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PHILOSOPHY OF MAN PHILOSOPHY Pythagoras ( Πσθαγόρας ) 570 BC, Samos.

495 BC Metapontum

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Credited as one of the founders of Western philosophy Sentenced to death by drinking a mixture containing poison hemlock.

SOCRATES LIFE According to Plato, Socrates’ father was Sophroniscus. His mother Phaenarete Socrates married Xanthippe Lamprocles, Sophroniscus and Menexenus In Xenophon’s Symposium, Socrates is reported as saying he devote himself only to what he regards as the most important art or occupation: discussing philosophy. In The Clouds Aristophanes portrays Socrates as accepting payment for teaching and running a sophist school with Chaerephon. He chose to stay for several reason to face death because:  He believed such a flight would indicate a fear of death, which he believed no true philosopher has.  If he fled Athens his teaching would fare no better in another country as he would continue questioning all he met and undoubtedly incur their displeasure.  Having knowingly agreed to live under the city’s laws, he implicitly subjected himself to the possibly of being accused of crimes by its citizens and judged guilty by its jury. To do otherwise would have caused him to break his “social contract” with the state, and so harm the state, an act contrary to Socratic principle. The unexamined life was not worth living, Were would be the worth in your existence? The most important task in life was caring for the soul. A person’s soul was the real person, Socrates believed that the most important task people faced was realizing their potential as persons. A good person could not be harmed by other people, the most important part of a person is the soul and the soul is not physical but inward then the soul cannot be harmed. Since the knowledge is born, virtue, likewise is a natural endowment, not an artificial convention or habit of action to be acquired by education. Virtue indeed can be taught, but it is not introducing foreign to the mind but merely awakening the seeds of good deeds that

Three types of man Lover of Pleasure Lover of Success Lover of Wisdom

Philia- Love Sophia- Wisdom According to Pythagoras Man cannot perfectly possess a comprehensive understanding of all meant by wisdom. Man can only continually pursuit the meaning of wisdom. Only God can be called wise. We can only be lovers of wisdom and we can never be wise.

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Philosophy As Science – it seeks to acquire the knowledge of the causes of things. As Science of all things- deals with concrete, real and contingent things It is a thing that is not self-existent. A being that is not self-existent owes its existence to something other than itself.

As Known in Light of Reason- seeks the first causes of things as far as they can be rationally established by the human mind. DIVISION OF PHILOSOPHY  Metaphysics- is the study of reality (beings and being)  Epistemology- is the study of validity of human knowledge  Ethics- is the study of the morality of human action.  Cosmology- is the science of the universe  Theodicy- a philosophical study of God or Divine Being/s  Logic- is the study of correct reasoning. METHOD OF PHILOSOPHY It uses the human reason as its method. It uses this method to inquire about the nature of things. The Greek wisdom on man c. 469/ 470 BC, Deme Alopece, Athens 399 BC (age approx. 71) Athens -

SOCRATIC PRINCIPLES

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MAN AND VIRTUE -

SOCRATES

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” c. individual. Virtue then depended on knowledge and could be defined as true knowledge of one’s self. the reflections and the replicas of the unseen universe. In the definition of virtue: Socrates did not give credence to instinct and passion which can fly in the face of the true good. is only an imperfect copy of his real original self. Thus man was omniscient. Contemplation means recollection or remembering of past perfect knowledge of all things which the soul had already acquired directly by intuition before it was joined to the body. music and gymnastics He first became acquainted with Cratylus (a disciple of Heraclitus. politics. But according to Tertullian. THE PERFECT MAN Man in his present earthly existence. immutable and eternal idea. Another tradition suggest that Plato died at a wedding feast. but we often choose to do the worse. The perfect man is in the realm of ideas. Evil which is mostly moral evil is due to ignorance or to the limitation and imperfection of man’s present knowledge. It is the idea behind these changeable. It is the communion of the mind with the universal and external ideas. family. he can regain his former perfections. the infinite and the divine verities. then the only way to acquire virtue is simply to know what is in the mind. (Plato Cratylus 402a= A6) THE IDEAL MAN. he forgot most of the knowledge he had. CONTEMPLATION AND IMITATION Contemplation does not mean passive thinking and or inaction. in the self. but constant doing of the GOOD.428-427 BC. “all knowing” But his separation from the paradise of truth and knowledge and his long exile on earth. Famous Socratic saying: “KNOWLEDGE IS VIRTUE: IGNORANCE IS VICE” True knowledge is the application of this knowledge. now imperfect. Since virtue is inborn in the mind and selfknowledge is the source of all wisdom.all things pass and nothing stays and comparing existing things to the flow of a river. can be perfect again by constant recollection and imitation of his former perfect self. a prominent pre SocraticGreek philosopher) and the Heraclitean doctrines. virtues. These are not real since they change. Heraclitean doctrines THE ONE AND THE MANY “The true lover of wisdom is always looking for the ON” Greek for being. It will free himself (doing contemplation) from his space-time confinement to ascend to the heaven of ideas and there commune with the immortal.justice. . By constant remembering and doing good. the external. As the poet Ovid sings: “We know the better course. Man should live a life of virtue in which true human perfection consists. This theory is called IDEALISM The individual things that we perceive exist in space time. one It is the idea behind the things that we see. literature. Plato simply died in his sleep. much less mere speculation. embodied in his former perfect self. Men are external manifestations. It is not just knowing or appreciating the GOOD. Evil is the result of ignorance. education. Man knew all things by direct intuition. art. he says you could not step twice into the same river.- - perhaps lie dormant I the mind and heart of man. Happiness consist not merely in constant feeling of goodness but in being and doing good. - MAN AND THE PROBLEM OF EVIL - MAN AND KNOWLEDGE - COMMENTARY - - PLATO - THE PERFECT MODEL - PLATO’S LIFE - MAN AND CONTEMPLATION - - - - Flux. 348-347 BC (age approx 80) Athens Rhetoric. During his long earthly exile and his imprisonment in the body as a punishment for sin. epistemology . and finite things that alone is real. It means imitating the Good Exemplar and Living the Good by leading a good life. Man. militarism His father wad Ariston Plato’s mother was Perictione Grammar. Athens c. HAPPINESS is the fruit of virtue Is attained by the constant imitation of the divine exemplar of virtue.