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The Simple Sentence

Sentence Patterns

verbals
nonfinite clauses

compound sentencescomplex sentences


and, or, but
that, because, which

reduced clauses

1. S+V
2. S+V+O
3. S+V+C
4. S+V+O+O
5. S+V+O+C
SVOC
transitive intransitive
completeincomplete object
2 4 5 1 3

complement
3 5 1 2
4
3 5

subjectpredicate

1. The dog barked at the mailman.


SV

2. The dog bit the mailman.


SVO

1 the dog
the dog (barked) barked
at the mailman
1 The dog barked

bark 2 bite

2 bit the mailman


bite

Dont worry. It doesnt bite.


SV

it bite

2 bit
the dog
The dog bit
bite
3S+V+C

3. The dog was a bulldog.


SVC

4. The dog was mean.


SVC

3 the dog was


the dog a bulldog was
the dog a bulldog
be
4 The dog was mean.

Your girlfriend is beautiful.


You are so lucky.

is
The dog was Your girlfriend
is You are

(linking verb)

Be

look
seem
appear
sound
feel
taste
stay
remain
turn
prove
become
make


be

S+V+C

That purse looks pretty.


The question seems easy.
He appears quite a gentleman.
Your suggestion sounds exciting.
The woman feels dizzy.
The wine tastes sweet.
They stayed friends for life.
He remains single.
The player turned professional.
The drug proved effective.
He became a big star.
A school teacher makes a good wife.
be
That purse is pretty. The question is easy.
S+V+C

S+V+O+C

S+V+O+C

I find the purse pretty.


The tip made the question easy.
I consider him quite a gentleman.
The boss found your suggestion exciting.
The bus ride made the woman dizzy.
I find the wine sweet.
The partnership made them friends for life.

His poverty kept him single.


The victory made the player professional.
The doctor proclaimed the drug effective.
The hit movie made him a big star.
Most people consider a school teacher a good wife.
I find the purse pretty. the purse pretty
be
The purse is pretty. be
S+V+O+C be S+V+C
S+V+O+C

3 The dog was a bulldog. a bulldog


the dog I consider him quite a gentleman. him
a gentleman

4 The dog was mean. mean the dog


4 I consider the dog mean. mean

The key is there.


SVC

He left the key there.


SVOC

there the key there the key


be
be Be linking verb
be be be
S+V

Cogito ergo sum. I think; therefore I am. I am


I am am
To be or not to be, that is the question
To be or not to be
be To be or not to be

S+V+O+O
S+V+O+O
His wife gave him a jar of honey.
SVOO

gave
him
S+V+O+C

His wife called him Honey.
SVOC
Honey
Honey Honey him His wife gave him some honey.him
some honey

1. The cat meowed pitifully.


2. The cat caught a mouse.
3. The cat looked elegant.
4. He fed the cat canned food.
5. He called the cat Fatty.
6. Girls love flowers.
7. Taiwan is an economic powerhouse.
8. A snake crawls on its belly.
9. They found the new house very comfortable.

10. Their friend sold them the house.

1. The cat meowed pitifully.


SV

2. The cat caught a mouse.


SVO

3. The cat looked elegant.


3. S V C

4. He fed the cat canned food.


SVOO

5. He called the cat Fatty.


SVOC

6. Girls love flowers.


SVO

7. Taiwan is an economic powerhouse.


SVC

8. A snake crawls on its belly.


SV

9. They found the new house very comfortable.


SVOC

10. Their friend sold them the house.


SVOO

(Determiners) determine Determiners

+ +

+ +

good

teacher
students

some

troublesome

their

very pretty

garden

that

rather old

jacket

the

smartest

these
all

kid

juicy Japanese
healthy young girls

apples

a, some, their teacher,


students, garden good, troublesome, pretty

their very pretty garden their+ pretty+


garden very Very intensifier
pretty that rather old jacket
old rather adverb of degree

these juicy Japanese apples juicy Japanese


all healthy young girls healthy
young

+ + a good teacher
good a teacher the smartest kid
the smartest

Of all the kids in my class, Jack is the smartest.

the smartest the smartest kid these juicy Japanese apples


these

I want these.

the

The rich are not always happier than the poor.

the rich the are


+ + the rich
people
the rich people people
the +

The new is not always better than the old.

The unknown is often feared.

the new the unknown the +


people thing
the new thing the unknown thing

definite the, those, Johns indefinite


a, any, manypartitive someuniversal all
predeterminers
central determinerspostdeterminers


all

these

half

your

both

the

many
twenty
first

brave

soldiers

expensive houses
heroic

explorers


all, both, half,
one-third, one-fifth, double, twice, three times, such, what


all

the

both

those

half

an

double
twice

girls
cars
hour
the

sum

my

salary

one-third the

time

such

surprise

what

day

three, 200first, second, 300th, last


many, much, little, few


my

three

the

seventh

the

last

month

few

people

a
the

many

children
day

difficulties

a, an, thethis, that, these, those


some, any, eitherno, neitherevery, eachmy, your, Johns

book

an

egg

the

money

this

question

that

man

these

kids

those

places

some

time

any
either
no

trouble
bank
problem

neither

boy

every

student

each

worker

my

home

your

car

Johns

daughter

all() my()
many() friends

these some boys


any my car
neither Johns sister
every some mistake

many good students many good students a new book


a new book

(etymology) a(n) one (reduction)a(n) one


a(n) one
a(n)

Black-faced spoonbills are an endangered species.

black-faced spoonbills (black-faced)(spoonbills)


spoonbills a a
new book book new book

the zero article

new books
new books

thea, an a
an new books
a an

+ + the
rich people the rich those yellow flowers those those

a an

bravery, exhaustion
a an gold, air
a an

Honesty is not necessarily the best policy.

Fresh water is a precious resource in Saudi Arabia.

honesty water a an -s
a an -s

Bill Gates California man place


universal man place
this man
that man one man many men

Bill Gates Californiaparticular Bill Gates


Bill Gates
Bill Gates

a Bill Gates one Bill Gates



Bill Gates a an -s
-s a an

Sunday

There are five Sundays this month.

Sunday -s

I have an appointment on Sunday.

a -s

Bill Gates is Chairman of Microsoft.


S

Bill Gates -s a
Chairman Chairman
Chairman


Chairman

Bill Gates, according to some, is a better Chairman than Craig Barrett.


S

Chairman Bill Gates Chairman


Chairman
a better Chairman

Bill Gates is also a trustee of the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation.
S

trustee Bill Gates


trustee
a trustee

Ban Ki-moon, Secretary General of the UN, is a very powerful man.

Secretary General of the UN who is Secretary General of the UN


who Ban Ki-moon Secretary General Ban Ki-moon

Queen Elizabeth made Charles Prince of Wales.


S

prince prince
princes Prince of Wales
Charles Charles

You can contact him by phone.

Are you actually going around the lake on foot?

I always go to church on Sundays.

Mangos are not in season now.

You can go to the island by plane or by boat.

by phone phone
a by phone
phone
by phone phone

on foot foot
on foot foot

the
the that those that those the
the

I need a book to read on my trip.

I have finished the book you lent me.

a book one book any bookthe book that book

Modern history is my favorite subject.

The history of recent China is a sorry record.

modern history history a modern history


the the history of recent China of recent China
the

He should be home; I saw a light in his house.

Turn off the portal light.

a light in his house


one light that light in his house a light
the portal light portal
the light
a an onethe that/those

the

I'm going to the office now.

the office the

Do you mind if I open the window?

window
the a

Do you mind if I open a window?

any window

Bill Gates California


the this book that book
this book the book California
the

This is not the Bill Gates I know.

This is a photography show of the California 50 years ago.

Bill Gates this that the Bill Gates


California
the California 50 years ago

the Pacific (Ocean)


the Atlantic (Ocean)
the Indian Ocean
the Mediterranean (Sea)
the Dead Sea

+ + the Pacific (Ocean)Pacific


ic Ocean
the Ocean
Pacific Ocean
Ocean the Indian the Mediterranean (Sea) the sea
Mediterranean Seathe
Dead Sea Seathe dead people

the Philippine Islandsthe Philippines


the Alp Mountainsthe Alps
IslandsMountains
-s

the Mississippi (River)


the Titanic (Ship)
the Hilton (Hotel)

the United States of America


the United Nations
the Republic of South Korea
the Washington Post

(States, Nations, Republic, Post) America South Korea


Washington

1. The dog ate the bone.

2. He liked it.

2 he it 1 the dog the bone

People often think that our difficulties are unique.

our peoplepeople our

People often think that their difficulties are unique.


We often think that our difficulties are unique.

If the campaign succeeds in raising huge sums, the sponsors will devote it all to disaster relief.

it huge sums

If the campaign succeeds in raising huge sums, the sponsors will devote them all to disaster relief.
If the campaign succeeds in raising a huge sum, the sponsors will devote it all to disaster relief.

When a teacher takes his students on a field trip, he is fully responsible and must bring every one of them safely back to school
with him.

he

he or she he or she

When a teacher takes his or her students on a field trip, he or she is fully responsible and must bring every one of them safely
back to school with him or her.

When a teacher takes her students on a field trip, she is fully responsible and must bring every one of them safely back to school
with her.

Although the new regulations allow them to do it, high school graduates seldom go abroad for higher education.

it
go abroad for higher education go it

Although the new regulations allow them to do so, high school graduates seldom go abroad for higher education.

do so do so go abroad for higher education

When tourists first arrived in this new resort, the locals thought they were very lucky people.

they tourists the locals


they tourists
they the locals

When tourists first arrived in this new resort, the locals thought these outsiders were very lucky people.

When tourists first arrived in this new resort, the locals considered themselves very lucky people.


a an
A an one the that/those

post-modifiers

+ +

small

popular songs
that

foolish

plan

extreme
my
many

garden

danger

dearest

friend

happy

days

attributive adjectives(attribute)

compounds

that

flower

shop

your

trouser

shoe

solidarity

worker
a

pockets

factory

company

cars

that flower shop flower flower


the flower shop flower
flowers flower
flower
that flower shopflower
trouser, worker, shoe

hyphen
-s

that hard-to-solve

problem

state-of-the-art technology
a

five-year-old

that 10-story-high

boy

building

a five-year-old boy five years old a boy

years -s five-year-old a boy


10-story-high story

that

savings bank

negotiations

damages
several
your

clothes
sports

hangers
car

that savings bank savings


savings saving

damages negotiations damages damage


damages damage negotiations

several clothes hangers clothes several


cloth hangers cloth clothes

your sports car sports


sports

two

big old

houses

big old houses



attributive adjectives

He graduated from a prestigious old American law school.

a school a school law


school compound law school law
school law
attribute school

American law American


American
old

new old American


prestigious new old
new old

I threw away that dirty old blue silk necktie.

that necktie
necktie neck tie neck
tie silk silk
necktie silk necktie

blue
old
old dirty

predicative adjectives

These flowers smell sweet.


S

sweet these flowers.

The boss kept us busy.


S

V O C

busy us

That building is 18 stories tall.


S

18

18 stories tall that building 18


stories

I saw the dog crossing the street.


S V

crossing the street the dog

a-
a- a-
attributive predicative

The patient was asleep.


S

a- asleep attributive

The kid looked afraid.

She was not aware of the latest development.


S V

The new student stayed aloof.


S

The soldier remained alert throughout the night.


S

The coffee kept him awake.


S

V O

The drug kept the animals alive.


S

They found the man alone in the office.


S

I consider the two options alike.


S

I am eager to begin the project.


S V C

I am eager eager to begin the


project

I am able to do the job.


S V C

I am able to do the job

These people are used to working overtime.


S

These people are used to working overtime


to to

I am fond of country music.


S V C

I am fond of country music

The pilots wife is concerned that he might get killed.


S

The pilots wife is concerned that he might get killed


attributive adjectives(attribute) predicative
adjectives (predicate)
attributive adjectives

1. His brother was sick yesterday and couldnt come to work.

2. His brother is a sick man.

1 sick his brother his brother (predication)


his brother 2 sick man
(attribute)

post-modifiers

I am meeting someone important tonight.

someone, anybody some, anyone, body


someone
important something special

a-
a- a-

Jane and her mother alike are teachers.

and Jane her mother alike


Jane and her mother alike these people alonewood adrift
a-

the President elect


heir apparent
court martial
Asia Minor
Secretary General
Poet Laureate
devil incarnate
time immemorial

Unit 3 is longer than Unit 4.

Unit 3 is less difficult than Unit 4.

Unit 4 is as boring as Unit 3.

tall, taller, tallest


expensive, more expensive, most
expensive

more most moremost-er-est

helpful

more helpful

most helpful

useless

more useless

most useless

famous

more famous

most famous

active

more active

crowded
loving

most active

more crowded
more loving

most crowded

most loving

-ful, -less, -ous

often
shallow

oftener (more often)

oftenest (most often)

shallower (more shallow) shallowest (most shallow)

-en -ow

-y i

happy
lucky

happier
luckier

happiest
luckiest

attributive predicative

1. Yellowstone is crowded.
S

2. Yellowstone is most crowded in summer.


S

crowded predicative adjective Yellowstone

1. Yellowstone is a crowded scenic spot.

2. Yellowstone is the most crowded of the states scenic spots.

1 a crowded scenic spot crowded 2 the most crowded


of the state's scenic spots the most crowded one
most crowded the one
the

John is the shorter of the twins.

shorter the

that those

My car is bigger than you.

My car is bigger than yours.

yours your car car

Cars made in Taiwan are better than those made in Korea.

it/they
that/those it/they they cars made in Taiwan
cars made in Korea those cars those made in Korea
those cars made in Korea(these) cars made in Taiwan

I like Beijing food, especially roast duck.

especially roast duck

I. (Adverbs of Manner)
-ly

1. S+V

The dog barked furiously at the mailman.


S

(adv.)

at the mailman S+V


barked furiously furiously

The dog furiously barked at the mailman.

2. S+V+C

He stayed single reluctantly.


S

(adv.)

single reluctantly
reluctantly

He stayed reluctantly single.

reluctantly
single
(ambiguous)

He reluctantly stayed single.

single
reluctantly stayed

3. S+V+O

He harassed the girl openly.


S

(adv.)

openly
the girl

He openly harassed the girl sitting at the counter.


S (adv.)

sitting at the counter the girl


openly harassed

He harassed the girl sitting at the counter openly.

openly sitting sitting sit


openly openly sitting

openly the girl

He harassed the girl openly sitting at the counter.

openly sitting sitting openly


harassed

4. S+V+O+O

His father bought him a car generously.


S

(adv.)

generously

The student politely asked the speaker a question.


S

(adv.)

politely the speaker a question asked

5. S+V+O+C

I consider you a member of the family proudly.


S

(adv.)

youa member proudly consider

I happily pronounce you man and wife.


S (adv.)

happily

I pronounce you man and wife happily.

happily
happily pronounce
man and wife
man and wife happily

II.

1. (Focusing Adverbs)

only, merely, also, especially, particularly, even


(focusing)

only

John saw the boss yesterday.

only

Only John saw the boss yesterday.

only John

John only saw the boss yesterday.

only saw

John saw only the boss yesterday.

only the bossonly the boss


only the boss
the young boss young

John saw the boss only yesterday.

only yesterday

2. (Intensifiers)

You are absolutely a genius!

absolutely a genius a
genius

The test is extremely difficult.

extremely difficult

Your hair badly needs cutting.

badly needs

Time passed amazingly fast.

amazingly fast

3. (Adverbs of Degree)

The test is extremely difficult.

extremely

The test is difficult.

The plan almost failed.

almost

The plan failed.

Intensifiers

Your son is quite a man now.

quite a man

I barely know John.

barely know

He plays the piano rather well.

rather well

That is a fairly long story.

fairly long

III. (Sentence Modifiers)

1. (Conjuncts)
(Conjunctions) and besides, furthermore but however,
nevertheless so therefore, consequently

Sales have increased 20%; besides, production cost has come down.
20%

besides

Consequently, we should have no problem reaching our goals this year.

consequently

However, projections for the next fiscal year are not very optimistic.

however

2. (Disjuncts)

Theoretically, your proposal might work.

theoretically your proposal might work

Theoretically speaking, your proposal might work.

theoretically speak

If we are speaking theoretically, your proposal might work.

scientifically

1. Your demand is practically impossible to meet.

2. Lets discuss this problem practically.

3. Practically, you dont stand a chance in court.

1 practically impossible 2 practically


discuss 3 practically practically speaking

-er, -est fast,


faster, fastest more, most beautifully, more beautifully, most beautifully
-ly
- ly -ly more, most sweetly, more
sweetly, most sweetly-ly-er, -est
more, most often, oftener, oftenest often, more often, most often

thethe
the

Of all my students, John runs (the) fastest.

fastest runs the fastest


the


input

The company is in trouble.

I am leaving for Hong Kong tomorrow.

The country is rich in mineral wealth.


The new janitor works half-heartedly at best.

particles

1. Come in.

2. The soldier stood up.

1 in come 2 up
stood

1. The plumber went down to the basement.

down went to the basement


to the basement went

2. He has gone over to your house.

over has gone to your house


to your house has gone

1. The man slept on the couch.

2. The man turned on the light.

1 S+V

The man slept on the couch.


S

slept on the couch slept 2


S+V+O

The man turned on the light.


S

turned on the light turned on 2


1

The man turned on the light.


S

on the light turned


turned on

turn on
phrasal verbs


get over
Its only a cold; youll get over it soon enough.

get over get over


get over it get over get it over with
get over

look into
The manager will look into your complaint at once.

take after
Henry takes after his father.

stand by
Dont worry; Ill stand by you.

stand by

Your team is next; please stand by.

come about
How did this all come about?

Come about

fall off
Business has fallen off badly since the SARS epidemic.
SARS

go off
The bomb went off in the middle of the night.

turn up
The meeting was postponed because too few people turned up.

bring up
That woman brought up eight children.
That woman brought eight children up.
That woman brought them up.

bring up eight children bring up bring up


them brought
them up

call off
The boss has called off the meeting.
The boss has called the meeting off.
The boss has called it off.

turn down
Im going to turn down his offer.
Im going to turn his offer down.
Im going to turn it down.

make up
He made up a long story.
He made a long story up.
He made it up.

make up

He and his separated wife finally made up.

catch up with
Hes slowly catching up with his classmates in exam grades.

two-word verbs
catch up with catch up
with

drop out of
John hurt his leg and had to drop out of the race.

get away with


If you take the money, you cant expect to get away with it.

go back on
I promised my kid a new notebook, so I cant go back on my word now.

at
The bus will stop at the dock to pick up passengers.

at

We have arrived at our destination.

The sniper is aiming at the kidnapper.

on, along
The student memorized 10 new words on his way to school.

on along

There are many beautiful villas along the beach.

along on

I see three bookstores on this street.


3

along on

on
I strained my eyes but couldnt see any ship on the sea.

on

Theres a picture hanging on the wall.

on

The speaker is standing on the platform.

on

in
I like to stay in my office because its quiet there.

in

Well go our separate ways, and meet at my office at three.

at

I think Ill walk; there are too many cars in the street.

on along
in

at in on

Ill meet you at six oclock.

atat noon, at midnight, at dinner, at sunrise, at sunset


at night

I do most of my work in the morning.

inin the evening, in May, in summer, in 2007

My birthday is on January 23.


23

on the morning, the evening


onon Monday, on the morning of June 20, on New Years Day

apart from
except for

We had no trouble on the way apart from(= except for)a flat tire.

in addition to

Apart from(= in addition to) a flat tire, we also ran out of gas.

at
We joined the tour at $3,000 per person.
3000

The car was going at 90 km per hour.


90

but
No one but(= except) a fool would accept a challenge like that.

in
How do you say that in English?

He signed his name in black ink.

up to

Its not up to me to decide.

Im not up to this job.

Do you know what Tom has been up to recently?

on one's way / in one's way


He's on his way to Tokyo.

on his way

Step aside! You're in my way!

way
in my way

arrive in / arrive at
in at
in at

We'll arrive at Honolulu in 5 minutes, where we'll refuel before flying on to San Francisco.

Honolulu
at

The home-coming hero arrived in town and was greeted by the crowd gathered along Main Street.

Honolulu in

made of / made from


made of made from

These shoes were made from rubber tires.

from of
a chair made of wood of
wine made from grapesfrom
of from
from of from

between / among
between among
between among

The Rhine flows between France and Germany.

between between between


between between

Among the major cities in the world, Shanghai is probably developing most rapidly.

among the major cities in the world among among

Switzerland lies between France, Germany, Austria and Italy.

between between
between

throw to / throw at
to toward towards

I forgot my keys. Please get them at my desk and throw them to me.

The kids are throwing rocks at the poor dog.

at

from to / from through

The circus will be here four months, from May to September.

The circus will be here five months, from May through September.

Through

above / over
above over

Mt. Everest soars above all other peaks in the Himalayas.

above

The little child couldn't keep the umbrella over his head and soon got wet.

Over

below / under
below under

The submarine is below the surface now.

below

Watch out! There's a dog under your car.

under

except / except for


except for except except for except

You can all go except George.

You can all go except for George.


Except for George, you can all go.

on / about
on
about

He has written a book on the temples of the Upper Nile.

Hes talking about his childhood.

(time)(aspect)
(voice)
be

be be
be have been Be

This is a good book.

good a book

1. This is a best-selling book.

best-selling
-ing best-selling

2. This is a well-written book.

well-written
well-written

The book is good.

good is the book

1. The book is selling well.

is selling
24 3 4
2 be
is
selling well the book-ing
selling well

2. The book is well written.

is written
is well written the book
well written

24 be
static verbs

hit, kill, eat, run,


talk, jump, swim

1. He is eating breakfast now.

2. The dog was swimming toward the shore then.

1 is eating 2 was swimming


eat swim

1 is eating breakfast
he 2 was swimming toward the shore
the dog eat swim
eating swimming

kill, eat -ing

I am busy; I have a lot of work to do.

This camera belongs to me.

George resembles his father a lot.

I believe his story.

I like milkshakes.

I consider him a true friend.

-ing behave
consider be have consider
-ing

When I said she looked 25, I was being nice.


25

He was having lunch when I called.

The committee is considering your proposal.

24

The U.S. established diplomatic relations with the P.R.C. in 1979.

in 1979 establish in
1979 established

The movable print was introduced to England in 1485.

be in 1485 was
introduced
-ed Be
Be was

I was visiting clients the whole day yesterday.

be the whole day yesterday in 1979


wasBe visiting clients
IVisiting -ing
Be
Be was

I was watching TV when I heard the doorbell.

when I heard the doorbell


be was
watching TV be watching TV
-ing


The witness was being questioned in court when he had a heart attack.

when he had a heart attack


had be was be
being questioned Be
being be -ing being
be questioned -ed questioned
being questioned
was

now now
now

Wang pitches a fast ball. The hitter swings. It looks like a hit. The shortstop fails to stop it. It's a double!

now now
now

Wang Chien-Ming pitches for the Yankees.

now

All mothers love their children.

now
now

That retail chain is selling big cokes at a discount this month.

be this month now is


selling big cokes

According to the NASA survey, the ozone layer is being depleted.

now is being
depleted being -ing Depleted -ed
being depleted

5
5

1. John will leave tomorrow.


2. John is going to leave tomorrow.
3. John is to leave tomorrow.
4. John is leaving tomorrow.
5. John leaves tomorrow.

1 will leave will

2 is going to leave 1 will leave is going to leave

Because the weatherman says it will rain this afternoon, Im going to bring an umbrella.

it will rain this afternoon 1 Will V Im going to bring an


umbrella 2 be going to V

3 is to leave 4 is leaving 2 is going to leave

I will go tomorrow. 1

I am going to go tomorrow. 2

I am going to go going to go going


to go

I am to go tomorrow. 3

to go going

I am going tomorrow. 4

5 3 4 3 John is to leave tomorrow


4 John is leaving tomorrow 2 John is going to leave tomorrow

3 4 go go, come, leave, arrive,


begin, end
2 be going to V be to V 3
be Ving 4

5 John leaves tomorrow

The train leaves at 2:30.

World Cup finals begin tomorrow night.

will

I will discuss the plan with my boss next week.

next week
will

Don't call me at six tomorrow. I'll still be sleeping then.

be
will be sleeping -ing sleeping

The building will be razed next month.

next month will be razed


-ed razed

would

It was mid-1945; Japan would soon raid Pearl Harbor.


1945

1945 1945
would soon raid

The weatherman said it would rain, but it didnt.

said
would rain

moods

when if

1. I know when he left the room.


S V

O()

2. He forgot his briefcase when he left the room.


S

()

1 when he left the room know when 2 when he left


the room forgot when
when

1. Ill ask if he has the money.


S

O()

2. If he has the money, he can help us.


()

1 if he has the money will ask if


2 if he has the moeny
can help if if

When if

When he gets here, the police will be waiting.

the police will be waiting will be when he gets here


when gets will get

if

If he gets to the hospital in time, hell be able to see his father for the last time.

will be able to see if he gets to the hospital in time


if gets will get

I'm sure I have seen this face somewhere.

I'm sure am

have seen

We have been working overtime for a week to fill your order.

be have been
for a week
have been working
-ing

I have lived here for 20 years.

I have been living here for 20 years.


20

I have read your book.

I have been reading your book.

The house has been redecorated twice since they moved in.

since they moved in


has been redecorated

Many soldiers had died from pneumonia before the discovery of penicillin.

in 1928 before the discovery of penicillin


before 1928 1928 had died

I had been smoking three packs of cigarettes a day before I decided to quit.

decided before I decided


decided had been smoking three packs of
cigarettes a day -ing

Japan had not been defeated yet by the time Germany surrendered unconditionally.

had
not been defeated

will

Next April, I will have worked here for 20 years.

next April for 20 years


next April
will

Come back at 5:00. Your car will have been fixed by then.

will have been fixed

In two more minutes, she will have been talking on the phone for three hours!

be she talking-ing
(for three hours)
will have been

be

Be

Boy: Do you want to go and see Gone with the Wind with me tonight?
Girl: No! I ___ (1. see) it.
Boy: Oh, really? When did you see it?
Girl: I ___ (2. go) to see it the first day it was onlast Monday.
Boy: To tell you the truth, I have seen it too. In fact, I ___ (3. see) it before you did.
Girl: That's impossible. I told you I saw it the first day it was on.
Boy: But it's the truth! I ___ (4. see) it seven or eight years ago, the last time that old picture ___ (5. come) in town.
Girl: In that case, why did you ask me to go in the first place?
Boy: Well, I just ___ (6. want) to go out with you tonight. Since you have seen the picture, will you go to the baseball game with
me instead?

Girl: I ___ (7. guess) I will, if Father says Okay. But you will have to pick me up at my place.
Boy: Great! I ___ (8. see) you at 5:30 then. I'll bring my car.
Girl: But why 5:30? Why not seven o'clock?
Boy: Because the game ___ (9. start) by then. These evening games ___ (10. begin) at 6:30, you know. Don't forget now, 5:30
at your place!

1. have seen

2. went
last Monday
3. had seen
before you did you did
4. saw

5. came
the last time
6. wanted
Why did you?
7. guess
now
8. will see
at 5:30
9. will have started
by then
10. begin
these evening games
now

must, will, would, should, can, could, may, might ought to, have to, used to, need, dare,
had better, would rather, might as well

1. We must be very careful.

2. John must be very careless.

1
2

must

We must all keep together.

He said we must all keep together.

will/would
will/would

I will have my own way.

He said he would have his own way.

would would

Would you like a cup of coffee?

would

shall/should
Shall shall I, shall we

Shall we go now?

shall

The enemy shall not pass!

shouldShould

We should always be on time.

He said we should leave early, and we did.

can/could

I can drink a dozen beers in an hour.

Last night there was something wrong with my stomach, and I couldnt even finish one beer.

could
Could you please help me with my homework?

could

may/might

You may go now.

He said we might go.

might

Might I ask a big favor of you?

might

would, should, could, might


have Ven

I would have left the country if I had known what was going to happen.

would have left

You should have attended the meeting last week; why didnt you?

should have attended

With a little help, I could have finished a lot sooner.

could have finished

Under a more reasonable boss, I might have done a much better job.

might have done

will/would, can/could, may/might


will, can, may would,
could, might

have Ven
must might

must
Listen! It must be raining hard outside.

It must have rained last nightthe ground is still wet.

will
That will be George at the door, I expect.

You will all have heard the news last night.

would
This seat would be mine, right?

That would have been the mailman just now; I found some new mail in the box.

should
We should be on the right track.

He should have left; his car is gone.

can
Where can he be at this hour?

Where can he have gone

could
Of course, I could be wrong.

The police is here; something could have gone wrong.

may
Dont go near that snake; it may be dangerous.

It may have been dangerous, but now its gone.

might
Bring a compass; you might get lost in the woods.

Check the answering machine; he might have left a message for you.

ought to
I think you ought to apologize to him.

He ought to be home now.

Ought we to go?

You oughtnt to have done that.

have to
You have to tell your father.

That has to be the pizza man at the door.

Do you have to leave now?

I dont have to leave now.

used to
He used to smoke a pipe.

Used he to smoke a pipe?


Did he use(or used) to smoke a pipe?

He used not to smoke a pipe.


He didnt use(or used) to smoke a pipe.

need
I dont think you need go.

Need I remind you of the consequences?

You neednt do that.

Need

I dont think you need to go.


Do I need to remind you of the consequences?
You dont need to do that.

dare
Im not sure I dare touch that snake.

Dare you sleep in that haunted house alone?

I dare not tell my wife the truth.

dare

Im not sure I dare to touch that snake.


Do you dare to sleep in that haunted house alone?
I dont dare to tell my wife the truth.

had better
I think we had better leave now.

Hadnt we better be leaving now?

You had better not lie to me.

would rather
I would rather go abroad than study at a local graduate school.

would rather than than go


study

Would you rather stay here?

I would rather not talk about it.

might as well
We might as well walk, with so much traffic on the road.

We might as well not drive at all.

Would, could might


(Moods)
(Indicative Mood)
(Conditional Mood)
(Subjunctive Mood)
(Imperative Mood)

I will go to the U.S. next year to study for an MBA degree.

will
I will go to the U.S. next year will He went
to the U.S. last year.

I am going to go to the U.S. next year.
I am to go to the U.S. next year.
I am going to the U.S. next year.
I go to the U.S. next year.
I go to the U.S.
next year

The weatherman says sunrise tomorrow is at 5:32.

will
The movie starts in 5 minutes.


will

I'll be ready when he comes.

when he comes comes


(I'll be ready)
If you are late again, you'll be fired.

If you are late

must, should, will/would, can/could, may/might

1. You are right.

2. You may be right.

3. You may leave now.

1 2 3 may

1.
If I were you, I wouldn't do it.

I am you
I were you would wouldn't
do

2.
If I had known earlier, I might have done something.

earlier
had known
might have done

3.
If I were to take the bribe, I could never look other people in the eye again.

be going to were to

were to should
If I should take the money, can (or could) you guarantee secrecy?
?
should take can guarantee
could guarantee
If an asteroid should hit the earth, man can (or could) die out.

should hit
can die out
could die out

1 2 3
would, might, could

1 2 3 if 1 2

should
were to 3

If I had studied harder in school, I could qualify for the job now.

(had studied)
(now) could (could have qualified)

I could have contributed to the fund drive then, only that I didn't have any money with me.

(could have contributed)

didn't have

It's time you kids were in bed.

it is time is
were in bed
If only I had more time!

I wish I had more time!


wish
had

Come in! You may come in!

The court demands that the witness leave the courtroom.

(You must) Leave the courtroom!


you
leave
There is a strong expectation among the public that someone take responsibility for the disaster.

take

It is necessary that...
I insist that...

It is necessary that the letter be sent out before noon.

it is necessary
be
I insist that the letter be sent out before noon.

be

I insist that the letter was sent out before noon.

before noon was

voiceactive voicepassive voice


be be + Ven

S+V+O, S+V+O+O, S+V+O+C

S+V+O

The author wrote the book in 2003.


SVO
2003
the author the author the author
the book the book the book the book

The book was written (by the author) in 2003.


SV
2003
was written the author
by
S+V+O+O

He showed the guard his pass.


S V O1 O2

the guard was shown

The guard was shown his pass.


SVO
his pass
His pass was shown the guard.
SVO

He showed his pass to the guard.


SVO
S+V+O his pass
His pass was shown to the guard.
SV
His pass was shown the guard His pass was shown to the guard
S+V+O+C

All his friends call him Lucky.

SVOC
Lucky
him
He is called Lucky by all his friends.
SVC

Somebody sat on my hat.


S V

sat on my hat

My hat was sat on.


SV
be + Ven
be

The book was written in 2003.


SVC
The guard was shown his pass.
S V C
His pass was shown the guard.
S V C
His pass was shown to the guard.
SVC
He is called Lucky by all his friends.
S V C
My hat was sat on.
S V C

be
A bridge is being built across that river.

is being built
is
A bridge is being built across that river.
SVC
is being built
being built
Your application has been approved.

has been approved


be
Your application has been approved.

SVC
be has been approved

Ven Ven
have have + Ven

1. I am very annoyed with him.

2. I was annoyed by mosquitoes all night.

1 annoyed very I am very


angry with him S+V+C annoyed angry
2 was annoyed by
mosquitoes 2 I was bitten by mosquitoes S+V was annoyed
was bitten
1 2
be be

Clean water is safe to drink.

Boiled water is safe to drink.

boiled clean water

The water is clean.

The water is boiled.

boiled clean be water beVen


be boiled water be

be


I can't find my wallet. It's gone.

is gone be + Ven go

It is gone.
SVC
gone it

The leaves are all fallen, now that winter is here.

fall are fallen be + Ven

The leaves are fallen.


SVC

I'm done. It's all yours.

do
am done done

He is disappointed at his scores.

disappoint, satisfy, surprise, amaze, astonish, scare, terrify, please, tire, exhaust
disappointed

His scores disappoint him.


SVO

him
He is disappointed by his scores.
SV
is disappointed by his scores
disappointed unhappy
He is unhappy with his scores.
SVC
by with his scores
unhappy disappointed
He is disappointed with his scores.
SVC

disappointed
by with
I am satisfied with the progress.

He was surprised at the result.

We were all amazed at his improvements.

He is scared of losing his girlfriend.

The coach is pleased with our performance.

The boss is tired of his excuses.

be
by



They speak Portuguese in Brazil.

speak they people

Portuguese is spoken in Brazil.

Someone stole my wallet.

someone
My wallet was stolen.

Although the doctor ordered him not to smoke, the patient found it impossible to quit the vice.

the doctor the patient

Although he was ordered by the doctor not to smoke, the patient found it impossible to quit the vice.

Although ordered by the doctor not to smoke, the patient found it impossible to quit the vice.

The manager is not available right now because a meeting is being presided over by him.


the manager a meeting

The manager is not available right now because he is presiding over a meeting.

Verbals

be be + Ving
The tree was swaying in the breeze.
S
V

was swaying

be
The tree was swaying in the breeze.
S V C
swaying-ing
swaying
I saw the tree swaying in the breeze.
S V O
C

swaying be
the tree
-ing be
He was teaching his son English at the time.
S
V
O
O

was teaching his son English


be
He was teaching his son English at the time.

S V

C()

be teaching his son English be


teaching -ing teaching his son English

We found him teaching his son English.


S

C()

teaching his son English him


Ving Ving

1. He was writing a book in the countryside.


S
V
O

2. The book could be very interesting.


S
V
C

1 was writing a book 2 interesting


very Ving Ving
Ving Ving
1
He was writing a book in the countryside.
S V C()

1.2.

That black dog doesn't bite.

A barking dog doesn't bite.

barking black dog


barking
-ing
-ful

useful

-ish

grayish

-less

valueless

-ing

The dog is black.

The dog is barking.

barking black be dog-ing


be + Ving is barking
a barking dog barking

disappoint, satisfy, surprise


He is disappointed
His scores are disappointing.
His scores disappoint him.
S
V
O

be
His scores are very disappointing to him.
S
V
C

his scores disappointing very disappointing


to him
His scores are very unsatisfactory to him.
S
V
C
Disappointing unsatisfactory to him

He finds the scores very disappointing.


S V
O
C

disappointing the scores

The progress is satisfying to me.

He finds the result surprising.

His improvements were amazing to all of us.

The idea of losing his girlfriend is scaring to him.

Our performance is pleasing to the coach.

The boss finds his excuses rather tiring..

interesting books
an astonishing discovery
troubling developments
a frightening earthquake

be

I have no comment to make while the case is being investigated by police.


S V
C

while be being investigated


Being be
-inginvestigated being investigated


Ving
Ving

Let me buy you a drink.

Drinking is his only vice.

a drink drinking

have a drink drinking
swimming, skiing, skating, mountain-climbing, dancing, jogging
(swimming)
(climbing)

I am not afraid of death, but I am scared of dying.

death

There are two weddings at the restaurant tonight.

two weddings two


-s the
burninghis runningtwo weddings

1:
Picking strawberries can be fun.

2:
The picking of strawberries requires patience.

3:
Strawberry-picking is a strenuous job.

picking strawberries pick strawberries-ing


picking strawberries
picking the the picking The picking
of strawberries the picking
strawberry-picking strawberries picking
strawberry hyphen
strawberry-picking mountain-climbing
being Ven

Being invited here is a great honor.


S
V
C

being invited here invited



being -ing
being invited
being being be be -ing
-ing
invited here invite invitation being
being invited here invited

That flying bird is a black-faced spoonbill.

flying that bird

That bird is flying.


S
V C

that flying birdthat flying bird flying That bird is flying


flying
that flying bird flying bird flying

That flying jacket looks smart on you.

flying
flying
That jacket is flying. ()
S

that flying jacket flying

That's a jacket for flying.


a flying jacket flying a flying jacket a jacket for flying flying

a flying jacket flying


a flying jacket flying


to

I will go.

I want to go.

1. He is right.

2. He may be right.

3. He seems to be right.

infinitive not final


not finalized
1 He is right may
2 He may be right
3 He seems to be right

1. It must be raining now.

2. It may rain any minute now.

3. It might even snow.

1 must 2 3 may might


It may rain any minute now It might even snow
might may must
may, might

It must have rained last night.

must, may might


must
have rained

It seems to have rained last night.

seems last night


to
to have rained

musthave to
will/wouldbe going to, be willing to
shouldought to
can/couldbe able to
may/mightbe likely to, be allowed to

To hesitate now would be fatal.


S
V
C

to hesitate should ought to


it

It would be fatal to hesitate now.


S V
C

I want to marry you.


S V
O

to marry you want will going to


S+V+O+C it

I found it hard to stay awake.


S V O C
it to stay awake can able to

His suggestion is to start as soon as possible.


S
V
C

to start as soon as possible to should ought


to

They talked about moving to the South.

about moving

I have two reports to write this week.

to write two reports to must have to

Everyone is to leave the building immediately.


S V
C

to leave the building immediately Everyone to


must have to
I want you to tell me the truth.
S V O
C

to tell me the truth you to must


have to

I went online to find some answers.

to find some answers went to can able to

Your question is easy to answer.


to answer easy to can able to

Who will win the election is still too early to say.

too early to say too to


can able to

begin
hope
avoid
remember

1.
-ing

2.

begin, prefer, like, love, hate


After supper, they began to watch(or watching) TV.

to watch begin will going to watching

would love, would like, would hate

I would love to come to your party.

hope, expect, agree, decide, intend


I expect to see you again soon.

expect

going to(will) able to(can)


to see
hope, agree, decide, intend

dislike, avoid, enjoy, keep, practice


I dislike reading ebooks on the computer.

dislike
dislike

He practiced speaking English with his American colleague.

practice

remember, forget, regret, stop


I forgot to put the food in the refrigerator; now its all spoiled.

forget to going
to(will) ought to(should)Forget to do something

I forgot putting the food in the refrigerator, so I couldnt find it anywhere.

forget
Forget doing something

The little girl asked her mother to come to the PTA meeting.
S
V
O
C

Ask to come
to able to(can) going to(will)
Will you come? Can you come?
make, let, help, have

The teacher made the little girl stay behind.


S
V
O
C

Will you stay behind?


The teacher asked the little girl to stay behind.
S
V
O
C
to stay behind
Stay behind!
let, have, make


John had his car painted over.
S V O
C

I heard her playing the violin.


S V O
C


see, hear, watch ...
to play the violin to going to(will)

playing
heard playing the violin
I heard her cry out in pain.
S V O
C

crying
She was crying in pain.

to to
to to to
to in, on, at to
toward
be used tolook forward to
to

1. The Inuits are used to cold weather.

2. The Inuits are used to living on ice.

1 to 2 living on ice
1. The lady agreed to come over and help with the cooking.

2. The manager agreed to downsizing.

1 to come over to will(going to)


come 2 to downsizing to downsizing

1. be being Ven
be being
Ven
The house was being renovated when it collapsed on the workers.

2. have been Ven


have been

You have been warned, so be careful.

3. have been Ving


have been

I have been watching this film for 20 minutes now.


20
4. to be Ving

Its impossible to be going on like this much longer.

it to be will(going to) can(ableto)


going on be
5. to be Ven

Children like to be praised.

to be like to can(able to) praised


be

(A) to V(B) Ving(C)


1. The barber's apprentice practiced ___ (shave) on a watermelon.
2. I love ___ (watch) horror movies alone.
3. ___ (Listen) to music can be very relaxing.
4. You must not forget ___ (pay) the phone bill.
5. The workers finished ___ (paint) and left.
6. Seeing is ___ (believe).
7. To see is ___ (believe).
8. Thank you for ___ (call).
9. John's ___ (leave) the party so early was rather impolite.
10. I really enjoyed ___ (be) at your party.

1. (B)
shave practice shaving
2. (C)
watching to watch
3. (B)
dancing, mountain-climbing
4. (A)
must not forget to pay
5. (B)
finish painting
6. (B)
believing seeing
7. (A)
to believe to see
8. (B)
calling
9. (B)
leaving
10. (B)
enjoy to be being



(compound sentences)(complex sentences)

clause
finite clausesnonfinite clauses

He understands that he did the wrong thing then.

He understands understands
He did the wrong thing then did
He hates his girlfriends spending so much time on makeup every day.

He hates hates
his girlfriends
spending so much time on makeup every day spending

We are sitting here in the sun.

We can see snow-covered hills.

We are sitting here in the sun, and we can see snow-covered hills.

As we sit here in the sun, we can see snow-covered hills.


Sitting here in the sun, we can see snow-covered hills.

coordinate clauses

and, or but

George and Mary were good friends.

George Mary and

George, Mary, and Jane were always together.

and

We always worked and played together.

worked played and

We always worked together.


We always played together.
and
We always worked together and we always played together.
we always together
We always worked and played together.

We ran, jumped, and shouted for joy.

and

We take our holidays in July or August.

July August in July or August


take

correlatives
He spoke to George and me.

George me to to George and me


spoke
both and
He spoke both to George and to me.

and, or, but


both A and B
either A or B; neither A nor B
not only A but also B

A B

1. Gold jewelry looks beautiful and elegant.

2. Gold jewelry looks beautiful and lasts forever.

1 and beautiful elegant 2 and


looks beautiful lasts forever
Gold jewelry lasts forever but expensive.

but expensive but forever


lasts expensive

Gold jewelry not only looks beautiful but also elegant.


but elegant beautiful
not only A but also B A B A beautiful
looks beautifulB elegant

3. Gold jewelry looks not only beautiful but also elegant.


4. Gold jewelry not only looks beautiful but also lasts forever.
3 not only but also beautiful elegant 4 not only
but also looks beautiful lasts forever

Everyone was in the hall, and the door had been closed.

and
Most of us were in the hall, the doors had been closed, and the lights were out.

and
A. He did not like us, and everyone knew, but no one admitted it.

A and and

Everyone knew it.


No one admitted it.
but
Everyone knew it, but no one admitted it.
it
Everyone knew, but no one admitted it.
A

Either he did not like our hairstyle, or we had offended him in some other way.

either or either A or B A B
A B

China is not only the world's most populous state but also the largest market in the 21st century.

not only A but also B A the worlds most populous stateB the largest
st

market in the 21 century


not only
Not only is China the world's most populous state but also the largest market in the 21st century.
not only A but also B A B
not only not only but A is China the worlds
most populous state but B the largest market...

Not only is China the world's most populous state but it is also the largest market in the 21st century.

also but also only (focusing)Not only


also 21 also the largest market

War is destructive, wasteful, and ultimately a futile deed.

and destructive wasteful and


ultimately a futile deed
War is destructive, wasteful, and ultimately futile.
futile and

The Yangtze River, the most vital source of irrigation water across the width of China and important as a transportation conduit
as well, has nurtured the Chinese civilization for millennia.

The Yangtze River has nurtured the Chinese civilization.


S
V
O
The Yangtze River
and the most vital source
important and and

The Yangtze River, the most vital source of irrigation water across the width of China and an important transportation conduit,
has nurtured the Chinese civilization for millennia.

Smoking by pregnant women may slow the growth and generally harm the fetus.

Smoking by pregnant women may slow the growth of the fetus,


S1
V1
O1
and it may generally harm the fetus.
S2
V2
O2
smoking by pregnant women fetus

fetus fetus of
fetus harm fetus of

Smoking by pregnant women may slow the growth of and generally harm the fetus.

complex sentences

1. Chicago is a grain-shipping center.

2. Chicago is a center that ships grain.

1 a grain-shipping center grain-shipping center 2


Chicago is a center that that ships grain
a center 1 grain-shipping
1. He worked overtime for the money.

2. He worked overtime because he needed the money.

1 for the money worked 2


He worked overtime because because he needed the money
worked 1 for the money
1. I saw the mirror.

2. I saw that the mirror was broken.

1 S+V+O I saw the mirror 2


S+V+O
I saw something
that that the mirror
was broken saw 1 the mirror

that

1. He didnt take the money.

2. I believe that.
S V
O

1 that that he didnt take the money 2

I believe that he didnt take the money.


S V
O

Information Question Yes/No Question


Information Question
who, which, what, when, why, how, where Information Question

1. What happened at his party?


S
V

2. I never asked him the question.


S
V O
O

1 what what
what
happened at his party 2
I never asked him what happened at his party.
S
V O
O

1. Where did he keep the money?

S V

2. He never revealed the question.


S
V
O

1 where Information Question


where
where he kept the money 2

He never revealed where he kept the money.


S
V
O
Yes/No Question
Yes/No Question whether
if
1. Is it going to rain soon?

2. By looking at the sky, I can tell the question.


S V
O

1 Yes/No Question
it is going to rain soon
either or
Either it is going to rain soon or it is not.

either whether
whether it is going to rain soon (or not)
2
By looking at the sky, I can tell whether it is going to rain (or not).
S V
O
whether if I can tell if it is going to
rain whether if
Whether if whether if

whether if
Whether we can win the big prize will be decided soon.

if
If we can win the big prize
whether if
whether if
The manager hinted at whether he would sign the contract.

at whether if

whether

that
wh-

that
That that
that
that that that
wh- who, what, where, when

That
1. Something is strange.
S V C

2. He didn't show up on time.

2 He didn't show up on time 1 something 2 that


1 (something)

That he didn't show up on time is strange.


S
V C
that that
He didn't show up is strange.
that He didn't show up is strange
that that

it
(expletive) It is strange

It is strange (that) he didn't show up on time.


S V

that it is strange
that
Wh-
1. Where is he hiding now?

2. The question is a big mystery.


S
V
C

1 where where he is hiding now


2
Where he is hiding now is a big mystery.
S
V
C
it
It is a big mystery where he is hiding now.
S V

That
1. The defendant said something.
S
V
O

2. He didn't do it.

2 He didn't do it 1 something 2 that


1 said
The defendant said (that) he didn't do it.
S
V
O

that that
that

S+V+O+C
it
1. I find something strange.
S V
O
C

2. He didn't show up on time.

2 He didn't show up on time 1 something that


1 something strange
it
I find it strange (that) he didn't show up on time.
S V O

I find it strange he didnt show up on time


that
Wh-
1. Why had he bought so much of that stock?

2. He explained the question.


S
V
O

1 why Information Question why he had


bought so much of that stock 2 the question

He explained why he had bought do much of that stock.


S
V
O

That
1. The car is ruined. The important thing is that thing.
S
V
C

2. We are all right.

2 we are all right that 1


be that thing the important thing
The important thing is (that) we are all right.
S
V
C
that that
Wh-
1. We all know what happened. The question is this.
S
V C

2. Can we do anything about it?

2 Yes/No Question whether whether we can do anything


about it 1 this
The question is whether we can do anything about it.
S
V
C

appositive

That
The story (that) he once killed a man might just be true.

he once killed a man that the story

That that

I am afraid (that) I can't help you.


S V C

I can't help you that


I am afraid

1. I am afraid of that thing.


2. I can't help you.
2 I can't help you that 1 that thing

1. That thing
2. That thing that I can't help you
3. Of that thing
of that thing
I am afraid (that) I can't help you.

that thing that

You had better take care that nothing goes wrong.


S

nothing goes wrong that


S+V+O care

1. You'd better take care of that thing.


2. Nothing goes wrong.
2 that that nothing goes wrong 1 that thing
of that thing
You'd better take care (that) nothing goes wrong.

that
Wh-
The question why the dinosaurs died out may never be answered.

why Why did the dinosaurs die out? why the


dinosaurs died out why the question

I am not sure what caused the delay.


SV

what What caused the delay? what


what caused the delay
I am not sure S+V+C
I am not sure of the question what caused the delay.

what caused the delay the question


of the question

that
wh-

1. My response depends on the question.


S
V

2. What did he really mean by that?

2 what what he really meant by that


1 the question
the question
My response depends on what he really meant by that.

wh- that
1. His response dwells on the fact.
S
V

2. I owe him a favor.


2 I owe him a favor 1 the fact
that that I owe him a favor that
the fact
His response dwells on the fact (that) I owe him a favor.

you know, I guess, I suppose


(Comment Clause)
This is your last offer, I suppose?

He was really afraid, I believe.

This trick, you know, will never work.

1. The guard said, The road is closed.


S
V
O
2. The guard said (that) the road was closed.
S
V
O

The road is closed, said the guard.


The road is closed, the guard said.
The road was closed, said the guard.
The road was closed, the guard said.

1. The earthquake was a 6.9, said Dr. Chang, Director of the Yangmingshan Geological Observatory.

2. Dr. Chang, Director of the Yangmingshan Geological Observatory, said


S
V
that the earthquake was a 6.9.
O
2 that the earthquake was a 6.9
that

3. The earthquake was a 6.9, Dr. Chang, Director of the Yangmingshan Geological
O
S
Observatory, said.
V
Dr. Chang said said

1

that

whether
that

that
that because, although,
if, as, when, where

1. I believe that ghosts are real.


S

2. I believe that, because I have seen one with my own eyes.


S

1 ghosts are real that


believe 2 I have seen one with my own eyes
because believe
1 I believe 2
I believe that
so that, such that, in that, in order that that
that so that, such
that, in that, in order that

1. He said sincerely that he was sorry.


S V
O

2. He said it so sincerely that his wife forgave him right away.


S V O

1 he was sorry that said


He said
2 his wife forgave him right away so that
sincerely
He said it sincerely
Information Question

no matter
-ever
1. Where the criminal is hiding is anybodys guess.
S
V
C

2. No matter where the criminal is hiding, the police is going to get him soon.

3. Wherever the criminal is hiding, the police is going to get him soon.

1 where Where is the criminal hiding?


where the criminal is hiding
is anybodys guess
2 Where is the criminal hiding? where the criminal is hiding
no matter no matter where the criminal is hiding
is going to get The police
is going to get him soon 3 2 no matter where
wherever
Yes/No Question
Yes/No Question whether
either or
whether whether whether
no matter
1. Whether hes still alive (or not) is difficult to say.
S

2. Whether hes still alive (or not), Im not going to marry anyone else.

3. No matter hes still alive (or not), Im not going to marry anyone else.

Is he still alive? whether


whether he is still alive (or not) 1
whether if if 1
whether if is difficult to say

whether he is still alive (or not)


whether
whether no matter 3 2 3
am going to marry Im not going to marry anyone else

1. He became more frugal after he got married.

after became
2. I'll be waiting for you until you're married.

until will be

2 are

3. It was all over when I got there.


when was
4. A small town grew where three roads met.

where grew

1. If he calls, I'll give him the message.

if will say

1 calls
2. He won't have it his way, as long as I'm here.

as long as won't have


3. Suppose you were ill, where would you go?

suppose would go

1.
As there isn't much time left, we might as well call it a day.

as might call
2.
There's nothing to worry about, now that Father is back.


now that is
that that
Now that
Father is back
3.
He looked so sincere that no one doubted his story.

so that sincere so that

4.
The mother locked the door from the outside, so that the kids couldn't get out when

they saw fire.

so that locked so that


when they saw fire couldnt get out

1.
The mother locked away the drugs so that the kids wouldn't swallow any by mistake.

so that locked so that

2.
I've typed out the main points in boldface, in order that you won't miss them.

in order that have typed out


that in order that
3.

I've underlined the key points, lest you miss them.

lest have underlined


4.
You'd better bring more money, in case (that) you should need it.

in case in case that bring

1.
Although you may object, I must give it a try.

although though must give


2.
While the disease is not fatal, it can be very dangerous.

while can bewhile although

3.
Wh-ever No matter wh-

Whether (= No matter) you agree or not, I want to give it a try.

want
Whoever (= No matter who) calls, I won't answer.

Whichever (= No matter which) way you go, I'll follow.


However (= No matter how) cold it is, he's always wearing a shirt only.

Wherever (= No matter where) he is, I'll get him!

Whenever (= No matter when) you like, you can call me.

1.
As far as money is concerned, you needn't worry.

as far as needn't worry


2.
Picasso was a revolutionary in that he broke all traditions.

in that was
in that in the sense that

1. He plays the piano as a maestro does.

as plays
2.
He writes as if he is left handed.

He writes as if he were left handed.

He writes as if he was left handed.

writes as if
is
were
be were
was
was

when
1. He didnt tell me when he bought the house.
S

2. He didnt tell me the price when he bought the house.


S

tell S+V+O+O 1 didnt tell me


when he bought the house When did he buy the house? when

2 didnt tell me the price S+V+O+O when he


bought the house didnt tell when

1. Do you know when he will return?


S

2. He will call you when he returns.


S

1 when he will return When will he return? when


when he will return
know
will return
2 when he returns when will call

returns

2 when as soon as, before, after

You can have this computer when I have finishedin about half an hour.
S

when I have finished when


can have
have finished

1. Ill let you know when he will return.


S

2. Ill let you know when he returns.


S

1 when he will return will return


when
know

2 will let when he returns


when
will let

if
1. I cant remember if I turned off the gas or not.
S

2. I have to go back if I didnt turn off the gas.


S

1 cant remember if I turned off the gas or not


cant remember if whether
Yes/No Question
whether if
Did I turn off the gas?
2 have to go if I didnt turn off the gas
if
have to go back
1. I have no idea if this plan will work or not.
S V

2. I have a large reward for you if this plan works.


S V

1
I have no idea about the question.
Will this plan work?
Yes/No Question whether whether this plan will work (or not)
1 the question about the question I have no idea
whether this plan will work if 1
will work
1 if
2 if this plan works have
if

will
1 works

because, if, although


no matter wh- wh-ever

For a boyfriend, I'm looking for a man.

He is tall, rich, and well-educated.

a man he a man he

(wh-)
he who who is tall, rich, and well-educated
Who he

who a man
For a boyfriend, I'm looking for a man who is tall, rich, and well-educated.

1. I know that I am right.


S V

2. I know this, because I have proof.


S V

3. I know something which nobody else knows.


S V


1 I am right that 2
I have proof because
3
I know something.
Nobody else knows it.
something it it which
which nobody else knows something

who(whom, whose), which, that

when, where, how, why

who(whom, whose)
which who
which that that

restrictive usagefinite
clause
who which
that
nonrestrictive usage

who which
that
1. I met a friend who(that) went to the same high school with me.

2. I met Jack Wang, who went to the same high school with me.

1 who went to the same high school with me



that
2 Jack Wang

the

2 Jack Wang
who
that
1
I met a friend who(that) worked at the same company with me.

2
I met Jack Wang, who worked at the same company with me.

who which that

I met a friend, quite by chance, who(that) went to the same high school with me.

a friend quite by chance


that

1. The man is my uncle.


S
V C

2. You saw him just now.


S V O

2 him 1 man whom


you saw whom just now
S V O

whom you saw just now


O S V

3. The man [whom you saw just now] is my uncle.


S1
O2 S2 V2
V1 C1

whom you saw just now The


man... is my uncle.

1. The man is my uncle.


S V C
2. He was here just now.
S V C
2 he who
who was here just now

S V

1
3. The man [who was here just now] is my uncle.
S1 S2 V2 C2
V1 C1

who
The man was here just now is my uncle.
S

The man was here just now S+V+C


is
S+V

He is not the man [he used to be].


S1 V1
C1 S2 V2

He used to be the man.


S V
C
the man the man who
who he used to be
C S
V
Who whom who

who, whom, whose


who whom
who


who whom
who whom whom with whom, to whom
whom
whom
who whom
1. Jack is a man.

2. I trust the man completely.


S V
O

man 2 the man trust


him whom whom 1 a man

(A) Jack is a man whom(who, that, ___) I trust completely.


O
S V
who
that

1. Jack is a man.
2. I have complete faith in him.
S V

2 him in whom
whom
Jack is a man whom(who, that, ___) I have complete faith in.

whom who that


A

Jack in a man in whom I have complete faith.

whom whom that

whose
1Jack is a man.

2. I trust his judgment.


S V
O

2 his 1 a man whose


Jack is a man whose judgment I trust.

which, whose, of which


which which
Which who whose
of which
1. I saw a mountain.

2. Its top was completely covered in snow.

3. The top of the mountain was completely covered in snow.


2 its 1 a mountain which
whose
I saw a mountain whose top was completely covered in snow.

3 mountain which
I saw a mountain the top of which was completely covered in snow.
of which
I saw a mountain of which the top was completely covered in snow.

that
who which that That
that
Man is an animal that is capable of reason.

an animal The animal is capable of reason


which
that
that which
that who which
all, anything, everything
first, next, last, only
that who which

1. Money is the only thing that interests him.

2. He's the best man that I can recommend.

3. Armstrong was the first man that set foot on the moon.

that who which


that
that
that who which
For a boyfriend, I'm considering your brother John, who is tall and rich.

your brother John


that that

I like The Da Vinci Code, [which many people like, too].


O
S
V

which that which


which

which

1. The whole house was overrun with ants, which was rather weird.

which ants ants


which was which ants
This was rather weird which

2. The whole house was overrun with ants, which were rather weird.

which were which ants

which

The whole house was overrun with ants, which frightened the visitor.
frightened which

which

1. The whole house was overrun with ants, a sight which frightened the visitor.

a sight a sight

2. The whole house was overrun with ants, nasty insects which frightened the visitor.

nasty insects

thing, people, anybody


what, whatever, whoever(whomever), whichever
what
what
1. I have the thing.
S V
O

2. You need it.


S V O

the thing it
3. I have the thing [which you need].
S1 V1 O1 O2 S2 V2
which that

which that need

4. I have the thing [you need].


S1 V1 O1 S2 V2
the thing which that the thing
the thing I have (that you need which you need)

5. I have what you need.


S V
O
that what what
the thing
who, which, that
what the thing what you need 5
have
whatever
anything whatever

Anything [that you say now] may be used against you in court.
S
V C

be used
anything anything that
whatever
Whatever you say now may be used against you in court.
S
V
C

whichever
whichever
1. Of these cars, you can take any one.
S V
O

2. You like it.


S V O

any one it
3. Of these cars, you can take any one [that you like].

that (that you like)


4. Of these cars, you can take any one you like.
any car that whichever
5. Of these cars, you can take whichever you like.
S
V
O

6. You can take whichever car you like.


S V
O
whichever take
whoever(whomever)
who whoever
1. I'll shoot any person.
S V
O

2. He moves.
S V

any person he
3. I'll shoot any person [that moves].
S

any person who person whoever any


whoever
4. I'll shoot [whoever moves].
S V
O
whoever will shoot
whoever moves whoever moves whoever

1. Ill give 100 dollars to any person.

2. He returns first.
S V

2 he 1 any person
Ill give 100 dollars to any person that returns first.

any person whoever


Ill give 100 dollars to whoever returns first.

whom
to whoever whoever returns first whoever
returns
1. Any person qualifies for the job.
S
V

2. You see the person in this room


S V
O

person that
Any person [that you see in this room] qualifies for the job.
S

any person whomever


Whomever you see in this room qualifies for the job.
S
V
you see whomever
see whoever/whomever who/whom
whomever
whoever



1. There are two apples in the basket.

2. The basket is lying on the table.

the basket which

3.There are two apples in the basket which is lying on the table.

is which which basket


two apples
1. You can find two apples in the basket.

2. I bought the apples.

apples which

You can find two apples which I bought in the basket.

which I bought two apples in the


basket can find bought

in the basket
You can find two apples in the basket which I bought.

which apples
basket

in the basket
3.In the basket you can find two apples which I bought.

in the basket can find


1. A plague broke out.

2. It lasted 20 years.

2 1 a plague
A plague which lasted 20 years broke out.

3. A plague broke out which lasted 20 years.

when,
where, how, why

when
when then

1. The rain came at a time.


S

2. The farmers needed it most then.


S

a time then then at that time then when

3. The rain came at a time when(that) the farmers needed it most.


S

when a time

that when
a time
4. The rain came at a time the farmers needed it most.

what, whatever, whichever, who(m)ever

*The rain came when the farmers needed it most.


S

at a time
when
came when that

1. I need some time.


S V
O

2. I can be with my daughter then.


S V
C

some time then at that time when


3. I need some time when(that) I can be with my daughter.

S V O

when some time


when that time
when
4. I need some time I can be with my daughter.

S V O

some time
I need when I can be with my daughter.
some time when
need

1. I know the time.


S V O

2. He will arrive then.


S
V

the time then when


3. I know the time when(that) he will arrive.
S V O

when the time


that when
4. I know the time he will arrive.
S V O
the time
I know when he will arrive.


*I know when he will arrive.
S V

when he will arrive When will he arrive?


know when that

*I know that he will arrive.


S V

when that He will arrive that


know
where
where there when
1. The car stopped at a place.
S
V

2. Three roads met there.


S
V

1 a place 2 there there

The car stopped at a place where(that) three roads met.


S

where three roads met a place


that where
The car stopped at a place three roads met.
S

The car stopped where three roads met.


S

where stopped
where that

The Johnsons have a place where(that) they can get away from other people.
S

V O

where a place where


that
The Johnsons have a place they can get away from other people.
S

V O

a place
The Johnsons have where they can get away from other people.
how
when, where, how, why when where
how
why

1. I never found out the way.


S
V
O

2. He escaped so.
S V

2 so in this way 1 the way


how
I never found out the way how(that) he escaped.
S

that how
how
I never found out the way he escaped.
S

the way

I never found out how he escaped.


S

how he escaped How did he escape? found out

I never found out that he escaped.


S

how thatthat he escaped


that
why
why how
1. I've forgotten the reason.
S
V
O

2. I called for a reason.


S V

reason 2 for a reason why


1. I've forgotten the reason why(that) I called.
S

why why I called the reason


why that
I've forgotten the reason I called.
S

I've forgotten why I called.


S

why why I called have forgotten


Why that
I've forgotten that I called.

That have forgotten

that

1. Shakespeare was born in 1564.


1564
2. Queen Elizabeth I was on the throne then.

2 then 1 1564 when


1564 a time

3. Shakespeare was born in 1564, when Queen Elizabeth I was on the throne.

that

1. The best museum in Paris is the Louvre.

2. You can see many priceless treasures there.

3. The best museum in Paris is the Louvre, where you can see many priceless treasures.

that where

Wh-
wh-
1. who, whichwhen, where, how, why

My father is a man [who always keeps his word].

Paris, [which has a long history], is a legendary city.

Ill never forget my high school days, [when life seemed so simple].

Lets spend the weekend at Tommys, [where we can be quite free].

Please show me the way [how I can start this motorcycle].

Money is one reason [why I dont take any vacations+.

2. who, which, what, when, where, how, why


[Who stole the money] will be revealed soon.

Tell me [which of the two designs is prettier].

The question is [what youre going to do about it+.

Nobody knows [when he will return].

I have a pretty good idea [where he may be hiding].

The most important thing in fishing is [how you prepare the bait].

That is [why I need your help].

3. when, where
The game ended [when he hit a homerun].

The ship is to boldly go [where none has gone before].


Wh-ever
wh-ever
1. what(ever), whoever, whichever anything that, anyone that

[What(ever)= Anything that he says+ cant be true.

I sincerely envy [whoever(= anyone that) lives in that grand mansion].

Ill buy *whichever car(= any car that) you recommend].

2. no matter whoever, whichever, whatever, whenever, wherever, however

[Whoever(= No matter who) told you that story+, dont believe it.

There will be difficulties [whichever way(= No matter which way) you go].

[Whatever(= No matter what) you do+, just dont stay put.

[Whenever(= No matter when) he gets angry], he counts to 10.

Youll never find a place like home, *wherever(= No matter where) you may go].

He can never beat his rival, [however hard(= No matter how hard) he tries].

that
that
1. that
Are you sure [that everything is all right]?

2. so that, such that, in order that, in that


He started work early [so that he can finish on time].

It was such a great meal [that everyone of us ate too much].

3. who, whichwhen, where, how, why

Hes the man [that I told you about]. ( who)

Whats the best movie [that youve ever seen+? ( which)

The accident happened at a time [that traffic was heaviest]. ( when)

That restaurant is a place [that most gourmets in town go]. ( where)

Ive found several ways [that I can be of help to you]. ( how)

Is this the reason [that he left so early]? ( why)


-s

subject-verb agreement

Bill Gates, New Yorkgold, airinformation,


courage ruinsremainsoutskirts
damage damages

gold -sremains
-s gold remains

There are people waiting outside to see you.

people -s people

Three aboriginal peoples live along this river.

a people three peoples


Many fish in this lake live on algae.

fish a fish many fish fishes


many fishes

Mathematics is an exacting science.

mathematics -ics-s
civicsethicsphysicsmetaphysics

Mumps is not a serious disease.

mumps -s hepatitismeningitis

Seven thousand dollars is a lot of money to spend in one evening!

seven thousand dollars seven thousand dollars -s


is dollars
seven thousand dollars seven houses a thousand books
Houses books dollars
seven dollars

Two hours and 28 minutes is the total length of the movie.


28
Five kilometers is not too long a distance to walk in one hour.

Three pounds of brown sugar is quite enough for now.

The media has been(or have been) reporting this murder for days.

media medium medium media

This data isor These data are quite out-of-date.

Data datumData
bacteria bacteriumwhereabouts whereaboutheadquarters
whereabout
statistics
Statistics draws heavily on mathematics.

statistic statistics
This statistic is quite accurate.

These statistics are mostly accurate.

family, crew, committee, staff, faculty, team


, police, government

1. The police is working on this case.

2. The police are here.

1 the police 2 the police

1. The committee was founded in 1980, so it has quite a bit of history now..

1980
2. The committee are mostly seated now, and they are impatient to begin.

1
it 2 committee
they
1. My family is large.

2. My family are all highly educated intellectuals.

large family is 2 highly educated


intellectuals family are.

All the students have gone on the trip.

All the money has been put in the bank.

all the students all the students


all the money all the money

all of
All of the students have gone on the trip.
All of the money has been put in the bank.
all of the students all of the students
the students all the money all

all of predeterminerthe students money


all of

all of all of the students all of the money

Part of the difficulty lies in communication.

part of the part of the difficulty difficulty


some of, most of, one-third of
One-third of the products were defective.

Half of the participants have finished the marathon now.

Some of the time was spent on looking for tools.

Most of my high school classmates are in college now.

More of the blame is on me than on you.

Less, fewer
many books
much time many much
more more more books, more time
few few days little little faithfew fewer
little less
1. Less money was spent on education than on national defense.

2. Fewer people go to the U.S. to study now than 10 years ago.

Money little little money Little less


less moneypeople few few people
Few fewer fewer people less people less
less days, less products
A lot of, lots of
1. A lot of mistakes were made because of the time pressure.

2. Lots of the credit goes to the project manager.

a lot of lots of
1 a lot of mistakes 2 lots of credit
None of
1. None of the meat was left.

2. None of the sandwiches was fresh.

3. None of the restaurants were open.

None of 1 meat none


not one none of
2 3
A number of, the number
1. A number of major earthquakes happen every year.

2. The number of major earthquakes last year was five.

1 a number of earthquakes number


a number of
happen
2 the number of major earthquakes
the number earthquakes
the number it was
A pair
trousersglassesscissorspliersshoes

1. A pair of shoes is left outside the door.

2. Three pairs of shoes are left outside the door.

3. These shoes were new.

A pair of shoes
1 a pair 2 three pairs 3 these shoes

Every, each, either, neither, many a

Every day is a new beginning.

Each participant is entitled to a memorial pin.


Each of the participants is entitled to a memorial pin.

Either way is fine with me.


Either of the ways is fine with me.

Neither solution looks attractive.


Neither of the solutions looks attractive.

Many a student has felt the urge to cheat in exams.

Many a

John together with his family is on vacation in Florida.

The list of Presidential candidates is in todays newspapers.

Monkeys in this national park are a menace to visitors.

and, or, but both and, either or, neither nor, not only but also

And, both and


1. Your brother John has come to see you.

2. Your brother and John have come to see you.

1 your brother John 2


your brother and John
and
1. The senator and delegate wants to make an announcement.

2. The senator and the delegate want to make an announcement.

Senator delegate 1 the senator and delegate


the and senator delegate

2 the senator the delegate

Every man and every woman has to do something for the country.

every man every woman man


woman every
every man and every woman man or woman, every person

All work and no play makes Jack a dull boy.

all work no play all no


(all work)(no play) all work and no play

1. A cup and saucer was placed on the table.


2. A cup and a dish were placed on the table.

1 saucer a cup and saucer a


2
a cup and a dish

1. A brown and white dog is at your doorsteps.

2. A brown and a white dog are fighting over a bone.

1 a brown white dog


2 a brown and a white dog a brown dog and
a white dog dog

1. Bread and butter is not very tasty but very filling.

2. Bread and butter have both risen in price.

Bread butter 1 bread


and butterBread butter
bread and butter
2 bread and butter

Both bread and butter have risen in price.


both and
Or, either or, neither nor
or and but

John or his sisters are going to attend the meeting.


John his sisters or
John is going to attend the meeting, or his sisters are going to attend the meeting.
or be going to attend the meeting
is going to attend the meeting
Does he or his friends want to go?

Does he want to go, or do his friends want to go?

Either my father alone or both my parents are coming.

Either my father alone is coming or both my parents are coming.


is coming
Neither he nor his friends were there at that time.

Neither he was there nor his friends were there at that time.
was there
But, not only but also
But except
Everyone but a few complete idiots was able to see that.

but but except but a few complete idiots except


a few complete idiots everyone

Not only you but also I was at fault.

Not only but also


Not only you were at fault but also I was at fault.

Not only were you at fault but I was also at fault.

As well as no less than

You want to borrow money? But I, as well as you, am broke.

I as well as you

I am broke, as well as you are broke.


I am broke as well as you are broke
I am broke, as well as you are.
I, as well as you are, am broke.
I, as well as you, am broke.

I, no less than you, am responsible.

I am responsible, no less than you are responsible.

I am responsible, no less than you are.


I, no less than you are, am responsible.
I, no less than you, am responsible.

I don't trust people who talk too much.

who talk too much who people people who talk

1. He has three options, which look equally attractive.

2. He has three options, which is a good thing.

1 which three options


2 whichhe has three options
Which

it is that it is

It was the Johnson boys that(who) were here last night.

It the Johnson boys


that that who the Johnson boys

Smoking is an awful habit.

To see her is to love her.

What I need is your word.

inversion

be do

I.

A.

The police said, None was killed in the accident.


S


"None was killed in the accident," said the police.
O
V
S
said

"None was killed in the accident," the police said.


O
S
V
None was killed in the accident.the
police said

The WHO warns (that) cholera is coming back.


S

that that
warns
Cholera is coming back, warns the WHO.
O
V
S
that

Cholera is coming back, the WHO warns


O
S
V
Cholera is coming back the WHO warns

The WHO, a powerful medical and environmental organization under the UN dedicated
S
to maintaining world health, warns that Cholera is coming back.
V
O

S+V+O
Cholera is coming back

Cholera is coming back, the WHO, a powerful medical and environmental organization
O
S
under the UN dedicated to maintaining world health, warns.
V
the WHO warns
warns

Cholera is coming back, warns the WHO, a powerful medical and environmental
O
V
S

organization under the UN dedicated to maintaining world health.

14

B. there is/are
there is/are
There is/are There is a book on the desk

A book is there on the desk.


S V C
Be there be
linking verb
There is a book on the desk.
C V S

there is

There goes the train.


V

Here

is your ticket for the opera.

here, there
In Loch Ness dwells a mysterious monster.

To the west of Japan lies China.


To the east spreads the expanse of the Pacific.


(spatial order)(To the west..., To the east...)

C.

1. The U.S. President is a man.

2. A heavy responsibility, whether he likes it or not, falls on him.

2 him 1 a man
The U.S. President is a man [on whom a heavy responsibility, whether he likes it or
S
not, falls].
V
a man on whom

on whom falls falls



a heavy responsibility falls whether he likes it or not
on whom

The U.S. President is a man [on whom falls a heavy responsibility, whether he likes
V
S
it or not].

whom a man on whom falls falls


a heavy responsibility

The U.S. President is a man [who shoulders a lot of responsibility].


S
V
O


He shoulders a lot of responsibility
he who
II. be
be
be if
if
if be
if be
[If

I had been there], I could have done something to help.

if had
[Had I been there], I could have done something to help.
be
[If I knew how], I would gladly do it.

knew
be
III. be do
be do

(not, never, hardly...)


We don't have such luck every day.

not every day not every day


not do not do

Not every day do we have such luck.


I will not stop waiting for you until you are married.

not until you are married will


Not until you are married will I stop waiting for you.
hardly, barely, seldom not not

I seldom see such a beautiful sight.

seldom
seldom seldom not see
do
Seldom do I see such a beautiful sight.

I had hardly sat down to work when the phone rang.

hardly had
Hardly had I sat down to work when the phone rang.

Hardly anyone knew him.

hardly anyone

only
Only I saw him yesterday.

Only I

I saw him only yesterday.

only yesterday

Only yesterday did I see him.

1. Gradually they became close friends.

2. Only gradually did they become close friends.

1 gradually 2 only
gradually not at once not very fast
Not only but also
He not only passed the exam but also scored at the top.

but Not only but also passed


the exam scored at the top
not only not only

Not only did he pass the exam but also scored at the top.
but he passed the exam scored at
the top

Not only did he pass the exam but also he scored at the top.
but also only
but also but also he
scored at the top not only did he pass...
also scored
Not only did he pass the exam but he also scored at the top.


IV. be do
be do

A. So do I, neither will I

He likes basketball.

So do I.

He can speak Spanish.

He is a teacher.

He wont give up.

So can I.

So am I.

Neither will I.

He likes basketball I like basketball


like basketball so
like basketball I
like do So do I

B.

1. Girls like cats more than boys.

2. Girls like cats more [than boys do].


S V O
S V

3. Girls like cats more [than they like boys].


S V O
S V O

2 3
than
1 2 3
ambiguous 2 do
3

2
Girls like cats more [than boys, who as a rule are a cruel lot, do].
S

boys who as a rule are a cruel lot do


boys
Do do boys
do like cats

do boys
Girls like cats more [than do boys], who as a rule are a cruel lot.
S V O
V S
do boys do like cats

(nonfinite clauses) VingVen


to V(nonfinite verbs)

(reduced clauses)

to V, Ving Ven

(clear)(concise)

be
-ing
-en
be + to

be


be

one, everybody, people

1. While he was taking a bath, Archimedes discovered the principle of buoyancy.

Archimedes he
be
While taking a bath, Archimedes discovered the principle of buoyancy.

2. Whether it is insured or not, your house, [which is a wooden building], needs

a fire alarm.
O

Your house needs a fire alarm whether whether it is insured or not which
which is a wooden building it which your
house it which
be
Whether insured or not, your house, a wooden building, needs a fire alarm.

be 1 while he was taking a bath


taking a bath 2 whether it is insured or not whether insured or not 2
which is a wooden building a wooden building be
be
be

(Subject) (Predicate)
S+V+C
be Be
linking verb
Birds are lovely.
S V C

be S+V+C

Birds are lovely be


birds lovely
be be

be
be
be 1 while he was taking a
bath was taking 2 whether it is insured or not
is insured be
be taking a bath
insured or not
be
be
1.
be
You must go at once.
You are to go at once.

The train will leave in 10 minutes.


The train is to leave in l0 minutes.

He should do as I say.
He is to do as I say.

You may call me Sir.


You are to call me Sir.


Children can't watch this movie.
Children are not to watch this movie.

be
going to, willing to, able to, likely to, in order to, so as to, free to, bound to...

He studied hard so that he could get a scholarship.

so that he could get


was (able) to get be to get a scholarship

He studied hard to get a scholarship.


so that he could
He studied hard so as to get a scholarship.
He studied hard in order to get a scholarship.
be
2. Ving
be be -ing
be Ving
be
be
John remembers that he saw the lady before.
S
V
O

that that he saw the lady before he John


saw be John
remembers saw the lady before he saw the lady before he was seeing
the lady before be saw seeing
he was
John remembers seeing the lady before.
S

that he saw the lady before remembers seeing the lady before

be -ing
Ving

be

2008/01/17 03:48

1. The man is here.


S V C

2. You asked about him.


S V

2 him 1 the man him whom whom

The man [whom you asked about] is here.

whom about
The man [you asked about] is here.

you asked about

be
be
The man [who wants to see you] is waiting outside.
S V
O

who the man


who be
wants be -ing
wanting
The man [wanting to see you] is waiting outside.

that

Do you know the girl who is sitting next to John?

who be
Do you know the girl sitting next to John?

Ven

1. Beer is most delicious.

2. It is chilled to 6.

2 it 1 beer which
Beer [which is chilled to 6] is most delicious.
S

be which
beer be chilled be

Beer chilled to 6 is most delicious.


beerchilled

Your brother John, [who was wounded in the war], will soon be sent home.
S V C

your brother John


be

Your brother John, wounded in war, will soon be sent home.

Ving
be+Ving be
The ship [which is coming to shore] is from Japan.
S V C

which the ship be coming


be
The ship coming to shore is from Japan.

be Ving
My old car, [which breaks down every other week], won't last much longer.
S
V

breaks down be be is breaking


down be breaks
down breaking down be
My old car, breaking down every other week, won't last much longer.

A Big John is a machine.

The machine drills tunnels.


S
V
O

machine
A Big John is a machine that drills tunnels.

that drills tunnels that machine


drills tunnels tunnel-drillingtunnel
Tunnel-drilling a machine

A Big John is a tunnel-drilling machine.

That magazine is for women.

That magazine looks beautiful.


S
V
C

magazine
That magazine which looks beautiful is for women.

beautiful-looking
That beautiful-looking magazine is for women.

Im enjoying the sunset.


The sunset is vanishing fast.
S V
C

sunset
Im enjoying the sunset, which is vanishing fast.

which is vanishing fast which be is vanishing fast


vast-vanishing
Im enjoying the fast-vanishing sunset.

I love these high peaks.

These high peaks are covered with snow.


S
V C

these high peaks


I love these high peaks, which are covered with snow.
which are covered with snow be covered with snow
snow-covered
I love these high, snow-covered peaks.

These apples are beginning to rot.

These apples were bitten by frost.


S
V C

These apples, which were bitten by frost, are beginning to rot.

which be were
These apples, bitten by frost, are beginning to rot.
bitten by frost frost-bitten

These frost-bitten apples are beginning to rot.


to V

John is the one who should go this time.

who should go be be + to who is to go


be who is
John is the one to go this time.

the one
1.

1. Theres still one more person to notify.


2. Theres still one more person to be notified.

1 to notify 2 to be notified

Theres still one more person.


We must notify the person.
S
V
O
the person one more person
Theres still one more person whom we must notify.

whom
Theres still one more person we must notify.

we we
must notify to notify 1 Theres still one more person to notify

Theres still one more person.


He must be notified.
S V
C
he one more person who
Theres still one more person who must be notified.

who must to
2 Theres still one more person
to be notified


When John stepped into his office, the boss was seen waiting there by him.
John boss
John him

When John stepped into his office, he saw the boss waiting there.

he John

Stepping into his office, John saw the boss waiting there.


When John stepped into his office Stepping into his office
22
When John stepped out of his office, a car hit him.
John a car
John him
When John stepped out of his office, he was hit by a car.

Stepping out of his office, John was hit by a car.

I must stay at the office [because I have some people] to notify.

to notify to be notified

1. I must stay at the office.


2. I have some people.
3. I must notify them.
I 3 I 3
I must notify them
I must stay at the office [because I have some people] whom I must notify.

I I
I whom I must notify
whom I must to to
notify I must stay at the office because I have some people to notify


The news cant be released yet *because there are some people] to be notified first.

to be notified first to notify first

1. The news cant be released yet.


2. There are some people.
3. These people must be notified first.
1 the news 2 some people
2 some people 3 these people 3 people
2 3 these people to be notified

The news cant be released yet *because there are some people+ who must be notified first.
The news cant be released yet some people
who some people must
to
The news cant be released yet *because there are some people] to be notified first.

2.

1. This is exactly the thing

to do.

2. This is exactly the time

to do it.

1
This is exactly the thing.
We should do the thing.
S
V
O
the thing

This is exactly the thing which we should do.

which should do

This is exactly the thing we should do.

we should 1
This is exactly the thing to do to do which

This is exactly the time.

We should do it at this time.


S

at this time the time when


This is exactly the time when we should do it.

This is exactly the time we should do it.

2 This is exactly the time to do it to do


it when
3.
to talk to, to deal with, to get into

1. He will be the toughest guy.

2. You must deal with the guy.


S
V
O


2 the guy must deal with 1 the toughest guy

He will be the toughest guy that you must deal with.

that must deal with

He will be the toughest guy you must deal with.

you must to

He will be the toughest guy to deal with.


4.

for
I have a job that your brother can do.

that do
I have a job your brother can do.

can to your brother I have a job to do.


I have a job for your brother to do.

be be

Hilary Clinton, who is pretty and intelligent, was a popular First Lady.

Hilary Clinton
who be pretty and intelligent

Hilary Clinton, pretty and intelligent, was a popular First Lady.

pretty and intelligent


(a pretty woman)(The woman is pretty)

be

Bill Clinton, who is an ex-President of the U.S., is a Baby Boomer.

who an ex-President of the U.S. be

Bill Clinton, an ex-President of the U.S., is a Baby Boomer.


be
someone, people be
that
who, what, where... that

Ving to V
Ven
(be+Ven) be Ven
Ving to V
Ving
be -ing

That I drink good wine with friends is my greatest enjoyment.


S()

I drink good wine with friends. that


I my greatest
enjoyment be drink
drinking be
[That I am drinking good wine with friends] is my greatest enjoyment.
SV
C
be drinking
I be that
Drinking good wine with friends is my greatest enjoyment.

drinking good wine with friends

Not having a cell-phone can save you a great deal of trouble.


S()

not having a cell-phone that you dont have a cell-phone you


you have -ing not having a cell-phone

1.
Many husbands enjoy that they do the cooking.
S

they husbands do be -ing

Many husbands enjoy doing the cooking.

2.
1. He got used to something.
S V C

2. He worked late into the night.


S V

2 1 something 2 something that he worked


late into the night something to 2
-ing working late into the night to

He got used to working late into the night.

O()

His favorite pastime is that he goes fishing on weekends.


S

he ing
His favorite pastime is going fishing on weekends.

1. S+V+O+C
S+V+O+C
I imagined that a beautiful girl was singing to me.
S

a beautiful girl I be
I imagined singing to myself.

a beautiful girl be

I imagined a beautiful girl singing to me.


S V
O
C
a beautiful girl singing to me
S+V+O+C

2.
That he calls my girlfriend every day is too much for me.
S

he
Calling my girlfriend every day is too much for me.
S
V C

he calling my girlfriend every day


he he
calling...
His calling my girlfriend every day is too much for me.
S

Ving

3.

I am worried that my son lies all the time.


SV

S+V+C

I am worried about the fact that my son lies all the time.
SV

that my son lies all the time the fact the fact
about my son I

1. I am worried about my son's lying all the time.


C

SV

my son about lying all the time my son


2. I am worried about my son lying all the time.
SV

1 2 1
(that my son lies all the time) my son's lying all the time
2 (my son)(lying all the time)

Im surprised that there is no index to the book.


SV

Im surprised at the fact that there is no index to the book.


SV

()

that there is no index to the book the fact at the fact


at

Im surprised at there being no index to the book.

there is
is being there being no index to the book

be Ven

That anyone is called a liar is the greatest insult.


S

anyone be that

Called a liar is the greatest insult.


called a liar called
calling calling a liar
called be being being called
a liarBe ing
Being called a liar is the greatest insult.
S V

1. I am looking forward to something.

2. I am invited to the party.

2 1 something something 2
be
I am looking forward to invited to the party.
invited... to invited

I am looking forward to the invitation to the party.

being invited
I am looking forward to being invited to the party.

The actors greatest achievement is that he has been nominated twice for the Oscar.

he actor
he be has been has been nominated
has been having been
The actors greatest achievement is having been nominated twice for the Oscar.

be
be -ing being

That one is a teacher requires a lot of patience.


S

be a teacher being...
Being a teacher requires a lot of patience.

be
A teacher requires a lot of patience.

That he was busy is no excuse for the negligence.


S V

be busy be busy
-ing

His being busy is no excuse for the negligence.

he being his

Being busy is no excuse for his negligence.

he negligence his
to V
(to V)
The children expect that they can get presents for Christmas.
S

can be+to

The children expect that they are to get presents for Christmas.

be that they are


The children expect to get presents for Christmas.

Ving
I think it strange that man should fear ghosts.
S V

think strange
it (expletive)
man should

I think it strange to fear ghosts.

to V

S+V+O+C
S+V+O+C
I want that you should go.
S V

you should
be + to
I want that you are to go.
S V
O
be you to go
1. I want you to go.
S V O C

2. I promised you to go.


S V O O

1 S+V+O+C to go you you should go 2 S+V+O+O


you to go 2

I promised you that I would go.


S V O
O
that I would go I would to
2
for
for

That the Clippers should beat the Lakers was quite a marvelous feat.

the Clippers
for
For the Clippers to beat the Lakers was quite a marvelous feat.

of
of for
It is kind of you to say so.
S V C

It is kind that you can say so.


S V C

it you
for It is kind of can
to
It is kind of you to say so.
S V C

It was silly of him to believe that story.


S V

that he should believe that story It was silly


of should to

It takes time to learn skiing well.


S V O


It takes time that anybody can learn skiing well.
S

it anybody
can to
It takes time to learn skiing well.
S

It didnt take Richard much time to learn skiing well.


It didnt take much time for Richard to learn skiing well.
Richard didnt take much time to learn skiing well.
There is/are
I want that there will be no mistake.
I want there to be no mistake.

that that

1. What should I do?


2. I don't know the question.
S V
O
1 2 the question what
I don't know what I should do.
S

I
I don't know what to do.
S

what where to V, how to V, when to V...

Yes/No question whether

1. Should I vote for the KMT?


2. I can't decide the question.
1 2 the question 1 2 whether
I can't decide whether I should vote for the KMT (or not).
S

whether either...or I
to V
I can't decide whether to vote for the KMT.

Wh- to V
Hell tell us what to do.
Hell tell us when to do it.
to have Ven
I hope to have read this book by next weekend.
He expects to have completed the job before next January.
to be Ving
I dont want to be sitting here all day.
I dont want you to be sitting here all day.
to be Ven
to V Ving

He forgot that he should see his dentist that day.


S

should see

He forgot to see his dentist that day.

He forgot that he saw the man before.

saw
be -ing
He forgot seeing the man before.
0

I love driving on the freeway.


S V

that I drive on the freeway that I am driving on the freeway driving on the freeway

1. I would love to drive to work in my own car.


S

can

2. I would love that I can drive to work in my own car.


S

I avoid being late to any appointment.


S V

I avoid that I am late to any appointment.


S

I hope to get to the concert on time.

S V

can
I hope that I can get to the concert on time.
S V

to V Ving

be
be

Ving
Ving
(be+Ving) be Ving be
be Ving
While he was lying on the couch, the boy fell asleep.

S V

he the boy be
Linking Verb be
1. While lying on the couch, the boy fell asleep.

while
while before if, although...

2. Lying on the couch, the boy fell asleep.

while when because as, since

2 while lying on the couch


the boy
fell
lying on the couch fell

lying on the couch while he


was lying on the couch while 1
while
whilelying on the couch
be
be (can, must, may...) Ving

Because we have nothing to do here, we might as well go home.

to do here
that we can do here nothing have be
be have
having: Because we are having nothing to do here , we might as well go home.
having nothing to do here we are

Having nothing to do here, we might as well go home.

because, since...
because

Although we have nothing to do here, we can't leave early.

we have having
Although having nothing to do here, we can't leave early.

although although

although

Having nothing to do here, we still can't leave early.


still although although
He raised his hand, as if he was trying to hit her.
S V

he was
1. He raised his hand, as if trying to hit her.

1 as if
2. He raised his hand, trying to hit her.

2 as if because

being
be being
As I am a student, I can't afford to get married.

I am a student as
a student a student

As a student, I can't afford to get married.

a student I am
as be being
Being a student, I can't afford to get married.

being a student being a student


I

before, after, since, as


being
Before he was in school, he used to be a naughty child.

he was before
In school, he used to be a naughty child.

before before
Before in school, he used to be a naughty child.
before before before 1977, before the war
before before
before before in school
in school in before before school
before school
be
Before being in school, he used to be a naughty child.

be in school be being before

before, after, since


being

After he wrote the letter, he put it to mail.

wrote put after

1. After writing the letter, he put it to mail.

he Ving 1 after
after writing the letter
after
Writing the letter, he put it to mail.
after When he was writing the letter, he put it to mail.
when after

2. Having written the letter, he put it to mail.

When he had written the letter, he put it to mail.

when had writtenput


had written be had
-ing having written when 2
Dangling Modifier

Dangling Modifiers

When the child was already sleeping soundly in bed, her mother came to kiss her goodnight.

(the child)(her mother) be

Already sleeping soundly in bed, her mother came to kiss her goodnight.
Dangling Modifier
already sleeping soundly in bed
her mother
Dangling Modifier

Already sleeping soundly in bed, the child did not know it when her mother came to kiss her goodnight.

be

The child already sleeping soundly in bed, her mother came to kiss her goodnight.

already sleeping soundly in bed


the child the child

be
be

When the child already sleeping soundly in bed, her mother came to kiss her goodnight.
be

be The child sleeping soundly... the child sleeping soundly...


be

Ving

Ven
be (be+Ven) be
Ven
After he was shot in the knee, he couldn't fight.

he be
Shot in the knee, he couldn't fight.

after shot
after
Although he was shot in the knee, he killed three more enemy soldiers.

although
Although shot in the knee, he killed three more enemy soldiers.

although
Shot in the knee, he still killed three more enemy soldiers.

before, after, since

Before it was redecorated, the house was in bad shape.

before
Redecorated, the house was in bad shape.
redecorated
before before
Before redecorated, the house was in bad shape.
before redecorated redecorated
being

Before being redecorated, the house was in bad shape.

be being -ing
before redecorated redecoration
Before redecoration, the house was in bad shape.

before after since


having been
having been
1. Because they had been warned, they proceeded carefully.

they had been warned be


had been be had been
having been
2. Having been warned, they proceeded carefully.

1 had been be be
1
3. Warned, they proceeded carefully.

warned had been

2 3 having been having been


2 having... 3 warned 2 having
been 3 warned having been

Ven
When the coffin had been interred, the minister said a few comforting words.

(Having been) interred, the minister said a few comforting words.

The coffin (having been) interred, the minister said a few comforting words.

to V
can, should, must
He studied hard in order that he could get a scholarship.

could get
be+to be to

He studied hard in order to get a scholarship.

I'll only be too glad if I can help.

can help
I'll only be too glad to help.

be to
to V
be
be
be


When you are under attack, you must take cover immediately.

be under attack
When under attack, you must take cover immediately.

While it is small in size, the company is very competitive.

small
While small in size, the company is very competitive.

Although he was a doctor by training, Asimov became a writer.

a doctor
Although a doctor by training, Asimov became a writer.

be
before after
because since
because of, as a result of

When she arrived at the party, she found all the people gone.

when on upon
Upon arriving at the party, she found all the people gone.

-ing
Upon her arrival at the party, she found all the people gone.

arrive arrival
When she completed the project, she was promoted.

Upon completing the project, she was promoted.

complete completion
Upon completion the project, she was promoted.
complete the project completion
of
Upon completion of the project, she was promoted.

The construction work was delayed because it had been raining.

because of
The construction work was delayed because of rain.

it had been rain

Although he opposed it, the plan was carried out.

although despite in spite of

Despite his opposition, the plan was carried out.

itAlthough Despite
he opposed his opposition
If there should be a fire, the sprinkler will be started.

if in case of there should be


fire
In case of a fire, the sprinkler will be started.

Because the exam is only a week away, I have no time to waste.


S V

the exam I
With the exam only a week away, I have no time to waste.
because with the exam be only a week away

sentence-combining


(Non-finite Clauses) TIME
sentence combining


be

1. The patient had not responded to the standard treatment.

2. This fact greatly puzzled the medical team.

2 this fact 1
2 this fact 1
The patient had not responded to the standard treatment, which greatly puzzled the medical team.
which
the standard treatment
(ambiguous)

1 2 this fact that 2


this fact
That the patient had not responded to the standard treatment greatly puzzled the medical team.
that be the
patient had not responded be

be be
can, must, should... (to V)

-ing
had not responded not having responded
the patient (the patient's) that
The patient's not having responded to the standard treatment greatly puzzled the medical team.

The patient's failure to respond to the standard treatment greatly puzzled the medical team.

1. The summer tourists are all gone.

2. The resort town has resumed its air of tranquillity.

after, because, now that... 1 1 2

Now that the summer tourists are all gone, the resort town has resumed its air of tranquillity.
Now that the summer tourists
be (are)(gone) be
now that
(With) the summer tourists all gone, the resort town has resumed its air of tranquillity.
with the summer tourists all gone

with now that the tourists with all gone


with

1. Confucius must have written on pieces of bamboo.

2. Confucius lived in the Eastern Zhou Dynasty.

3. Paper was not available until the Eastern Han Dynasty.

1 2 Confucius 2 Confucius
who
(1+2) Confucius, who lived in the Eastern Zhou Dynasty, must have written on pieces of bamboo.
(who lived in the Eastern Zhou Dynasty) who lived
living
Confucius, living in the Eastern Zhou Dynasty, must have written on pieces of bamboo.
3 3
because
(+3) Confucius, living in the Eastern Zhou Dynasty, must have written on pieces of bamboo, because paper was not available
until the Eastern Han Dynasty.
because paper
be
be being because
Confucius, living in the Eastern Zhou Dynasty, must have written on pieces of bamboo, paper not being available until the
Eastern Han Dynasty.

1. The movable-type press was invented by Gutenberg.

2. The movable-type press was introduced to England in 1485.

3. This event marked the end of the Dark Ages there.

1 2 the movable-type press which


(1+2) The movable-type press, which was invented by Gutenberg, was introduced to England in 1485.
which which be was invented

The movable-type press, invented by Gutenberg, was introduced to England in 1485.

3 this event
an event 3 the event
(+3) The movable-type press, invented by Gutenberg, was introduced to England in 1485, an event which marked the end of
the Dark Ages there.
an event which marked marking
The movable-type press, invented by Gutenberg, was introduced to England in 1485, marking the end of the Dark Ages there.

1. Lee Tenghui was educated in the U.S.

2. Lee Tenghui shows a global view at times.

3. Lee Tenghui deals with economic matters at these times.

1 2 1 because
2
(1+2) Because he was educated in the U.S., Lee Tenghui shows a global view at times.
because he was because educated

Educated in the U.S., Lee Tenghui shows a global view at times.


3 at times 3 at these times when

(+3) Educated in the U.S., Lee Tenghui shows a global view (at times) when he deals with economic matters.
at times when
he deals dealing at times when when

Educated in the U.S., Lee Tenghui shows a global view when dealing with economic matters.

1. I'd like something.

2. You will meet some people.


3. Then you can leave.

1 something 2 2 that
1 something like
(1+2) I'd like that you (will) meet some people.
1+2 that will
you
like to V must,
should, will(would), can(could), may(might) be+to be to
will meet to meet
I'd like you to meet some people.
3 3 before
(+3) I'd like you to meet some people before you (can) leave.
before before
you leave
leaving
I'd like you to meet some people before leaving.

1. I have not practiced very much.

2. I should have practiced very much.

3. I am worried about something.

4. I might forget something.

5. What should I say during the speech contest?

1 2 as...as
(1+2) I have not practiced as much as I should (have practiced).

3 because
(+3) Because I have not practiced as much as I should, I am worried about something.
Because I have not practiced be
-ing not having practiced Because
Not having practiced as much as I should, I am worried about something.
something 4 something about
about the possibility 4 that possibility

(+4) Not having practiced as much as I should, I am worried (about the possibility) that I might forget something.
about the possibility that that
about that I might forget
to forget about forgetting
Not having practiced as much as I should, I am worried about forgetting something.
something 5
something forget
(+5) Not having practiced as much as I should, I am worried about forgetting what I should say during the speech contest.
what I should say to say
Not having practiced as much as I should, I am worried about forgetting what to say during the speech contest.

1. James Sung was Secretary General of the KMT then.

2. James Sung is Governor of Taiwan Province now.

3. James Sung saw something.

4. The KMT failed in the important Legislative Yuan election.

5. James Sung offered something.

6. He would assume responsibility.

7. He would tender his resignation.

1 2
and
(1+2) James Sung was Secretary General of the KMT then and he is Governor of Taiwan Province now.
and he is
(A) James Sung was Secretary General of the KMT then and Governor of Taiwan Province now.
A
3 4 3 something 4 4
that 3 something saw
(3+4) James Sung saw that the KMT failed in the important Legislative Yuan election.
that KMT failed failure
(B) James Sung saw the KMT's failure in the important Legislative Yuan election.

B
5 6 5 something 6 6
5 something
(5+6) James Sung offered that he (would) assume responsibility.
to V he be to assume be
James Sung offered to assume responsibility.
A A
James Sung who James Sung
(+A) James Sung, who was Secretary General of the KMT then and Governor of Taiwan Province now, offered to assume
responsibility.
who who be was

James Sung, Secretary General of the KMT then and Governor of Taiwan Province now, offered to assume responsibility.
B B
because
(+B) Because he saw the KMT's failure in the important Legislative Yuan election, James Sung, Secretary General of the KMT
then and Governor of Taiwan Province now, offered to assume responsibility.
because he James Sung
saw be seeing because
Seeing the KMT's failure in the important Legislative Yuan election, James Sung, Secretary General of the KMT then and
Governor of Taiwan Province now, offered to assume responsibility.
7 (assume responsibility)
7 assume by
7 (He would tender his resignation.) by by 7
he would tender tendering
(+7) Seeing the KMT's failure in the important Legislative Yuan election, James Sung, Secretary General of the KMT then and
Governor of Taiwan Province now, offered to assume responsibility by tendering his resignation.

Test 21

1.
Lee Tenghui was educated in the US. (because)
Lee Tenghui has a worldview.
Lee Tenghui deals with economic matters. (while)
2.
I'd like something.
You will meet some people. (that)
3.
I'm not sure.
What should I do?

4.
He worked late into the night.
He was trying to finish the report. (because)
5.
The soldier was wounded in the war. (after)
He was sent home.
6.
He used to smoke a lot.
He got married. (before)
7.
I am afraid.
The DPP might win a majority. (that)
8.
I have nothing better to do. (when)
I enjoy something.
I play poker. (that)
9.
Mike won the contest. (when)
Mike was awarded ten thousand dollars.
10.
The motorcyclist was pulled over by the police car.
The motorcyclist did not wear a safety helmet. (who)
11.
The mayor declined.
The mayor was a very busy person. (who)
The mayor was asked to give a speech at the opening ceremony. (when)
12.
Tax rates are already very high. (although)
Tax rates might be raised further to rein in inflation.
13.
The resort town is crowded.
There has been an influx of tourists for the holiday season. (because)
14.
The student had failed in two tests. (though)
The student was able to pass the course.
15.
The president avoided the issue. (that)
This was obvious to the audience.
16.

Anyone could tell he was upset.


He had the look on his face. (because)
17.
Michael Crichton is in town.
He is author of Jurassic Park. (who)
He could promote his new novel. (so that)
18.
I am a conservative. (although)
I'd like to see something.
The conservative party is chastised in the next election. (that)
19.
The man found a fly in his soup. (when)
The man called to the waiter.
20.
It is a warm day. (because)
We will go to the beach.
Answer 21

1.
Because he was educated in the US, Lee Tenghui has a world view while he deals with economic matters.

Educated in the US, Lee Tenghui has a world view while dealing with economic matters.
2.
I'd like that you will meet some people.

I'd like you to meet some people.


3.
I'm not sure what I should do.

I'm not sure what to do.


4.
He worked late into the night because he was trying to finish the report.

He worked late into the night trying to finish the report.


5.
After the soldier was wounded in the war, he was sent home.

(After being) wounded in the war, the soldier was sent home.
6.

He used to smoke a lot before he got married.

He used to smoke a lot before getting married.


7.
I am afraid that the DPP might win a majority.

I am afraid of the DPP's winning a majority.


8.
When I have nothing better to do, I enjoy that I play poker.

When I have nothing better to do, I enjoy playing poker.


9.
When Mike won the contest, he was awarded ten thousand dollars.

(Upon) winning the contest, Mike was awarded ten thousand dollars.
10.
The motorcyclist who did not wear a safety helmet was pulled over by the police car.

The motorcyclist not wearing a safety helmet was pulled over by the police car.
11.
The mayor, who was a very busy person, declined when he was asked to give a speech at the opening ceremony.

The mayor, a very busy person, declined when asked to give a speech at the opening ceremony.
12.
Although tax rates are already very high, they might be raised further to rein in inflation.

Although already very high, tax rates might be raised further to rein in inflation.
13.
The resort town is crowded because there has been an influx of tourists for the holiday season.

The resort town is crowded with an influx of tourists for the holiday season.
14.
Though the student had failed in two tests, he was able to pass the course.

Though having failed in two tests, the student was able to pass the course.
15.
That the president avoided the issue was obvious to the audience.
It was obvious to the audience that the president avoided the issue.

The president's avoiding the issue was obvious to the audience.


The president's avoidance of the issue was obvious to the audience.
16.
Anyone could tell he was upset because he had the look on his face.

Anyone could tell he was upset, with the look on his face.
17.
Michael Crichton, who is author of Jurassic Park, is in town so that he could promote his new novel.

Michael Crichton, author of Jurassic Park, is in town to promote his new novel.
18.
Although I am a conservative, I'd like to see that the conservative party is chastised in the next election.

Although (being) a conservative, I'd like to see the conservative party chastised in the next election.
19.
When the man found a fly in his soup, he called to the waiter.

Finding a fly in his soup, the man called to the waiter.


20.
Because it is a warm day, we will go to the beach.

It being a warm day, we will go to the beach.