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Name – Nitin Jain Course – MBA-lll Roll No – 521107680

MB0050 – Research Methodology (Book ID: B1206) Assignment – Set-1

Question 1. Define Research. What are the features and types of Research? Answer. Research simply means a search for facts-answers to questions and solutions to problems. It is purposive investigation. It is an organized inquiry. It seeks to find explanations to unexplained phenomenon to clarify the doubtful facts and to correct the misconceived facts. The general perspective of research is that some scientists taking part in laboratory testing or presenting the results in scientific discovery to the world-actually this was my view of research when I was young. Simply speaking the purpose of research is to find a solution to a particular type of problem or showing the problem a direction towards solution or putting some light in the unknown areas of knowledge for your enlightenment to that particular area of knowledge-thus research actually help us to understand our reality more clearly as well as help us to enjoy better living standard. So, research is kind of a project to find out some answers or solutions for a particular area-research is kind of project because every project has its scope of work, time-line and resources, that‟s why you may easily interrelate research work with a project-in fact every research work works on based on a welldevised project plan. The search for facts may be made through either:  Arbitrary (or unscientific) Method: It‟s a method of seeking answers to questions consists of imagination, opinion, blind belief or impression. E.g. it was believed that the shape of the earth was flat. It is subjective; the finding will vary from person to person depending on his impression or imagination. It is vague and inaccurate. Or

c. Types of Research Although any typology of research is inevitably arbitrary. search of facts should be made by scientific method rather than by arbitrary method. Can lead to the discovery of a new theory. Features of Research           It is a systematic and critical investigation into a phenomenon. Helps in getting knowledge without thinking formally of implementing it in practice based on the honesty. love and integrity of the researcher for discovering the truth. and explaining a phenomenon. Kerlinger defines research as a “systematic. Helps in finding results or solutions for real life problems. controlled. Should be logical. Scientific Method: This is a systematic rational approach to seeking facts. Is problem oriented. According to the intent. Should be systematic in nature. Research may be classified crudely according to its major intent or the methods. interpreting. Pure research a. It is a purposive investigation aiming at describing. research may be classified as: 1. It eliminates the drawbacks of the arbitrary method. c. d. It is objective. precise and arrives at conclusions on the basis of verifiable evidences. Controlled movement of the research procedure. Procedure should be reproducible in nature. . Based on the concept of the pure research. 2. Can result in the development or refinement of a theory that already exists. Therefore. Also called as the fundamental or the theoretical research. e. Should be empirical and replicable in nature. Should be according to plans. Should be according to the rules and the assumptions should not be based on the false bases or judgments. b. b. Is basic and original. Should be relevant to what is required. Applied research a. empirical and critical investigation of hypothetical propositions about the presumed relations among natural phenomena”.

about which nothing or a very little is known. Form of applied research. Helps in knowing the feasibility in attempting a study. f. Can be done only where knowledge is advanced. c. h. Action research a. Evaluation study a. Diagnostic study a. f. 6. g. c. 4. Helps in gathering information to study a specific problem very minutely. d. 3. Is a concurrent evaluation study. It consumes a lot of time. Simplest form of research. Includes studying of a problem. It is not directed by hypothesis. 5. Studies the development project. d. g. d. Exploratory research a.d. Helps in testing empirical content of a theory. h. It involves a mutual effort. c. Utilizes and helps in developing the techniques that can be used for basic research. f. Helps in testing the validity of a theory but under some conditions. Identifies the causes of the problems and then solutions for these problems. d. Restricted to the problems that are describable and not arguable and the problems in which valid standards can be developed for standards. i. It is directed by hypothesis. 7. e. Type of evaluation study. b. Helps in exploring new ideas. Provides evidence of usefulness to society. Provides data that can lead to the acceleration of the process of generalization. . Involves exploring a general aspect. b. Existing theories can be easily put under test by empirical observations. e. More specific in nature and working than exploratory research. Follows a very formal approach of research. e. Descriptive research a. b. b. Gives access to social or economical programmes. c. Related to causal relations. Quite similar to the descriptive research. e. Helps in identifying various features of a problem. b. Studies the quality and also the quantity of an activity. Underlines factors that may lead to experimental research.

Even a small difficulty may become an excuse for discontinuing the study. In social sciences in some cases. 3) Novelty of the problem: The problem must have novelty.Question 2. Therefore. suitable and competent guidance. The selection of one appropriate researchable problem out of the identified problems requires evaluation of those alternatives against certain criteria. 6) Usefulness and social relevance: Above all. 2) Researcher’s competence: A mere interest in a problem will not do. it cannot be selected. experience. An important and urgent problem should be given priority over an unimportant one. Hence the availability of the facilities relevant to the problem must be considered. How is a research problem formulated? What are the sources from which one may be able to identify research problems? Answer. he may not develop sustained perseverance. 4) Feasibility: A problem may be a new one and also important.. but if research on it is not feasible. unless he gets some external financial support. If it is beyond his means. consideration of his own financial resource is pertinent. Research is a time-consuming process. etc. hence it should be properly utilized. data analysis facility. There is no use of wasting one‟s time and energy on a problem already studied thoroughly by others. Without interest and curiosity. amendable for finding answers to the questions involved in it through scientific method. he will not be able to complete the work. the study of the problem should make significant contribution to the concerned body of knowledge or to the solution of some significant practical . in selecting problems for research. Time resource is more important than finance. he must possess adequate knowledge of the subject-matter. i. Interest in a problem depends upon the researcher‟s educational background. The researcher must be competent to plan and carry out a study of the problem. This does not mean that replication is always needless. relevant methodology and statistical procedures. External Criteria 1) Research-ability of the problem: The problem should be researchable. it is appropriate to replicate (repeat) a study in order to verify the validity of its findings to a different situation. which may be grouped into: Internal Criteria : 1) Researcher’s interest: The problem should interest the researcher and be a challenge to him.e. but available research efforts are very much limited. To be researchable a question must be one for which observation or other data collection in the real world can provide the answer. 2) Importance and urgency: Problems requiring investigation are unlimited. He must have the ability to grasp and deal with int. 5) Facilities: Research requires certain facilities such as well-equipped library facility. Hence feasibility is a very important consideration. their relative importance and significance should be considered. outlook and sensitivity. 3) Researcher’s own resource: In the case of a research to be done by a researcher on his won.

The researcher has to take stock of these various hypotheses with a view to evaluating their usefulness for further research and to consider whether they suggest any new hypothesis. Types of Research Projects  Those that relate to states of nature  Those which relate to relationships between variables In understanding the problem. In some areas of the subject matter. directory of doctoral dissertation accepted by universities etc afford a rich store of valuable clues. But in India and other developing countries.e. Identifying research Problem This involves the identification of a general topic and formulating it into a specific research problem. This consideration is particularly important in the case of higher level academic research and sponsored research. It should be socially relevant. it is helpful to discuss it with colleagues or experts in the field. Sociological journals. research has not yet become a prospective profession. Professional organizations. In addition to these general sources. It is also necessary to examine conceptual and empirical literature on the subject. sharpening the focus of the research. “If one had the literature and exercised enough patience and industry in reviewing available literature. Each identified problem must be evaluated in terms of the above internal and external criteria and the most appropriate one may be selected by a research scholar. The task of defining the research problem is of greatest importance in the entire research process. it may well be that his problem has already been solved by someone somewhere some time ago and he will save himself the trouble. 7) Research personnel: Research undertaken by professors and by research organizations require the services of investigators and research officers. Extensive literature review Review of literature is a systematic process that requires careful and perceptive reading and attention to detail.problem. economic reviews. This helps to avoid exact duplication. some governmental agencies and voluntary organizations publish listings of summaries of research in their special fields of service. Being able to define the problem unambiguously helps the researcher in discriminating relevant data from irrelevant ones.  Informing the researcher of what has already been done in the area. The researcher‟s task then is to review the available material with an eye on the possibilities of developing hypothesis from it. the bulletin of abstracts of current social sciences research. research groups and voluntary organizations are a constant source of information about unpublished works in their special field. hypothesis may have been stated by previous research workers. the researcher attempts to determine what others have learned about similar research problems. an exploratory study is concerned with an area of subject matter in which explicit hypothesis have not yet been formulated.” Nwana (1982). Frequently. After the literature review. the researcher is able to focus on the problem and phrase it in analytical or operational terms. In the review of the literature.  Providing suggestions for possible modifications in the research to avoid unanticipated difficulties.  Providing insights into possible research designs and methods of conducting the research and interpreting the results. . It requires thorough understanding of the problem and rephrasing it in meaningful terms from an analytical point of view. It is important in the following ways:  Specifically limiting and identifying the research problem and possible hypothesis or research questions i. Hence talent persons are not attracted to research projects.

ives meaning to the observed behaviour and heard statements. In terms of mode of observation. limitation of this method is the dual demand made on the observer. With reference to the rigor of the system adopted. it may be classified into -participant observation. Question 3. The persons who are observed should not be aware of the researcher‟s purpose. Computerassisted searchers of literature have become very common today. Advantages: The advantages of participant observation are: get a deeper insight of their experiences. technical reports and academic theses. and thus other avenues of information are closed to him. They are also very cost-effective in terms of time and effort although access to some of the databases requires payment. periodicals. They have the advantage of comprehensiveness and speed. Observation is classified into 1. With reference to investigator‟s role. Within the library there is access to books. a study of tribal customs by an anthropologist by taking part in tribal activities like folk dance. . and participation can interfere with observation. What are the types of Observations? What is the utility of Observation in Business Research? Answer. Irrespective of the sources of the literature. The concealment of research objective and researcher‟s identity is justified on the ground that it makes it possible to study certain aspects of the group‟s culture which are not revealed to outsiders.The library is the most likely physical location for the research literature. For example. Other sources are the Education Index and the Educational Resources information centre (ERIC). Recording on the spot is not possible and it has to be postponed until the observer is alone. is a hierarchy of power in the group/community under study. Recording can interfere with participation. Participant Observation In this observation. is lost. Observations may be classified in different ways. Disadvantages: Participant observation suffers from some demerits. ethics of research require that the source is acknowledged through a clear system of referencing. it may be classified into Direct observation. he comes to occupy one position within in. the observer is a part of the phenomenon or group which is observed and he acts as both an observer and a participant. Such time lag results in some inaccuracy in recording. Then only their behaviour will be „natural‟.

4. (e) Movement of materials and products through a plant. there is no emotional involvement on the part of the observer. (b) The behaviour of other living creatures like birds. Observation is suitable for a variety of research purposes. This method is flexible and allows the observer to see and record subtle aspects of events and behaviour as they occur.g. It is primary used for descriptive research. 3. e. Simply stated. It is typified by clear and explicit decisions on what. photographic or electronic devices. Direct observation This means observation of an event personally by the observer when it takes place. but it is less biasing and less erratic in recording accuracy. Controlled observation This involves standardization of observational techniques and exercises of maximum control over extrinsic and intrinsic variables by adopting experimental design and systematically recording observations. it is the framework.: life style. This method calls for skill in recording observations in an unnoticed manner. This method is less flexible than direct observations. other behaviours and actions. (d) Flow of traffic and parking problems. 6. a blueprint for the research study which guides the collection and analysis of data. Uncontrolled observation This does not involve control over extrinsic and intrinsic variables. leadership styles. animals etc. The research design is a comprehensive master plan of the research study to be undertaken. crowd behaviour. Question 4. (c) Physical characteristics of inanimate things like stores. customs. Participant observation is a typical uncontrolled one. Non-participant observations In this method. the observer stands apart and does not participate in the phenomenon observed. residences etc. Controlled observation is carried out either in the laboratory or in the field. recording customer and employee movements by a special motion picture camera mounted in a department of a large store. Naturally. how and when to observe. It is also provides a permanent record for an analysis of different aspects of the event. What is Research Design? What are the different types of Research Designs? Answer. and manner. change the focus of the observation. depending upon the needs of the researcher may be a very . resulting in the incompleteness of the observation. He is also free to shift places. The research design. factories. Indirect observation This does not involve the physical presence of the observer. interpersonal relations. giving a general statement of the methods to be used. managerial style. The function of a research design is to ensure that requisite data in accordance with the problem at hand is collected accurately and economically. group dynamics. 5. A limitation of this method is that the observer‟s perception circuit may not be able to cover all relevant events when the latter move quickly. and the recording is done by mechanical. It may be used for studying: (a) The behaviour of human beings in purchasing goods and services.2.

this type of designs are employed to facilitate description and inference building about population parameters and the relationship among two or more variables. b) A statement of the data inputs required on the basis of which the research problem is to be solved. The exploratory research design. Descriptive designs only describe the phenomenon under study attempting to establish a relationship between factors. Descriptive Research Design Primarily in use for preliminary studies. gives useful direction for farther research. a research design should furnish at least the following details. wanting in introduce a breakfast cereal may be in knowing the desirable attributes of such a product before really defining the product concept. To be effective. The exploratory studies are mainly used for: 1) Providing information to enable a more precise problem definition or hypothesis formulation. It therefore. 2) Establishing research priorities. involves getting a feel of the situation and emphasises a discovery of ideas and possible insights that may help in identifying areas of further rigorous study. c) The methods of analysis which shall be used to treat and analyse the data inputs. 4) Collecting information about possible problems in carrying out research. as the name suggests. For example a food product manufacturer. using specific collection tools and specific techniques for analyses. a) A statement of objectives of the study or the research output. . 3) Giving the researcher a feel of the problem situation and familiarising him with the problem. The main objective of the exploratory research is to fine tune the broad problem into specific problem statement and generate possible hypotheses. Description or inference could be' quantitative or qualitative in nature. There are four types of research designs which are broadly classified as: 1) Exploratory Designs 2) DescriptiveDesigns 3) Quasi-Experimental Designs 4) Experimental Designs Exploratory Research Design Ideally all marketing research projects must start with an exploratory research as this helps in providing a sharper focus of the situation and a clearer definition of the problem at hand.detailed statement or only furnish the minimum information required for planning the research project.

non users. b) To estimate the proportion of people in a given population who behave in a certain way for example the proportion of consumers who are prone to deals. Descriptive designs are a very frequently used. perhaps the most commonly used category of research design. Experimental Research Design True experimental design provide a stronger and more reliable basis for the existence of casual relationship between variables. Here. for example income and shopping place preference. These design have inherent weakness as their internal validity is questionable. c) To make specific predictions for specified future periods. a) To describe the characteristics of certain groups of interest to the marketer e.g. potential users. There are various designs which fall under the category of quasi-experimental designs. In short descriptive research can be used for the following purposes. d) To develop inferences whether certain variables are associated. possible receivers of promotional communication by the company and so on. users of the product. For example. Following quasi-experimental designs are as follows: 1) After-Only without Control Group 2) Before-After without Control Group 3) The Static-Group Comparison 4) Logitudinal Designs (Time Series Designs) 5) Multiple Time-Series Designs. descriptive research design could be suited to measure the various attributes of successful sales people. the researcher is able to eliminate all extraneous variables from the experimental and the control group through the use of a random selection procedure. One of the advantages of using random selection procedure is that we can use inferential statistical techniques . Quasi Experimental Design In these designs the researcher has control over data collection procedures but lacks control over the scheduling of the treatments and also lacks the ability to randomize test units „exposure to treatments. Some of these will be discussed here.The data collected may relate to the demographically or the behavioural variables of respondents under study or some situational variables. or evaluate a training programme or a retailing situation. They lack the control attributes of the truly experimental designs.

in the population that is to be covered by the survey. This reduces the target population size and makes the research more focused. and time frame. A well defined population reduces the probability of including the respondents who do not fit the research objective of the company. it may define the population as „all women above the age of 20 who cook (assuming that very few men cook)‟. For ex. The following experimental designs are as follows: 1) After-only with One Control Group 2) Before-After with One Control Group 3) The Solomon Four Group Design 4) Completely Randomised Design 5) Randondzaed Block Design 6) Latin Square Design. extent. For ex. if the population is defined as all women above the age of 20.for the analysis of experimental results. all women above the age 20. In general. The definition should be in line with the objectives of the research study. that. who cook and whose monthly household income exceeds Rs. The population definition can be refined further by specifying the area from where the researcher has to draw his sample. target population is defined in terms of element. Sampling is a part of the total population. that is.20. and time. households located in Hyderabad. for business research. Explain the Sampling Process and briefly describe the methods of Sampling. Defining the Target Population: Defining the population of interest. It can be an individual element or a group of elements selected from the population. One such technique is the analysis of variance. . Answer. Question 5. sampling unit. Steps in Sampling Process: An operational sampling process can be divided into seven steps as given below: 1. Therefore the definition can be further refined and defined at the sampling unit level. if a kitchen appliances firm wants to conduct a survey to ascertain the demand for its micro ovens. is the first step in sampling process.000. The sample group can be selected based on a probability or a non probability approach. convenience. it is representative of the population and suitable for research in terms of cost. Although it is a subset. the researcher may end up taking the opinions of a large number of women who cannot afford to buy a micro oven. However this definition is too broad and will include every household in the country.

an ideal sampling frame would be a database that contains all the households that have a monthly income above Rs. Determination of Sample Size: The sample size plays a crucial role in the sampling process. and completion rates play a major role in sample size determination. There are various ways of classifying the techniques used in determining the sample size. incidence rates. importance of the decision. Specifying the Sampling Unit: A sampling unit is a basic unit that contains a single element or a group of elements of the population to be sampled. who cook. maps and aerial pictures are also used as sampling frames. however. . researchers use easily available sampling frames like telephone directories and lists of credit card and mobile phone users. Continuing with the micro oven ex. A telephone directory can be over represented by names/household that have two or more connections.2. In non-probability sampling procedures. and the nature of the problem to be investigated. However. In general. A sampling frame is the list of elements from which the sample may be drawn. thumb rules and number of sub groups to be analyzed.20. in practice it is difficult to get an exhaustive sampling frame that exactly fits the requirements of a particular research. This would present a case of primary sampling unit. 5. 3. a household becomes a sampling unit and all women above the age of 20 years living in that particular house become the sampling elements. time constraints. availability of financial resources. However. The choice of the sampling method is influenced by the objectives of the business research. If it is possible to identify the exact target audience of the business research. A couple those hold primary importance and are worth mentioning are whether the technique deals with fixed or sequential sampling and whether its logic is based on traditional or Bayesian methods. All sampling methods can be grouped under two distinct heads. probability and non-probability sampling. a convenient and better means of sampling would be to select households as the sampling unit and interview all females above 20 years. number of variables. every individual element would be a sampling unit. nature of analysis. This would present a case of secondary sampling unit. In this case. Various private players provide databases developed along various demographic and economic variables. In the case of probability sampling. Whatever may be the case. Sometimes. A sampling frame error pops up when the sampling frame does not accurately represent the total population or when some elements of the population are missing another drawback in the sampling frame is over –representation. that is. the allocation of budget. formulas are used to calculate the sample size after the levels of acceptable error and level of confidence are specified. Selection of the Sampling Method: The sampling method outlines the way in which the sample units are to be selected.000. an ideal sampling frame is one that entire population and lists the names of its elements only once. Specifying the Sampling Frame: Once the definition of the population is clear a researcher should decide on the sampling frame. 4.

This step involves implementing the sampling plan to select the sampling plan to select a sample required for the survey. commodity or fixed-income instrument. What should the interviewer do when a house is vacant? What is the recontact procedure for respondents who were unavailable? All these and many other questions need to be answered for the smooth functioning of the research process. He must give background of the problem. 7. blocks in a city are the sampling units and the households are the sampling elements. Hypothesis is the . Question 6. At this stage. The researcher must keep in mind that his research report must contain following aspects: (1) Purpose of study: Research is one direction oriented study. A document prepared by an analyst or strategist who is a part of the investment research team in a stock brokerage or investment bank.The details of the various techniques used to determine the sample size will be explained at the end of the chapter. have "actionable" recommendations (i. Selecting the Sample: This is the final step in the sampling process. It includes issues like how is the interviewer going to take a systematic sample of the houses. or even on a geographic region or country. A research report may focus on a specific stock or industry sector. a proper specification of the sampling plans would make their work easy and they would not have to revert to their seniors when faced with operational problems. This step outlines the modus operandi of the sampling plan in identifying houses based on specified characteristics. where the actual selection of the sample elements is carried out. a currency. Specifying the Sampling Plan: In this step. the specifications and decisions regarding the implementation of the research process are outlined.e. 6. Research reports generally. He should discuss the problem of his study. Suppose. As the interviewers and their co-workers will be on field duty of most of the time. but not always. investment ideas that investors can act upon). What is Research report? What are the contents of research report? Answer . He must lay down his hypothesis of the study. it is necessary that the interviewers stick to the rules outlined for the smooth implementation of the business research. These are guide lines that would help the researcher in every step of the process.

(4) Methodology: It is related to collection of data. He should be able to collect data. Such primary data are collected by sampling method. He should note down all such research work. (3) Review of Literature: Research is a continuous process. (2) Significance of study: Research is re-search and hence the researcher may highlight the earlier research in new manner or establish new theory. In his study to conduct the research on his topic. journals or unpublished thesis. There are two sources for collecting data. He will get guidelines for his research from taking a review of literature. In a statement of his problem. He must explain how his research is different and how his research topic is different and how his research topic is important. We use case study method. He must be honest to point out similarities and differences of his study from earlier research work. He should enlist them in the given below: Author/researcher Title of research /Name of book Publisher Year of publication Objectives of his study Conclusion/suggestions Then he can compare this information with his study to show separate identity of his study. The importance of the problem for the advancement of knowledge or removed of some evil may also be explained. preparation of source list must be given. either through questionnaire interviews. analyze it and prove the hypothesis. He must use review of literature or the data from secondary source for explaining the statement of the problems. published in books. he must be able to explain in brief the historical account of the topic and way in which he can make and attempt. The methodology must give various aspects of the problem that are studied for valid generalization about the phenomena. The procedure for selecting the sample must be mentioned. historical research etc. He should collect information in respect of earlier research work. Primary data is original and collected in field work. He . While conducting a research based on field work. the procedural things like definition of universe. He must refer earlier research work and distinguish his own research from earlier work. primary and secondary. The secondary data relied on library work. He cannot avoid earlier research work. He must start with earlier work.statement indicating the nature of the problem. The scales of measurement must be explained along with different concepts used in the study.

The pattern of bibliography is considered convenient and satisfactory from the point of view of reader. This is the most important part of study. The contents of the research report are noted below: Preliminary Page Main Text End Matter (1) Preliminary Pages: These must be title of the research topic and data. The information collected in field work is useful to draw conclusions of study. The books should be given in first section and articles are in second section and research projects in the third. (8) Appendices: The general information in tabular form which is not directly used in the analysis of data but which is useful to understand the background of study can be given in appendix. numerical and logical. The layout of the report means as to what the research report should contain. There must be preface of foreword to the research work. (7) Bibliography: The list of references must be arranged in alphabetical order and be presented in appendix. When questionnaire is prepared. The conclusions must be based on logical and statistical reasoning. One has to select them or club them according to hypothesis or objectives of study. It should be followed by table of contents. The title page is reported in the main text. He should point out the limitations of his study. In relation with the objectives of study the analysis of data may lead the researcher to pin point his suggestions. All sorts of proofs. The list of tables. must be given in support of any theory that has been advanced. maps should be given. (5) Interpretation of data: Mainly the data collected from primary source need to be interpreted in systematic manner. (6) Conclusions/suggestions: Data analysis forms the crux of the problem. (a) Introduction (b) Statement of the problem . The report should contain not only the generalization of inference but also the basis on which the inferences are drawn. Layout of the Research Report: There is scientific method for the layout of the research report. a copy of it must be given in appendix.must make it clear as to which method is used in his research work. All the questions are not useful for report writing. (2) Main Text: It provides the complete outline of research report along with all details. Details of text are given continuously as divided in different chapters. The tabulation must be completed to draw conclusions.

the research design and method of data collection. hypotheses. This is the main body of research. The methodology should point out the method of study. The social research must be made available to common man. It should be in simple manner so ordinary reader may follow it. review of literature. This is also a synopsis of study. The primary data may lead to establish the results. objectives of study. conclusions can be drawn. It must cover statement of the problem. limitations of study and chapter scheme. It must be in nontechnical language. (3) End Matter: It covers relevant appendices covering general information. Data analysis must be made to confirm the objectives of the study. (d) Implications of Data: The results based on the analysis of data must be valid. the concepts and bibliography. The conclusions must be based on data analysis. This is followed by research methodology in separate chapter. It contains statistical summaries and analysis of data. It makes the reader to understand by reading summary the knowledge of the research work. Some may give in brief in the first chapter the introduction of the research project highlighting the importance of study. The index may also be added to the report. He must have separate chapter on conclusions and recommendations.(c) The analysis of data (d) The implications drawn from the results (e) The summary (a) Introduction: Its purpose is to introduce the research topic to readers. (c) Analysis of data: Data so collected should be presented in systematic manner and with its help. There should be logical sequence in the analysis of data. This helps to test the hypothesis. and the methodology to cover primary and secondary data. The research in agricultural problems must be easy for farmers to read it. The conditions of research work limiting its scope for generalization must be made clear by the researcher. . (e) Summary: This is conclusive part of study. It highlights main theme of his study. The conclusions must be such which may lead to generalization and its applicability in similar circumstances. (b) Statement of the problem: This is crux of his research.