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UNIT II ANGLE MODULATION SYSTEMS Phase and frequency modulation – Single tone – Narrow band and wideband FM – Transmission

bandwidth – Generation and demodulation of FM signal

Angle Modulation Angle modulation results whenever the phase angle (ө) of a sinusoidal wave is varied with respect to time • Generalized sinusoidal carrier signal

S ( t ) = A0 cos[θ ( t ) ]

= A0 cos[ω c t + θ 0 ]

• Instantaneous frequency

dθ ωi = dt

Angle modulated wave:

Types of Angle Modulation Frequency Modulation (FM) • Phase Modulation (PM)

Phase Modulation If the phase of the carrier is varied directly in accordance with the modulating signal , PM result.

The magnitude and direction of the phase shift (Δө)is proportional to the amplitude of the modulating signal.

The rate at which the phase changes are occurring is equal to the frequency of the modulating signal (fm). • (Δө) is called the phase deviation • Linearly vary angle, θ(t), of a carrier signal with the baseband signal, m(t).

Spm= Accos[2пfct + kθ m(t)]

kθ = phase deviation constant (radians /volt) Ac= amplitude of the carrier Fc= Carrier frequency • Phase modulation index mp = kθ *Am Where Am is the peak amplitude of the modulating signal

PM Waves

Frequency Modulation

If the frequency of the carrier is varied directly in accordance with the modulating signal ,FM result. Linearly vary instantaneous frequency of carrier signal with the base band signal, m(t).

The magnitude and direction of the frequency shift (Δf) isproportional to the amplitude of the modulating signal.

The rate at which the frequency changes are occurring is equal to the frequency of the modulating signal (fm). • (Δf) is called the frequency deviation.
• •

If modulating signal is a sinusoid m(t) = Am cos(wmt)

Am = sinusoid amplitude fm = sinusoid frequency Frequency Modulation Index = kfA/w KfAm = peak freq deviation. Kf is in units of freq/volt

• Frequency modulated signal

k f Am   S FM ( t ) = Ac cos 2π f ct + sin( 2π f mt )  (5.17) fm  
dθ ωi = dt

FM & PM Waves

FM and PM Relationship

• FM is equivalent to phase modulation, but input to the PM is proportional to ∫ m(t) • Similarly PM is equivalent to freq modulation but the input of the modulator is proportional to PM = FM with input of d/dt m(t)

Spectrum of Frequency Modulated signal

For a frequency modulated carrier

S FM ( t ) = A cos ωc t + k f

[

∫ m( t )dt ]
(5.17)

k f Am   S FM ( t ) = Ac cos 2πf c t + sin ( 2πf m t )  fm  

General equation for a FM carrier
S FM ( t ) = A cos( ω C t ) cos( K f g ( t ) ) − A sin ( ω C t ) sin ( K f g ( t ) )

Where g(t) = kf

m(t) dt = Am/fm sin (2 Pi fmt)

• For a sinusoid modulating signal, its spectrum contains carrier frequency theoretically infinite number of sidebands at (Fc+ - n*fm). Its Bandwidth is theoritically infinite. – For a sinusoid signal the amplitudes of the spectral components are given by Bessel functions of the modulation index. • Since the FM is a non-linear operation, the Spectrum has to estimated on a case by case basis, for a specific modulating signal.

• A rule of thumb has been developed fro estimating the Bandwidth of a FM signal Spectrum of FM signal

Bandwidth of the freq modulated signal

Carson’s rule – approximation of FM bandwidth: An FM signal has 98 % of the total transmitted power in RF bandwidth BT given by upper bound: BT = 2(βf +1) fm lower bound : BT = 2 Δf βf is the frquency modulation index and Δf is the frequency deviation

Carson rule:

For small value of modulation index (βf<1), the spectrum of an FM signal is effectively limited to the carrier freq (fc), and one pair of sideband frequencies at (fc+ - fm).

• For large value of modulation index the bandwidth approaches, and is only slightly greater than 2 Δf • U. S. Amps cellular system: for βf = 3, fm = 4 kHz

upper bound: BT = 2(βf +1) fm = 2(3+1)4 k = 32 kHz lower bound: BT = 2 Δf = 2(βf fm) = 24 kHz

Frequency Analysis of Angle-Modulated Waves

With angle modulation, the frequency components of the modulated wave are much more complexly related to the frequency components of the modulating signal than AM.

• In a frequency or phase modulator, a single-frequency modulating signal produces an infinite number of pairs of side frequencies and, thus has a infinite bandwidth. • However most of the side frequencies are negligibly small in amplitude and can be ignore • Each side frequency is displaced from the carrier by an integral multiple of the modulating signal frequency.

Bessel Functions Identities e = Ec cos[ωct + m cos (ωit)] Identity:

Bessel Function Solution for a Angle Modulated Wave e= Ec[J0(m)cos ωct –J1(m)[cos(ωc-ωi)t – cos(ωc+ ωi)t]+ J2(m)[cos(ωc-2ωi)t + cos(ωc+ 2ωi)t] -J3(m)[cos(ωc-3ωi)t + cos(ωc+ 3ωi)t] + …….] e= Angle modulated wave Ec= Peak Amplitude of unmodulated wave J0(m)cos ωct = Carrier component

J2(m)[cos(ωc-2ωi)t + cos(ωc+ 2ωi)t] = 1stset of side frequencies J3(m)[cos(ωc-3ωi)t + cos(ωc+ 3ωi)t] = 2ndset of side frequencies.

Solving for the Amplitude of a SideFrequency Component Jn(m) = (m/2)n[1/n! –(m/2)2/(1!(n + 1)) + (m/2)4/(2!(n +2)) -(m/2)6/(3!(n + 3)+ ……]

Bessel Function

Narrowband Frequency Modulation

The FM equation is

when the modulation index is small compared to one radian,then

The modulated output of the narrowband modulator differs in two aspects.

Wideband FM: The modulated signal is represented as

Taking fourier transforms

GENERATION OF FM SIGNALS • Direct Method – fc varied according to m(t) • Indirect Method – Balanced modulator generates narrowband FM signal – Frequency multiplication to increase both the freq deviation and the carrier freq to the required level In Direct method, • In voltage controlled oscillator the frequency of the output signal is proportional to the input signal. • Voltage controlled oscillators (VCO) are used to vary carrier frequency of the carrier signal with baseband signal amplitude – Varactor (voltage variable capacitor). Application of voltage varies the reactance causing the instantaneous freq of the VCO to change proportionally

• A reverse biased p-n junction diode, larger the reverse bias, smaller the capacitance – Generate FM signal – Fc not stable for wideband FM, so phase locked loop (PLL) is used which locks the central freq to a stable crystal reference frequency Direct FM: VCO circuit

Wideband FM generation

• Armstrong
S FM ( t ) = A cos( ω C t ) cos ( K f g ( t ) ) − A sin ( ω C t ) sin ( K f g ( t ) )

• phase)

Approximate narrowband FM Carrier + SSB (90° out of

S FM ( t ) ≅ [ Ac cos 2πf ct ] − [ Acθ ( t ) sin 2πf c t ]

(5.23)

• A NB FM signal is generated using balanced modulator, which modulates a crystal controlled oscillator. Max freq deviation is kept constant and small to keep the validity of this equation. The output is NB FM signal. A wideband signal is then generated by using frequency multiplier of NB FM signal. • Phase noise – Phase noise increases as a function of freq multiplier factor N. Indirect: An example of FM

Fc=200Khz Deviation = 25 Hz

Fc1 = 200*64 =12.8 Deviation=25*64 =1.6 kz

Freq converter just shifts the signal up Fc3 = 12.8-10.9=1.9 Mhz Fc4 = 1.9*48 = 91.2 Mhz, freq deviation = 1.6*48 = 76.8 Mhz

FM Detection • Demodulator -Frequency-to-amplitude converter circuit • Frequency discriminators FM Detection Techniques

Slope Detector: Input signal is differentiated (Slope), and then envelope detection used to recover the signal Zero-crossing Detector: If linearity is required over a broad range of frequencies, The freq to amplitude conversion is performed by directly Counting the number of zero crossings in the input. – Counting the number of zero crossings is measuring the frequency. Phase Locked Loop(PLL) for FM Detection: PLL is a closed loop circuit, which tracks the variation in frequency and the phase of the received signal

Quadrature Detection: The detector comprises of a phase shift network. It shifts the phase of an incoming signal by an amount proportional to instantaneous frequency. • Quadrature Tank Circuit

Vin(t)

Lim iter

V1(t)

SlopeDetector
Differentiator V2(t) E nvelope Detector

Vout (t)

•Signal at the output of the limiter

v1 ( t ) = V1 cos[ 2πf c t + θ ( t ) ]
t   = V1 cos 2πf c t + 2πk f ∫ m(η ) dη  (5.24) −∞   •Output of the differentiator

dθ   v 2 ( t ) = −V1  2πf c t + sin( 2πf c t + θ ( t ) ) (5.25) dt   
•Output of the envelope detector

d   vout ( t ) = V1  2πf c t + θ ( t )  dt   = V1 2πf c + V1 2πk f m( t )

(5.26)

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Zero Crossing Detector • The FM modulated signal is passed through the Limiter circuit, to eliminate the amplitude variation in the incoming signal. This converts the signal to FM modulated Pulse train • This pulse train is then passed thru a differentiator, which generates a trigger signal for a monostable multivibrator

• The output of monostable multivibrator consists of a train of pulses with average duration proportional to desired signal. • This pulse train is passed thru the low pass filter to perform averaging operation by extracting the slowly varying DC component • This is the desired signal.

FM Detection using PLL

Phase detector: • Detects the phase of the signal. The phase is then amplified, and filterd (to filter out the high freq components), and fed to VCO. • The output of the VCO is compared to the input signal using a phase comparator. Which produces output signal proportional to the phase difference.

• The feed back functions to lock the freq of VCO to the freq of input signal. Once the freq of VCO is locked to the input freq, the VCO continues to track the variation in input freq. • Once the tracking is achieved the output signal is simply proportional to the demodulated signal. • The PLL detector uses PLL technology to demodulate FM signals. • The diagram shows a simple PLL detector. The phase detector compares the phase of the FM input and the VCO output. • Frequency deviation of the carrier results in a phase difference between the two and the phase detector sends an error voltage to the low pass filter. • The filtered error signal is used to change the VCO output frequency in order to reduce the phase error. • The output of the low pass filter has an amplitude that is proportional to the deviation of the FM input, so it is actually a replica of the original modulating signal. FM is converted directly to audio.