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NETWORK THEOREMS Objectives

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After completing this topic, the reader should be able to    Apply principle of super position in the analysis of linear circuits. Determine the Thevenin and Norton equivalent circuits for a given circuit. Determine the maximum power delivered to the load RL using Thevenin equivalent

Linearity property: Linearity property of an element is the combination of homogeneity and additivity property. The homogeneity property requires that of the input is multiplied by a constant then the output is also multiplied by the same constant. For example V=iR If the current is increased by a constant k, then the voltage increases correspondingly by k that is kiR = kV The additivity property requires that the response to a sum of inputs is the sum of responses to each input applied separately. Using the voltage – current relationship of a resistor, if V1= i1R; and V2 =i2R then applying (i1+i2) gives

V= (i1+i2)R=i1R+i2R=V1+V2 A linear circuit is one whose output is linearly related (or directly proportional) to its input. A linear circuit consists of only linear elements, linear dependent sources, and independent sources. SUPERPOSITION: The principle of super position states that any voltage or current response in a linear circuit resulting from several voltage and/or current sources may be determined by first considering the response produced by each source individually and algebraically combining the individual responses.

Find the total contribution by adding algebraically all the contribution due to the independent sources. because the power absorbed by a resistor depends on the square of the voltage or current. Find the output (voltage or current) due to that active source using the techniques of method of circuit analysis.e. All resistances are in ohms. Repeat step 1 for each of the other independent sources.Steps to apply superposition principle: 1. Further the circuit simplification leads to the fact that the total resistance offered to the voltage source is 4+ (12  15) =32/3 Ω A I’ 6 12 4 + 32 B Open circuit 9 Figure -1(a) . Note:  Superposition is based on linearity. infinite resistance. 6 12 + 32V 4 4A 9 Figure -1 Solution: (i) When voltage source acts alone: The constant current source is replaced by an open circuit i. Turn off all independent sources (voltage source by s/c and current source by o/c) except one source. hence not applicable to the effect on power due to each source. 2. The voltage and current source should be treated as ideal sources.. 3. Example1: Compute the power dissipated in the 9Ω resistor of figure-1 by applying the superposition principle.

total current through the 9Ω resistor is I = I’ + I” = 4/3+ 2 = 10/3 A Power dissipated through 9Ω resistor = I 2 R = 100W Example 2: Find io in the circuit in figure -2 using superposition 2Ω 3Ω 4A 1Ω 5Ω ∴ 5io + _ 20V + 4Ω io - Figure 2 Solution: The circuit involves a dependent source. zero resistance.. (ii) When current source acts alone: The voltage source is replaced by an short circuit i.Hence. we turn off the 20 – V source that we have the circuit in figure 2a . current =32 ÷ 32/3 =3A. ∴ I’ = 3× 12 / (15+12) = 4/3 A. Let us have the total current io = io’+ io” where io’ and io” are due to the 4-A current source and 20 –V voltage source respectively. I” = 4/2 = 2 A. At point A this current divides in two parts. which must be left intact. The part going along AB is the one that also passes through the 9 Ω resistor. The 4A current divides in to two parts at point A A 6 I” 12 4 4A 9 Short circuit B Figure -1(b) Hence. To obtain io’ . .e. since both I’ and I” flow in the same direction.

i1. For loop 1. KVL gives.2Ω 3Ω 4A i2 5io’ 1Ω + _ i1 5Ω 4Ω io’ i3 Short circuit Node 0 We apply mesh analysis in order to obtain io’. -5i1-i2+10i3+5io’ = 0 But at node 0 . ii = 4A For loop 2. -3i1+6i2-i3-5io’ =0 For loop 3 .i3 = io’ solving for equation 1. 6i4-i5 -5io” =0 and for loop 5 -i4+10i5-20+5io” =0 (5) (6) But i5 = io” substitute in this in equation 5 &6 and solving we get io” . we turn off the 4-A current source so that the circuit becomes as shown in figure 2(b) io’= 2Ω 3Ω i4 1Ω 5Ω Open circuit io” + 20V 5io” + _ 4Ω i5 - Figure 2(b) For loop 4. & 3 by substituting 4 we get (1) (2) (3) (4) 52 A (4a) 17 to obtain io” . 2.

By voltage division rule − V1 = 1 (5) = 1V 1+ 4 (1) . When 5V dc source acts alone: To find V1. So we let Vo = V1+V2+V3 (A) Where V1 is due to the 5V dc voltage source. Since ω=0. There is an alternative way of looking at this. we set to zero all sources except the 5-V dc source.Either way. the equivalent circuit is as shown in figure 3a.4706 A 17 4Ω + 0.1F - - 5V Figure -3 SOLUTION: Since the circuit operates at three different frequencies. jωL =0.io”= − where as io = io’+ io” 60 A 17 (6a) Substituting 4a and 6a in the above equation we get io= − EXAMPLE 3: Find Vo in the circuit in figure 3 using the superposition theorem 2H 1Ω + V 0 + 10cos2t V 2 sin 5t A 8 A = −0. one way to obtain solution is to use superposition. V2 is due to 10 cos2t V voltage source. which breaks the problem into single frequency problems. We recall that at steady state. and V3 is due to the 2sin5t A current source. 1/jωC= ∞. a capacitor acts as open circuit to dc while an inductor short circuit to dc.

⇒ j4Ω.1Ω + V 1 4Ω + Figure -3a (ii) When 10cos2t V acts alone: 5V To find V2.498∠ − 30.439 − j1.79 o 1+ 4 j + Z In the time domain. 1Ω j4Ω 4Ω + V 2 + 10∠ 00 -j5Ω - Figure -3b Let − j5 × 4 = 2.951 4 − j5 By voltage division.790) (2) . ⇒ -j5Ω.498 cos (2t-30. The equivalent circuit is now shown in figure3 (b).1F ⇒ 10∠ 0o. 10 cos2t 2H 0. V2 = 2. Z − j 5 || 4 = V2 = 1 (10∠0 0 ) = 2. we set zero both the 5-V source and the 2 sin5t current source and transform the circuit to the frequency domain.

4 V3 = I 1 × 1 = In the time domain.(iii) When 2sin 5t A acts alone: j10Ω 1Ω + V 3 -j2Ω 4Ω 2 ∠ -90o A Figure -3c To obtain V3.79 0 ) + 2.1F ⇒ 2∠ -90o. I1 = j10 ( 2∠ − 90 0 ) A j10 + 1 + Z 1 j10 (− j 2) = 2. The equivalent circuit is shown in figure 3c Let Z1 = − j 2 || 4 = − j2 × 4 = 0. 2 & 3 in equation (A) we have V0 (t ) = −1 + 2.33 sin(5t + 10 0 )V (3) . 2sin5t 2H 0.33 cos(5t-80o) = 2. we set the voltage sources to zero and transform what is left to the frequency domain.8 − j1.498 cos(2t − 30.328∠ − 80 0 V 1.6Ω − j2 + 4 By current division.33 sin (5t +10o) V Substituting 1 . ⇒ -j2Ω. V3 =2. ⇒ j10Ω.8 + j8.