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International Journal of Advanced Engineering Technology

E-ISSN 0976-3945

Research Article

Souvik Ganguli1*

Address for Correspondence

Assistant Professor, Department of Electrical & Instrumentation Engineering, Thapar University, Patiala-147 004, India

In this paper, the PSPICE simulation of a resonant converter circuit used for switched reluctance motor drives is presented. A general introduction of this converter, its operating principle as well as its merits, demerits and applications are also discussed in this article. The simulation for finding out the phase current rise and fall time and to perform the Fourier analysis is carried out using PSPICE at an operating temperature of 27 °C. The total harmonic distortion is also calculated for this drive converter which is found to be less as compared to the hard-switch converter topologies. The voltages across the different nodes and the currents across the different voltage sources have been found out from the SPICE circuit drawn by specifying the nodes in the circuit. The operating point information is also obtained for the different diodes and the BJTs used as per the SPICE circuit of the converter.

Switched reluctance motor (SRM), resonant converter, Fourier analysis, total harmonic distortion, small signal bias solution, operating point information, PSPICE software.

1 INTRODUCTION Switched reluctance motor (SRM) drives have been paid renewed attention because of its manifold advantages over other ac motors for example simple in construction and robust nature, high reliability, easy maintenance and good performance. The absence of permanent magnets and windings in rotor give possibility to achieve very high speeds (over 10000 rpm) and have turned switched reluctance motor drives into perfect solution for operation in harsh environments like presence of vibrations or impacts. The simple mechanical structure greatly reduces its price. Due to these features, switched reluctance motor drives are finding applications in aerospace, automotive and domestic appliances. However, switched reluctance motors suffer from few drawbacks as well like complicated algorithm to control it due to its high degree of nonlinearity. Moreover, switched reluctance motors always have to be electronically commutated and there is the need of a shaft position sensor in order to detect the shaft position. The other limitations include strong torque ripples and acoustic noise effects [1]. A typical switched reluctance motor drive essentially consists of four basic components: Power Converter Control Logic Circuit Position Sensor Switched Reluctance Motor. The essential features of the power switching circuit for each phase of the switched reluctance motor comprises of two parts: A controlled switch to connect the voltage source to the coil windings in order to build up the current. An alternative path for the current to flow when the switch is turned off, since the trapped energy in the phase winding can be used for the other strokes.

In addition to this, it protects the switch from the high current produced by the energy trapped in the phase winding [2]. 2 CIRCUIT OPERATION OF A RESONANT CONVERTER The power converter topologies generally discussed in the context of switched reluctance motor drives are known as hard-switched topologies because during turn-on and turn-off the power switch and diode voltages and currents are non-zero, thus causing significant power loss in these devices. During the switching instant, if the current or voltage is made zero, then the device loss is zero and topologies enabling such a condition are known as resonant circuits. Many variations of these topologies are available. As the switching losses are theoretically zero in the resonant circuits, the circuit efficiency and hence the overall system efficiency is increased in this converter topology.

Fig. 1: Circuit Diagram for a Resonant Converter Further claims are being made as to the electromagnetic interference (EMI) reduction in these circuits compared to the hard-switched topologies that must be taken cautiously in the absence of good experimental correlation. Their main disadvantage is that the device voltage ratings have to be multiple times than that of the source voltage due to the action

IJAET/Vol.II/ Issue IV/October-December, 2011/316-320

20 Volts) Reverse breakdown Current (IBV=0. Its working is described below. 3. Due to the voltage across the capacitor Cr is two to three times that of the source voltage. Lower power density. The distinct modes of operation are outlined separately. The machine windings are connected in series with power devices T1. thereby reducing the current in the machine winding. resulting in resonant oscillation. restricting its industrial use in switched reluctance motor drive systems. the phase switch T1 is turned on to keep the winding current fairly a constant.7371) Base-Emitter zero-bias P-N capacitance (CJE =3.II/ Issue IV/October-December.638 Pico Farads) IJAET/Vol. The advantages of resonant converters are summarized as follows: 1. power switch Tr and diode Dr. The diode and transistor values are as per the specifications given in [6-7] and are listed below: Diode Specifications Saturation Current (IS=0. 2. Note that turn-off of the main switches is achieved with zero voltage because its anti parallel diode D1 is conducting E-ISSN 0976-3945 during the energy recovery period. The current fed to the source current is the excess current that is over and above that of the load current.5 A) Parasitic Resistance (RS=1. When the current nears the acceptable lower limit. is positive and as indicated for positive polarity. This in turn gives a much higher conduction angle for the SRM drive without any concern for regeneration when the desired operation is in the motoring region.5 A) Reverse breakdown voltage (BV=5. switching devices Tr and Da. T1). The disadvantages of resonant converters are enlisted below: 1. 3 CIRCUIT ELEMENT VALUES The supply voltage considered for our analysis 100 Volts (dc). the voltage across the capacitor has reversed and is negative which is conducive for the takeover of current from the phase switch when it is being turned off. the resonant capacitor and inductor are connected in series. In mode 1.International Journal of Advanced Engineering Technology of the resonant circuit. In mode 2. inductor. we wish to turn off the phase switch and reduce the energy transfer from the source to the machine. Its advantage is that the quality of the current waveform can be made very superior as the circuit can be operated at a higher frequency as the device switching losses are very small. Mode 3 is the resonant mode. Cr. resulting in the forward biasing of diodes Da and Dr and the current flows from the inductor to the load as well as to the dc source via the diode D1. Higher rating of switching elements is required. hence the need for resonant circuits decreases and it has minimal impact on the motor drive [3]. Da and the phase-A winding. turning-off of the phase switch results in the machine current diverting via Dr.734 A) Ideal maximum forward beta (BF=416. It is to be noted that the switching losses can become a significant fraction of the conduction losses in the devices at very high frequencies. For the sake of completeness. T2. 50 H and 1 F. capacitor Cr. The resonant circuit consists of the inductor Lr.734 A) Ideal maximum reverse beta (BR=0. The switching frequency of the resonant converter is high. 5]. inductance (Lr) and capacitance (Cr) are assumed to be an inductance as 35 mH. The phase winding (L1). Assume that the voltage across the resonant capacitor Vr. and T3 and diodes D1. The quality of current waveform is superior in a resonant converter as compared to the other converters. This charges the resonant capacitor Cr. The switching losses in a resonant converter are very low. whereas in conventional hard-switched topologies they are seldom used. thus eliminating the turn-off switching loss in the phase switch. The transistor base-drive resistance equals 250Ω as [3. D2 and D3 steer the current of the machine phases during commutation and the excess current from the resonant circuit to the dc source. When the machine current exceeds the desired level. 3.0 ohms) Transistor Specifications P-N saturation current (IS=6. With turn-on of the resonant switch. The main application of resonant converter is in high frequency (f>20 KHz). 2. The number of diodes used per phase in resonant converter is also one [4]. This increases the volt– ampere rating of the converter to multiple times that of the conventional hard-switched topologies. It is to be noted that this is one of the circuit topologies where the anti-parallel diode of the switching device is utilized. The energy in the capacitor is transferred to the inductor.4) Base-Emitter leakage saturation current (ISE=6. 2011/316-320 . The number of switches used per phase in resonant converter is one. EMI influence problem arises in a resonant converter is a very serious problem. only one resonant topology is considered in this section a variant of the C-dump circuit topology with resonant commutation of the phase current. During the resonant oscillation. a phase winding is energized by switching the phase switch (say. Vdc. its application across the machine winding rapidly commutates the current. but at nominal frequencies of 20 kHz and lower that may not be true.

599E+02 -4. Finally.800E+02 6.600E+02 1.142905E-04 4 RESULTS As per the PSPICE circuit in Fig. IJAET/Vol.400E+02 3.192E+02 TOTAL HARMONIC DISTORTION=2.000E+02 7. 2011/316-320 .204E+01 4.816E+01 6. The voltage across the different nodes has (MJC=0.II/ Issue IV/October-December.518E-03 Normalized Component 1.3085) been found out using small signal bias solution at the Base-Collector built –in potential same operating temperature.729E-03 1.5 Nano obtained are given as follows: Seconds) 4. The currents flowing (VJC=.400E+02 9.294E+02 -7. DC COMPONENT = 9.24 %=0. the plot showing the variation of (MJE=0.792E-03 1.580E-03 1.241E-01 8.2624.000E+00 -8.275E+01 5. The results Ideal reverse transit time (TR=239.823E-01 9.800E+02 -2.825E-03 1.International Journal of Advanced Engineering Technology E-ISSN 0976-3945 Fig.999E+01 -1.1 Fourier Analysis Ideal forward transit time (TF=301.686E-03 1.453E+01 7. 2: PSPICE Circuit for Resonant Converter Base-Collector P-N grading factor of 27 °C.670E-01 9.000 DEG C Seconds) FOURIER COMPONENTS OF TRANSIENT The SPICE circuit of the asymmetric bridge RESPONSE I (VX) converter is represented in Fig.493 Pico Farads) information is obtained for the different diodes and Base-Emitter P-N grading factor the BJTs.636E-03 1. 2.738E+01 5.624040E+02 PERCENT So the input current THD=26.360E+01 6.906E+01 7.812E-03 1.155E+01 Normalized Phase (Deg) 0.000E+00 9.661E-01 8.699E+02 -3.676E+01 4.476E-01 9. The operating point (CJC=4.498E+02 -5.080E+03 Fourier Component 1. the fourier analysis of the phase current for an asymmetric bridge converter has been carried out at a temperature Table 1: Fourier Analysis for Resonant Converter Harmonic Number 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Frequency (Hz) 1.969E-01 8.320E-01 Phase (Deg) 8.2 Pico TEMPERATURE = 27.200E+02 2.396E+02 -6.200E+02 8.75Volts) through the different voltage sources along with their Base –collector zero-bias P-N capacitance polarities have also been shown. 2.600E+02 4.934E-01 9.75 the Fourier analysis of the phase winding current has Volts) been conducted and shown in Figs 3-5.2593) phase current with respect to time and frequency and Base-Emitter built –in potential (VJE=0.764E-03 1.

849E-15 0.89E+08 0.18E-12 Node (2) (6) (11) (15) (19) Voltage (V) 2.37E-10 1.64E+08 0.36E-05 -2.00E+00 -6.38E-17 -8.96E-13 -1.08E-18 9.887E-13 -6.68E+01 Q3 QM 4.79E-11 1.00E+00 -1.1781 Node (4) (8) (13) (17) Voltage (V) 0.75E-17 2.0000 47.00E+00 0.00E+00 DR DMOD 9.00E+00 9.0000 Node (3) (7) (12) (16) (20) Voltage (V) 0.00E+00 0.78E-01 -1.II/ Issue IV/October-December.87E-01 1.37E+03 Q2 QM 4.87E-01 1.00E+00 0.38E-17 -8.849E-15 2.0000 0.00E+00 DC DMOD 1.85E-15 4.89E+08 0.934E-15 1.523E-14 4.96E+13 5.68E+01 QR QM -1.06E-04 0.38E-17 -8. IJAET/Vol.75E-17 2. 2011/316-320 .0000 0.International Journal of Advanced Engineering Technology E-ISSN 0976-3945 4.2 Small Signal Bias Solution Table 2: Small Signal Bias Solution for Resonant Converter Node (1) (5) (9) (14) (18) Voltage (V) -43.37E-10 1.36E-05 -2.523E-14 1.96E+11 0.849E-15 2.1868 0.0000 0. 5.85E-15 4.08E-18 9.0000 0.00E+00 0.00E+00 -9.61E-03 0.0000 0.68E+01 4.78E-01 2. 4 Operating Point Information Table 4: Operating Point Information for Resonant Converter Diodes Name of the Diode MODEL ID VD REQ CAP DA DMOD 1.00E+14 5.89E-13 1.08E-18 9.36E-05 -4. 3 and 4 respectively.00E+00 -9. 3 Voltage Source Currents Table 3: Voltage Source Currents for Resonant Converter Name of the Voltage Source VG1 VX VG4 VL VG2 VY VG3 V2 Magnitude of Current (A) 1.0000 0.96E+11 0.00E+00 0.87E-01 8.00E+00 -6.00E+00 0.98E+11 0.36E-05 -2.58E-06 0.0000 0.1781 4.00E+00 -9. The Fourier analysis of the phase winding current has been carried out and depicted in Fig.00E+00 0.61E-17 1.00E+00 9.00E+00 9.75E-17 2.73E-03 -1.00E+00 DB DMOD 1.140E-17 -6.06E-04 0.140E-17 -6.1781 0.36E-05 -4.00E+00 -8.523E-14 1.00E+00 -6.0000 0.96E+11 0.5 Plot Results for Resonant Converter Plot showing the variation of phase current with respect to time and frequency are given in Fig.00E+00 0.00E+00 -6.04E+00 -8.37E-10 1.36E-05 -4.06E-04 0.00E+00 -6.85E-15 4.00E+00 Bipolar Junction Transistors Name of the Transistor MODEL IB IC VBE VBC VCE BETADC GM RPI RX RO CBE CBC CJS BETAAC CBX/CBX2 FT/FT2 Q1 QM 4.140E-17 -6.87E-01 1.96E+13 5.00E+00 -6.89E+08 0.00E+00 9.96E+13 5.

2MHz 0.6MHz 0.0mA 100uA 10uA 0Hz I(L1) 0.1MHz Frequency Fig.1MHz Frequency Fig. Siadatan and Ali Zakerolhosseini.7MHz 0. low voltage stress. “A New Modified Asymmetric Bridge Drive Circuit for Switched Reluctance Motor”.5MHz 0. PSPICE analysis of ZVS and ZCS type converters for SRM drives in particular can be taken up in near future. European Conference on Circuit Theory and Design. Asgar.0MHz 1. R. Moreover. 6 REFERENCES 1.International Journal of Advanced Engineering Technology 25mA E-ISSN 0976-3945 20mA 15mA 180us I(L1) 190us 200us 210us 220us 230us 240us Time 250us 260us 270us 280us 290us 300us Fig. IJAET/Vol. pp. Krishnan. A generalized study of a resonant converter has been taken up here. Industrial Electronics Series. 2011/316-320 . Simulation.6MHz 0. which permits the motor to operate at higher speeds.8MHz 0. 2. 5: Fourier Analysis for the Phase Winding Current of a Resonant Converter 5 CONCLUSIONS The drive circuit with resonant converter shows much faster decay time as compared to the other converters. improved utilization of supply voltage and in particular no stresses or losses in the switching interval. Afjei.1MHz 0. The plot results for the resonant converter shows that it provides the linear rise and fall for the phase current. 4: Variation of Phase Current for a Resonant Converter with respect to Frequency 20mA 15mA 10mA 5mA 0A 0Hz I(L1) 0.9MHz 1. E.4MHz 0.0MHz 1. The total harmonic distortion for the resonant converter is very low so it provides superior current waveforms.3MHz 0. In addition.3MHz 0. “Switched Reluctance Motor Drives: Modeling.5MHz 0. 3: Variation of Phase Current for a Resonant Converter with respect to Time 100mA 10mA 1.2MHz 0. A. 2009. The Fourier analysis of the phase current is also carried out in this paper. 539-542.4MHz 0. M. Analysis. CRC Press. the resonant converter has many advantages such as simple configuration.9MHz 1.1MHz 0.8MHz 0. it provides faster rate of fall for the phase current. 2001.7MHz 0. Design and Applications”.II/ Issue IV/October-December.

“A New Class of Resonant Discharge Drive Topology for Switched Reluctance Motor”. 4. 5.MODEL DMOD D (IS=100E-15 RS=16 BV=100 IBV=100E-15) *QM DEFINES THE TRANSISTOR MODEL PARAMETERS . Ehab Elwakil. Siadatan.01 VNTOL=0.International Journal of Advanced Engineering Technology 3. Pearson Prentice Hall.END IJAET/Vol. 29th June-3rd July.24US 40US) L1 4 5 35MH VX 5 0 DC 0V DA 15 4 DMOD DB 15 8 DMOD DC 15 13 DMOD DR 16 0 DMOD QR 15 18 20 QM RB4 18 19 250 VG4 19 0 PULSE (0V 20V 0 1NS 1NS 12.24US 40US) CR 15 16 1UF LR 16 17 50UH VL 17 20 DC 0V Q2 1 6 8 QM RB2 6 7 250 VG2 7 0 PULSE (0V 20V 0 1NS 1NS 12.II/ Issue IV/October-December. S. Rashid.MODEL QM NPN (BF=100 BR=1 RB=5 RC=1 RE=0 VJE=0. APPENDIX: PSPICE PROGRAM FOR RESONANT CONVERTER TOPOLOGY VS 1 0 DC 100 Volts CIRCUIT DESCRIPTION Q1 1 2 4 QM RB1 2 3 250 VG1 3 0 PULSE ( 0V 20V 0 1NS 1NS 12.24US 40US) L2 8 9 35MH VY 9 0 DC 0V Q3 1 11 13 QM RB3 11 12 250 VG3 12 0 PULSE (0V 20V 0 1NS 1NS 12.1 ITL5=20000 .00N RELTOL=0. A. Department of Electronics & Computer Engineering. 7. January. Pearson Prentice Hall.OP . “SPICE for Power Electronic Circuits”. 1992. Devices and Applications”. Afjei and A. Muhammad H. Park and T. Brunel University.PROBE . "New Series Resonant Converter for Variable Reluctance Motor Drive". E. PhD Thesis. Muhammad H. 2011/316-320 . Lipo.8 VA=100) . Rashid. London. “A New Converter Topology for High-Speed-Starting-Torque Three-phase Switched Reluctance Motor Drive System”.OPTIONS ABSTOL=1. 2009. pp 833838.24US 40US) L3 13 14 35MH V2 14 0 DC 0V *DMOD DEFINES THE DIODE MODEL PARAMETERES . “Power Electronics: Circuits. 2009. School of Engineering & Design. E-ISSN 0976-3945 6.FOUR 120HZ I (VX) . 2009. 1-9.TRAN 2US 300US 180US 1US UIC . 13th European Conference on Power Electronics and Applications. M. UK Publication. pp. 7. Record of 23rd Annual IEEE Power Electronics Specialists Conference. 2009. Asgar.