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Theories of Modernization Modernization is the total transformation of a traditional or pre-modern society into the type of technology and

associated social and political organization that characterizes the Western world. Countries develop out of a functionalist, evolutionary, system theory of social development that is linear Development as modernization leading to modern growth, thus involves the modernization of social relationships and institutions, political relationships and institutions and economic relationships and institutions, or the shift from traditional to modern society.The locus of change is the modern sector, centered on the rationalist values of the enlightenment era and the cultural rise of the modern nation state. Modernisation theorists aimed to a) explain why poorer countries failed to evolve into modern societies b) Reduce the spread of communism by presenting capitalist values as the solution to poverty

Features of economic modernization Influenced by keynesian ideas and the Marshall plan.Distinction made between backward or traditional countries and advanced or modern capitalist countries. The goal is to show how countries make the transition to a modern industrial country. The transition to modernization is marked by sustained and higher rates of growth caused by rising levels/rates of savings/investment The engine of growth is the capitalist class in the modern sector, given their profit maximizing, individually rational, modern values and behaviour. Under conditions of international trade, there tends to be a presumption

Mass media 3.e. Deutsch (1961) Social Mobilization: “the process in which major clusters of old social. the poor catching up with the rich. Links between growth and modernization theory Classical growth theories: Harrod (1939) and Domar (1946) – Harrod-Domar growth model. Exposure to modernity 2. Urbanization 5. with the expectation of global economic convergence i. and psychological commitments are eroded or broken and people become available for new patters of socialization and behavior”  Two-Stages:  Breaking from the old  Forming stable new patterns Measures of Mobilization 1. Huntington Nine characteristics of modernization process (according to S. Solow-Swan – Neo-classical growth model and Lewis (1854) – Dual Economy growth model. Voting participation 4. economic. Per capita income S. Huntington review of literature) . The essence of these models is that growth is driven by savings/investment or the rate of capital accumulation. Literacy 7. Change to non-agricultural employment 6.that such international economic interactions will have a favourable net impact.

differentiation. social mobilization. M is a lengthy process. is a homogenizing process. “Societies .” which may lead “to a stage „at which the various societies are so homogeneous as to be capable of forming a world state. Prominent for his role in the shaping of American policy in Southeast Asia during the 1960s. all societies are now either modern or inn the process of becoming modern. Hence not only revolutionary but also evolutionary. “It involves changes in virtually all areas of human thought and behaviour”.” M. “all societies were at one time traditional. media expansion.” M is a irreversible process M is a progressive process. Kennedy and Lyndon B. M. • • • • • • • Rostow's Stages of Growth Walt Whitman Rostow (October 7.• • M is a revolutionary process “comparable to the changes from prehuman to human existence and from primitive to civilized societies” M is a complex process. secularization. expansion of political participation” M is a systemic process: “changes in one factor are related to and affect changes in the other factors” M is a global process. At minimum it includes: “industrialization. . M. 2003) An American economist and political theorist who served as Special Assistant for National Security Affairs to Lyndon Baines Johnson.can be compared and ranked in terms of the extent to which they have moved down the road from tradition to modernity. increasing literacy and education. urbanization. and was noted for a belief in the efficacy of capitalism and free enterprise. He . Rostow served as a major adviser on national security affairs under the John F. . is a phased process. Johnson administrations. 1916 February 13. “produces tendencies towards convergence among societies. he was a staunch opponent of Communism.

but they also set in motion ideas and sentiments which initiated the process by which a modern alternative to the traditional society was constructed out of the old picture” . . particularly in developing nations. and on Pre-Newtonian attitudes towards the physical world.shocked the traditional society and begun or hastened its undoing. These invasions . 4) • • • • Low productivity agriculture is a large % of the economy Political power dominates economic power Low rates of investment ( < 5% of GDP) Inefficient property rights Stage Two: Preconditions for Take Off – Science (as in late XVIIC Europe) translated into new production function in Agriculture and Industry – More general case “non endogenously but from some external intrusion by more advanced societies.supported American military involvement in the Vietnman War. based on Pre-Newtonian science and technology. . Rostow was famous especially for writing a book The Stages of Economic Growth: A non-communist manifesto (1960) which became a classic text in several fields of social sciences. Stage One: Traditional Society “A traditional society is one whose structure is developed within limited production functions.” (p. Rostow came up with a similar list. He wrote extensively in defense of free enterprise economics. Walt Rostow wrote in the late 50's and early 60's in response to the many seemingly successful Marxist theories of economic development Marxist writers had developed a number of stages through which a country had to pass.

the general welfare. Large profit reinvested in new industries (see I=S of Harrod Domar growth models). expand and come to dominate the society. but that economic progress is a necessary condition for some other purpose. Compound interest becomes built. or a better life for the children” – – – – Transfer resources from agriculture to manufacturing Shift from regional to national/international focus Must shift away from having children People must be rewarded not for their “connections” but their economic abilities Stage Three: Take-off – New industry expands rapidly. which yielded limited bursts and enclaves of modern activity. Expanding requirements for factory workers and for services supporting them Expanding urban areas.” (p.– “The idea spreads not merely that economic progress is possible. as it were. into its habits and institutional structure. The forces making for economic progress. increasing productivity development of a leading sector emergence of new institutions – – – – – “The take-off is the interval when the old blocks and resistances to steady growth are finally overcome. New entrepreneur class. 7) Stage Four: Drive to maturity • “…for these purposes we define it as the period when a society has effectively applied the range of (then) modern technology to the bulk of its resources. “the economy exploits hitherto unused natural resources and methods of production” New technology spread to agriculture.” (p. judged to be good:be it national dignity. 59) Occurs roughly 60 years after take-off--- • . Growth becomes its normal condition.

• • • • • Increase in investment (10% to 20%) Development of modern capitalist economy and self-sustained growth Pass to Stage Five: High Mass Consumption V High Mass Consumption Two things happen Real income per head reached a point in which large number of people command consumption far beyond food/shelter and clothing Structure of working force changes that a) increased urban to total population and b) greater proportion of population working in offices or skilled factory jobs. • Critiques of Modernization  Modernization can break down traditional authority without necessarily replacing it with modern structures  Modernization can cause problems:  Psychological stress/ issues of identity Violence and political disorder .