFinsmallthingsrememberedFprime-minister-daoud-and-4i'e-president-ni=on-4isit-the-u-s-'apitolbuilding

Prime ,inister of Afghanistan ,ohammed 8aoud 9Khan: ('enter) and 7(+( +e'retar! of +tate ohn Doster 8ulles (left) sign a 'ultural e='hange agreement in Washington, 8(C( in ";?@( The Afghan Prime ,inister signed this agreement %hile in the 7(+( 'apital to meet %ith President Eisenho%er and spea0 before Congress( The a''ord en'ouraged tours b! Ameri'an artists and musi'ians %ho performed for audien'es in Afghanistan( John Foster $ulles 5as a mem+er of the 2oun0il on Foreign .elations (Courtes! of the Embass! of the Islami' Cepubli' of Afghanistan, Washington, 8(C() httpIFF%%%(meridian(orgFinsmallthingsrememberedFprime-minister-mohammed-daoud-and-se'retar!-of-state-<ohn-foster-dullessign-a-'ultural-e='hange-agreement ,ohammed 8aoud 9Khan: ser4ed as the Prime ,inister of Afghanistan from +eptember 5, ";?A until ,ar'h "$, ";>A and President of Afghanistan from ul! "5, ";5A until his assassination on April #@, ";5@( ,ohammed 8aoud 9Khan: deposed King of Afghanistan ,ohammad Yahir +hah in a bloodless 'oup d-etat on ul! "5, ";5A(

,en stroll past roadside 4endors as a painted tru'0 ma0es its %a! through the bus! street in Kabul, Afghanistan in 2o4ember ";>"( (AP PhotoFHenr! +( Bradsher)

+treet s'ene in Kabul, Afghanistan in 2o4ember ";>" (AP PhotoFHenr! Burroughs)

+o4iet leader 2i0ita Khrush'he4 (bla'0 hat), and ,arshal 2i0olai Bulganin re4ie% an Afghan honor guard %earing old Lerman uniforms, on their arri4al in Kabul, Afghanistan, on 8e'ember "?, ";??( At left is the Afghan Prime ,inister +ardar ,ohammed 8aud Khan, and behind, in 'ap, the foreign minister, Prin'e 2aim( (AP Photo)

Afghan soldiers stand outside the gate of Afghan 8efense ,inistr! in Kabul, Afghanistan, the da! after +aur re4olution, on April #@, ";5@( President of Afghanistan ,ohammed 8aoud 9Khan: %as assassinated on April #@, ";5@(

Afghan soldiers e=amine a shattered tan0 the da! after the +aur re4olution in Kabul, Afghanistan on April #@, ";5@(

#. Afghanistan( (PhotoI 7(+( 8epartment of 8efense) . ". %hen he %as deposed in a 'oup d-etat( .ohammed Yahir +hah-s father . until his death on 2o4ember @. King of Afghanistan . %hen he %as assassinated b! a long gunman in Kabul.ohammed 2adir +hah %as the King of Afghanistan from &'tober ">.AA until ul! "5."G-#$$5). @ ".5A. the former King of Afghanistan. is seated at the far right during the oath of offi'e 'eremon! of Hamid Karzai( .Chief usti'e +hin%ani from the +upreme Court of Afghanistan (#nd right) administers the &ath of &ffi'e for the Presidential Inauguration to the President of Afghanistan Hamid Karzai at the Presidential Pala'e in Kabul."G-#$$5). ".ohammed Yahir +hah (". ". Afghanistan on 8e'ember 5.ohammed Yahir +hah (".ohammed Yahir +hah ser4ed as King of Afghanistan from 2o4ember.AA. #$$G( .

ingam . from #f"hanistan.ab$l( #f"hanistan.ithdre. 7he So%iet War in #f"hanistan lasted from December 1C( 4FGF to *ebr$ary 42( 4FBF.1F)F<1F%F= # So%iet army 0arade takes 0lace in . 7he So%iet "o%ernment $nder Mikhail Gorbache% .*o@iet 3n@asion and 100u"ation of Afghanistan . Afghan mu<ahidin prepare to fight the +o4iet Ced Arm! in4aders stationed in Afghanistan in ".@$( (.LammaF/iaison) .

7he So%iet War in #f"hanistan lasted from December 1C( 4FGF to *ebr$ary 42( 4FBF.@$s .ap of . .a<or Insurgent Lroups in Afghanistan during the +o4iet o''upation of Afghanistan in the ".So%iet !n%asion of #f"hanistan.

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