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ASHOKA (SARACA ASOCA

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Classification[4]
Kingdom Divison Class Order Family Genus Species Plantae Magnoliophyta Mgnoliopsida Fabales Caesalpinaceae Saraca Asoca

DEVSTHALI VIDYAPEETH COLLEGE OF PHARMACY

12-13 DEVSTHALI VIDYAPEETH COLLEGE OF PHARMACY ....08 Chemical Test……………………………………………………………08 Biological and Pharmalogical activity………09 Uses of Ashoka Bark……………………………………………..11 Conclusion……………………………………………………………………11 References………………………………………………………………..03 Botanic description……………………………………………..CONTANTS Introduction………………………………………………………………01 Synonyms……………………………………………………………………01 Biological source……………………………………………………..02 Macroscopic Characters…………………………………….10 Storage……………………………………………………………………….....01 Cultivation and collection………………………………...04 Microscopic Characters……………………………………..01 Geographical source…………………………………………….05-06 Chemical constituents…………………………………………07 Adulterant…………………………………………………………………..

Belonging to family Leguminosae. Thrisur. It is found throughout India. Kaikatty & Pothundi of Palakkad district.Ashoka or Ashoka is a Sanskrit words which means “without sorrow” or which that gives no grief. Unani and Ayurveda. Ashoka tree. America. Approximately 25 percent of all prescription drugs are derived from trees. Evergreen tree called in English Ashok tree. shrubs or herbs.ASHOKA (SARACA ASOCA) INTRODUCTION Herbal medicine has such an extraordinary influence that numerous alternative medicine therapies treat their patients with Herbal remedies.In Himalaya it is found at Khasi. East India (1) DEVSTHALI VIDYAPEETH COLLEGE OF PHARMACY .S. Bengal and whole south region. Jamaica. Geographical source It is distributed in evergreen forests of India up to an elevation of about 750 meters. Synonyms Ashoka is also known as: Kankeli (Sanskrit) Ashoka (Gujrati) Ashoka (Hindi) damara (Kannada) Asogam (Tamil) Biological source Ashoka consist of dried Stem Bark of the plant Saraca Indica Linn. Ashoka is one of the most legendary and sacred trees of India. Specially in Himalayas. Ashoka is Tannin containing Natural Drug. Kerala. Kollam and Kannaur districts.wild or Saraca indica belonging family Caesalpinaceae. universally known by its binomial Latin name Saraca asoca De. Garo and Lussi hills and in Kerala region it is found in Patagiri.

Irrigation Normally grown as rainfed crop but for better yield irrigation may be done as Per requirement (weekly/fortnightly).Cultivation and Collection [7] Soil and climate The plant requires slightly acidic to neutral soils for good growth with Medium to deep well drained fertile soils. seeds & leaves). To prevent diseases. Thinning and weeding Weeding and thinning of the plants may be done as and when Required usually after 15-30 days for better growth. Harvesting/ post harvesting operation Bark is removed from about ten years or older tree and then it has to be sun dried. Manures. Organic manures like. fertilizers and pesticides The medicinal plants have to be grown without chemical fertilizers and use of pesticides. bio-pesticides could be prepared (either single or mixture) from Neem (kernel. Dhatura. (2) DEVSTHALI VIDYAPEETH COLLEGE OF PHARMACY . Chitrakmool. may be used as per requirement of the species. Green Manure etc. Cow's urine etc. Nursery raising and planting The crop can be propagated by seeds and stem grafting. The seedlings are planted in the well-manured field during the rainy season. It grows well in tropical to subtropical Situations under irrigation. Vermi-Compost. Farm Yard Manure (FYM).

F.Macroscopic Characters  Colour  Odour  Taste  Appearance  Identification  Solubility  PH (1% w/v solution)  Loss on drying  Moisture Content by K.  Ash Content:  Sulphated Ash Content  Assay of active principle  by HPTLC / HPLC  Heavy Metal Brown Characteristic Characteristic Free flowing powder TLC method In water NLT 60%w/w In Alcohol NLT 40%w/w 5 to 7 Not More Then 5%w/w Not More Then 5% w/w Not More Then 5% w/w Not More Then 5% w/w Tannins Not Less Than 30 % w/w Arsenic Not More Then 1ppm Lead Not More Then 5ppm (3) DEVSTHALI VIDYAPEETH COLLEGE OF PHARMACY .

The bark is dark brown or grey or almost black with warty surface. smooth with circular lenticles and traversely ridged. Leaves are narrowly lanceolate. a thin whitish and continuous layer is seen beneath the cork leaver. 9-11]      (4) DEVSTHALI VIDYAPEETH COLLEGE OF PHARMACY . oblong and rigidly sub-coriaceous. 8. It occurs the up to the altitude 750 meters. Seeds are 4-8. deciduous. in short laterally placed corymbose.[2. cork like at the base and with a shot pestistipules are intra-petiolar and completely united. Bark channeled. Stem bark are rough and uneven due to the presence of rounded or projecting lenticles. calyx petaloid. Flowers are fragrant Flowers are Polygamous apetalous.Botanic description    Saraca indica Or Saraca asoca is a small evergreen tree 7-10 meter high. sometimes cracked. ellipsoid-oblong and compressed. Leaves are parpinnate 15-20 cm long and the leaflets 6-12. bract small. axillary panicles. yellowish orange turning to scarlet. Fracture splinting exposing striated surface.

Epidermis is single layered with thin cuticle. [3] (5) DEVSTHALI VIDYAPEETH COLLEGE OF PHARMACY . There is prominent pith. 3-5 layers of stone cells are clearly visible. Cambium is very clear and is 2-3 layered. parenchymatous tissue contains yellow masses and prismatic crystals: secondary phloem consists of phloem parenchyma. Just above.Microscopical characters Bark Transverse section of stem bark shows periderm consisting of a wide layer of cork. composed of thin walled parenchyma and many of the pith cells contain polygonal calcium oxalate crystals. Small rounded to oval projecting lenticles are present on the surface. radially flattened narrow cork cambium. [3] Stem Transverse section of stem is circular. secondary cortex wide with one or two continuous layers of stone cells with many patches of sclereids. Below the epidermis. sieve tubes with companion cells and phloem fibres occurring in groups. In the middle region of cortex. crystal fibres present. Cortex is 12-16 layered. the phloem region is very distinct and contains tannin cells. Xylem region is composed mostly of tracheids and a few vessels. Primary xylem is prominent. 5-6 layers of cork are seen.

i. sieve tube fragments and many unidentified cells.Root In transverse section. some of them containing few small rounded starch grains. under microscope it contain some tracheids. of these the outer layer is schlerenchymatous and the inner layers are stone cells. xylem parenchyma and tracheids are in alternating patches. Below this parenchymatous one.e. The upper zone consists of 5-7 layers of thin walled parenchyma cells. Following this supporting region is a broad zone of primary and secondary phloem. The outermost zone is cork. Phellogen is not distinct. Powder characters Ashoka bark powder brown in colour. 3-5 layers of mechanical cells are distinctly seen. stone cells. 4-6 cambial layers are very prominent below the bast zone. Inner to the cork region. composed of 8-10 layers of tangentially elongated thick walled cells.. thin walled and polygonal. the root appears somewhat circular in outline. parenchyma cells.large quantity of fibres.[8] (6) DEVSTHALI VIDYAPEETH COLLEGE OF PHARMACY . The cells are parenchymatous. vessels and parenchyma cells are arranged in a peculiar manner. In secondary xylem region tracheids. secondary cortex having two distinct zones are seen.

(I) (II) (III) (IV) Haematoxylin (7) Ketosterol DEVSTHALI VIDYAPEETH COLLEGE OF PHARMACY . haematoxylin. ketosterol. The ketosterol seems to be androgenic in nature. The tannins are found to be of condensed type. a phenolic glycoside P2. Bark is found to contain powerful oxytocic principle.Phytochemistry Chemical Constituents     Ashoka contains about 6% tannin. saponin and organic calcium and iron compounds. The activity of drug is due to the presence of steroidal component and the calcium salt. Leucopelargonidn and leucocyanidin have been isolated from the Ashoka bark.

(−). quercetin. Some time bark of Ashok mixed with Rohitaka bark (Afanamexis polystakis) and Sicalpinea pulchirena. and lead.3. were isolated from dried bark. Ashoka is precipitated by strong potassium dichromate solution or chromic acid solution.10. 5. quercetin3-0-P-D-glucoside. linoleic. and schizandriside. (-) epicatechol and leucocyanidin [2. It is cultivated throughout the hotter parts of India.P-sitosterol. and three flavonoids. palmitic and stearic acids. Ashoka is react with Potassium ferricyanide with ammonia gives deep red colour. 6] Chemical Test   Ashoka is precipitated by salt of copper.    (8) DEVSTHALI VIDYAPEETH COLLEGE OF PHARMACY . linoleic. icariside E3. catechol. Five lignan glycosides. Ashoka is react wite Ferric chloride gives bluish-black or brownish-green colour.11. 5methoxy-9-β.12]. apigenin.epicatechin. pelargonidin. linolenic. kaempferol. palmitic. cyanidin-3. Seed and Pod contains oleic. linoleic.7-0-p-D-glucoside.glucoside. [13] Adulterants The drug is widely adulterated with the bark of Polyalthia longifolia.diglucoside. together with β-sitosterol glucoside. palmitic and stearic acids. epiafzelechin(4β→8)-epicatechin and procyanidin B2. lyoniside. nudiposide. The flower part of plant contain Oleic. leucocyanidin and gallic acid.xylopyranosyl-(−)-isolariciresinol. p and y sitosterols. stearic. [5. tin.In Hindi and Bengali it is known as devdaru. 5diglucoside.3-0-P-D. Ashoka is gives colour reaction with iron salts.

Salmonella typhymurium.Biological and Pharmalogical activity of Saraca asoca Anticancer Activity The anticancer principle from Saraca asoca flowers indicated 50 percent cytotoxicity (in vitro) in Dalton's lymphoma ascites and Sarcoma-180 tumour cells at a concentration of 38 mug and 54mug respectively. cajani. (plant pathogen). Estrogenprimed or gravid uterus was more sensitive to the action of the alcoholic extract. Saraca asoca has been tested twice previously with negative results and once with positive results.[26. Antioxytocic Activity       Oxytocic activity of the plant was seen in rat and human isolated uterine preparations. Escherichia coli. The extracts exhibited good inhibitory activity against A. 1:1) on agar plate with different organisms such as Bacillus subtilis. Agrobacterium tumefaciens showed negative activity.colletotrichum gloesporioides and Drechlera specifera. with no activity against normal lymphocytes but preferential activity for lymphocytes derived from leukemia patients. asoca did not show oxytocic activity. Staphylococcus aureus. Salmonella typhosa. while it effective at lower concentrations against other fungi also. Methanol and water extracts of Saraca asoca leaves exhibited good activity against Bacillus subtilis. Saraca asoca stem bark also used to treat all disorder associated with the menstrual cycle. extracts of S. In vitro tests on rat uterus preparation.[22]   Antimenorrhagic Activity   dried bark as well as flower is givan as a tonic to ladies in case of Uterine disorders. Pentolinium bitartrate completely blocked the oxytocic action. Seed extract is found effective against dermatophytic fungi. Pseudomonas aeruginosa.[25] Ant microbial Activity  Saraca asoca was subjected to antibacterial activity (ethanol : water.27] (9) DEVSTHALI VIDYAPEETH COLLEGE OF PHARMACY . Both extracts showed marked activity against Alternania alternate.

Decoction is useful in rickets. painful periods.29] Indications/Uses            Dried root is used in paralysis.  Saraca asoca bark used as a uterine sedative and hot water extracts administered to human adult female stimulates the uterus similar to ergot. It acts as a vulnerary and hastens healing time of skin trauma and broken bones. [28. It is reported to have a stimulant effect on the endometrium and ovarian tissue and useful in hemorrhagic. Also used in scabies and Tinea pedis. It is capable enough to dissolve oxalic tones present in kidney. [38. It is drunk after delivery to procure copious lochial discharge. hemiplegia and visceral numbness. It stimulates the uterus by the prolonged and frequent uterine contractions. It rejuvenates the complexion and skin tone may be applied in discoloration or loss of pigmentation. cool and clear the blood. clots and ammenorhea. ulcers and skin diseases. 40]      (10) DEVSTHALI VIDYAPEETH COLLEGE OF PHARMACY . Specifically used to clean. psoriasis. It is used as uterine tonic and also a sedative. as an emmenagogue. dermatitis. It is a favorite herb to help relieve Pruritis. endometriosis. uterine affections as well as used in several preparations related to female troubles. but without producing tonic contraction.[9] Also employed in menorrhagia. Useful in signs of congested uterus and pain. 39. Used for itching in eczema.use as a wash or in a cream.uterine sedative. and herpeskushta/visarpa. Paste of roots is useful in freckles and external inflammations. where ergot can also be used. It is also suggested in all cases of uterine bleeding. fixed pain. Root is also used in obstruction of urinary passage and ammenorhea. delayed bone consolidation and calcium deficiency. Externally it also benefits this conditions. nervous system causing temporary delirium.

In the present scenario many plant are used to treat many diseases. anti –microbial activity and have extend uses in ayurveda . genitor-urinary functions . so store it in airtight containers in a cool and dry place Conclusion Saraca asoca is highly regarded as an universal panacea in the ayurvedic medicine .it is one of the universal plant having medicinal activities . But Ashoka is ancient and reliable source of medicine so Ashoka is used in many pharmacological activities like anti cancer.as the global scenario is now changing towards the use of nontoxic plant product having traditional medicine use. anti hemorrhagic. unani and homeopathy. It have many uses like to treat skin infections.Storage Ashoka bark is sensitive for moisture. anti oxtoxic . development of modern drug from Saraca asoca should be emphasized for the control of various diseases.This versatile plant is the source of various types of compounds. CNS function. (11) DEVSTHALI VIDYAPEETH COLLEGE OF PHARMACY .

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