You are on page 1of 4

Historical background Most of the reactions in living organisms are catalyzed by protein molecules called enzymes.

Enzymes can rightly be called the catalytic machinery of living systems. The real break through of enzymes occurred with the introduction of microbial proteases into washing powders. The first commercial bacterial Bacillus protease was marketed in 1959 and major detergent manufactures started to use it around 1965. The industrial enzyme producers sell enzymes for a wide variety of applications. The estimated value of world market is presently about US$ 2 billion. Detergents (37%), textiles (12%), starch (11%), baking (8%) and animal feed (6%) are the main industries, which use about 75% of industrially produced enzymes. Enzyme classification Presently more than 3000 different enzymes have been isolated and classified. The enzymes are classified into six major categories based on the nature of the chemical reaction they catalyze: 1. Oxidoreductases catalyze oxidation or reduction of their substrates. 2. Transferases catalyze group transfer. 3. Hydrolases catalyze bond breakage with the addition of water. 4. Lyases remove groups from their substrates. 5. Isomerases catalyze intramolecular rearrangements. 6. Ligases catalyze the joining of two molecules at the expense of chemical energy. Only a limited number of all the known enzymes are commercially available . More than 75 % of industrial enzymes are hydrolases. Protein-degrading enzymes constitute about 40 % of all enzyme sales. More than fifty commercial industrial enzymes are available and their number is increasing steadily. Enzyme production Some enzymes still extracted from animal and plant tissues. Enzymes such as papain, bromelain and ficin and other speciallity enzymes like lipoxygenase are derived from plants and enzymes pepsin and rennin are derived from animal. Most of the enzymes are produced by microorganisms in submerged cultures in large reactors called fermentors. The enzyme production process can be divided into following phases: 1. Selection of an enzyme.

cultivation type and process conditions. Construction of an overproducing stain by genetic engineering. Protein engineering Often enzymes do not have the desired properties for an industrial application. One option is find a better enzyme from nature. separators or microfiltration) by ultrafiltration. the production host should have a GRASstatus. Optimization of recovery process. Criteria used in the selection of an industrial enzyme include specificity. reaction rate. Optimization of culture medium and production condition. pH and temperature optima and stability. Selection of production strain. Another option is to engineer a commercially available enzyme to be a better industrial catalyst. Ideally the enzyme is secreted from the cell. Enzyme technology This field deals with how are the enzymes used and applied in practical processes. Two different methods are presently available: a random method called directed evaluation and a protein engineering method called rational design. The large volume industrial enzymes are produced in 50 -500 m3 fermentors. Another option is to engineer a commercially available enzyme to be a better industrial catalyst. Most of the industrially used microorganism have been genetically modified to overproduce the desired activity and not to produce undesired side activities. Enzyme production by microbial fermentation Once the biological production organism has been genetically engineered to overproduce the desired products. 3. Enzymes used in the industrial applications must usually tolerant against various heavy metals and have no need for cofactors. The extracellular enzymes are often recovered after cell removal (by vacuum drum filtration. Formulation of a stable enzyme product. Secondly. 4. 5. The optimization of a fermentation process includes media composition. Microbial production strains In choosing the production strain several aspects have to be considered.2. the organism should be able to produce high amount of the desired enzyme in a reasonable life time frame. a production process has to be developed. Thirdly. 6. effect of inhibitors and affinity to substrates. The simplest way is to use enzymes is to add them into a process stream where they catalyze .

specific binding or absorption have been developed. Large scale Enzyme applications 1] Detergents 2] Starch hydrolysis and fructose production 3] Drinks 4] Textiles 5] Animal feed 6] Baking 7] Pulp and Paper 8] Leather 9] Enzymes in personal care products 10] Enzymes in DNA-technology 11] Enzymes in fine chemical production A] Chirally pure amino acids and aspartame B] Rare sugars C] Semisynthetic penicillins D] Lipase based reactions E] Enzymatic oligosaccharide synthesis . An alternative way to use enzymes is to immobilize them so that they can be reused. Many different laboratory methods for enzyme immobilization based on chemical reaction. The large enzyme molecule cannot pass through the membrane but the small molecular reaction products can. entrapment. This happens in many bulk enzyme applications and the price of the enzymes must be low to take their use economical. Enzyme can be immobilized by using ultra filtration membranes in the reactor system.the desired reaction and are gradually inactivated during the process.

and engineering enzymes to function in various solvents with multiple activities are important technological developments. The reason for this lies in improved production efficiency resulting in cheaper enzymes.Future trends in industrial enzymology Industrial enzyme market is growing steadily. Tailoring enzymes for specific applications will be a future trend with continuously improving tools and understanding of structure-function relationships and increased search for enzymes from exotic environments. ability to recycle cofactors. in new application fields. New technical tools to use enzymes as crystalline catalysts. which will steadily create new applications .