The Difficulties and Experiences The Difficulties and Experiences The Difficulties and Experiences The Difficulties and

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Beverley H Kadyamadare Beverley H Kadyamadare Beverley H Kadyamadare

Acknowledgements Acknowledgements Acknowledgements
My sincere gratitude goes to Evelyn Oldfield Unit and Africa Education Trust for My sincere gratitude goes to Evelyn Oldfield Unit and Africa Education Trust for My sincere gratitude to conduct this research; and acquiring priceless knowledge giving me the chancegoes to Evelyn Oldfield Unit and Africa Education Trust for giving me the chance to conduct this research; and acquiring priceless knowledge giving me the chance toprocess. this research; and acquiring priceless knowledge throughout the learning conduct throughout the learning process. throughout the learning process. Thank you Active Horizons (Youth Organisation) for your assistance during focus Thank you Active Horizons (Youth Organisation) for your assistance during focus Thank you Active Horizons (Youth Organisation) for your assistance during focus groups. groups. groups.

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The Difficulties and Experiences of Young People in the Zimbabwean Community of South East London The Difficulties and Experiences of Young People in the Zimbabwean Community of South East London The Difficulties and Experiences of Young People in the Zimbabwean Community of South East London

Contents Page Contents Page Contents Page
(i) Introduction ........................................................................................................... 3 (i) Introduction ........................................................................................................... 3 (i) Methodology ........................................................................................................ 3 (ii) Introduction ........................................................................................................... 4 (ii) Methodology ........................................................................................................ 4 (ii) Methodology ........................................................................................................ 8 (iii) Findings and Discussion ..................................................................................... 4 (iii) Findings and Discussion ..................................................................................... 8 (iii) Findings and...................................................................................................... 15 (iv) Conclusions Discussion ..................................................................................... 8 (iv) Conclusions ...................................................................................................... 15 (iv) Conclusions ...................................................................................................... 15 (v) Recommendations............................................................................................. 16 (v) Recommendations............................................................................................. 16 (v) Recommendations............................................................................................. 16 (vi) Bibliography ...................................................................................................... 17 (vi) Bibliography ...................................................................................................... 17 (vi) Bibliography ...................................................................................................... 17

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(i) Introduction (i) Introduction (i) Introduction
The purpose of this report was to find out what issues were causing the hardships The purpose of this report was to find out what issues were causing the hardships The struggles of this report wasinto find out what issues were causing London. It will and purpose of young people the Zimbabwean community living in the hardships and struggles of young people in the Zimbabwean community living in London. It will and struggles theyoung peopleof these difficulties incommunitylives. in London. It will also focus on of implications in the Zimbabwean their daily living also focus on the implications of these difficulties in their daily lives. also focus on the implications of these difficulties in their daily lives. Research for this report included focus groups with young people, a questionnaire, Research for this report included focus groups with young people, a questionnaire, Research for this report included focus experience inyoung people, a questionnaire, and interviews with individuals that had groups with the subject matter. I also used and interviews with individuals that had experience in the subject matter. I also used and interviews with individuals thatwith relevance to in the subject matter. I also used past and current literature reviews had experience this report. past and current literature reviews with relevance to this report. past and current literature reviews with relevance to this report. The findings indicated that unresolved immigration status was the dominating factor The findings indicated that unresolved immigration status was the dominating factor The findings indicated that unresolved immigration status was the dominating of the that surmounted to the difficulties experienced by the young people. Most factor that surmounted to the difficulties experienced by the young people. Most of the that surmountedwerethe difficulties experienced bybarriers in accessing services, young people to not in employment; and the young people. Most of the young people were not in employment; and barriers in accessing services, young people were not in were rife. Stress, the Dispersion accessing services, information and opportunities employment; and barriers in Programme (NASS) information and opportunities were rife. Stress, the Dispersion Programme (NASS) information and opportunities were rife. Stress,concern for the young people. Youth and unstable family relationships were a major the Dispersion Programme (NASS) and unstable family relationships were a major concern for the young people. Youth and unstable family relationshipsof the young people in the Zimbabwean community; crime instilled fear among some were a major concern for the young people. Youth crime instilled fear among some of the young people in the Zimbabwean community; crime instilled fear among some of actually involved inin the Zimbabwean community; however a diminutive number was the young people committing the crimes. however a diminutive number was actually involved in committing the crimes. however a diminutive number was actually involved in committing the crimes. The government must not ignore the issues raised in the findings of this report. Most The government must not ignore the issues raised in the findings of this report. Most The government mustare at risk thebecoming destitute iffindings of this report. Most of the young people not ignore of issues raised in the the government does not of the young people are at risk of becoming destitute if the government does not of the young people are at risk of is still introducing spending cuts, it is does that intervene. Whilst the government becoming destitute if the government vital not intervene. Whilst the government is still introducing spending cuts, it is vital that intervene. Whilst the government is still introducing spending cuts, itrefugees that organisations that cater for migrants including asylum seekers and is vital are organisations that cater for migrants including asylum seekers and refugees are organisationsgovernment for migrants including asylum seekers and refugees are spared. The that cater must also give the young people the right to work and to spared. The government must also give the young people the right to work and to spared. higher education whilst their cases are being people the right to work and to enrol in The government must also give the young processed. enrol in higher education whilst their cases are being processed. enrol in higher education whilst their cases are being processed.

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The Difficulties and Experiences of Young People in the Zimbabwean Community of South East London The Difficulties and Experiences of Young People in the Zimbabwean Community of South East London The Difficulties and Experiences of Young People in the Zimbabwean Community of South East London

(ii) Methodology (ii) Methodology (ii) Methodology

In exploring the issues affecting Zimbabwean young people l used three research In exploring the issues affecting Zimbabwean young people l used three research In exploring the issues affecting Zimbabwean young people l used three I figured methods, a focus group, semi-structured interviews and a questionnaire. research methods, a focus group, semi-structured interviews and a questionnaire. I figured methods, a focus group, semi-structured interviews and a questionnaire. I figured that l needed to go in-depth and seek an interpreted understanding of the information that l needed to go in-depth and seek an interpreted understanding of the information that l needed to go in-depthduring thean interpreted understandingthrough past and given by the participants and seek research, and also going of the information given by the participants during the research, and also going through past and given by the participantstoduring the research, and also going through past and current literature relevant the report. current literature relevant to the report. current literature relevant to the report. I set the criteria; the first focus group of participants had to be Zimbabwean aged I set the criteria; the first focus group of participants had to be Zimbabwean aged I set the 16 and 25 first focus group to have a refugee background or seeking between criteria; the years. They had of participants had to be Zimbabwean aged between 16 and 25 years. They had to have a refugee background or seeking between 16 and 25 years. They hadtheirhave a refugeerecruited the participants asylum in the UK and willing to share to experiences. I background or seeking asylum in the UK and willing to share their experiences. I recruited the participants asylum in the UK and youth organisation that I volunteer Ifor and through my social through churches, the willing to share their experiences. recruited the participants through churches, the youth organisation that I volunteer for and through my social through churches, the youth organisation that I volunteer for and through my social network. network. network. I handed out consent forms for all the participants and also to the parents or I handed out consent forms for all the participants and also to the parents or I handed out those below 18for all the participants and also to the parentsthis guardians of consent forms years old with regards to their partaking in or guardians of those below 18 years old with regards to their partaking in this guardians I of thosetobelow 18the permission of the parents and notify them in this research. did this warrant years old with regards to their partaking on the research. I did this to warrant the permission of the parents and notify them on the research. Ithe project warrant the permission of the parents and notify them on out details of did this to so that they could make an informed decision. I sent the details of the project so that they could make an informed decision. I sent out details of the project so that they could make an informedadecision. I sent out memorandums so that those interested would contact me. As way of encouraging memorandums so that those interested would contact me. As a way of encouraging memorandums soforward I offered incentives such as travel way of encouraging people to come that those interested would contact me. As a cost and provided people to come forward I offered incentives such as travel cost and provided people to come forward was to be central and such as locate, either and provided refreshments. The venue I offered incentives easy to travel cost a community refreshments. The venue was to be central and easy to locate, either a community refreshments. The venue was suite and ensured that the locate,was secure and that centre or a church hall would to be central and easy to place either a community centre or a church hall would suite and ensured that the place was secure and that centre or a felt safe. made it clear to all the that the place they could stop the participants church hallI would suite and ensuredparticipants thatwas secure and that participants felt safe. I made it clear to all the participants that they could stop the participantsand discussions at itany time all theyparticipants do so forcould research interviews felt safe. I made clear to if the wished to that they this stop the interviews and discussions at any time if they wished to do so for this research interviews and discussions at any time if up emotions at times. for this research because personal stories can or tend to stir they wished to do so because personal stories can or tend to stir up emotions at times. because personal stories can or tend to stir up emotions at times. Data Protection Act (1998) Due to the sensitivity of the research I considered Data Protection Act (1998) Due to the sensitivity of the research I considered Data Protection Act (1998) Duethe rightssensitivity of the research I of personal anonymity and privacy to protect to the of the participants in respect considered anonymity and privacy to protect the rights of the participants in respect of personal anonymity and privacy to protect theof ethics but also the legalin respect of personal data and identity; not only as matter rights of the participants implications. I erased data and identity; not only as matter of ethics but also the legal implications. I erased data and identity; not only as matter of ethics but alsol the legalwith the transcriptions the recorded interview files on my phone as soon as finished implications. I erased the recorded interview files on my phone as soon as l finished with the transcriptions the recorded interview files on completed as soon as l finished with theytranscriptions and for those participants that my phone the questionnaire survey, the did not have and for those participants that completed the questionnaire survey, they did not have and for those participants that completed the questionnaire survey, they did not have

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to print their names on the forms. All the participants decided to have their identities to print their names on the forms. All the participants decided to have their identities to print their names on the forms. All the participants decided to have their identities concealed or disguised in this research. concealed or disguised in this research. concealed or disguised in this research. Focus Group Focus Group Focus Group I chose to use the focus group as one of main research tools, key features like I chose to use the focus group as one of main research tools, key features like I chose to discussion (Kitzinger 1994), collective activity (Powell et al 1996), social organised use the focus group as one of main research tools, key features like organised discussion (Kitzinger 1994), collective activity (Powell et al 1996), social organised discussion (Kitzinger 1994), collective activity (Powell 1995) 1996), social events (Goss & Leinbach 1996) and interaction (Kitzinger et al identify the events (Goss & Leinbach 1996) and interaction (Kitzinger 1995) identify the events (Goss & Leinbach 1996) to interaction (Kitzinger 1995) way to get contribution that focus groups make andsocial research. It was the bestidentify the contribution that focus groups make to social research. It was the best way to get contribution that focusmore so make to social research. It was the best way to get more information and groups to capture any emotions, ironies and contradictions. more information and more so to capture any emotions, ironies and contradictions. morefocus group was more so to capture any give participants flexibility in the way The information and an open discussion to emotions, ironies and contradictions. The focus group was an open discussion to give participants flexibility in the way The focus groupto thean open discussion to give an individual flexibility in to one’s they responded was questions. For one thing, participants may listen the way they responded to the questions. For one thing, an individual may listen to one’s they responded she may want to For oneor modify their view; may listen to one’s answers, he or to the questions. qualify thing, an individual or may voice their answers, he or she may want to qualify or modify their view; or may voice their answers, he or she may he or shequalify or modify thought of without hearingtheir agreement to something want to would not have their view; or may voice the agreement to something he or she would not have thought of without hearing the agreement to something heare she would not have fore issues without hearing the view of others. Participants or able to bring to the thought of relating to the topic view of others. Participants are able to bring to the fore issues relating to the topic view they deem Participants are able to bring to thewas the moderator andthe topic that of others. to be important and significant. I fore issues relating to had an that they deem to be important and significant. I was the moderator and had an that they who helped me during the two focus groups I conducted for this research assistant deem to be important and significant. I was the moderator and had an assistant who helped me during the two focus groups I conducted for this research assistant who helped me during weretwo focus groups I conducted for this the focus i.e. ensuring that consent forms the signed correctly. At the beginning of research i.e. ensuring that consent forms were signed correctly. At the beginning of the focus i.e. ensuring that includingforms were signed correctly. At rules e.g. not of the focus group, everyone consent myself agreed on the ground the beginning talking over group, everyone including myself agreed on the ground rules e.g. not talking over group, everyone includingexplanations of the purpose of the focus group. To ensure someone; and gave clear myself agreed on the ground rules e.g. not talking over someone; and gave clear explanations of the purpose of the focus group. To ensure someone; and gave clear explanations of the purpose made eye contact with ensure that participants felt at ease I was non-judgemental, of the focus group. To all the that participants felt at ease I was non-judgemental, made eye contact with all the that participants felt at ease each one gave expressed their views. I also letall the participants and nodded as I was non-judgemental, made eye contact with them participants and nodded as each one gave expressed their views. I also let them participants the times they wantedone take their half hour break. I I controlled the decide on and nodded as each to gave expressed their views. also let them decide on the times they wanted to take their half hour break. I controlled the decide on in terms of they wanted to take their half hour being discussed as well discussion the times staying in line with the topic that was break. I controlled the discussion in terms of staying in line with the topic that was being discussed as well discussion in terms of staying in line withI the topic that was being discussed as well as time keeping. During the discussions recorded the participant’s views using my as time keeping. During the discussions I recorded the participant’s views using my as timeand in addition my assistant was Iwriting down all that was discussed using phone keeping. During the discussions recorded the participant’s views using my phone and in addition my assistant was writing down all that was discussed using phone hand’ which was quicker and also served asall that was discussed using ‘short and in addition my assistant was writing down a backup in case of any ‘short hand’ which was quicker and also served as a backup in case of any ‘short hand’ which was quicker and also served as a backup in case of any technological mishaps. technological mishaps. technological mishaps.

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Semi-structured interviews Semi-structured interviews Semi-structured interviews I used the semi-structured interviews on the one to one basis and I had a list of key I used the semi-structured interviews on the one to one basis and I had a list of key I used the semi-structured interviews on the one to onethe interviewhad a list of key themes, issues, and questions to be covered. During basis and I I could change themes, issues, and questions to be covered. During the interview I could change themes, issues, and questions to be covered. directionthe interview I could change the order of the questions depending on the During of the interview and asked the order of the questions depending on the direction of the interview and asked the order of the questions I depending on the anticipated at the beginning of the additional questions that might not have direction of the interview and asked additional questions that I might not have anticipated at the beginning of the additional questions structured interview enabled me to prompt and probe into the interview. The semi that I might not have anticipated at the beginning of the interview. The semi structured interview enabled me to prompt and probe into the interview. The semi could explain or rephrase the questions if and probe into the given situation; and structured interview enabled me to prompt respondents were given situation; and could explain or rephrase the questions if respondents were given situation; and could explain detailed information because the candidate felt unclear about the questions. I got or rephrase the questions if respondents were unclear about the questions. I got detailed information because the candidate felt uncleartalk about personal issues which they information because were other people free to about the questions. I got detailed would not do if there the candidate felt free to talk about personal issues which they would not do if there were other people free to talk about personal issues which they would not do if there were other people around. The questions were open-minded and this made the candidate to give the around. The questions were open-minded and this made the candidate to give the around. The questions were open-minded and this made the candidate to give the answers in their own framework. I used my phone to record the interview as well as answers in their own framework. I used my phone to record the interview as well as answers in theirthe important views. writing some of own framework. I used my phone to record the interview as well as writing some of the important views. writing some of the important views. Questionnaires Questionnaires Questionnaires I decided to draw up fifteen questions from some of the findings of the focus group I decided to draw up fifteen questions from some of the findings of the focus group I decided to draw up fifteen questions from ten tick boxes and fives the focus group investigations. The questions comprised of some of the findings of which could be investigations. The questions comprised of ten tick boxes and fives which could be investigations. The sentences.comprised of tenformsboxes and fives which could be filled in with short questions I sent out the tick via email to individuals, youth filled in with short sentences. I sent out the forms via email to individuals, youth filled in members and social networking groups that via email to individuals, youth church with short sentences. I sent out the forms were relevant to the research. church members and social networking groups that were relevant to the research. church members and social networkingforms, fifty young relevant responded even After sending out about seventy-five groups that were people to the research. After sending out about seventy-five forms, fifty young people responded even After sending them about seventy-five forms, fifty young people responded even though it took out a while. though it took them a while. though it took them a while. Strength and Limitations of design methods and procedures Strength and Limitations of design methods and procedures Strength and Limitations of design methods and procedures The focus groups progressed efficiently; I believe my assistant worked very hard to The focus groups progressed efficiently; I believe my assistant worked very hard to The focus groups progressed efficiently; tobelieve my the event.worked very hard to ensure that I had everything needed I facilitate assistant My assistant also ensure that I had everything needed to facilitate the event. My assistant also ensure that I had hand (Pittman 2000) facilitate English which assistant also translated the short everything needed tointo simplethe event. My I then used in translated the short hand (Pittman 2000) into simple English which I then used in translated the short hand (Pittman 2000) into phone. English which I then used in conjunctions with the voice recordings on my simple Participants took a very long conjunctions with the voice recordings on my phone. Participants took a very long conjunctions with the voice recordings on my phone. Participants took a very long

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time to respond to the Questionnaires survey which meant I was behind with the time to respond to the Questionnaires survey which meant I was behind with the time to respond to the Questionnaires survey which meant I was behind with the research project. research project. research project. Due to the time constraints of many of the participants and on my part, I experienced Due to the time constraints of many of the participants and on my part, I experienced Due to the in beating deadlines. I hadthe participants and on my part, I experienced difficulties time constraints of many of to cancel a couple of appointments to give difficulties in beating deadlines. I had to cancel a couple of appointments to give difficulties in beatingthe participants. Thecancel a couple of appointments for give more allowance to deadlines. I had to funds and resources allocated to this more allowance to the participants. The funds and resources allocated for this more allowance to the participants. Theoffundscost hence it was on a very small research were insufficient to cover most the and resources allocated for this research were insufficient to cover most of the cost hence it was on a very small research were insufficient to cover most of the cost hence it was on a very small scale. scale. scale. Seeking for more funding next time will enable me to organise more focus groups Seeking for more funding next time will enable me to organise more focus groups Seeking a budget that next time will enable me to organise more focus being and havefor more fundingspreads evenly in proportion to the size of areagroups and have a budget that spreads evenly in proportion to the size of area being and have a the research. spreads evenly time taken out inthe size of data for the covered by budget that The amount of in proportion to collecting area being covered by the research. The amount of time taken out in collecting data for the covered by the research. The amount of time taken out in collecting data for to questionnaire was immense and at times the answers were unclear due the questionnaire was immense and at times the answers were unclear due to questionnaire was Next time I and either consider extra support from tutors due will grammatical errors. immense will at times the answers were unclear or I to grammatical errors. Next time I will either consider extra support from tutors or I will grammatical errors. Next time I will either consider extrawith professional relevant to only use two research methods. Doing more interviews support from tutors or I will only use two research methods. Doing more interviews with professional relevant to onlyresearch would have given more diverse interviews with professional relevant to the use two research methods. Doing more information regarding young people in the research would have given more diverse information regarding young people in the research would have given more diverse informationfrom the Ministry people in the Zimbabwean community e.g. government officials regarding young of Home the Zimbabwean community e.g. government officials from the Ministry of Home the Zimbabwean community e.g. government officials from the Ministry of Home Office. Office. Office. For future projects I will consider letting my tutors know about any problems that I For future projects I will consider letting my tutors know about any problems that I For future as soon I will consider order to eliminateknow hindrances problems affect encounter projects as possible in letting my tutors any about any that may that I encounter as soon as possible in order to eliminate any hindrances that may affect encounter asprogramme. my research soon as possible in order to eliminate any hindrances that may affect my research programme. my research programme.

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(iii) Findings and Discussion (iii) Findings and Discussion (iii) Findings and Discussion
The issues listed below were the main issues that reverberated during the course of The issues listed below were the main issues that reverberated during the course of Theinvestigations below were the main issues that reverberated during the course of the issues listed the investigations the investigations  Unresolved Immigration Status  Unresolved Immigration Status  Unresolved Immigration Status  Family relationships  Family relationships  Family relationships  The Dispersion Programme (The 1999 Immigration and Asylum Act)  The Dispersion Programme (The 1999 Immigration and Asylum Act)  The Dispersion Programme (The 1999 Immigration and Asylum Act)  Employment  Employment  Employment  Stress  Stress  Stress  Youth Crime  Youth Crime  Youth Crime Unresolved Immigration Status Unresolved Immigration Status Unresolved Immigration Status During the focus group discussion the older participants expressed the difficulties During the focus group discussion the older participants expressed the difficulties During the experiencing in the effortthe regularise their stay here in the UK. These they were focus group discussion to older participants expressed the difficulties they were experiencing in the effort to regularise their stay here in the UK. These they were experiencing these situations regularise different reasons. the UK. These young people were in in the effort to because their stay here in Some of them young people were in these situations because different reasons. Some of them young people the in these situations (dependents), meaning that if their parents were still underwere care of their parents because different reasons. Some of them were still under the care of their parents (dependents), meaning that if their parents werenot regularised care of their parents (dependents), meaning that ifyoung parents had still under the their stay they were also affected. Most of the their people had not regularised their stay they were also affected. Most of the young people had not regularised their stay theyby the home affected. determine their cases. talked about the lengthy time taken were also office to Most of the young people talked about the lengthy time taken by the home office to determine their cases. talked about the lengthy time taken by the home office to determine their cases. Accessing Services, Information and Opportunities Accessing Services, Information and Opportunities Accessing Services, Information and Opportunities There are not enough services that cater for young people of Zimbabwean There are not enough services that cater for young people of Zimbabwean There are e.g. youth clubs. Some that cater for young people of Zimbabwean community not enough services of the young people over 18 years of age could community e.g. youth clubs. Some of the young people over 18 years of age could community provisions on housing of the young people over not having age could not access e.g. youth clubs. Someor welfare benefits (funds);18 years of a national not access provisions on housing or welfare benefits (funds); not having a national not access provisions on housing or welfare benefits (funds); not having a national

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insurance number (NI) meant that they were not eligible for most benefits. There are insurance number (NI) meant that they were not eligible for most benefits. There are insurance number (NI) charity that they wereor state agencies to help themThere are very few and far apart meant organisations not eligible for most benefits. integrate very few and far apart charity organisations or state agencies to help them integrate very not miss far apart opportunities while they state agencies on help home integrate and few and out on charity organisations or were waiting to the them office to and not miss out on opportunities while they were waiting on the home office to and not miss out on opportunities while they were waiting on the home office to make decisions on their case. make decisions on their case. make decisions on their case. The young people in full time secondary school stated that they were not getting any The young people in full time secondary school stated that they were not getting any The young people in full outside of the school in orderthat maximise theirgetting any support with homework time secondary school stated to they were not potentials. support with homework outside of the school in order to maximise their potentials. support with homework outside ofalways understand the education system here and They felt that their parents did not the school in order to maximise their potentials. They felt that their parents did not always understand the education system here and They it hard their parents did foundfelt that to assist them. not always understand the education system here and found it hard to assist them. found it hard to assist them. Family relationships Family relationships Family relationships Bowlby Attachment Theory (1969) stated that there is a critical period for developing Bowlby Attachment Theory (1969) stated that there is a critical period for developing Bowlby Attachment Theory (1969) stated that there is has not developed developing an attachment (about 0 -5 years). If an attachment a critical period for during this an attachment (about 0 -5 years). If an attachment has not developed during this an attachment (about 0 -5 years). If an attachment has not developed duringsuch period then the child will suffer from irreversible developmental consequences, this period then the child will suffer from irreversible developmental consequences, such period then intelligence and increased aggression. as reduced the child will suffer from irreversible developmental consequences, such as reduced intelligence and increased aggression. as reduced intelligence and increased aggression. The young people that had come here to join their parents of families particularly on The young people that had come here to join their parents of families particularly on Thebasis ofpeople reunion strongly uttered thetheir parentsof trying to bond with their the young family that had come here to join challenges of families particularly on the basis of family reunion strongly uttered the challenges of trying to bond with their the basis of siblingsreunionbeing separated the challenges of tryingparticipant clearly parents or family after strongly uttered for a long time. One to bond with their parents or siblings after being separated for a long time. One participant clearly parentsthat siblings after blame her motherfor athe situation. She indeed held the stated or she did not being separated for long time. One participant clearly stated that she did not blame her mother for the situation. She indeed held the stated that she did not blamenot processing her situation. She indeed held the government responsible for her mother for the mother’s asylum case within government responsible for not processing her mother’s asylum case within government time; instead they not processing herten years. Itasylum case within reasonable responsible for were reunited after mother’s was also a concern reasonable time; instead they were reunited after ten years. It was also a concern reasonable time; instead they were reunited Refugee CouncilItdid not have concern that the integration service provided by the after ten years. was also a a great that the integration service provided by the Refugee Council did not have a great that the integration to an efficient transition and adjustment intodid not have a great impact with respect service provided by the Refugee Council the society. impact with respect to an efficient transition and adjustment into the society. impact with respect to an efficient transition and adjustment into the society. The Dispersion Programme (The 1999 Immigration and Asylum Act) The Dispersion Programme (The 1999 Immigration and Asylum Act) The Dispersion Programme (The 1999 Immigration and Asylum Act) Other participants explained that the friends and relatives they were living with could Other participants explained that the friends and relatives they were living with could Other participants explained feared friends and destitute or were relocated could no longer assist them. They that the either being relatives theybeing living with in the no longer assist them. They feared either being destitute or being relocated in the no longerregion of the They fearedThe National destitute Support Service (NASS). northern assist them. country by either being Asylum or being relocated in the northern region of the country by The National Asylum Support Service (NASS). northern region of the country by The National Asylum Support Service (NASS).

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They felt safer in London having familiarised themselves with other Africans and They felt safer in London having familiarised themselves with other Africans and They felt safer in London having familiarised themselves with other the thought of indeed other members of the Zimbabwean community. They dreaded Africans and indeed other members of the Zimbabwean community. They dreaded the thought of indeed other members of the people did notcommunity. They dreaded the thought of going to a place where other Zimbabwean approve of asylum seekers or their race going to a place where other people did not approve of asylum seekers or their race going to a place where other people did not approve of even establishedor their race or culture. London had become their home, they had asylum seekers friendships or culture. London had become their home, they had even established friendships or culture. London had lose that. and they did not want to become their home, they had even established friendships and they did not want to lose that. and they did not want to lose that. Employment Employment Employment The subject of employment was very common throughout the interviews and The subject of employment was very common throughout the interviews and The subject of employment was very common throughout the interviews and deliberations deliberations deliberations Candidates articulated that coming to this country to seek protection had been a Candidates articulated that coming to this country to seek protection had been a Candidates articulated that coming to this allowed to work to support themselves disaster after discovering that they were notcountry to seek protection had been a disaster after discovering that they were not allowed to work to support themselves disaster families. Some had been fortunate toallowed to work who were looking after or their after discovering that they were not have relatives to support themselves or their families. Some had been fortunate to have relatives who were looking after or their families.grateful had then strongly resented being a dependent and a burden them and were Some but been fortunate to have relatives who were looking after them and were grateful but then strongly resented being a dependent and a burden them and were grateful but then strongly people retorted that being this reliant takes to their relatives and friends. The young resented being a dependent and a burden to their relatives and friends. The young people retorted that being this reliant takes to their relatives of pride that is in a person. away that sense and friends. The young people retorted that being this reliant takes away that sense of pride that is in a person. away that sense of pride that is in a person. Some of the young people have resorted to voluntary work even though they thought Some of the young people have resorted to voluntary work even though they thought Some of the young people have rest of the society in work even though a wage. The they were not fitting in with the resorted to voluntary terms of earning they thought they were not fitting in with the rest of the society in terms of earning a wage. The they were not work without the permission society inHome Office was a wage. The temptation to fitting in with the rest of the from the terms of earning immense for temptation to work without the permission from the Home Office was immense for temptation to work people. Half permission from the Home Office was immense for most of the young without the of the young people said they were suffering alone most of the young people. Half of the young people said they were suffering alone most of the young uncomfortable to discuss their situation to other suffering alone because they felt people. Half of the young people said they were people in their because they felt uncomfortable to discuss their situation to other people in their because they felt thought people to discuss understand their situation or worsetheir community. They uncomfortable would not their situation to other people in still community. They thought people would not understand their situation or worse still community. crude thought peoplethem being understand their situation or worse still could make They remarks about would not asylum seekers. could make crude remarks about them being asylum seekers. could make crude remarks about them being asylum seekers. The young people also raised the issue of nationality and race with regards to job The young people also raised the issue of nationality and race with regards to job The young people also raised sometimesofthey were denied the chance to to job nationality and race with regards work opportunities. They felt that the issue opportunities. They felt that sometimes they were denied the chance to work opportunities. They felt that colour, regardless were denied the chance to work because of their nationality or sometimes they of their competence or meeting the because of their nationality or colour, regardless of their competence or meeting the because of their nationality or colour, regardless of their competence or meeting the criteria. criteria. criteria.

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Reuters (2009) Zimbabweans seeking asylum in Britain handed in their resumes at Reuters (2009) Zimbabweans seeking asylum in Britain handed in their resumes at Reuters (2009) Zimbabweans seeking asylum in Britain handed in their resumes at Prime Minister Gordon Brown's office on 13 January in a protest against a ban on Prime Minister Gordon Brown's office on 13 January in a protest against a ban on Primeworking. Gordon Brown's office on 13 January in a protest against a ban on them Minister them working. them working. Stress Stress Stress A high number of young people laid emphasis on the mental and physical stress A high number of young people laid emphasis on the mental and physical stress A high charge inof young people laid emphasis on the mental and physical feared taking number their lives due to the vast problems they were facing. They stress taking charge in their lives due to the vast problems they were facing. They feared taking chargeillegal substances to the vast problems they were facing. worries and resorting to in their lives due as a way of suppressing constant They feared resorting to illegal substances as a way of suppressing constant worries and resorting to illegal substances as of way Questionnaire filled out byworries and anxieties. According to the results a the of suppressing constant 100 young anxieties. According to the results of the Questionnaire filled out by 100 young anxieties. According to the results of the Questionnaire filled alcohol as a way of people from the Zimbabwean community, 8 had used drugs or out by 100 young people from the Zimbabwean community, 8 had used drugs or alcohol as a way of people with their life frustrations. coping from the Zimbabwean community, 8 had used drugs or alcohol as a way of coping with their life frustrations. coping with their life frustrations. Two male young people were diagnosed with mental health disorders and are Two male young people were diagnosed with mental health disorders and are Two male to receive psychiatric diagnosed alleviate the conditions and symptoms. continuing young people were therapy to with mental health disorders and are continuing to receive psychiatric therapy to alleviate the conditions and symptoms. continuing to the difficulties they encountered since arriving in UK were so immense They all said receive psychiatric therapy to alleviate the conditions and symptoms. They all said the difficulties they encountered since arriving in UK were so immense They all said that difficulties they encountered since arriving in UKphysical wellbeing. to the extent the it affected their mental capacity as well as their were so immense to the extent that it affected their mental capacity as well as their physical wellbeing. to the extent that itmale explained that his situation was worsened because he had One of the young affected their mental capacity as well as their physical wellbeing. One of the young male explained that his situation was worsened because he had One of the young male explainedhim for support. His parents had been denied visa no close family members around that his situation was worsened because he had no close family members around him for support. His parents had been denied visa no enter the UKmembers around him for support. had parents hadwhere deniedlegal to close family twice, he also explained that he His no idea of been to get visa to enter the UK twice, he also explained that he had no idea of where to get legal to enter the UK twice, he also explained that he had no idea of where to get legal advice for his situation. advice for his situation. advice for his situation. Youth Crime Youth Crime Youth Crime About a quarter of young people spoke of the fear that they have walking around in About a quarter of young people spoke of the fear that they have walking around in About a quarter of young people spoke ofgangfear thatand violence that surrounded the streets of London. They talked of the the culture they have walking around in the streets of London. They talked of the gang culture and violence that surrounded the streets of London. They talkedthey lived in. culture and all the young people who them in schools and communities of the gang One out of violence that surrounded them in schools and communities they lived in. One out of all the young people who them in schools and communities to have joined in out of in north London but had took part in the research admitted they lived in. One a gangall the young people who took part in the research admitted to have joined in a gang in north London but had took part in the research admitted to haveanother in a gang in north London but had since disassociated himself and moved to joined part of London. since disassociated himself and moved to another part of London. since disassociated himself and moved to another part of London.

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During the focus group the young people reiterated the story of a Zimbabwean During the focus group the young people reiterated the story of a Zimbabwean During the focus group (London Borough ofreiterated who had been a Zimbabwean teenager from Belvedere the young people Bexley), the story of killed in a gang teenager from Belvedere (London Borough of Bexley), who had been killed in a gang teenager from Belvedere (London Borough of Bexley), who had been killed in a gang related attack in Welling. The youth talked of the loss and how they had all been related attack in Welling. The youth talked of the loss and how they had all been related attack in Welling. The News (2011); of the loss and how they had UK been affected by the tragedy. BBC youth talked the teenager had come to the all as a affected by the tragedy. BBC News (2011); the teenager had come to the UK as a affected by had become a News (2011); the teenager had been cut UK in a toddler and the tragedy. BBC keen footballer, but his life had come to theshot as a toddler and had become a keen footballer, but his life had been cut shot in a toddler and had become a keen footballer, but his life had been cut shot in a merciless attack. merciless attack. merciless attack. The Telegraph (10/2011) Young people from Zimbabwe were involved in looting The Telegraph (10/2011) Young people from Zimbabwe were involved in looting The Telegraph (10/2011) Young people from Zimbabwe people wrote in looting during the London riots in the summer of 2011. Other youngwere involvedon website during the London riots in the summer of 2011. Other young people wrote on website during the London riots in the summerdriven them to young people wrote on website forums that it was poverty that had of 2011. Other commit these offences. Other forums that it was poverty that had driven them to commit these offences. Other forumspeople argued that it was due to the demands of peer pressure. young that it was poverty that had driven them to commit these offences. Other young people argued that it was due to the demands of peer pressure. young people argued that it was due to the demands of peer pressure. Discussions: professional and legal representative for asylum seekers and Discussions: professional and legal representative for asylum seekers and Discussions: professional and legal representative for asylum seekers and refugees. refugees. refugees. Ms Y, a lawyer who has expertise is the area of asylum and immigration shed light Ms Y, a lawyer who has expertise is the area of asylum and immigration shed light Ms Y, the government processes is the and immigration cases. She stressed that on howa lawyer who has expertise asylumarea of asylum and immigration shed light on how the government processes asylum and immigration cases. She stressed that on how the Office does processes asylum out information that might benefit those the Home government not publicly sent and immigration cases. She stressed that the Home Office does not publicly sent out information that might benefit those the Home Officeimmigration publicly sent out information that to try and keep the concerned with does not matters. The reason for this is might benefit those concerned with immigration matters. The reason for this is to try and keep the concerned with immigration matters. The reason for this is She try and keep way numbers of people at minimum and not exhaust the services. to opposed the the numbers of people at minimum and not exhaust the services. She opposed the way numbers thepeople at minimum and not exhaust the services. northern region of way in which of government dispatched asylum seekers to the She opposed the the in which the government dispatched asylum seekers to the northern region of the in whichusing government dispatched (Government Spending Cuts 2010) The limited country the the NASS programme. asylum seekers to the northern region of the country using the NASS programme. (Government Spending Cuts 2010) The limited country using the NASS programme. (Government Spending have 2010) The limited services within the legal aid due to the government cuts Cuts exacerbated the services within the legal aid due to the government cuts have exacerbated the services within the many immigrants here in the UK. difficult situations of legal aid due to the government cuts have exacerbated the difficult situations of many immigrants here in the UK. difficult situations of many immigrants here in the UK. Case Study: Miss H M, 29 years old, arrived in UK in her late teens. Case Study: Miss H M, 29 years old, arrived in UK in her late teens. Case Study: Miss H M, 29 years old, arrived in UK in her late teens. The agony of having to wait ten years to be granted the leave to remain in the UK The agony of having to wait ten years to be granted the leave to remain in the UK The left me of having to wait ten years to be granted interview for remain in the UK has agony feeling incensed. The recollection of the the leave to my asylum claim has left me feeling incensed. The recollection of the interview for my asylum claim has left me at Heathrow airport was her first awful experience on arrival in theclaim application feeling incensed. The recollection of the interview for my asylum UK.I application at Heathrow airport was her first awful experience on arrival in the UK.I application at Heathrow airport was her first awful experience on arrival in the UK.I

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was terrified by the immigration officer because he acted callously throughout the was terrified by the immigration officer because he acted callously throughout the was terrified by my asylum case officer because hesufferedcallouslyhands of rogue interview. After the immigration failed in 2001, I acted at the throughout the interview. After my asylum case failed in 2001, I suffered at the hands of rogue interview. IAfter not given any advice or in 2001, I suffered atbut just to go ‘behind solicitors. was my asylum case failed where to go for help, the hands of rogue solicitors. I was not given any advice or where to go for help, but just to go ‘behind solicitors. I I became veryany advice or where to go if I help, but just found ‘behind the bush’. was not given worried and fearful that for were to be to go by the the bush’. I became very worried and fearful that if I were to be found by the the bush’. they would definitely arrest fearful that if were to be found Close authorities I became very worried and and deport meI back to Zimbabwe. by the authorities they would definitely arrest and deport me back to Zimbabwe. Close authorities theynot assist as theyarrest and deport me back to with the police or relatives could would definitely didn’t want to get into trouble Zimbabwe. Close relatives could not assist as they didn’t want to get into trouble with the police or relatives could nottorture I as they didn’t was the worst in my life as I had left my six Home Office. The assist went through want to get into trouble with the police or Home Office. The torture I went through was the worst in my life as I had left my six Home Office. The torture I went through was the worst in my life as Ichurch where I month old son back home. I started volunteering at the Methodist had left my six month old son back home. I started volunteering at the Methodist church where I month old son back home. I started volunteering at the Methodist church whereat attended services every Sunday. The church became my refuge. The Reverend I attended services every Sunday. The church became my refuge. The Reverend at attended services every Sunday. The church touch with a legal aidThe Reverendput the church offered to assist me with getting in became my refuge. solicitor who at the church offered to assist me with getting in touch with a legal aid solicitor who put the fresh claim for my asylum with getting took two more years to finalise who put in a church offered to assist meapplication. Itin touch with a legal aid solicitor my case in a fresh claim for my asylum application. It took two more years to finalise my case in a freshallowed tomy asylum application. It took twoI more years to the momentcase and was claim for stay in the country permanently. did not enjoy finalise my and and was allowed to stay in the country permanently. I did not enjoy the moment and and was allowed to stay in the country Ipermanently. I didas an asylum seeker. I was was weary because of all the suffering had experienced not enjoy the moment and was weary because of all the suffering I had experienced as an asylum seeker. I was was weary because of all the suffering I had experienced as an asylum seeker. years “robbed and disabled” by the host country- UK, my life was dormant for ten I was “robbed and disabled” by the host country- UK, my life was dormant for ten years “robbed and disabled” by the Ihost country- UK, my life not go into college, training and it felt like a life sentence. was hurt because I could was dormant for ten years and it felt like a life sentence. I was hurt because I could not go into college, training and it felt like a life sentence. I my son and happy Ito be together into very bitter about or employment. I am now with was hurt because could not go yet college, training or employment. I am now with my son and happy to be together yet very bitter about or employment. I am now with my this special moment. together yet very bitter about the length of time I had to wait for son and happy to be I also fear the repercussions the length of time I had to wait for this special moment. I also fear the repercussions the length of time I with to wait for this affect him. It is very unfair that he had to grow of being separated had my son might special moment. I also fear the repercussions of being separated with my son might affect him. It is very unfair that he had to grow of being separated with my son might affect him. It incompetent in their job. to grow up without a mother because the Home Office was is very unfair that he had up without a mother because the Home Office was incompetent in their job. up without a mother because the Home Office was incompetent in their job.

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Unresolved Immigration Status 71% Unresolved Immigration Status 71% Unresolved Immigration Status 71% Family relationships 56% Family relationships 56% Family relationships 56% The Dispersion Programme (Immigration and Asylum Act 1999) 50% The Dispersion Programme (Immigration and Asylum Act 1999) 50% The Dispersion Programme (Immigration and Asylum Act 1999) 50% Employment 60% Employment 60% Employment 60% Stress 52% Stress 52% Stress 52% Youth Crime (Committed by Zimbabwean Young People) 0.98% (Outlier) Youth Crime (Committed by Zimbabwean Young People) 0.98% (Outlier) Youth Crime (Committed by Zimbabwean Young People) 0.98% (Outlier)

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(iv) Conclusions (iv) findings have revealed four very significant issues that must not be ignored by Conclusions The Conclusions (iv) findings have revealed four very significant issues that must not be ignored by The

The government ifrevealed fourZimbabweans inissues thatare to not be ignored by the findings have the young very significant London must overcome these the government if the young Zimbabweans in London are to overcome these the government if thedestruction to their lives andLondonaround them. challenges and reduce young Zimbabweans in those are to overcome these challenges and reduce destruction to their lives and those around them. challenges and reduce destruction to their lives and those around them. The first issue is the lengthy time that the Home office is taking to process the The first issue is the lengthy time that the Home office is taking to process the The first issue is the lengthy time that the Home office is taking to process the asylum applications causing a lot of hardships along with long term effects for the asylum applications causing a lot of hardships along with long term effects for the asylum applications causing people are subjected to poverty as they are not allowed applicants. As a result young a lot of hardships along with long term effects for the applicants. As a result young people are subjected to poverty as they are not allowed applicants. As a result young people from the government is as sufficient. The other to take employment and the support are subjected to povertynot they are not allowed to take employment and the support from the government is not sufficient. The other to takedisappointment is that support from enrol in higher education or training during major employment and the they cannot the government is not sufficient. The other major disappointment is that they cannot enrol in higher education or training during major disappointment is that they cannotbeing considered even if it has beenduring the time that their immigration status is enrol in higher education or training more the time that their immigration status is being considered even if it has been more the timeyear. their immigration status is being considered even if it has been more than a that It also means that capable and enthusiastic young are left behind than a year. It also means that capable and enthusiastic young are left behind than a year. It also means that capable and enthusiastic in respect left behind without opportunities in this fast ever growing world young are to career without opportunities in this fast ever growing world in respect to career without opportunities in this fast ever growing world in respect to career development. development. development. Secondly, stress is a common factor in the daily lives of these young people. The Secondly, stress is a common factor in the daily lives of these young people. The Secondly, stress is atoo much factor in for others, causing them to have nervous stress can become common to bear the daily lives of these young people. The stress can become too much to bear for others, causing them to have nervous stress can and marking the onset of mental health illness. them to have nervous breakdown become too much to bear for others, causing breakdown and marking the onset of mental health illness. breakdown and marking the onset of mental health illness. Thirdly, there are not enough organisations that can assist young people in the Thirdly, there are not enough organisations that can assist young people in the Thirdly, there community. The government’s spending cuts have also people in the Zimbabwean are not enough organisations that can assist young caused many Zimbabwean community. The government’s spending cuts have also caused many Zimbabwean community. The government’s spending cuts have also caused many organisations to slash or scrap their services including those associated with the organisations to slash or scrap their services including those associated with the organisations to slash or scrapseekers. For instance, thethose associated with had welfare of refugees and asylum their services including Refugee Council has the welfare of refugees and asylum seekers. For instance, the Refugee Council has had welfare of refugees and asylum into smaller facilities causing a colossal damage to to reduce services and moved seekers. For instance, the Refugee Council has had to reduce services and moved into smaller facilities causing a colossal damage to to reduce services andassistance. Young people in the Zimbabwean community are those that rely on their moved into smaller facilities causing a colossal damage to those that rely on their assistance. Young people in the Zimbabwean community are those thatdestitution because of economic, social in thepsychological difficulties they at risk of rely on their assistance. Young people and Zimbabwean community are at risk of destitution because of economic, social and psychological difficulties they at risk of destitutionLondon of economic, social and psychological difficulties they experience living in because experience living in London experience living in London Lastly, there is a significantly low number (less than 1%) of young people in the Lastly, there is a significantly low number (less than 1%) of young people in the Lastly, there community that are involved in(less than 1%) of young people in fact Zimbabwean is a significantly low number crime. This indication denotes the the Zimbabwean community that are involved in crime. This indication denotes the fact Zimbabwean these youngthat are involved in crime. This indication denotes the fact that most of community people are decent, hardworking and responsible citizens that most of these young people are decent, hardworking and responsible citizens that most of these to the British society. eager to contribute young people are decent, hardworking and responsible citizens eager to contribute to the British society. eager to contribute to the British society.

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(v) Recommendations (v) Recommendations (v) Recommendations
   The government should allow the young people in the Zimbabwean The government should allow the young people in the Zimbabwean The government employment, to the inyoung peopleget the opportunities to community to get should allow be training and in the Zimbabwean community to get employment, to be in training and get the opportunities to community to higher education. It isbe inright that and get the opportunities to progress into get employment, to not training they left idol for many years progress into higher education. It is not right that they left idol for many years progress into higher education. It iscases is reached by the Home many years before the decision on their asylum not right that they left idol for Office. before the decision on their asylum cases is reached by the Home Office. before the decision on their asylum cases is reached by the Home Office. It is the responsibility of the government and their agencies to protect and It is the responsibility of the government and their agencies to protect and It is the responsibilityand the government and youngagencies to protect and safeguard the mental of physical wellbeing of their Zimbabweans living in safeguard the mental and physical wellbeing of young Zimbabweans living in safeguard the mental and physical wellbeing of young Zimbabweans living in London. Young migrants should be provide with necessary assistance in London. Young migrants should be provide with necessary assistance in London. lead normal lives in London asprovide with necessary assistance in order to Young migrants should be humanely as possible order to lead normal lives in London as humanely as possible order to lead normal lives in London as humanely as possible The organisations that assist young people are pivotal to the nation and their The organisations that assist young people are pivotal to the nation and their The organisations that assist young people are pivotal to the nation and their existence should not be put in danger by the budget cuts. existence should not be put in danger by the budget cuts. existence should not be put in danger by the budget cuts. The Zimbabwean community should also work together in finding solutions to The Zimbabwean community should also work together in finding solutions to The difficulties thatcommunity should also experiencing, as finding solutions to the Zimbabwean the young people are work together in well as advocating the difficulties that the young people are experiencing, as well as advocating the them. for difficulties that the young people are experiencing, as well as advocating for them. for them. The National Asylum Support Services should consider of the all the needs of The National Asylum Support Services should consider of the all the needs of The National during assessments for housing and offer alternatives inneeds of an individual Asylum Support Services should consider of the all the terms of an individual during assessments for housing and offer alternatives in terms of an individual during assessments for housing and offer alternatives in terms of relocation. relocation. relocation.

           

  

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(vi) Bibliography (vi) Bibliography (vi) Bibliography
BBC London News (2011) [Online] BBC London News (2011) [Online] BBC London News (2011) [Online] http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/uk-england-london-14001259.(Accessed 02/02/12) http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/uk-england-london-14001259.(Accessed 02/02/12) http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/uk-england-london-14001259.(AccessedBooks Bowlby J (1969) Attachment and Loss: Volume 1. New York: Basic 02/02/12) Bowlby J (1969) Attachment and Loss: Volume 1. New York: Basic Books Bowlby J (1969) Attachment and Loss: Volume 1. New York: Basic Books Bryman A (2008) Social Research Methods. Oxford: Oxford University Press Bryman A (2008) Social Research Methods. Oxford: Oxford University Press Bryman A (2008) Social Research Methods. Oxford:(1984). University Press Conger J J, Kagan J, Huston AC, Mussen PH Oxford Child Development and Conger J J, Kagan J, Huston AC, Mussen PH (1984). Child Development and Conger J J, Kagan J, Huston AC, Mussen PH (1984). Child Development and Personality (6th edition). New York: Harper and Row Personality (6th edition). New York: Harper and Row Personality (6th edition). New York: Harper and [Online] ICAR (2010) Home Office Statistics: Zimbabwe Row ICAR (2010) Home Office Statistics: Zimbabwe [Online] ICAR (2010) Home Office Statistics: Zimbabwe [Online] http://www.icar.org.uk/12698/population-guides/zimbabweans. (Accessed 05/02/12) http://www.icar.org.uk/12698/population-guides/zimbabweans. (Accessed 05/02/12) http://www.icar.org.uk/12698/population-guides/zimbabweans. (Accessed 05/02/12) Immigration and Asylum Act (1999) [Online] Immigration and Asylum Act (1999) [Online] Immigration and Asylum Act (1999) [Online] http://www.legislation.gov.uk/ukpga/1999/33/contents. (Accessed 15/04/12) http://www.legislation.gov.uk/ukpga/1999/33/contents. (Accessed 15/04/12) http://www.legislation.gov.uk/ukpga/1999/33/contents. (Accessed 15/04/12) McLeod, S. A. (2009) Attachment Theory. [Online McLeod, S. A. (2009) Attachment Theory. [Online McLeod, S. A. (2009) Attachment Theory. [Online http://www.simplypsychology.org/attachment.html. (Accessed 26/05/12) http://www.simplypsychology.org/attachment.html. (Accessed 26/05/12) http://www.simplypsychology.org/attachment.html. (Accessed 26/05/12) Migrants’ Rights Network [Online] Migrants’ Rights Network [Online] Migrants’ Rights Network [Online] http://www.migrantsrights.org.uk/downloads/policy/reports. (Accessed 29/05/12) http://www.migrantsrights.org.uk/downloads/policy/reports. (Accessed 29/05/12) http://www.migrantsrights.org.uk/downloads/policy/reports. (Accessed 29/05/12) Mind (2009) A civilised society: Mental health provision for refugees and asylum Mind (2009) A civilised society: Mental health provision for refugees and asylum Mind (2009) A civilisedWales [Online] health provision for refugees and asylum seekers in England and society: Mental seekers in England and Wales [Online] seekers in England and Wales [Online] http://www.mind.org.uk/news/2368_uk_puts_mental_health_of_refugees_and_asylu http://www.mind.org.uk/news/2368_uk_puts_mental_health_of_refugees_and_asylu http://www.mind.org.uk/news/2368_uk_puts_mental_health_of_refugees_and_asylu m_seekers_at_risk. (Accessed 12/04/12) m_seekers_at_risk. (Accessed 12/04/12) m_seekers_at_risk.The Right to 12/04/12)failed asylum seekers [Online] Reuters UK (2009) (Accessed Work for Reuters UK (2009) The Right to Work for failed asylum seekers [Online] Reuters UK (2009) The Right to Work for failed asylum seekers [Online] 24/04/12) http://uk.reuters.com/article/2009/01/13/uk-britain-zimbabwe. (Accessed http://uk.reuters.com/article/2009/01/13/uk-britain-zimbabwe. (Accessed 24/04/12) http://uk.reuters.com/article/2009/01/13/uk-britain-zimbabwe. (Accessed 24/04/12) The Telegraph (2011) London Riots [Online] The Telegraph (2011) London Riots [Online] The Telegraph (2011) London Riots [Online] http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/8845085/UK-Rioters-were-from-44-countries.html. http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/8845085/UK-Rioters-were-from-44-countries.html. http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/8845085/UK-Rioters-were-from-44-countries.html. Accessed (10/04/12) Accessed (10/04/12) Accessed (10/04/12)

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©©© Africa Educational Trust and Evelyn Oldfield Unit, 2012 Africa Educational Trust and Evelyn Oldfield Unit, 2012 Africa Educational Trust and Evelyn Oldfield Unit, 2012 ©©© Africa EducationalTrust and Evelyn Oldfield Unit, 2012 Africa Educational Trust and and Evelyn Oldfield 2012 ©Africa Educational Trust and Evelyn Oldfield Unit, 2012 Africa Educational Trust Evelyn Oldfield Unit, 2012