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AN li^x r y ls . ^M ^f t x ^ t rrr ( l R ( 'N x I I

I Hti ( )Pt)( )NltN'ts O} 'I'HE WRITING OI' ' t R A l ) I ( ) N IN EARI,Y ISLAM

pddce of thmesfrom schatologicat rr{dition.4oyct thc rcxr sri tains much that is What is the oigin ofrhe pan of rhe rraditionI haveclledrh apocatypdc chron As we h3ve it, the rexr is manifestlya Muslim document.No Jwish apocatypric would ecognizeChristi no Ch.isrianone would recognize Muslim propher. rhe Eql the lmSuageof the text is &abic, and there@ ctearinsrances ofeurrnic rermino Yt thereis nuch that points outsiderhe wortd of rhe Muslim traditionists. Th. nological terminoloSyis tanspdenrly boEowed fron a non Muslin source.and dating from the cotrque of Sy.ia, as opposed the Hijra, is unlslamic. Th ABbla to clumsy 6d unidiomatic.arThe refeencero yazid's iconoctasmsuggesBa Ch background. Above all, the whole genris foreign to edly Muslim eschatological atue,and much mo.e al homein a non-Muslimenvironment.{ I would accordirgly suggst rhar what we have hereis somethiosbetweena tion and a reworhn8 of a non-Muslim, probabtyChistian, Syrin ap@arypse o early 'Abbnsid Friod. As a Ch.jsiian text translardinto Arabic. ir is edlvi ! which has found its way into rhe titeratureof the is to my knowl! unique. Through \rhat irfomal prccess of cultural contacr the transmission occund can onty speculate.a5
ecua 0 parailetpasEe ro our krd,hon quord dnono \9a nan jobadohL *toru tihid rt r98bl . 'n i m m 4 t h i b i d . o t t4 3 a 9 .p s! .lr o r o t zOOb .r ) " Sce,tor.xanple, .he lkr quoredin n.4l rb a nor a p-"rrir rrcm t we h,!. rhe Byanrne i - Thu sm Dcriod, e A'mrq I'bd.. ot t99b.t9), Lhc ymenr re: H. Us.n.r,_Dest phi.o At.xndnno." i;hbI d . . m s l ' b r d , o t 2 r lJt' .lh .o m r De o r h e tu t.r o f 5ch1" ltrrpzi,E, l9l2 t4). vol. l. D. (ibid., fot 100a.3r. an,l rh. mte .r ,he This GEek aolosical text p*ai* u ^ndrusid rhe confronhrioD wi.h rhe Byzanrin s mirr, Anb rures, *ho d. hisrdical dorn ro tlE (ibid.. fol. 2OO.: l7). Fo.lher lhn s se. fo exan, otd Manrsr: usenerdr@sn ro t53,59/775 ple, Mad.lung, _Ap*typr'c prcphac! in H,n5, h , n , r y i 3b i d. p p 2 5 9 , 6 t ) i. 2 Dp. 149 53 ron rhe lemen' Ed.em.r), t5B ron rh. " Thr Mudrms o rh. 6.!ood/e'ghr A'nq), rl-62 (on re rol of e Mvalt ! A, seE nor rmDurro th. chms of chni,n uad. 'Alauds hldjes sobE la ocuplcin d. Al; lypric literotuft is jrdic&d by a curioD3 oni po. un grupo d. hispano nusulnanes., tudtu b' Michel rhe Sy.iar (d. 59/tt99) O. A. Ch d la Anritir Espofr.ta d. Onentolistas ed., Chrmiqu. d. Mich"t L Sttirn lpsi's, 12 (197): t59 30, v.^ioN c rnd H (for thc Anr9r0l, !ol. 4. p.465c:lr = vol 2, p. 5o7b,.ir.a " ThN drR ft ,.ence( ro lh.nnrs\ttna, ibid, f|. 20Oal) md Sponkh ( tt \i.r sorra ||o rnnj. ibid., for. 20oai9). Th. r.m ard srrrra "r,{rrdl, he po$ibly id ccus. rJ!. snse o leu.ia (ibid., fol. 200.:13). coDsknri opre ( r.ferd ro a6 ,lzd,rira (ibid.). Borh a.d sinvu sd &@xrd rccu ,n a pal.t p,sa8e rn l od_.xon quokd rrcm Adin (jbd.. ot tz2a ) 'noth.r ermpt. o .uch !m,bula4 x rhe sa r.gsd'ns tj\e Propher: nan sadrqahu

( l he nurnben in this Conrents refer to the paf,agraph numbn in Michael (',ook, rh, Oppannt aJ the Wtiting oJ Tradirin A Eab Iskn.)

L Introduction.............
Ibn ar awi\ exhotion (q l) for dd asitu1 thc clbility f oral tansmision ($ 2a)r irs sentual honoM$ G a)i connsus n (0 5); the hostility to Milins (S 6)j sdsink initiIy tdsdi$jon view ($ 7)j the sope of thjr study (S 8); oudioe of tne dsucnr 109)i 1he hi.ry or &js udy (S l0); thc sourccs (0 I l). IL The history of tle Muslim opposition to the witing of


Tradition...................... phnse l The Baerarl

'lhe anser oflbn 'Ulry G l2I supping marcnal on Ibn'tjlta, Ibn strin, dd lbn 'm (S l3)j Baran tansmissjor of e nain P.opheic tradltlon asin Mitins ($ 14)i was n risinIy Bard? (! l5); schdLrs view (E l6)i dting Bsan ph* ($ 17) innG vation o. dchaism? 6 l8)i Basar mal.ial ir falou. or w.ilins $ l9): Htuan l-Bari (S 20) md Ard ibn MliL ($ 2l); Bara md G Prcphtic tBditiotu i fvour oa wnting ($ 22)j rddual Bastu matnal G0 23t).

.................... l2 li ......................12 S

.............................................................. 2. The grneralphase ! 25

($$ 25r). OppNir,o. ourrde Bam seDeral and onc pal nnl: oppmition fda ut dlir ($ 27)i slishr rcle of Knfos in tnnmifrins ii l,.ophetic badiotu a9in$ $S 284) and ror wnG ilg $ 30), and its sisnmcmcc (l 3l)i the vicw or e proto'Hanali law-shool (l$ 32t)i Knlan-Aam crcsrfeFncs ($i 3af.); datins the fadeout of opFsition 6 36). Mditu: 'rne tuta or zuhri (S 37) apin ($ 38) dd fo. Mitins (l 39); hjs ercu$s (! 4o); litde opposition 2fur zulni 6$ al-3)i mc! opp.rition bcaorhim (S 44); th Mcdinsc compmions (S45): Abn Hun)m\ tradition ($ 46)i Zayd ibn fbit's tEdition (! +7)! 'Uhd ib. al-Htttb and his *.ond thusht (SS484)j Jiehl rcle or thc Mdinese in thse (! 50). Mfta Thc disndnuity of Mccan i?didon ad th rcle of SUEn ibn 'U.''m in sndal (EE srt); lacl of s@d mtrid G 53); Me.or uthonris asaiBt dd for (0 54). I@r Txe 6suEs vho count (! 55)i the mle of Tms (0 s6); the roL a Ma!ffi (E 57) sunmins-n! ($ 58). S2M Syno TEdition in $neral {$ 59)i Sriu asainsl ($ 60) and for witing ($ 6l)j SFans ballfrinis f.on non-Srrids natnar

be md a collab.r.or compos.d a wolk b shich ga!. rbe lnlc "Apsalyp* of Eoah j in ir pr&d a pa$a8. i.dicatirg !h{ Mrsan woutd atul d hin his son. Ma0n fe for.his rlov, had then , comnenkry on .h rr. H; did not, of coue. rule rfter tun

Bel(. D6 Reich der Ism&lit n im kdil Danielbucb,p 53). Th MoDorhv. tiah. siji"LD, ror of *.tcsi.sijcil p"rirics, '."""nr con..m.rlrocdrryravow'rhMso ti Ton

X ni
again$ (A! 624) dd lor wrnnrg (ili 64t)i the problem ol dating (l$ 66f.)i th quesion of Und}.|d cdiication i! 68). l-iine to rcpo ! 69). orL' .rrd summins up ($$ 70t).

(5 t50):Epi.inr a4runents l5|; r ceonicresponsDmt52)l (g lg a ructu.ataPp.oach 153). (E

3. The nature of thc oppc,sirion

PaitrN or chaosi' i! 7:ll. 'n' .mt m. paun: P\bti. and p.irat donins 1! 73)r udents rvho mcnorisc in public bui Mit in p.ivate (S$741:)iFa.h{s sho Lit. in pat but terh or2ny 6q 76r.)i wn!.n tansnxson n the mity (!! 78t)i deathbed d61ruction of Mi(en {$e80i)i tdtuds to letten (S$32tl; sdnfuins-uP {! 84) rh. 1dm;und oJ 6at ulu6: Iincs of ppro&h to the quesnan ([ 85)] Knran prosoposnpbn al arsumcnt (5 86): Ibn Mand (! 87li 'Ali and rh. 'Alds (!{ 88t)i implicalions ($ 90)i lbrllim al_Naba'i and S'bi ($$91f.)rthemari. appro.hcs($ 93r: euphenisn in dt Prophetr. badids (!s 94tli zuhd\ ex.uses (E 96li dtuPenetions ($ 97): $ritins then erains G\ 98t)i nere ,,'4l Gq l00f)i smmins_ uP G 1021.

S 72


nrx l usnn

s.ln' iuu. dno u,rr, orb..,r o,J L-diriLn 9 | rhr tJan,. 155); unslfcorsiour T.dnion rmong th. Arabs (! (E 156)i setfcoMnDs o,nl .rEdirbn in rslo (S 1i"7)j shy did i' ld' o m l o o I,st ..t, .o m p d n sn n i .h h c A\FG w ''m rn p d i .,,n n r h| r t.,w i ,t,,L r p a t ,d n o . 9 t6 ,,,r c \.,.Ji . ronpdison $ 162)jcon.lusion(E 1631.

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . li4 a


Indcx of irst c;rarions of rrditionists

rcmarks 4. Concludins


plausibility l04l; ! Thr p..supposirions oarhe.econru.tio (! 1031r villl lieas (E tos). conparison Scheler's

! 103

III. The origin of the Musljm hostility to the wtiling of

.................S 106 r r adit ion .....-................. ...................... 106 l. r he p o s i b i l i ti e s $ d The qudrion oforigins (E106); origrnwithin ltlam? ovdt moti_ r " ' , n n . \r l u i l .: n e\i l ' i l\i { 6 l naj " " d
I mdrla,l' odlh dbon \ | l. : d onqn m rh. C.hi ^r'' 'gain.d al-B2n md solomon orl habns $ llz)i ihe liss oflbl'Abd candz (! ll3)i bjcctions($$ llatlj rn ongio outide Arabiar $ 116):lat antiquitt and Chnsdd y ($ ll7)i Zor@*nrnism (S l2li. a $l 118-20)r Jsish o4i

.. .... parallel ............................. .......... | 122 2. TbeJewish

W.itcn Torah and OE|toran ($ 122)i the Rabbinic .ontovcny ov{ wdlins ({ l2rl)r th similarity ($ 124)i the lvlNlin p.lcnic aSainstrhe "p.plc of the Boor" $! t?5t)i rcr.rencesto the Mishnrrr ($$ 1274); the pnblic and pnvar. sphrs in hlam and rhe Judaism($ 129)iljlcBJy lindsiE 130)r p.oprietyofLt.n 6 13l)l point of conpaison ig I32)i sulming-uP $ 1331. 'i! - . 3. 'lhe w ider c ont ex t . . . . . . . . . . . - . . . . . . - . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .$ . .1 3 4 Th shared dichotomy hetwse. Lriften nd onl .elelabors {!! I3at)i a Jcwish ongin or th Mu:lim di.hdomy? (8 136)i Goldzihr\ vi$s ($ I 37li dt. o.igin ol the e,/ i\ l33l: Horovit.\ tlnis (! 139)r Rabbinic chains of audrnries ($ l'10)i mmins up

iri l4rt ,t. "How was the Mishnah srittent"

| 113

transition(E l42ri Shcriru The p,blen of th ^monic-Geoni. on fie kriiina af thr Oral Torah lqs l43l)i saadyis "r'-\ 6! I.154);ad cnbdsed silrnc. (li l47l; tl\. UId h|tu"m r mrat (8 l48li B.n Baboir\ llqli rlr vi(it's (l!)kt ! rh. Mi\h"!h

438 mneD.rni. linuosiry rhough n certainly $as that.i For jl .as on the ofal condnu;ly of tansmission that the vel}. authcnricity of f.radition nas sen ro rest; mere lrlerary tansmission, and a r/r;z l;terary finds. ' oul .l ,ar n nu . u, h nu, t , onn. I ni" pu, n, ot s. s n- . 1. nphah . xd, r ) r h. r ! eF. iour osn: r h. Lr . ad s, d S. r o . , , p. resenl at once the philotoBist,sdrcam and the rradirionisfs nighmare. It ;s hard 1l] imagjne thar lbn al-aszi $.o,rld have set much s|rlre by modem *)dicarions of rhe aulhenri.ilv ot luim!;on bascd o; the exhumarion of,{rab;c lir.rry pap}.ri,dor on the claim that the oral terminology ol zads always conc.ats {.ritlen hansmission.r Intratutton
hos,eler, widely represcnLedin the broa{t{r.utru.e ol S 3 Ou d\r ;$,\Ld, bram, and evcn amons the raditionis th.msctves liz id !55t av.! that. but l o' b"o t, o c "nJ re e.,' , ti nt.o,r,rl l n-_ s a,.,l pJ r ' \, ' ^outohc to., 4i ,add_d p:i a' hk l d :Mi ut a ."bana..L\n,..aa o.]"k a tj t" i r4L n, otA Lr, S ,.r4 J L,:r,,., a 18.1 den., d 4dl ,en, t ,h- \fi . d B nr drrL':i d 2 a .l c d.2.' dpprdv u h"n,a,.8 t, .,.n,,a,,.. -., rh. sound thar Trddition $,as nor wrire! dokn bfore (he l l L o' ITd D ,am,, FnJ h\ ddtu ngi rFi fl o...,n.,d,\ rnui e qnd' e \r I r'nr or dr- V ,d.i r l tuhi m nda on \T. ,i r ' FJ h.,q.. l Jr''l d rL4 ri ,"t|.nt.r\ ' ,n."o' ,,"n.n.nhr. ih+ *nrld aalrly af.ibe .hinss ro limr Irj a. rman, an&dote a radnionist or tne crrtv s...nd .utu.} whcs ro w.ite d.rvn a lradiijon $ .hat no one can rjed n.r'Ihc KrtraD Abn Nu.ayn at-Fadr ibn Dukayd id ltgt acs lha;

\ I In the sixth ccntut) of rhe Nuslim er lhe Hanbaljte scholar Ab[ 'l-]ara ibn al-awzi (d. 597) wrote a book to encourage his la4' cortemporaries to grearer clToll in the memorisation o1 'lradition.' God, he argued, had singlcd out the Nuslims to memorise Koran and Tradirion, whereas those who had been beforc then had be.n dcpend'lhcJews, ent on stteD sourcesand wcre incapable of memoisalion fo examplc, had confered on Ezral the titlc '\on of God" mcreiy becausehe kncw the Torah by hcart; among N{uslims, b)' contrast, a seven-year-oldchild coulrl recite the Koran Iiom memon. Th. same conlrast obtained i lhe field of lradition- "Nobody among ihc nations traDsmits t}le words and deeds of their Proph.t in a reliable lshion apart rom us; for among us l'raditior is transmittcd from onc gcneration Io another, and ihe rcliability of lea.hl hansmitle. h \amined unril rhc tradition has been traced back to lhe ProPher. ()thcr nadons have their haditioni from written sources of $'hich the $'ritcrs and arc unknoli."' | 2 lbn al-awzi\ exhofation sugges tso basic poinb about thc "oral l radition" oflslam. lhe fint concerns the sigrificance ol its oral character. lor lbn al-awzi, as r the Muslim faditionists i. gencral, this oral charactcr was more than an occasion for the dsplay o1
7bn ar-C^wzi, ul HdU'.ln tila nr;ln ba lila t;biit d|httrq Brirur, ll85; s.r also the desnpdon of fte wo|! in \L $cisvciler, Itbnlul HanlnfLnrlulm .u unbiha ' l99ino l 4 9 l t e n d r o u s P I . a d i r i o n k , r . l . r t , lituL ttun t t ; k t at o, r s r ant nl, I I 37, pP. dli1 at la.g., and '1radni.n" lor rn individual n"dl ' For .rtr read li4r', .d aor lhe /dqd./,ol iI. A.irui pnn(ins ad /a dd', \ih ' Ibn al'awzt.rrrl, p rl lfi \\ci*r.,lf. II tl\ttrlllnrruhn.l1l ^ttmlmh t't\tl

r n , d"", . , J". r xJ . , , . t u, q1. , . , . . , , h; , "p. . . . r . ", l l l l ,-l ' , ^ . . \ bt tc . t t r G d. - b^. , . , r , , . r , , . d t . f l o. t b h__, t _, . "J. \ H. 4 5 q .h . q u .t.. h r ,- r . . r ._ vr x t\h a h l .,,.1 n , h d fe u b . , T t , ? , : a r l " .t s f,r . ,. n ,n .n " , G.r i .,J.F.u .. t\ r ! ., J i r r L .. d l :.d Jt I {d t.d \.. t,.d J . 'i . . p . r 'r r u .l r - U tr r l o - 4 p . i n 2 l . l \. .U .J r , 1 l l . q l b o ' \tu r . 1 n |b L "u 'h ^ , o w a . r \. ,4 ,1 C \"g ,_ d L o ,d ,r . t- ,7 - 2 . .. ILp 2 a ,.r o p x, ,,l . \r /o n . \4 ,"u e . L .r .r ,, - .i ' I'r,r I 'F 1i, bbir -,1. PP ..M. Hrnn, caio. le3B-.!5,t, p .!7 3 :.9^1i7, Hqatin, ",t '1r,1., p. 11.6 I ohr Lorh of theseracrcncesb Albe Arazi: tor par.I{,ts ro rle i..ond. \ce b.torv, I ll5, nort 5t2. . , " ..JD .i , a \a l a d r 8 ., r .,{,a ,,. e d \tH i tr ,r , r .d n ,h - ,d c .. ,tl t tn t h \a .d o r 1 r .,r . u h t o 4 ,.d .a tto . t.,.! ,., tr I] 'I I h . ', \ ( 1 i l .r ,1 In ,i '!r , t( r 8 4 ,p r ? L 1 , s e . l , r t r,k. r {. 5 l ) \ ?, fJl i ,f vdf . : . ^t r r . , r c , n, d r r abq . D; nm . r , , @ \ dm J. ,


" 1rn

o. s d,.onr. .dn b. .rn.

ro. \.trut-

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i I

(h.ever does ro not.,hr.k snl nn qrnrencords prone error lbn Itrnbrl n L,d t1 t,!ll is asledabouia manho hrs )mcth;,sbr l,car(. |as i [dinddr] veni.n i. wnrins: hc.cpli.sLLar p.efe^rhe!ftren\lrh lrt the h. .,.crd. Hanbahc Nam all)in al'lifi rd 716r..pon.drllr \jcs dL( it qoukl hrd make hile heen lll-?31 (lompannrr b.tieriht Caliph'Urnrr L,uled r (nk. .o{l ol rhe liadnionhe hzd h.r.d fn'r rhc Pn,pbet. ' of \ .1 lhc sccond poinr concerns the e\'.ntoal hoLLowncss this oral sas a r.vivali: it $,as ju Lrccaus. slalus ol l radition. lbn al-a!,i dre pra.ricc oi his day relied so nuch.rn wrifirg ar hc was movcd 1{) reassert ih. value of memorisation. The hollowness caD bc sccn alieadY in earl,vtraditions sanctioning the use ol tlte o'al retm hdddata lo, $rircn t.nsmission, ruch as one recorded b) Ibn Hanbal on thc aurho;r) of \ansnr ibn al Mu.iamir ld. l32l: 'If I wrire ro yoLt, I\,e lokl )ou'.ir 'fhn is Dot to imply lhat from lhe third ..ntun oD\tards r.ansm;ssbn was ni general no nrcre than Ibfmalini but ir no* opefaled in a.onrext perrrcrtcd Ly drc us. o $fiting.'' lo \eek out lraditions $om oral sources was still a l.diri.trist\ spo as lare as rhe rime ol Su-vntrrd. 9l llL'q trur th( lradidons he a.quir.d in rhis wa,! $..c a .olcctoft show-piece,not his ock-;nrrad.. i 5 ft n. however, gencralh acccptcd thrr rhe \Iuslin oral I raditior had once been genunrch oral. I'hus Nalria :\bboLt who strongly emphasises w;rkn lrensnission ol lradition, scesthe t;nr of Zuhri the 12.!l a5 rhar oithe major shifi liom oraL to l'riuer (a.smissioD,'' !d. a riov erpallv ser fotuard by Sczgin iD his firs1 ajo udyi'' and aldrough Sezgin has snr.. argucd for an cxclusirly sritLei TfadirioD ''fom &e beginnirg",i'1rc havc vct to bc prescntcd \Lith rhe ri.w thal , 1, P , t ' l' cr h ,' F c l .c r c ^ h n h h l fu d i , i on i r qri ,i nJ
1A,n rn'Ja al'l)imati, ?a'1, cJ. S.N l-qrs!..i. l),n.l. p rti, n.

.1,1-0 likesise generaliy a..epred rhar rhcrc $,as s.nne hosrititv | 6 It 's 10 c.hange l;om oral to \fiten Tradition. lhis opposition. already discussed Sprenge..rr rcceived somewhat rough justice rl rhe haDds by 01 Coldzihd. Tak;ng at facc ialue traditions rcgardnrg rhe very rarlv writiDg of T.adition, hc caigaled rhe oralists r rak;ng up a posrrioD .conhary ro the facN iinown to llrt'r)".1 i,{s sc shall see, rhe "lcts" in queslion telrd to bc ftos. allcged b,v rhc winnnrg sidci and although they narurall_v sunivr in gfcal quantig, th.v arc neither morc nor l*s worthv of credencc than the 'fac|s" allcgc.l b\ lhe bsers .r: Since Goldriher c opposi*r ro uriting has been irrther minimised by schoiarscon.em.d to emphasisc$ittcn transmissionb) \r:+ ol d.lndi.s rire auth.Dti.ilv ol Tradition.r! tsur onh Sezgin has gone so lar as ro d.ny its existcn.. aloge re. dismi$irg it as a 'lupcrstition" .r.aled b! Goldziher.rr posirion I'ir uer rhair,rrraandi6 Jdvrtnes \hen is \ 7 Thc,rux of Se?grns
ll'e] rppea. nr uadiidr dir..rrl rgai. rhe qririig of Tradition, are nor ro bf (o til.. in thc rLnr setrse ol'!o $ri(.' \vhr the_\'reler is nor. n, his rirr. rlr $nr g.1 lradirioi is s(h, bur snnpl_\ .iucn rdrm$io. ns rirbo appro rr Sprcng.r. O. ihe o'.igir and p.osress urilnrc dr's, nirnrat fr.h rmong of lhe M'Fal'nanJ, J,md ,/ dr latu $Mt ![ Ba1gL ?5 I 856, es]re.i.l]r pp tJ79 I : ^. lr also i.1.. u{:l*r dls riadidon$csfx Lci den Arlben , a.;Litinl lln Irutthn ,rtrtldtatull rha Gdkldli. 10, 1856,Jrp +r: !1 L CLtuL;n(.,lluhannndusthr trrlr, llalle, 1U89,90. p l9+r and .l rri1, I q. II. $h..e it i\ plain rhar Coldzihr *rs rwar. nl drr rh.s.,r.6, Erlr rd of belol, I lrve mie N. ofrle Erstish randano. I./atn r/zlti, L,ndon, l9(i7,t l \ennquonns liom lhis srrk. !, Ihn is of..nF a nrbcr unsrar.tu .nrcnnr: n sa O.tdzil,r. in rhn lery iud, Nho rrgxed rh:r ue should so ni I raditi.n 'a rcnccri.n ol rh. r.n.le.(ics \Iirh :ppear.l r rl,c ..omntrnirydudng rh. marur.r dases.l ns dcvrlopnrrtr nril., p s and S.zsin okd rbole. ! 2. nrr\ 611 ' see, ,n addiion t. dlr ra.ks ol \r.'I al-[iain,. li,nt al hnd. Lcbrrcr, ^hb.r pp ]39-86. .spr.iJlt_\pI, 1851r\1.NI 1967, Ann. stuttu h w4 Uulth tit-dtue, eirt, lgljB, rlio ava,lable an Arabn v.'snnl nr \l.NL a1-A2mi. ttfiit l l idl aMhaL, Ri_vd, n.d.t 'Ih.s.yhol2n ,outd scfnj !, hrve a dighd)" n+.olrabl. rllr rn wansbmusl,t.aJ. $an.tDt\gh,7lL )ttunannihd, orford, 1978.pp 30i i. ca dso ihc pokmi oJ \i. al-Dn' ,lr rglnNi rh. ()ie.utis$ .n rhis isnreLvald a/ ,ar1i ! litu al hdi!. Bc\rr. n 1 pp .1 - 3 . ud J u,v.holl, 1tu u hntut4 rl ttt tuttt ot tuootu drtt,,a; o n,rlm Est1, t evd.n. l!69. pp..ti-5+. R..e.rh a Shi'nc author hr\ publisheda \.D ruLrnrl ro o (l ki ilR rl Husnvnirl C2lah. fad,, dl rannd mha'rya, (lnmn\ t1r3. J.rwn ro nr) a(en{ionb} at I Srzgin. airrr. , p.53 TLf n.m "slpeNdon $as bn,ushr rhc !.n bv (nnd?ihc.:n.v.nh.l$\ rh. ron. of SzSrn s pol.mi. iganN I h gr\.s n .ug q f l a k a li '. t t r . si .n .1 'h ..xt1 ( !) i r l l .; r .r u r l d n a e r e d i i o l fr r h . $ i r n r .t tr a d i i o n {t (; Sr,!l'.1)i Ithnlil.n!l\ L; rnlonnmto^,llltr,,i,, ;nrr. (ji(:r'. 19b9.p :) r , c s l l k r l i J . N l ,r l L i ,l r t l h ,{.t r r n l l .l 'r : t l r ,l i 'l tr r r L '1 .S,h i d t^ d tx. R d i l 1 i ,,r ". / r r / j r , r . i , 1 ,.L ,r 1 r ,r u t1 t)

ri lbn l\br Ya l, rdbattt tlanabla,d H. rl-Fnti. Cano, 1152,I, p 318 | rL 1952n, ll, Tibntt al Hdnirtnd.e.l NI:{ all,q,. (lir. " rhn Raalr.'/&l'aLi p. 368Il;riqhnv or \r.onsl-\,. Ibn Rr$b rcb LLr !ic! .s rar oJ lnr hn.srlJ: ' lln l.lftt\, ul-'llal bu nu'nIn dl at /. ed w .N{. ',\hhas. Benur m,l Rivad, I 9lil, Il, p i2. no. l9i){. in{l lll. p lgj, no 1810 this $orl i" ldeaft.I .n.d rs'1/r/l hN.q oJ .rrl) lJrr( " lhis srnbiosis.rnd is nnpkadons fo. (hc (ex1tral lir.durr. hasbeen {xdi.d bv c S.hoekr n, r ;.s olrdnlcs n, 'nu.h ,, /]/a n,Dmi4 { oflns fi irgs..r 1,. fou.d nr hn l)ie r.ase der s.hrihh,h.. od. rurlli.he nlibe i.lem ngder \ ! is s . nnhr f t en an' lu, I s l i n i . a ) - i r , , 6 1 . l ! ) 8 i . l , t ) : 1 1 ) . im 22 .1-j: n \ \ ' c i1* s r uf lnge der s c hilih. he n . d e rm i r d l n , i , I 1 l r L l i J t r f ! , 1 , ' .rd \\'lssenschaJien hhm . /)r /i1,,,, ti6, 198q,pp 381 6t' im a/ . \ 4r t r i. Cam l , f n l ! . . l q r _ ) .l . r ) r L 'Srt DN Sr hn, . r / r l, f li, ) r\bbo(, .t/?tr,. ll, tt ii. 801. illl. !trr) I SrLljr Rthtintut Loml,ltn ttr$rnlt nah,hrl-, l.i,',li L. l'r_,1'., L1 l,l. ,t!rr lr . , ! t 11r , llv l. l, r l)

uiih tclling exrnples'" iar. loDatui$.r8 Bur as S.hoolcr ha\ dcmon{rrtod 'S.,or s ;"t..prerat"" Ureat aosn $|.. .onfrorlcd with rhc r'xts To Scho'lc'\ rrpical tridnion dir'tred rsJnsr rhr $Innrs of fladnr'n aaa craipt.s "" "-r ' rhai Pe'pl' tcr r' {hal lbn MaJn.l C-,p,-on i', tr',, t<'ii' 'omphn\ "tii.r, I sB. th.n qo fra! and {ire n do\Ln |16' 'nna Ldnnli lutuna )nntahtlnM la r"/ n" r, 'L-or -l i '{\' ' l 11' 'l ^ rl hrl r "" r ' ;,' ,' -' i4?\,1'r''" rr_ 'l ''l 1" i,a h 1 t l Jr' " '

442 I shall.onsidcr a varie of possibilities, and end by presentingan argu ment r thc Jerish origin of the NrusLnn ho\dlily to tlre $riting of 'lladition. lhc .oncluding scction skctchcs a generi.Lcxplanation lbr th. dcmisc ol authentically oral rradition in Islan. lhc bulk ofthc rcsearch for this study rvas done over fiftccn S l0 vcars ago, and th. drali tlpcscpt on which I have relied in prepa! ing ir 1r publication dates iiom thc summer of 1980.r{ lt woulct no d.,ubt har'e .onrinurd to gather du ir many ycars liad I not b..n invited (o I'aris by Ynsuf Rgib m spcak at thc confercncc hc organ ised on "Voii er cilame en Islam mdival" nr larch 1993." I ha!. raturaliy |akcn lhr opportun;ly to make numefoxs rcvisionsio . origi' nal qpescript, addi g new nrale;al and rerh;*ing some of tlre ideas. Bul lhe only evenl of real lbr tlis stud) which has tak.n place h the nreNening yeA has been th. publication ol an nnpor ranr anicle oD th subjeci by Grego. S.hoeler."'Nlv irst in.linaiion was ro liln;r rhe pesenl srud) to a discusion of thosc points on which I \!as in suLstandld;sagreemenrwirh Sfhoeler, of had somerhing ol weighr to add. In e event I hale opt{d 1r an inregral publication of m1 orm rcsearch, accompan;ed b) fequenl hdi.alions ol rhe r.ltionshjp of ny tudings to Schoelrr's.rl
lLe nvc sou(cs l harc mainly on. anrl to hi.h \ ll 'rli.d, are th. tllori'S: l l \? rrqt l al ' ;l n i l ^l 9rti b al l h drn l eive retl

lhis study attcmP(s ro set ouMht "n b' known of dre hisi I tor) ancl origins of (his oPl).rsition(o thc writing of lfadirion k is Dol into<led as a contribution 1)rhc dcbat. on th' aurhenticiq r'l lradilion, ahhough it vill bc evi.lcDt llt orr balancr m\ assrrmptrrnson lhs l issuc L .lostr (o rhose of Na2zm than to thosc of Ibn Hanbal Nor lor am I poposirg a ch,onolog-Y iht actual sritins do!'n of l raditun; js ar isue on wh;ch, given dre la.k of witnesse\ttrnal to lhe litthis l crary (raditionlr and thc lendentioDsn.s of thc ini'mal reimon) ol achievn{ definit' tesuLts' see litde immediatc prosptct pres.nltd in d:is sudr is iDc\inbl-v ! 9 Since the .rgumcnt ro be somc\lhal comPlcx. it rnay lrelp to givc here an oullinc of its cou's' I shall begin bv considenng rhc oidencc lo thc ex;st'nct ol opPosirion to the Nddng of Tradition ;n Bas.a at a 'omParativci) larc dar' sav rhe second hall of the sccond ccdlur" t shall thcn argxc that thi! hostiliq had at an carlit. stage .ixisted in aLl major centrcs of lcarn,g. anct, furrhermorc. that it had at ore timt be'D the Prcvailing alt; as tLrilc. Hav;ng thus present.d Nhal I shall rcfe to d 'oralisl" vaLues oflhe N{usliln lradition that is a"cssiltle .e.t."l to th" ral;.st lo.m ro us, l shall ttrn lo the queidr sherc thcsc !alu6 camc from Here
!i Sce Sug,ns !r .haptc. 2 of th. h I, esr,e.i;lly pp. 6l, 71, 2B1 '! Sch..lcr. Nlindli.he l'hora , pP 2281 d hn "11'lh rnd

d. 16:l t.' l hnw trk i s Imono


'r this dkft *rs :ad a lds timc as) L,v drian BtuLk.(, and nrorc re.cDtl) Lt l]lrrhn, \nn.od HnniL cvetr rlder dralr as rcad in the lare sevrn.e\ bvjdr. tlnda Clrcno. cnahrn Kiirr. Etan, and Fnk Sre$arl. I a., qratelnl to ^n al! o, rhen, lor their ..'nmenr I .s. a li,ndamentd dchr r. llnL Z,nm.rmnn. sl,o Itr tu b tht mxjr $ui tr,. I n, rh. tUowins pa.aFaphr on.hi.h i l hc aon.hxion i .onsiden d i.nion of ihe r.marks I nud. n, \mi,g up Jr Ll! lnrJ sNior ofdrc.onfcrei.r Thc dncu$ion ol rhe fedu.ion oJ the.Jewish oml lrrditu. b \rinns i.h+ie lll, natn l did not nrn, pa.r oarf prcs.ntatir t, I',nni il $ns d,r Laris ofr slio gn.i at a conleFf.. oi rhe rhem ol Bridqi.s rlir { klrn and.Judam held in hon.ur of $Iillim Bnnne. at Aerkolcy ht. c sa,r rnh I an, sral.aul ( liarl CoLrn. Chfnriie Haj_.s. Oideon Libson, ' rnd A\r.m Udorir.h fir senercus asishn.r rritli su(\. Judan !:pds ol il 'h. utrpub&hed paper bv 'Nundlicl,r Tlofu" ir. al,o\c. not rTl. " S(lro.l. 'Itun rl.J Kist., p.s.ntd !, thf Sixih l r,rdnai alitloquiud on tn. nnr ^n h.ld h.liusal.tri in SepreDb.f l!93. nrlL,des con$ dn.N J,,hll\\a b hidi n,tr, ol riiud.\ t.rrds the (riiinc ol lrdrin: I am nu,h rdebred b lvlnharl l (Lfl l i r ldr;,{ nr' r ,r !,' l ^ I' l l ,tr h hr' \ l nn. hrd i !/i , 1?ro I rhf,.nl i rrl rr \hnh S { ho.l er * .'!,.' ti ,trri ,i l ,.,' l rrr,,tr(1, ,rv Lrl l . rn,l l ,i nrnl ,,,l !,) 1," 1,tr l rn ,,r,orr' tr,r rl ( l tr'r1tr1 r' .' (f\ \l ' \!l ,k l i r rnarttrrl v n' t)tn,1 'r ' L,rl rr rl tr\\,tr1\l ,ff " \Ll l .,,,1 l l .' u,l .rl ' . l r,ttrl tl tl n) nl \ l .,l .1),"' s ,I

nr Sozgiris " lhese.di.nBs do noi apply b thc rierv ol rhe mx('r rmplnir 'rrhis Adtt',;n ,];arl,4 p 17, wLde h' *'aks of hadish'in \azr-\'llret lief vo.[ i.f rr (ri. bdo(. $$ 103.5 I thr erlid ;aza atstills nre enrcnce ofs'itren lraditi'n rctiinn rc Esltian lolunt ol hr $dt Shc doo\ ror a$is'r 1u DaDvnr.Lred by Abboti nl {he;di luu ol thr se'ond Lcno^ |cr erlir r'i'Yanl l"i ,,r rr','n a "e t'ero* rr'o second of \ lik d LTgl ln the litld ol mu-cm ino ll lcing , arrgn.nt of the 'U'dr'' lra6-."t l.o. ll to rhe n _rmnd t'nruryi bor hir .1. a,,^, rt^*..i, dre ^ ft' prlto"rl,' darins r.c tireriq iand in f.r br no mer$ pdnrsn' r., 'li" r" "i"."1" r ql, "r c \ "I J f ui u o !rr'l r r \ \ '' r " F r $. . , " I r' I .,r- ,\., .";;.... -\ ' , . i. hr n, , t t x l' , r : . l: t t i. lr lhilnt t ) r .\ r t l t " l J . l r ) 7 r l t ! r l \ l J 5 2 l Aruu

graphon the que*io. oJthe $nring ol I rrdion. and it bnms\n)g.therin nrvah,rbl..olicctnn, of vnnc (ro ro dtuc hundredrclc\r lr.lidons. rl,r srrir tnnr ,\L n E pfovid.d bt ns rdit.r \iih a .i.h rpparih^ .l rlar.n($ n) parallehi. .rher $ur..s. Ar trndnl rLirr.r of ttt 7n4,.1wasgnrn {rll o\rr a .criun rso by i2t 'ftu C,nn;'bqh al-'tln nl Ib. 'Abd rl-Barr rrlso d 1631.' t\'t lhe Trbaqiit lbn sr'd id 230t L ol r.rt Th. '.zrl of Ibr lla al id 2,rll1, lil T|e .t d ol D..nni d. 255r." 'lhere are hve liih.r v, hhnh a.. n.h,n malnrL. rnd wl,nh I hrle o brcn rhIoughreDaftall\, Dur onl) when dren mitials dnergt signili.anil-\, hom ihosc I idu.e f.onr .ls.{he... t h. v,u(f\ rr. 16l Tl,c na, lrlu ol ,{bn lirturi, 3. 23.1'' 171lhe .t/dd,d/ ol lbn ,\bi S2vhald 235t i t.a)'ftu MutaAi! alJbil .l Rrnhunuzi id. 160, o. sholr_Lcnr.r.'' t ' 1 l T4\ ol \ h ; / u i. r I ) " f l d - P illr TLr ,l1d"r0 ad tr.'rl ol lisari ld. 277i s lhi\ basis,ould n rdil-v h..xirndd, and (h..onT.n(.\ !) pa.dl(l pa$aq6 .omiddablt nrulriplied: major biogRphicalsou'reso !hi.h I hale n.r mad. svr remari. lse nrrDdc rhe rd nb tkdd nl t)zr\t n Erii, ttu a nt ntuttut ^t a6? oa ll,n ',\s-kir. and tht Stot t'lnn al ,rbaln an.l Tttib tt IJtn rl Dlhab H.veFr, I doubi ihii s,.h laboun rvonld signili.antly .nnlib rhf .on.lusons 01' d$ nud\ ,! ar iltrlicrn,rfdir .xrcm ro $hi.h tlr ..nnure a liage rrmr", one n3t trle th. ;ra, al1l, ol Abn l-la]1Dr.rn.rlr ,urt. Il .orta;N )s rcLvan' tnditionsi all iru( lhrcr of (hrsr 1.ur $nl,ou( .n.d abov. I he \rne laiation in one or more .l rhe hN five isirue ofthe 31 reli,vrnr".fitn,.s n r i,tv,r"dl of Ihn ,\l,i Sa,vtr I noi iotr.|\ .ned late' dG.r$ions o1 rh. rhe\ hr\. rome' thi.s to oF.r {hi.h is nor rvailahl n, ihf cr[. ,\ I h!r. ual." rfi.r (iird ?aqlr. Unnr.'uoatoll E..It docsnot[ tndniob, brll,. der ^s :..ofd r. ea.h a separre paraqraph;n is.onvcnie.r ro.elir r. in the lonn ''p 79r", *lrft i9'ir {hc prsr. ard "r" n ic6 tl,c rhi.d prrgrrriri to pd on " Sprcng..,"O.igrn rnd prlrs . pp 304-26 Seabore. \ 2. note,1. lh rele\anrnadirio'N are i. be nn,nd I ;-r.
I llrv. .n.ounrerd alno{ noihrq of r cl( !rn.e in non-Sunni vNce!. l.hf o,al nnr or the lld Knn hdioriis qrpr6 ro hrv. l(fr n. r.a.e anu,q rl,. rmris or drc Zrrdis, i$r ar tLai ofrhe Bayir rrditnnr;. seeDr j ar.e\ (o bc 1ti1.d I luv., n inrenrion..ird jronr rhc jnnl\ tied al,orr ri:tuat\ all mdJ,al



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) ror, hone!.r, nr. {j rrh i.a.lition! *hn.h r.ter.nt\ !) ih. a.oal wirix ol l.adnior I hare discu$ed rhfR $ rhe! sr'n ro betong b d,e.o.rov.*\, :r. b lnm pan ofdr'nn.nry ol rlrr rrlr suppore^ ofrhe LLrring of,tirdnjon, of tlnrr sar somc prtnrnar reasor ro .n. th.m , ha\r takcn n tor snFd rl,ai llrgc nlmbcrs ol ro dr .rtv lrnnrA of ]rdni.n, n,nnv of rhe,j .learl,v, weF rfiol$sly senerar..l ar a date rlrLn rh. i\rjr lrd L..n riled, an.l hrv. nothins ro rcll us rbour rhe hioD ofrhe conroves_v A ma$ ol su,l' nrrn,nal mrv b. li)u.d in dr. .ondr,r- lrrts Jtrfadv.ned Or rt.o,hf. hrnd, I ma! rl rimes harc rrartd as p ol dir .on.!e6) rrdidn,s Nhi.h do rot dly ro iri rlle ir a gfcl arra here nr !hi.h ir js b,rd rn rfa.h hrm I xn nor rhe liN ro yr.k inlomrado. on mv bnic iI ,oj.fth. M.,: lind rho\r, aid d,ui.h olm) narrirl is,v cncd L! lihe n, his n.r\ r. hn e.[hr ol dF 7,4rrl and nr the s..ndi'_r sorks atFdr i. r do ror unr rllr i.!n.rlcdc. i.h p&tr Lnlion nr mr rots.

Il. Th. hiltory ll ttu l,Iuhn.lfr\;Ltun t. nE Banan phae

ta th. atntinc t fradtt,n

\ 12 .\s rhc startirgflinr ol our ;\'estigarion we may rak. Ib,, I{anbal's accouDt ol an ircidcnr $h;ch he hims.U witnrsscd rorvards dre cnd ol-rhr secondcenluN. A man belbrc the dour, ag..t and mincnt Bsran lbn'lilavya icl. 1911,5i ancl rc.ited a welt knorr rrlLn alsarlr al sahraziri nl. t;lut. t.ttn d/ral!, d. \ '. Damr]r\, t981. pp r8r'3: Sal,iwi i.l. 902::, fatt nt n4. ed. .A Il. ,Atr | !.. 1992,lI. pp. 2!-39. ' lhus atr Imn, adnio.isr who ask! \lutrun'nad 3t,-qi d ltlr r. rn.l,ror !) hnn it r.prok.h.d \!nh rhc qu.\ri.n: -l!tj.rc r.]1rrf !o\tn oi mrnror. r) of Knlaf' lh. radid,ri\r ih.n crpLin: dar he \nrs b \,.ire dvr dx.r: .ruon $ rh, ro ur un rele.r n lILn 8bawal,rr. ,r:d,/ )ahd, ]tr ttqih,e.t,.\,\ . (;Jhri, Cllnnm. 140.r. p ll:Jl, no. ,1llr2i trsr. trr?, fd H at-!ns.tsi rl Il.nsan. Nrall r95ij 7, rv, p. 8j. no. 32:,: i.1.,Tnhlh nt nhkn , (t tr rl U$an., 1390. IX, p lr9. no. 2!3. Th(re is.o hlr h.rr oJ rhe "trnlas, artran Sunn, ! N rf ihe t4u!n!r .1 LLrnnc Trudnn,n (]| a[o rlh. Talnr,. p ] rjo nem 2. rn.t ' T h u s n l h r ta v,.t r tr . r a d n n r .e d b cto ( . tj t n .r . l +9 . r h e \a r .r j :t ctc \ frnr niqhr Lr the originrl ponr oi rhe ladnnn, and rc rcfeen.e ro srnn,s !r , rl$ or nrnl..hl, li,r rll rnd $. hlf 1;D! nr $hnh,nnv rh. t r rJrper; l) e l .\, \ l tl ,2 .r o t,r t2 . h . r n r m !\j n s ( o u n ftr h d n n i w tr n .h '.ir l'L s, i .ri)1 r d . !cl ) .n !r n r 'r n r f i!r rh o l l l i r ( r 'n n ^ .r ) .y !r ,r r r ft.r e h r r !- l fvu r fo n kfr .: \ r i . i c , , L 'i l n r r $ t) r \fl r a r ,, ,i , tr t,r r $ ,{ !!, r h c ,tr ^ a \. h r r f,b r h tv d .e s '1 , r , r n r r r r l r . \ r ) r i r |) r r ..r 't \ r i . r r ,! ) 7 ,1 ,r t l l L , , 1 . 'r l , l l tr ' l v.' 4 ,i r l ,r r i ,[,n ,r r ] r i tr "


'r see abo"e.E t, ro,c a. rr. nun ,rrrd. " S{ rhovf,9,1, nore l7 Ih. 'radirons Li Seeabo!.. 2. not .1 lhn edniotr nr No vohnres.brr the .ndnronsrre nlm ! b.r.d.ontinuouslv lhe releranttrdnnrr rre rt &mn, I. pp qll ll7 no' .ljtjjl7r. {1 ALrn Hvlanu. itrr, al':72. cd. \.r". il-/!Llnt, Dr'n:. nd lrle (cxrnedned r , rF i h ,h r . ' \ r i r-7I '. ". . ! : l L' ' r . ' ../:L " Lia j.'.4' l '" " ' uHi": ' Fl; infornaii.. lhf' , ' hadnn)ns i. , , p \ qute imdequrt. biblioglaphi.rl !rt' runnrerfd tr lbn,\biSatba. tla?d,l ed. Kr al-H.u, Beirlr, L'r89 lr,f rmdi,Nr'. nrnl b.:d: thosr relevanrrre rt V, pp 3011: 3lll5. r! R.nahumuzi al,n/raA.r dl /rJ,t d. \.'^. al.tirrn,. B"r!r. llrii lh. rrilil,r n nunbcredi rhoserelevanrare ar pp lli;3 ll)? 'r S.c arur. \ ll. roir 11 Tht trnnnra rrf ' r'rl-r.l i Fis:ri. n/,1r nt l" r , 7 r ld. d , \ l) iL lr [ , ' 1 . l t L ( ] i l , 1 . , r i 1 r l I Iin li! , r r f r t , r r \ , r lr i' ir ' ! ' ( l r l , l \ l , 'xir"t)lf \ , '1 1 . r / / - , , L rld r.t1 n nr t t t t t Lr t ) / / r ?r , . r \ s ( t . ( r ', , i ', 1 l t t r r . l 'r ) | . t , t , l 1 r , 'r .

dition according lo $'hich the Prophet gave to his Companion 'Abd ?{lh ibn 'Amr ibn alrr pcrmission to llnle do!'D '!hat he heard irom hirn.i|r'he reponsr was lvelv: Ibn 'Ulana shook his garments and took rcfuge in Cod fton \ing and liars Bv wav of elucidation' Ibtr Hanbal remaks rhai Ibn'Ulawa lilowd thc wa) ol the Basrans \ \ hat he m.a n r b y th i s ;s c l c a r fto n a paral l tl vtrsi on ft w hi ch Ibn Hanbal cxplains that Lhe way of ltrn Srin (d llOi, Anl' al Sabdynr (d. l32l and bn 'Awn id l5L) was likcwise not to witci5r all three are tsa;ran luminanes lbn Hanbal, in other wods, prcs'nts Ibn 'riLana\ r{ection of ibc uadition in queron as au exPrcsson or a tYpically Ra;ran hosliliq, to the writing ol frd;tion \ 13 SupporiiDg ma.rial on Basra! attiir'lcs;s not ha'd to 'ome role in the tansmission ot b. Ibn 'Ula),va himsrll Plays a Prom;relrt ri Of lbn Sirn, the most writing ol lradition rr2didoDs againsi the among thr Basran trad;tionists, se fc\pect cl of the Ba!n Successors are rold thar he u'c againstsrir;ry i?. agai$t tht writing ofTraditionl;ri hc did Dor rvritc.:rhr- wamrd tht book hatl been thc perditior ol "lhole sho oerc belore you",'o and he Ioulcl Dot allow a book 1o 5' rcmain ar his housc overnight In a thin)-r disguisedrcfdence to a t;cs ii attributed 1o Sa'id illn ubayr id. 951 and othcrs hc ridicul's a man
tftrc ; no l]nn knin6 t ,". haat ,L H1ot (. tu"",,',.. tr - tu n r ,J l n ' , t l r , . n lo l l !. ' - : dr" /, " ' lk- | r'l,rr" br i, - t\ " qua ath tl'Jn lig, tcn l' n lu lu lr l J llo 8 r .i XI 1 l' ll n l' r ' lr r r' 8 ' I ld ' \'' zu Op I1 l.' ! t rrd I l;o li, / i' ,,l to d Ibn Hanbal b'gi his PUAUi or 1"b 'l ' - h' Ja rl r",r'l H nLal ''_ "'i rh- ' L' o'r rl r ' i a'r_n I'o' j 2< /J I " " 'n"" rh't",''" ."-'.nL' 'i 'i 'or' \h'1" q'""1 ' II ndl r'''

+,tb rvho wrircs with his spiule on his sandaLs: "Do vou enjoy licking vour sandal"?'i Nlost ofthcsc traditions have solldl,vBaran mals. fhe record 01 lbn 'Awn s attitudcs again srongly Itasran is unifomly hostilc to Fnting: he denjes $at Bakr anct'ljrnar wote,'! he himsell nevcr rrote a rradition'r and^bn disapproved of othcrs uritins froni him,6a hc appears to be hostik elen to noles ldlla/1,6' and thinks thar no good vill coDlc of "thcse bookJ'.6dOnly in thc casc of A\ynb. as sc shall se. lat.r, docs rhc rccord point the othcr war. tsut cvcn hoc lh.r. n a signilicani notc of apoiog]: AInb in one tracljtion rcamrms his hos tihy ro wfiting in principl., but.xplains drat in practi.. he has to , l p,d,F$nr ir g an , lr pJ'| . r hi. {ud' n , . I 14 This ani!! is conirmed when se rurn ro the standar.l Prophetic trdition against thc writiDg oi TraditioD: "\\irit. noinq fiom m. cx.ept th. Koran; il anyonc &rir.s anvthing liom m. o(h.r than th Koran, lcr him ras. n"."" tl w. colle.I and .ompar. r,-Fr^,. , / . ", 1. \ i, h sli. r r hi' r r . 'di, : na. 'pt '. . 'r ' : n n! , . au", 'le $e p;c(L,rerhar emefses is as llo$,s.!ir. the highc. par ol ih. ?J,tls is unilo.m and Nledines., viz.l



i'Thi; vdsnm is addn.e.l by F,!:hel,ni manuvriPl i7a4"l p 7! n l5lr' lbn 11 Nore ho$ the $,ablt blo.k of traditions *lich tbn Harbal I'anini6 lio 'nr'J \' !1":'r" /e ll p r l l , \ \ , " r v r r F - n' ,.' 5 I K LI;' B l' ",n ", nbnnq'l 'i "' ^' ' " ' n ' ' h .,,\"" r r J. - '1'1 . b l' o i n fl.h " ol "\.1' r J - ' ,"",jh ""i "d -' '''d'' r,,I nons for and asain$ ls.. rhc block.fnar.nal PP 209_20 nos 2'l_16 hthr _-h .,' 8a l !l d szin \n'ne pf t\".,J' ,n n 1a,a lti "a h m ' _ n . p"dl r //.l l r \ ! 1 - t- tu !,d ,,a ^ 'l 'a 215 no 3!1r ?a{rnL P t3d In \h:tr hav. snnpre *rn;-rataa l Likil, tt6td,l.p sions^ ol \nrnrs' lollo{s I shatl iol inequo.tlt lollo{ rhe usase oltbe sourc's and \r:t what n ii issue s rlx lririns ol l'adnlon ,.rr drL lcasns n r be undeAl6d.hrt ir Tdo,r', p !5di $rd,, no5 171,430 vl1/1, p. l.rl 2l; dd .1 a;n,' p ti5ll 'E lob@nL. l7 t9 illl. P 2 r l. to 5 1)i )l i l J\N r. 'U a'r$. l l l )l ' i i 1 " ' 1 ( I l . p ll0 ,;.. '1)|' l"i snl il"' ( i,r b r v,\ r ' r ,r i' , ,,1 s,ir ii{ 'rr l tr' "!rl ' ' '(" "1 'ri rl rrsi }ri '

rbrn,lon nr lhr rrinns ol I rdnnn sr. ntr exJnplr 1d?,2. p 102!.1. Thf uD. labn(as. bed to Zuhri nrtd, p. loTal. lhe pEdi.e ii n.ted bl schoel.f N,rndli.h. ThorJ', pp. ,ltifr. ll,n Siin: diN. n,r n is sha:d by T.{ns ibn Ka,vsod. 106 Ibn Abi r){nd, ,r6.1{ drld )?tr?\. ,I,lnh1nk lir th hint'} 4 ttu N 4 th. Uf ir. ^. , \'ll/l. p ''r 7a4rt4 p. ,1lrriIrasr(i, ,rrrrtt.Il, r, ,ttag VII/I, p l1l2l rlbn A\'. did nor lur? r ' 'Jnr,,. n. 4atur .omp? Tnha.tI. Look .orkn';ls siryl. cotr,plc(c ta,litiorl. ''' Rmahnrnuzi Vuhidtlil,p. 366 lnr .he /rrhn of.he prinied txt rerd , /,zi,un, r'nl, ns. [sroriJl l60tr, a 77b l0]. p t7.17 lor rhe te! ol ihit radiion, se. belo\, I l0l. nore ': hbattnt.\tt/I, 171)i th. tm ah l,er. looslr tanslacd "nds'. na l,rlor, l\ l00t n,r s aliNdes io riting ' rdqrd. p 'hrj, lI. pp 388, n. 27i0 ()n lbn 'i^-ht .r' rlso thf dn.usnJ. in.l rxn :-\, lhaLy rd &enhaJ1 in !. und 3. Jall ntbt ^LT /lti,, B.rlin.nd N({ Yo.t. 19{rl-.ll. pp. 36laLin.luding alsomatedalNhich inrcl\er l,im ir the r.n,J prr.rne of\ririnsl Van lis in his endcs on ialy holr\ not inli.\ addu..s repis or $.ir a(itudes ro wrning. " l l a l , l . p. 1 7 5 ,n o . l :0 ; i a l Jsr si ,.ta tt. II, p p . 2 3 U .l l , 8 ? t.l :J.C l o o r p r 1 ,( {rr.men6 rhar he had lrii.n onlv a sinqletadnio. honr lbn Stui. rnd latf eras.d rL ir,1, J) 2iJ2 and rlur had h. *ntkn f.onr dron. ir {oul.l }'a( b..n Zul,d ll,it. 6r. I . t 6 l L L l :b o r l ,,!c l tJr a n . '' li Lr|tuti annr i'lfan \tui tA"tn hnat titatu d ruv n1Q,lran.l banhuln r / a ? r . a t r 'l lr ,i s,l ,o tl ,i . \l 'r tr l l n h . l l r n r ". I l l l . l l ,c o r .l n i , r !.u r \L n hm i n o r
r \L!,'L\.1,'.i !r \ . . t rr1 $ i l i . l ' 1 , ' i , r' \ \ ' l i t rl i r\ , 1 ' , ! n i i , n t r\ : 1 , , l rd h r , . 1 , T. n , 6 .

wRlING OI TR Drrlor-

448 Basran tradition in ryhich Abn Sa'id avers (hat "\\'e used to \fiie norl ing but thr Koran dd the Confession (tuLhud)" a |s an authorily againsl the sriting ofTradition, Abir Sa'd is thus predomjnandy Bsran property.r5 No$ thcrc is a miljar pattern uhcreby a Companion to whom a viea has been artdbuted h his owD right becomcs the transmitter of a Prophrtic tradition to rhe same effect.r6This suggcss rhat the Prophetic tEdition, and $nh ;t $e Medinesc scction ol-its high Ma4 rcprescnB a resorkne of the Rasra Companion tradidonr and since Dasrans ligurc so prominenllv in tlrc latcr rransmission of rh hophetic radition, ir is Ukel) ro be the Basrans rhcmselvesstro uere responsibleibr ihe resorking. nr. $ 16 s.h..|.., b] conr.r,sees Propirdnradnianrs a \edn6e .oifagc laler expoed r Bava.'' Tl,o ponnson {hi.h we difler afe rh. aollown,s I the ll Nhereas resard Prophei.ladirion nndc.dis.usi.n rs 2 sinsle ra.liion, Schoel.r n asono,,f tlr.e van2nts a single se.! ol radnion,. .rh. van rns beins hdirion regarding EopLcfsr.fuvl r, pemn Abn Said ro qrirc, a the
and a Pfophcri. r.dition rirains writing hansmied hl .\b. N A11th..e o."J .' i \l -o' n-" rr ddd Lr,, r,l \n no\. ")"' ' ,g ever, dreir .onrcnr ir odrrnisc very .lierenr i2l Resading rhcn !s r sinslc tra dnnri, S.h.eler rhen iderrih.s rhe "Lodnnon lil*" as rhe \'ledinese Zavd ibrL r,.m t,. r", .",,da,ron,. trdi \,\, ,. \ta. d.J ..t,1 ". "i \ rr".4\ "comnon lirrl ' nctl,odsi dN uta rlr najor methodological dilfen.. bcd.o lis ppma.h rnd mv..n.3:Nlv wnli rcsx.d k, lhis nethol

The Pophet Abn Sa'id al-Hudri 'At' ibn Yasar (d. 103) Zavd ibn Aslan ld. 136l 'lo this pa of rhe ?:zrls I shail retun shollv 'Ihe r'xi rransmrtt'r is in neariv all r:asesthr: Barrd Hammm ibn Yahva id 16'l;61 Hmmm thcn regiar\' transmits to Basansi among $em lbr 'Ula1""ar. Onlv in a singlc inslancedoes a non Basran. Sufvn al-Tawri (d 16ll, pPea ri is in this part c,fthe,Ira. and h in tunr transmils to a tsairan Il Proph'tic tadition agan thus clear that thc transmiss;onof rh. major othc writing was ar onc slage a pnmaril,r Basran aflair' There do exi stamP,r! $d Propheric tratiitions again writins which la.k this Bairan pomtnenl rh.r will be discussedin due coutsc; but thcv arc far less a srag' fulhcr if {e go back to | 15 lhis arpment can be taken ofthe iid./ sel out above D'sPite aPPcarsection rhe uniform l\'e.tinese 10 belielc thar the major Ptophrti( trad anccsj rhcre is The rion was not just transmifted in Balra, bur actuallv coiDed thete Sa'id ln rhe prokey poinl hcre is the role of rhc Companion r\bn ;n hi ' p, q- n. ld a q d rn .r\n r;" g . \L i s r' rJ ts l r" rr' o a' dr' " urh' nr\ i r' ui o" ' r nP u$" r is l,r l h . p F d s e l l -a l F r.d which he refused to allorv thc !'riting of Tradition anr, nlco.di"g to Barran' br his pupits; rhe i,rads of rhis tradition ae okNhclninglv Ncna I fo lhis ma) bc dd'd a nrfthet .o"""ctio" I'ith rn*'"" "na
l c.,l l l | . i ..l l l Jp. L ",tt.t.H.r b , t/JU, 8,..,1 t a a , d,o e \\d dl _ Ll l l h \l' l' ux 'l \f r .1 . ,,t. t", L F 'i ',.:, | 5"r ll V & 'tJ \o' D n a l]l]4 lL r q iBar, ("',r t.,' "8 l "'o :lh.fu" rtl, P 2'15 b tu1 rNr3trb 2ll8, adiiion I l and Sch;e[r. P 'Ntii",l1i.he jt' if :iiii".;l " r;. _Han-:m' r:r ', p. tj3.l7: 5tzd. tro 1561i n D nol

-"-' ' '"i"'.^aiLl,,t.

llii'n Hijam que{ionn i"sdmblv rhc Basran

alDn !'i

r" Td4ri./, P 3la, and Pd.Ueh th. nn jlL ;,o . ''d !d ,l lo 11 l 'l r " rl ' d \Lu (' d 'l |'el

ilrn Tbir' :to belrN ahn Hnns2. s. belo(, [ 16 Ii rhai transmntd br' l!]d ()r thse;e rN $! Ive n,r .rosd) .onnc'rcd Mdr rhar or rh' ;;; i t. t; t I2l \l n d i' h _ I o, l - -$ i ou ' cn "r s Bi.d' "' 'd' -' -{l '. ' /Jr rr I 14" .o J tB,:, ia . !. u r n o1 i.;::; ,,. - t/.

{:l hc a' n_H ' rt a r' . ' r i. r; ,, ,,.-' "" . r"* .',ra ll".;sni i" Tdo;. p 38.. \\;siri nr '\nad'no 177 r"d Kulir i'r 'i1 lo a,t?il,p 61.2 -. rhn raditnr. nt S(ho'lr. \lnrllnh' lho'r" f ::Jq krdnrtr' ll l: r l\ o l r,a .,)l ) 2 1 5 ,2 1 1 1 l

)] Taq.d, p.93^. A pralld r.nion it Koln in rhe lo{r. ul iJt. p 93br rnd .r: Ab. D$rd, j/,,4. .jrm 3 (= ed. .t..Lr.!t Dr.,.s an,] .A rl sawid, Hi'N. 1!6!-t+, l\', pp.6l1l no. 36.tBl:for troth ver\n).r. see S.hoeler, Nurdlicl,r Thora''. p ?16 'Ih l-hiib ter6 thn as a tradnionti falou. oftl nndns ol lndnion. \Lhich n.lead) n nor No$l. docsAb Siid apperr on rhe snh ofqriring, dnd ihc p..ulirr posi uon hcrc a..o.dcd to .he ,aiaMll Lrvc yrncdtnis !, do s.ith n\ a$o.iatidr (i1h 'nay s.ripture.Ibi NIaJnd n ;aid to 18 rausht n to .tama rd. 62r il rhc rnr rrlr $ .t I ta of the Kokn ( r,atd, vl. p 5!.r8r. sonrdlns sinilar mr b. inie of rhe ld&dra tlir r\nn s@ Ihr Enqdopaetlia r1a,,,secold edirion,L.yd.n and lf,rddn, 1960. d i L ILn lla\'ird denies ihar they wrorean! kadirions rhe .ime ofrhe Propher in l!tr re r6nrl,/ and rhe nr4,', (/l"l II, p. 259. no. 2t84). (he ' lh.rt' n o.e exception, tadidoo in rn.h bu sr'id asks.hePropher perlor n ro ernr. and is r.nred Fee belor, g l+. nor. !611. '. '.) Tlu,n{b 4 unnalanju'lfltlaa, Oa] l. 19i0. pp. Li6f. TL. pbcr,,n'.non $as *.ll knorvnto fi. n,edievalNtusLn s.n.[rs li). rhe prsent innfe. u S.horl.r. Nurdli.Le Tlura", p. 2,1jr. t . I b i t , p P.2 3 2 ,2 1 ) '( 1 1 : t r b .r .j E r .1 .n o r '7 2 . ' Nlundlnh. lhorr", p 238. rndnion I ]/2/ll. ! S r i i l , r \tn i r l l v p p .2 3 1 ,2 +.1 . 'lhr u1l'o(l lvrs l,N \.r our bv s,l,rhr nr lln Orktr. pt) i7l 5; n has \nr.e r, fn ,trvfl,,ln\i l\ (j.unr .lL'ynh)ll Nl){ rrrnrl}.JnynrroLl |a\ annourced,bur nl ll \ d 1 t r ( 1 ,'k,1 . i t 1 r i tr ,1 !r l ,! \!r ttr ,r ( r r ',u !'( 'r l l i tr n n r n n l l .tu r .w u n n r l n r , . , " r "N .L l i l l r ' !,l ,tfl r tr s I l i i \f i l i i i n r l n r r r l '!{1 . w l i h ( l !] d o r i . , L . . k ( , r tr i ,,1 i l ,tr L ,r f,1 !\i ,tr r r f. ! lr \ l'r a r,rl tr l l \t l t\l t. Ia r ^ .\r r h r @tr t 'n

sould thus pnent ne liom dnsing schoele.\ inaeFn.r. (rr While we agre thal 1he P.opheric tadidon iowNc. de[hned) is lild] ro bc a dclrlopmcnr ftun lhc CompaDion fadnion, Schoelcr does not bins imo th. arsumenr ihe larfan prov. nance of th. latter.!' bn Sa'rd not .he onlt Uizi (lompanion invoked by ihe Bayans agains w;tins. Thcy lso nobilisc b. Hfafra,Nr Ibn'Umd,8'Zayd ibn Tbit,85 and

450 on the pa of the Basrans?The obvious h}?othesis is thar ir was an instan.e of Basran consenatism. But ro shorv ihar this s.hal :t was, rve need to push back our inlestigarion into rhe inr half of thc sec_ ond century. To do this we have ro rurn ro reg;ons in whi.h hostility lo wnnng \!as .o longer significant in rhe sc.ond half of the century, and rvhere accordingly testimo.y rclarirg to aD rartier prriod cannor easilv be dismissdas retrojcction. l. I9 Belore rc do so, howevo, a signiticanr i{ scarcely luryrising qualification needs ro b mad with regard ro Basran ttitudes. l.her; is aiso Basran mat.rial in lvour ofthe rvriting ofl.radirion. Ibn Hanbl tclls us that lbn 'Ulalva himself possrsed books of l.rad;rion., Il,n sirin to continue !ith lbn Hanbal\ list of Basran luni,rarics Lhosc war was not |cl write ncver appears in direct suppot of wiring; but h. does occasionaly budgc a littlc from his cuomary inbansigence. He remarks that, sere h. to have a book, ir $.ould bc the letten of thc Proph.t;q1he dithers ai to shcrhe it is proper fo Anub to tann mit from rhe books bequ.arhed to him by Abn (Jlba (d. i01);,,and he seesno harm in a man writing dorvn a uadition provided he erses n wben he h6 memorised ir.q Ibn .^s.n nakcs no appearancc on |he side of wr;ting.,5 But ,\]Db, thanks to hjs rolc as rhr legatee ot. Abn qiiba\ books,,6is a signiticanr igrre in ;ts fa!.our. lve find him with a book iD rhe presencc of a dislinguished Nteccan trartitiorisr;lr hc approves the reading oi l.adition (r.. by e pupil ro the reacher);,8 he a.cpts the ofir oi Sulyn ibn.tjyavna (d. l98j to wrire somc kaditions lirr him;" he cites rhe Koran jn favour of b.riting;i,ii and hc sanc to.s the use of ha.ddata wri(eD rraisdssion.ill fot
a .o t .b O..( | ta b |,a ..\t.p .,t,2 t,,.., - l l .p . ! Iabalil, ytl/l, p. l.1l 2lr &n,,. no. .163. " 1",\ l fa ? . tt. p ,. /t- H d ,b l \Je ..a t o t tt ..- .a r a t. ,, H\dcdLJ.j. lqTi pp. +irt | +rr9., ^ ,..t '" roq"4,p 59.1;abo,laL \lr/1, p. t!\ 2i A tsaan radirion in an .aJiy rgvptirn sou..c incide.lal\. a$o.iateshin wnh trn(e'r r. \m&nD rtbn $ahb, ;,.n;.,ed.j Drld,$rcilt, caj.o. 1939,48, p 76.2, I, Tlaf n, p 386, no !72I .t alsot, r, pp. 463, nnd II. pp l99t 'ltl b.20n2ri %ra?.'r, Vll/tt, p 17 tli Abbor,.tdir. I. p. 223. lirc l0 , 7u6a,l1, \,|/|, p +2.\a. ', k d . . l 1 l r /|, P. ti I \ .p - i . | \h 'l .,. /d "r n .t..,, | .t n .t! , L o ,i h l ,, . ll' " l b\l. I e p tt.p . IL o b ,\n h {l l .M a l H a n n r di t,n r ,v.t ti l |7 9 t,i o n " l _ \l a ti h ,'ni In t)mrlhL (Fl,,n\. l,oqf\.,. rhi trrrr prn i: rranrxf,i. \.^ b ! Awn; rhrL I r n r^vvLil)rr n {n i r kr . r n .t rL\ r tt,r tr trr |l r tr tr r r ]n . r h r r n r ;r r ,,. t, ;l l ; ^ l ,n

|j 17 What has been said abovc would suggest thati at the time when the Prophetic tradition came into circulation, Barra stood out in its opposition to writing.r'\\'hen would this have ben? I. the legal eld, it was Schacht's conclusion that "1he fist considerable body of legal traditions from the Prophet originatrd towards the middlc of the van s ha similar\ placed the most fruitlul phase secondcentury";Bd of the dcvclopmcnt of ophetic l radition in the field of dosma in the latc UmaDad and early 'Abbcid period.B'! gainsr this background, a dating of our traditioD ro the second century w.ruld no1 seem unduly s.eptical. Nlore specically,for those who follow Schachfs method of using "common links" to date traditions, it is not dificult to spot e "comnon link" in the presentinstance:Hammam ibn Yahya, the Barran traditionist so dicd in 164.s Schacht's method would then date th tradition to the time of Hammm, or ar least not nrlizr rhan his foruit. But all ihis is prey speculadve,aDd it may be safcr to rclv simply on rith which Basransof thc latcr second.entury transthe asriduousness mj11edthe iradition- Putiing lhis togethr with tbn Hanbal\ reminiscence ot the die-hard Ibn 'Ula11a, we can infcr that the second half of $e second century was a poiod in which Ba;ra stood out in its hostilit.v io $'riting. S 18 Was this isoladon the product of innovation or of archaisn
and i r,,r1t .dl J,rd-}, Cdbddge, 1981,chapterI lr and 5e. fu{hef id. schatol.lry the datingof fadnions", Lnakn Pnp6t,t. t992. 1 For the ti,.4 of the C:onpanionadnion, se. abore, \ 15. note 73 \\ Tdaid, +ta, 1t.. P , " IhA., pp 43.1, .14i Grri', p 66 I land .t p 66.4, liom Sufrn ibn 'Uyayna d. l98lii rar4trr, vl. p. 179.25 lhr.omlare p. 180 I. shcre thr ins hasbeend.arI,l 3r Tig'id, p. 432 t!\r .i lahbi, i' naitz 'adtr, ed. M S. Cd{l al-tllqq ind N{.2. al-N.*r,Cairu,..d,IV, p. 319.22,{her..ganr th. nnrg n drawrli aditions io the same eltcr vhich end up in Basra ar. ?;9,,d p.,r3b-.i Gt,.,'. p. 65.21idrd9,r,, \1, p. 179..1. lhe Basran iendcncy orakm is norc.lby S.hFler Fee.ln exrnple, Vundfth, ro ' s Schacht, on!m, p .r. B \an Ef, J. <mrha Hadil t a /,l,rz. B.nh and Yok, i1l7i,I l8l Seeabove, 14. nore 6rl, and S.h.fh. Nlinlh.h. lhon'. t)p 2:Jl. lllll kr{l; Ii.. I I ihn.': p 2151 lror rh. lrnnrm |n,k ndhtrl, 1 nhivr, \ 6. f,n' rl

the crtuls in th. Bsra. amour 'lhe n^t n li 20 T{o othe. surcs ilurat Hsd al-Bari id. I lol, in sotu va,vs the najor Basran su.csor His prcfile i\ a conplcx one $e rul nore and sct asi.l one sroup of Mdni.ns in shi.h he is adduced as n autlonn In favour of\Lririnsi scc whar th n that they are noi BastuiLi': Hasan is h.fe beins used as a trcjan ho^. Then there are drogarory rcltrn.G ro his invollend in the iex.lusiry] fitte. trms mis\ion of liadition. molt Bairan.' Thefe n an atltnpr to enlnt llasn nr a !1 lh.rt $l tion: he hrd all but one .f his book buml ar lis dcath .ompronir nor n...snl! as authonhine Praciice, hov he aE traditions whi.h.lcscribe, wtute or ler othcn write.Lr5 And tluc n radnion wNch mav sdl h Bavan nr I! las no lurn nr rh sndns ol liadiiion' Nhrh n is atd at Hlan I he socond Iistre is us ibn Mlik, a najor Bdran Cldnlpanion, and h... \ 2l [im, $c have asain r Tbian hoN ttuditio.. in this ..rc I il. "ia.nt -,.L u\e{l k, bnnq our $hfn lis udien.e\ Synan sory of th. w.inen texts which lnr th' tuL 01' ^nas tere im lrAe for oral rca.linS 0' Second and re) (hr 'tcdsti' Anas, rere ar t$o gronps oft adidons Darkcd out bt rheif ransnnsior Lh'ush the p;\re channek of rh. fanilt i'dZ One group i cdn..oed \ith iirc spe.i6. Bak. aor Anasiis rht otlrr Econls rhc .asc ol a 6\cal ordimn.e $;tton by ^bn uEllv add.cs.d ro hn s..3, to lrite Trudition. "' injundion oa 8, senerul

Tl,r is ats a scafter of fu(her rradniom variousiv nrvolving Ajra in tt $ning of TEdnion hd taninrbd with ordina,l-Bas;anerls. I 5 22 Bayan bivalen.. .a! alsolp itturted from dr r.l of Barans in de tansmiion of Proll,eri. tmdirnDs t rr,,, ot Fddrs. On . .ne handj rhe s a harked ab$n.e ofproriinent Bas.rnrradiridks jn lhir nareial. Suchaurtx,. i i e . p tJ. n p d n " r fd :m "D n o t ,h r p l p t,.,, i Iu n ..- _ .,, _ ,f j o ,, .h .'U - |d .1 i ,."1 l r n d JJ'" Ih ,. ,r o l . m - r C .n d l ) ,r ,cq ,,l ,n ', " hn um - 1 ...j J ,r l8 ' r h . a d n o , ,, i .n g ,u 1 1 !n At- r \t,d t ,h , .!- , tr o p n 1 p' r n i ..i ,n b sn F T Jd i to i r h .m ,o ....,r ,a ,. b r i n g Y.h \, i o n \a i d t"t- e r ',r n l d . Id On r h - i t.", ,J,/ v. t,.n d i . p ,'1 ." \. o ,r . o r d \.,., r .r i H .d .. | '1 " l ^ " domnunce of insisriicanr Basfans,L'men su.L as Util ibn Mura (d tio), of shon we are rold thar lhc Ba$ns bade no uy. o, him b{:.anse was a ht r i o r 'r , Ea l n n ,- n d . r o , Jn d :.l "e i .,,. i .r , r ., , .,JsU o . 5 r o r l 1 1d - L i l r ,l d J\.,.:Ii ',,'a r tr ,.., t,.r h " - ( - o ,,o n ;r 4 ^ , \.;r r . d r 'r ' 1 r i r r J,' i b r d 1 , r h r r .o n D a ,o n tT," .b r , H u r n . Ah n .A- i .d r0. r ,i b ' L n l d r o d . d D i ;m d d . .. o ,,t\.,,u 'fi .'e JL ,l ,b ,,
I Anas rclls his so. to rvrire a cerin radinon on fanh Ta4rl, p 94a-b! Muslin. sait/r, rm. l0L=r 6:.1, no 33). Abrn ibn bi.Aryi id f3q wriks in his prs irc..lTa!d. p \Agat Tabaqn\ \17/rl, p. 19.12; and rt &d,. no ']98, an,l 1t1i XL .tn I, Tttt,/ rp L,\4.n ,n, I \d, rd. t t a-D d J . H d, ' mi or. oL, H . ! l l . pl . j l l l . n,' rh8. /a{ r{ d pp. LaJ had. o" I I,o^.. p,p ) I - | t|, 1 . 1 r' i run,r' on I' rs m' ro bl A ni . h". ,., oo ,.,. B d,nn l l r .nni nttu,aa d 10\..d' . I o-h.,n".' mr.",\,.t",.,t .r ,* ..,.,r,..,,. ., .." ,r 14\. hi ol l u\. ,,' t ra4,/ ,o,.d dr\r t, s h Ln"n. J ., \h, \1t,.. ' ' he. \ Jl \Li ri ,, , /,r.l l . p .,? 8..' d ,t/. p F,, r ' an.J ,,t mrun.hoi r. fi hc to\, \! q4l r.Ltd. pp t4d-8t L rn1 V . t. rs o r.,4\o i t.\ .., t,ron. ., H ,rm,m l a,, "U i Ytrhliil, r'ho a.$ils a !e^i.rn tion rlrc veccan ltutanM il,n at-sabbah rd. i+gr I I .l a H "r' \ s .Ltu th,. QLdl nJ . /J ,-,4,1,.t,r a. k a. c a" "d " d rr" ,1. ..,4.\ r, i -p4,d , " "_pt,.t , -: ,-i ' , "|-H dr i q ' ,. ",r"' ",, ,_ I taqi J. tJ ' , p-: A hn \-.. d.\db,l ,l \,. nde,,d,h.,1-. "r, qrnerrtim rir. nhon the wnrins ot Trdition \ras no !n issue irrtd.. n 7+a. r|qr.J I B A .In ,, c ,.., i i ,H .nbd .\tMl .' "\.[l ;, b, n tao 4a: p - ,: \Li trds uL \r44n. In i ru,, r,, t\ fl r1,lbi See S( hclerj "\,liindlichc Thon, , p. ?.r0, tr..]nnD UI t: t\o ibt,l., pp. 2i:,t: . ' su.h figr.c\ apperr grnar\ as ihe luih rrnsmnts in thc ;mds L;nd ct th. ,,'n. l '!- H i |"Ln \l ' ,,r, dtr, \' r,, ,,i r?.. t,". p q,^,O th. ,r ,,'- H J.'\ Lrn ;,trJ J ,. v t.o .tp.-. d ,1, ,1,i ,,"n.n1,1 i , ".-d. .,J .- , /qrr4 pp. ij5ad,67L,rmav also be Baran re. b.lor. \ 30. nor. l{,1r. rn rhc \,,yD rarni(rd br layans ptay no pa nr ihe uan$nsion ot rhe rophdn. i trn.r'.n !) \hacklr, ^na, lradirt.n ' ll\ Hat, aht'6 ul Tatfir. Hrderiba.l. I 3ts t. III, p I 70.r. He apprA jn //?rA f.6ti b.. Ii nni di . .thtr, .i l m 12 L= V It. pp. 3l l l .o.2tj tj u ' l bi Zu"r 7a' n, p. 555. tro t5l ! l qti i , t' l l t;' l l al - l l . p 1,11.N , 51i 75 'It|)nrt, \' |/1. .l l !t. ]l 4.2 t) ItL2:l i i rtrt rl . .l ,r, , t)t)

I \rIh il,t thma, a Bran ho rina,, no. .tgili he .an ihc be idemili.d d id'nriticatiod ^bn dic.l ir 98, $he.ras rhe Mrd of thc TaOl do$ not pcmn 2,:_ 'rhe Korrnic sancti.n invot<.d n ftom an .x.hang beNen Nloss and Pharaoh regard' ol ins tl!. "foDer, in {hn:il o*s obse^?sthrt kno\Lleds. thcn n hirh my h.d in a book" ((lXX,521. Cl aho S 23, nate 127 ) 'lkt,lI, p. t12,.1901, and IlI, P 195,no 'r8'10r F6asi ,tlatA,II, p 8?6.4' On A}'nh s aiiirudesr.3rso rn Es, 7'1q.t, ll, PP. 3l9l: 7d4[L ls no shacllc oJ lradition i'tln lik. $.njlg' '" e aren ttt'lh.r. tnat rhc poinr ol harins booksis b fadilia !. lolb. si a sar'l. Hc nrdicates iseonself$i!h liadiiion ill., pp loot, lolai d,tni'.Pp.71?3,7s.21all ate ftom thc u Tabatt. vn/I. pp 1154, Il6.4i liatib, r]d t7l i3 A similar tadiiion in $hi.h Hrsar blifiry admiis tlur be @trmns aom f, lirerary fLn \ohl aqtutanhit m"y not bc B2irur l,rl4, p 171.9rFsasi, lr,4, II, p {5Ilr' \' labaq\, \lr/1, p. r21.10. and na Baan hdition co.rra\Lrhin b rh uith Ibn Sifirr ri,r",,, no 17'1li 'ii ol aE4 ^ p. l02a Lstnanl The accounr his lendinghis b.oks tor coP\ins hsI Knfan VII/I, P 126!0 vll/ll, p 1726: /l'?. l, t,"smiirer i" tt. l.'\|{ nnnd .fabd|nL, I , P 3 1 9 ,n o . i 5 3 1 . p. 15 5, o ti6, and lI , p. 597, no. 3831;but c f n ii" dd,". p. 74.13,L.ansnritted c Egtltian 'r t l , Wahb d i97l a.omthe Baan Ihn hy Sdi $ ibn lan-\, id 1671. { l.;ft unanr, the do.un.nt n Gnsnntd L)_Hanrmd libr SalamalL{l 167l of f,m Tummaibn 'AM AIh, a gandsod ,\nas \rho {6 4rdi .l Bara ca v i' 'hf .ent'ry \Tdqrd, p. a7D. In anoth.r va;am, rhe lamilv itrrrl .oniinu.s liom second Alll ibn al-Nutrnn. (o the laifti: Km \luha'nm"d Tumtuna.nfoughhis ncpb.s ^M i! natrtrall\ riif(l tl\f' ibn Abd Allh al-,\rsri d. 2lil irr'd. P rrTal The.dimnrt .d L Krhl. rik.r 3ll l) nhr l1 it'..mnt ls.e, for examPlc,Bubd..\'drt,, 91. Lf,lden, lsrjr-1908. I. pp. :166 shere ir is ritcd sir rim.\l a Toqtd,pp. 96^91., and P 97d iar rhe .nd of ih. Irqr'rPh. 7a,rtli/. \'ll/1, p. l.14iZnn,i, p 73.6i &dn. no. 497 ln rll fNs (l'e linri\ i'nal n!,L.t ni i\lrl ih i rl.N ulr nnr inr i) n lnr / / r , l l) . { , ;l r r r g r ! : r t ' r r i l i i \ ! 'r 1 1 t 'l 'r n r n r l ^ lhlr


(' \" D " H ' i ' l ' n H ' ' ' l a raq , . r " , ' t . l ,' .,.-rl ' l - ' ' r' d' J H r-' rJd n /dtJ \' l m J l ' l l rn n ' i a L " r . r i" ** r ' \1" ' Qi aa 9:.r' l d-" . 1, ' r" .-' t-' \" B " ' " ' J r' r' r' i ' i o r.r, I..l -. ' d' a,a\l ' : " " , . . . r . . - , , ii . r iii4 ar i ' +r "' r "":' \ LLH ui tri ,, ,o n N"\,. '" Pnm 'u' ^T n. UA snkn doun ftom i'it l'* u Bot'" irt'rrq lhe tradnnnt .ri *rJ 1r' rl o i " \' ' r d'F' I '_ ^. , ' . ir " . r" " r'iJ' L . \' i a " - i u'r' b ' o' q' r' ' B 6' " " r' ^M ' /p c J FU i ' i' " . i, ' , " i' .r,n . s " u - v $ i ra i b nq ua Ld rr3ri n" von' 01 * rnnrg i ' i. ' . . , i. ' , n pFbdrlt gran ' I l | _ L' r o' ll " ' ' " ' n' hLr' i " ' " c Il ' ' l ri o" d m" ' o ' ' l J l rh . " , , ', r ",.; ' rr" ' rn- ," " ;' ;." r" -o i; rrd J p i ' ' ^'h '"
ibr'tjbar,l kl. l3glLr! ComPmmise posiri'ns ol oK s'ri or anoLhef aft as'd-

4:l.t | 2ii tn whal lollous I shall adduce cvidence rhat oppos;lio. ro wntnrg ms on.e both gcnoal and preialcnt: g.neal in th. s.nse lhal ir is attced fior all major ccnles of ]luslim learn;g. and prelalenr in rhe senscthat it was thc nom fun shich those who ishcd ro sanction rhc writing ofT.adition we.e departiDg.(ln the lirst of po;,ts a( lcast I am in brord agrccment uith Schoelor I sball indicate specitic dillireDc.s as I go Jong. I begj,r by scttine out c c\idcnc. tor rhe existcn.. o opposirion ro sr;t;rs outsid. Bar. $ 27 I, Knfa rh. .xisrencc ol su.h .,pposnion is weLl a rsrd. lbr cxamplt, (he Knln Companjon lbn ,as'irdis regularly;nloked aganNr writing ir traditions wirh KnlaD dzads,r1larl mu.h slpporlirg marc rial will be circd in othcr connections;r rhe lollowiDg argunenr. I shall accor.lingl) proceed immcd;tcl) ro the que(ioD of th. dar ar which this hoslilirv disappcared in Knl. A number of iDdi.ariL,n\, ovef and abo!. thc lact lhar th. Kalan marcdal i\ corrsidcrably tess abundant rlun th. Basran,Nggcst rhar opposirion10 *;dns lidcd ou1 sigi;ticantl)carli.r ;r Kuta an h Basrtl. ! 2B first. thc Knl. conhibudon ro rhe rransrission of Prophetic faditi.trrs on thc sLrbjectwherlier r or against,is exiguous.,{s alr.a.t,nored. rhr rnajor Pfophcdc lradirion agajnst wriring is fnsmitrcd in a ' | ' | \i 1' l r| | 1' h) s|'[ 'ln. l|. hr $llUi|| Basran.r3itorc int.rei',g. but ill uscul., is a Knta,r panllcl ro 'n rhc buikl-up.rfAbu Sa'id by dre Basans hcrc revolring around the li!1tr. of rhc Companion Za\d ilD Tbir
\ 29 lhe dcrJil! irr a\ Lllous. ilt lheF is: pu,lly P.ophei. n.a.liion,uans mntd Lv ZaId rbn I.L,n, in shi.h (lrc t'roph6 f.rbjds ar),o.c !, vrjte dosn his liadnior i,ai, on) tnt ttut4h|) ,i lhe r l is lljdnres. i2) Tncrc is r trxx.d 1,.min Lrhi.h tlopheic traditioni\ ...{sutared ir a Companjo. tra'lx, rhc di.n: h.rc Zrvd adduces Itopheic oadirior A reirsnrsro aUo$ d,c Catt,h \'r'aliyr ro ba\r $Lx( hr rrnnn\ l (rn down r- A Kntan rrnsnrnrr anlertr inl.tring rln sanr. [ledines. Iiishfr rrl. t3] Ihc.c n I p,rel_v Conpannn, kr dn,r. maki.g no rtarnrxl r. dr. Prophetn.prohibnn, stn.h th,iur! (raliphr IIaNan irrled 6,1-5 xpp.6 in rjtar. of \4u,a1ra. ard Zayd pror\A Lhd rhrr h. \iv\ is onl_v his.LD op;rin. or rhe til.. _Ihr nna Krrfsn. afi

Ira' l i ri on i rr 2; \ \ d rl ,P B rr" n h n s r' l ir r s r' rL l ' rh' $ri rrre" l Ir i ol ' ndr' F r h. , it , r ' e, . n d .rn ' u q a r, a r' l ' " i ' m above refeF 1<)an earlier ,.'" tl'.r ,"'.r, of rhc marcar actclLrccd dr' l ' ' i ' m Delr ud an. l ' h u . a \r. l a rt l a i ' tp v o tt ru rh' I' rpurl r' ' f ^ h' rr :,' .l i .J ' 1 .rr i ' h a ' d rn r l l s l r rr rnrhnn' rt' n" l i ' a i. u' " . , 1, , , d1 what $ rcrrole'tcd dc sunilal io, thc earlier second century' and to support the hwoth'sis ol archaNn' we mu lfwe uislr propagancla. a.cordingly lcav( Balra and tunl to a $rclc s'ene

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t/z,adrl pp rl73ll no lr;

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' l r,; p l 5 r-. ri 1 1 2 . H r nnni nr ' ' \' rl \i o"lnJ ' . li)r lrh ' r, (nul.l irLl! l)r 'lnt)htd , . s . r r l, N . \\ Ttrr 'nrl ir : , ' , ' it , ' i, i' ., i ri


' d;nnl ' \

,{rtl. ti .J!r. *1 rhort, \ l.l. n'i. ;l /r,7. p l!, rt(. Inirr. l).fl rti .,,i ! i l ' , r,a/$t' 'thl .r r, rr I' nt)r' r.l l i l ,t ,r,.,) || ,,r),It. l r/'r,y' \' l , 1r:,t. \t! t)rrr,L. \n,2 rl ,, I t\. t) l ,t.,(l l \L." | \l )' \1,' rl N l ' ,.' i i ' ,rl \l r ,\tt.' tj .Ltl rLl ,{ r' ,t :)L|l ' 1tr '

rr3 in rhe in dneversion srne Knfrn tansnnb aPPea^ i1i Close 'onknr 10dns vnh a $lidlv Bdra! ;"ad nglnllg both Ibn Stin and Ib' lesion ir a vananr links br is lhe snuarion nora n.\ one, lhe arccnoD8b be ccnthePrphetic to t and ihe CdmDannrn ditions suppo Schoold\$lggtsionthar dre lormel oi Knfansin dt tansmi:sionof, ' .;tl fi' r'.. i,* 'lt 't " indiLrtes ma) hare trkcn placenl rhat th erolurion -"" iil'c..p,..r""*" tradition Knla Thc argumcfi N nt. howe!?ri sons on' role in the lransmission of | 30 On the sidc of writing, thc Kln is, if an\thing, sLighler' Knfans plav a small the Pfophetic traditions patt in the ranilied 6zads of the tradirions regarding i\bd ?!lah ibn ;lmr's penission lo wril, and rhe tradition rgarding the document in rhich he rccor.led $hat ht heard om rhc ProPher is rcceived in llnt ar ' bur n o rh i n e p u rn ,. ro n K u l ^ n ,, ri qi n l ur l r" di rro' h \n lo l l b' r C rhdar d KD l r' n H " j h oL' ur , ^r 'bn " nd :J ' rF p J r" d upp"o* in * imads ol lhf ProPhetic injuction to "us' vour righr haDd- "'but these t'zrls shoi! no othcr Knln connections,and Uagib is also desoibcd as a Ba9an.''" that, by the dme c Prophetjc (aditions $tre | 3l This suggests being put into circulation, thc Klfans had largelv lo intere in the issu ol th wting of Tradnion.'"' tradition pftsen'ed bv Savbni | 32 Secondly, rherc is a valuable (d. 189) $hich recoi:ts the attitude of the proto-Hanali line ol thc Knfan law-schoolto the $ritjns of Tadition.rtri Accoding to this ftporl' booLs, but later changcd rbrhin nl-Naba'r (d 96) $as originallv ag'ainst iransmilters ae thc andard authoritics wrote.'fht his mind and
rN tataqr,Il/tl. p 117.8iwhetu he apptiarsr, and d,lnl. P 65.! l"l'cre h' d"cs ' \,rd a..o iaob | lF r dl' . h, uL ! 1 : " Schnelcr, "Miindliche lhotu', P 246 ''i ' F,{ h i n"m Ljonlowr , . r , la0' . t . - D 1 r ' t a l ^ t q|] J \ 'h " 1 " . ' . o r) rp B. FL.B' - ", 'u "* 's;.

456 of the school: Hammd ibn Abi Sulaymn (d. 120) and Abn Hanifa (d. l50l; and Sybdi underlines this by obsening that i! .epresents the view of Abn Harifa and the ac.epted docrrine. Irna Jcie, }ris would ind;cate that thc issue was conhoversial in rhe time of Ibrhim. But traditi.rns regarding repenran.cs and changesoi mind are a somc, what suspectgroup; and more generally, rhis standard Hanati chain oi' author;tieshas bcen analysedby Schachr.who condudes thar it is likely to convey the authenlic views, nor of lbhim, bu1 of Hammd.it7 If so, this would suggestthat the issue was controveniat i the time of Hammd; at th same timc the spanenessof furrher maredals on the subject om the same iinc indicales rhar the isue soon ceasedro be a live oDe or e school. lhis result goeswcll w;1h drc dearth ofKnfan Prophetic traditions. n chaprcr ! 33 Th raditronhercdis.used rhe onl),ore in rhe relevafi tr,r r'at1 at\tt4 t Saybnrs tr rn r ftcensionot valik.s .u!ua,d,, Sani rft p. a.haprd on rhe subject tfuti,,l-.rt l rti.t is nor in rh.,rulg.dre r it.o.snls of a of the Medines.rdiiion regading dr arenpr ot .Unr ibn TradirionMiren doMr. 'Abd alfAziz b baverhe Prophenc saybini ndors n. obseNing tLat we' go b) lhlsmd s.e no ham in d. wnd.g ot TrdidJn ^sain i,irtrar aA47),and lht 1hisr.p.esenr rhc vie$ .f^bn Hanif.{ Htunmdneverappeanon rhe oral ride of rh. len*. He is ngxlart por traydas wdting in rhe presence ofhis tcacherlbrhrn. K-fan radnions do s withour quti6.ation, rherebyinpli.itly invokingfor lne lh. aurho;ty 01
bot.r1,8ur iheE is a Bayan vaianr tNmnted b.rbn.l\$! in which rhe ouicone ar Hmd n .ondemn.d t ), Ihrhim.L Fudhcr Brsrn n.terial on lbhim wil be addlced slortly.


l r n 'r t \l nJi lr

?" btd l l ' '

| 31 An earlier fading out of $e issu. in Knla is likcwise ;rdicared b,v an examination of what Schacht termed "fioss rerences" between Rasran !d Knfan Tradition. On e Knln side, such cross-references ae rar. in this fleld. The Kufans do not in genral preseNe badjtions aginst $riting from Basran aulhories, alihough Abn uadirjon that "\\e used to writc nothing bur the Koran and the Contessjon,,is
I S,hrl r, Onrtri. 23r1. pp. l ,,/, \ '\b J r {. n o .\u J,,d a r " \rhd "t.L /.i . '.d r o . t'!. o ' rdducedby Coldzih Ln/ra,hn.,lturh,Stu/n,17, p.2r) Nore alsoTahisi, ja,. IV. p 3l9ls, namingAbn Ynsuf1d 182)tonswithAbn Hanif. d Saybnias in f.vour * hq;id, p. lloat lbaq1, p.23!4i pp. \'t, I. 21jf. n . 2{lj rr, pp.2OOf, ro !006i Zur'r, ?-an,p {rtiij, no. 2006, ard p. 67s, ro. 2O4j Sonc of these f idn ns xre dinrsuhcdby a relcFD.. r, amnd\ drcs. ^bn r u r .r , T.,n b ,p 6 7 3 ,n 2 l t1 t., " I n b q i t,\1 . r . L t0 l 7 i .l 9 n a ,. n !,.,1 i ,1 i ,ut trsrsi. tta."/d, It, t, 285 t5 s( rt\o vrn tj\\, n ^ h /trtos,;,,, pp t85. wnh a hyl,;d I. r i r n r , t r q h i 'h l r ( i r n |l A Kn l i ,r 'x'r l l h r '.,' vc'a n tr h

l lb n Haar .Znr t , l, llt a, , Hv ds r r M d . 1 3 2 0 _ 3 1I., p 3 9 8 3 i f o r h n d 'a t h m ! tn"tn ltrdeftb'l 1360_73,l/It, P 196 17 il'tr dare), and lbn h; Htin, ,ld hn Knn prcvcnanc.r n haid, ep $a-.6711 r tl t'\d lq- rr' -d \ll l o n H 'l 'L ' lr - ' v , . ait r lr -..a 'i. "o 'n n . I, Aleppo, 1395-6, P :87 3 This fi6: in dt x" 'r 'ur kdnion hr t:n\n' ,' :lhn i i. ,.,.r4$ r" .uharvan Es has sl,o$ in tho .as' of llt Pedcnra'ntrF ist .ontrov.ny: rheren is Knla ratlEr rhan Bava wli'h n Prducrivoof P|!Ph"' oa ,liuonsLiut,/n uaiil und lln'lEu ff l92l) r 'l riil ll l i '3 l 'r 'i n s,j.;",. , 1r , . _a VLhm ; "1 l' . h 8, , ' l' 'i > srvrril Hrnii runs: Ibrhnn > Ilamm(l > ^tn


ngue),6' and n n somerimrs rransmnkd Kntrs:is bu. nbrc oft . it is Dann 6! b ion lhe othcr hrnd, Abn llnsi! dcnun.iationof rh. h.aetnes wnlins r bool, for \ l 'c L h r .r n n i i - KTi n . r n .i B:r n ' .r h ,lh, 1, n th ? L u d ,t r h '. m .'r n d t ,. "\'h . "m ". t1 , n.esibe .lain of lbr.hin nev.f b hak viiien virh lhc t,s.o uot anorher r.srd Kntan, vansnf ibn al-Nlubmir, rhar l[ had no. donc sr,,h. tikewisc rnnsmns his Lgirimlion o rhe 6c of la?ddtd Jbr qrnkJ, rrnsnissioD. 'r also mat s xn ppeamn.cnr d,. r,,t of thc Klan radnion rtr Sa,bi ld. lo.1t .omnrended w;tins as rhe]t ol lradnioD,,.1 this suggesls that thc dmise of opposition ! 36 ^11 place subantiauy carlier in Knfa than in Ba$a. this hollever, be pushed very far back inlo rhe lirst haif of tury. This follows liom rhe dafts ofthe latcsr ligures io Jf|carra,r. Hamr.l to s,ring rook

the samc time they show onlv a mild something of an elception.'5r jn \'our of writing, as in the casesof Hasan ^r intcrcst in ciring Basrans al-tsairiii) and Nu'liya ibn qurraL On the Bairan sid, howe\er, such cros-relrcnccs are abundant. so that f find lrcquent in\ocations of old Knfan authoties lgainst rvriting. \{uch of the matcrial shich usesftrhim againstrvriting is Basran or Balran-contaminar.d,i5t as is most of tbal invoking 'Abida ibn 'Amr al-SaLmanrld. 721 on thc samc side.L5r Goiig back ro the Companions, thc Basrans have a hand ;n rh. only badirion rvhich mobiles 'li against writiDg. '" They are surprisingly u*uesred in lbn Maird,r5r but transmit much of the naterial rclating to another Companio uho is unifomly hosrile to *riting, , Mnsa al-Ai'ari. rd An indication of rhe Pcriod in shich th Bisrans were seeknrgro cmbanass their KDln colleaguesin this (cl. l:l), Su'ba lashion can perhaps be f.und in the roles oflbn'Awn (d. 160) aDd Abn'A$na ld. 176l in the relevant mals.r1 g 35 TLc lbnowing ol Evs soneindi.ation rhe.hara.tJ of thisnatenal I he
or Bas.ans us ihat Ibriln lever wfote-r!!thar ltc disapPfoved thc wnGrs ol ll 'rradnion nr quiresil"rrtJ), iL thx( n. reproled Hammdlor,lutio B him lrom noresidrr. u Both K-arN and Basrans t.rnsnn 'Abtda\ vish thr no b&k fron himibut the trdition in whi.h Abida ft austsro lloh Ib. b. prpetuarcd to w e n fairly Bran.r' lhe BaraDs lilcwise invote rhe Knfan Nlft .rasirs l ion s Nniinss mry onsinal\ Suralh id 78t.''" Th. o4 ol b.ins Knln and nor : Brsxn ^bn havc been Kntn i1hn v'1, Abr Burda (d 1011.

de'nise cannot,

a q i r ,r sn |l n g i n K',fd n Tr a d i r i "n . (d. l8sl, ask.d whther Nlans[r ibn il-Mlr.ram; disappro!.ed of rhe sr;dng of lradirio , replics rhar hc did, as did {ugira ibn

rhc second cetlmake signifi{a'rt d J,i r i h n ch d a t-

rir See above, 15, not $


-vliqsan ld. 134) and A'ma! (d. 1.18).i,.t,a).! ibn Abi Sul)m (d. l43l is sajd 1(] have disliked frhe writing of Tradition inl qujres (tz'an:'1.,6 ,q. tad;lion of unspeciedprovenance given by Ibn Sa,d rtlates thar litr ibn Ualifa (d. 153) allowed no one ro witc in his classes.i'yahy ibD Sa'id il-qattn as(ribes to Sufyn al-Tawri a henistich direcred agan$t thos. uho commit lcaming to writing, bur goes on to obsen ihal ji fact Suivn used ro write-r3 ftrallv Z,ida ibn qrdna {d. 16l) is consulted by a udent ho had heard somc 10,000 rraditions from Sufyn al-'!asn and wrinen thcm down; Z,ida adm.'nishesthe udenr to lrarsmit only \{har he had hea'd aod mcmor;sed, nd rhc stude'r

a;ni, pp 74.!3.752. " ?/4Dl pp. 1O|].-lOlt: ''3 Taqid. p. 109.:,Gtui'.p. 14.3
belo{, \ 35, rolc\ 160-2 " Rcfcfencer 5r Refer.n..s lrcldr, 3i, nots l6'la ! <^ S , h - .r . V'r n .,1 r th !'4 tp ,,,t.l 4 o J., , n r ,.,"d i l u .r tl "TJtd h 4 . L p . /tr n ,2 r r , R ",,,h u .a ,/,. Ita ./Jl , I r Ja . a - : o \,I no. 376 i{here Abn Burda IB dmDEd our from rhe Mrl. f. 38.1, '', To.!Fa.pp. 1gr-+Ortd.i: p.66.7i into4ot, tttt, p a3 Li:,tkL,|,p. \16, r o l 7 {7 : a n d r a $ zd , n o ..}i 9 . r' ?a?riir, l6b: s,rd. no 136. p ' Cll abo!.. \ 31, nore 159. nl ' l a4rid p. 6tJb:1nbaqa p rA}.t. rr see abo\.. 1. nore 17 i '\ tbd., p. +At::Cni'- p. a1.21.arir sre\r Llp i Kfa, bur s.d.d in Rr, rrbn ttt*^t,1an6h, 1, p 7511.F.,r tatrsnisncsr '. adude, sc also.t!1, tU, p. 462, r ) 5 9 9 +.f , n d .i Fa u r i , tta tl a , II, p 6 7 q 5 L t{.o n r r a r r ,/.. p p BI7 .l 3 ,9 2 8 .9 r'7a4r.l p +7d rsc.ondr,{lnnn,, (i,nrra Uios, I j6, nore 276. " ! aqat.\:1, t, 21i.\) " t t t t i , l , r , 5 1 \t.\l ,n y, r t l . t) h ,r t,.tr l kR r h , \r n .[n ,,i n h {p .a N a n o n r t r r n t r \ , x R l l t r tr r 'Ir n f1 1 ',,l l th tl l tl ,l 1 .a ti 'l .r r Jl tt.q tj ( .i r i s.\i a n ttr j r tr r \.r n a i

Lsi 7a?t4 p. ssb, dd t d.

df no. 4Ji, .epr$t.t sr.t Bavan adoPtn,ns i Kran blo*. \ 35, .ore 169 p Sm , , n; 11: I .lanaqt , \ 7, l9o1 1 : 'l k L , l l . p l l 6 , n o . 1 7 1 7 S u h r : -'Ibn '$n Ttbaqna p 6x 16 .nt, p. 63.14:5nm,, n.s ra;s. 168f. ,\su: ?a{}1, \1, p 4sbidnnt', p.67.12i.5!M,, n. +70,'./611,p 532, no t2a\, faqtl,p.5a\ Tahnqit VII/II, p. 4 3.1 8 4 laqd, p.60b: Toba!t. p. t89.6. \'t, tt Taqtid,p. 4a; Goni'. p. 6i .12: SunM,na '170i'.lldl,I. P. 5i2. no I2srJ. .c rr'" /lr"r,. \ L p lr 0 - f - ' r r , , ". ' r.lll I L. || ) |r "! t7 | 'r '" ' lo 4ro I r hd. t : ot u. p. b' ! . '; 1 1 . ) and cl. S.hoeld, "Mdndliche lhora , p. 2:2. ta Tnbaql,vl,p. tJ.lttl Sadi, ros. 1681: and ct no li5 6 7 a4 rd, + 5h- 46at Cint , p 672, 67' r i s id,, n . 1 7 l i . 1 r l l I , p . l l : 1 . n , 'l J r w. Sonc v.Nions Ic tansmnnd try rl! Kuin waki' '"" Tardqd.Vl, f.


460 writer. He was the irst to $'riie Tradition;rs'as a student he lvrore eveD4hinghe heard,re including Compmion trad;rionq 3ehe cven wrore on the back of his sddal;r'ql'when hc dicd he lefr enomous quanlirics ol Miften malerials behind him.,lr Other reporrs associatchim th writtcn ransmiss;on, somctimes of a reprchensible kjnd;I,: and books ol which he is supposedlyrhe au*ror arc availab)e in prinr today.r,3 S 40 Rut the most inleresring group o raditions is of an inrrmediat charcter. These raditions ta-kcii {r grntrd that Zuhri changed his attitlrde to the wnting ot Tradition, and make it their bus;nessto presenrhis excuscs. One excuseis the fiood of unloown raditions from lraq. '$a nother is the c.,ercion exerciscdby the authoriries,wi whon Zuhrls connctions were nororiousty closc: "We disappoved of thc wriiing of Tradition ('t1,rl uolil thesc em;rs torced us to do r".1,5 {In
,\izr, v, p. 345.11; .t ,L, p. 333..1; and ,!nd, no 459i lasawt rtt.n, I, pp. 62t t9, 622.4i Ibn Arlir, ,az,,rn, nos. 8l:1,85,7,89 (all trom ltft) rn a pa.allctsiv.n hv I6n bt Zayd, lrl,jJikzlso arcs rlnl lt himsela nerer {rdr. on th6e rable6,i.t,rl Ubn Abi Zayd. dr,u,', p. 152.12). ri 6int', p.,73.22; llahabi,.t!r,r, V. p 33t 16r lbn.As!jr, tzr", no lloi.tt1., n, 0q. p . ,b .1 0 J.o \,h Ftr '. - VL n U ,h r Ih o r ". p ,,/B " .;r r . t " C a i .n dp. r.J2 . D "h ,o '. q a , \'. a ,i l .l l l b j \.i r <!r ,r ,o . ,u . J., Jid/. V, p. 329.r,and id., adl&r., p. 109.6 D:lJlabr-, (andcl lhn S^,d,al Tabaqt tttbta: at nl qnn .lflhnnm ltdt{, d^l l Lladn ea run b|dai\n, /,_M. Nlansnr, \tcdina, "d.p 412, no.967i l9lr3, p. 166.2i'1l,III, p.,12, no. 4083:Ab. Zu, ?-d'rir, tasawi, rra'ntd.I, p. 63c.l0i rbD '^salir, {zira nos. 53, 59-61 ,i, 7a9,rl. p. l06bj 7ba9t.ll/tr,p. 135.19\ .A6d al,Raz?q cni,, p. 76.20,76.25r ibn Hamnin,,UrdadI ed. H. al Xl, pp. 258t no. ?0,487i -{'zrni, Benur, 1970-2. bn Zur'a, 7d'n7,p. .rr2, no. 966' Tabaqat: qnn al nut Mi4 p 168.2;Iaewi,.,n t/,, a! I o o 6 1 7 o 6l l 4 l b n .\"l .i '. 1 ,,; o r l ,.r \'.n ,', L'!' ?a0i4 p 107 [cn.In]). ) Tobaqdt. 11/II. p t36 \ Tabdqnt:dt qrn at ntu Mm. p. r 70 I I Ilababi, .tid V, p. | 334.1+:\,. T.d!;tu, 112.16rFdawi, Md'iiJ,I, pp 479.5,637.r0i Ibn.AsUr, id", no. 10i lall Yeneni)t l,,it, no. 106 ilrcn l.litq Mu.*iva ibn yah! al,Sdal.l n Drnas.ene tfdinntr fmn Znhri, is said ro have bonghr boks of Zuhrrs in rhe nrkd ilbn llaar, Taht1.b, p. 22a9t X, !rSe.. for eaanplc, Taho,?tit: aqnn aLnlknn;n, pp. 1723, 173.3-174.1. l74.ll iN the E llcdinesel; Ibn .l\kir, {u,{". nos 239-.f2. 'h.'' ste especiallr Zrhi, aL-rlnnlju lnoilib- e.l. H.S. .l-Dmin, tldrur, 1988, Muhdnnod MLlin al<tht qtahadiar{b marnb at @ttn, p.37.3 ibn ti ts.u l.haddolan hkttatano Mundnnod ih trtltba d.<uhn qnk hda ib kn.t at O/r,r. On the 6N of rls. opusrulcs. A Rippin, 'Al Znh|i, ,6, dlq,la, and rhe prcblemot klir .r: r'\( , Rutbti, rf tlk sLlbd aJ oti.atat an.t,4fuh sludi, 11, t9a1. d "t rdbdqt: qi\n al nutannin,p. 1663: 7"OrZ p r07L;fasa$,i,nttfa. I, p. 637.19 dd .f ll, p 7{i22)i Ibn .As}ir,,3}/a n.. tilbi and sees.ho.l.r, ,,Ntdndli.hel}on,. , ' ?,r,4 f. loil,i lahaqit,tt/tl. p. ).t5.25: thtut tlqbn aLnutunnM,p. t6g.2l i ', , , p t ) 7 ( ,l l '.7 7 .5 i i l R u ,i ],,r tr v",r //. XI. p 2 5 8 .n ..2 0 ,4 l j 6 i D a h .b i ,,Sr ya ,, ycn cn i ) i \ '. 3 1 4 l ? i l .r r i sr ,,tr ,nd . t. t) r ) 4 1 2 i l l '"^ s:i l i tr , i l r /l n ,,n ^ . i r . t0 8 1 r L t ^b r ',

accordingly throws a$ay h;s written record.'r'gElsesdere, it should be noted, Z'ida ; prcsented in a quite dillcrcnt light: in one tradjlion he aione is to be seen writing in the pres.ncc of Sufyan al-!awi, 30and in another he uges his students to wite.i8' Hostiliry to wrjli g can hardly, in the light of these teimoni.s, havc disappearedmuch betore the middic of thc second .ntLrry. \ 37 Th. major {igrre in Medinese Tradition is Zuhri (d. 1241, and the material rclating to him is loquently contradictory r'ith rcgard to the $rjti.g of Tradition.'3: $ 38 On the one hand we are told that Zuhri did not writc. ol no did so only in exceptional cascs.Ile possessed book excepr onc on the geDealog)ol his tribc, hc brlo gcd to a generation which did nol writc, or if any of them did write anythi g down, Ih,r did so only as He an id ro memonsation. and subsequentlyerased il.L31 did not $'rjte (d. 117i, or if he did write down a parricularly in $e cla\sesorA'mA long radition, he later erascd it.i8+When a disciple prelail.d on Zuhn to show him his bool$, they tumrd our to be oth;ng but a bundle of lttersi whn $e disciple explaincd that it wa! books c'f lradition (*zlz a1'tlm) he wanted to see, Zuhri responded that he had nevet wnen a tradition.'r5 Ile did not wnt. and lcft no book behind him. s $ 39 Yet on the othr hand Zuhri is portrayrd as an assiduous '" /rtl., p. 385,no. 380.
31A sood drl ofdr rl.vant naeiai n already.oll{ d.d inj Ho..!nz, "The ea li. biogaphics the Prcphet and aurbon", ldt anl,!r, 2, 1928,pp 't6 s0 ol Zuhf's rc1e6 tike$isediscu*cd by Schoeler"Miindliche'lhora. pp. 2271 219-3li 'rhe.dnrdi.ron.hracte. ol the repos has not. horvcvr.,rtir.nd mu.h atention 3r drar', p. 6,115, fron \lik ibd Aras Ld 17!l lor rhe 2lenenr lh"t Zuhn lrd Zatd a! no bool apart fton ore on rhe genealos,vof his tnb., s.c als Ibn (la yn wn i, (; a_, t , . d. \ 1. Ab ' lAl. r d' U. B a t t t l r ,B e i n a n d ^bt n i s , 1 9 8 5 , 'r u p. r,r3.3 i1&, lron Nlalikli ALrn Zot'a, Ta'b, p. 36.r. no. 791, ard p. 110, no. 95rJl Fasa\i, it t/a, I, p 611 l._)iIbn'Asa(jr, al -31nd trom his ft'nZ ndt d/ Dtria ad .ditd by S.\. qasni, Beirur, 98 il osc d' k'oaledse ol .hn ednion to Nti.hael l,eck{)r Dahabi, "9ra', V, p. 333.15i id, 7,l,nla. I llllr irll Dg}?rian-S1_.idl. mdnionr on Medi.s. ru DriLics.ncd hefe and belor rl\ lJ3 The othesne aied 4,1,nores183-2ls a.. VedniN uls v 1ngd, p 59^; las \t, Ma'nta,I. p. 6113 lnd s?c Lrlor'. lj{r. D.r. 1{;1 3i \ 135'/rrl ltl, p.486, no 6081 (froi lLd al-Ilub.ral id lslr In \trirnrs, r|l ]iL in$ pnducrd bv Zuhri .onrab pociD |dd,n, p 77 91,o vnn. srrrrl')sl rnd ttrro! cr t ,r, .ttr'r/ d I p ha' _. lh- \ s r \ ' . - l, 1. '. Sft ,n Zur'a. I.'nh, pp 1t71, noi lrl80lli l)nlial,i. //./lra. t,. llL lr. dll nl.. '"


4l)2 hrM, y p.Kavcd [v'Utbi (d 255), Marrk !, [ 4:J !r1 H"lintd '.r'i'Ltrln. thal po(d. l7!J) ^{.oftln{ ,liul,l,L'vl r rlrr wrirnrgol n'34.t i'L,n hd nor donr so i'r rhe PAt, dd thd ro do so ^nrs pl. (norc, rllc /,rl d1./4r) wc ;",'ld h. ;d inn;va ,n *hii h h. wuld not wish to Pdpate. Bv 'ott6! pdsas tht he saw no ham in rhe ,rurnisi,r o nau-'n3 la.n f.m anodtr is more or lss the consensus of the ! 14 On thc othr hand, it sources that the Medinese authorities of the genernon beare Ztn w'rc enough the picture put about in traditions oralists. Tiris is naturally

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hostilc to writing. Thus 'Ubayd Allah ibn'bd Alah (d 105) 'eacts srrongly lo an attemPt of 'Umar ibn 'Abd al-'Aziz to record what he says in sritins;'q and qasim ibn Muhammad (d 107) is invoked, rhough not by the Mcdinese themselves, as an opponent of the writ;rg of Trartition.Fs But the same picture ernergcs also from traditions favour, or tale for grantcd, the writing of l mdition l'hus Zuhn-s 'rhich younger contcmpoary Yahy ibn Sa'id al-Ansri (d. 143), who himsell is portrayed a! egretting not having wirten down aI that he had head,io6 rememben tle time when people were afraid of books' and adds that if writing had been practised in those davs, he woutd have uritten down much from Sa'd ibn al-Musalvab (d 94)t? Another tradition mentions the same Ibn al'Musalvab alongside qsim ibn I{u}pmmad, 'Uva ibn al-Zubayr {d 94) and Zuhn as havins left no b@k behind them.!3 'Urwa likvise regrets that he had eraled e tra-

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'| toi, MLut\p, a4!d lhn Rud at Rqa" a Lahil "d l\t H'gg 't a! B'i'ut ,,84-qt X\41. D ri7. Lt"cwr-.," Mi'l oppNs rh. Miting d"M ofhi "Pinion *c 1 , . r , " o l l O . n ;! 5 0 { 8 1 .o n r 'c1 '!. r x h .n B" o l r p Fd "' b r vr cn L r ) r i b n Sa d , ' - 1 a n d M d l k l Fe l ) m ;n tr N b .o l s ' u l l 'r d .'b u a sh i 'h L i h 'd Yl r r o M ;l i r ro b .he..kd (Fasavi. MatIq I, rrp 687 l0' 69s 16). \3 'U], Msttlro't, dp llm lou, 14a,, xvnl, p 435 12 l would hve nisstd (rN DAsaqe but ior as cinon i^ M- Ja^, Di. Pnltut nbiostaqhi'in sl@riLn sbonia' M,in. 1989. p 255 and r 83r Jar.. hower, di$ed th' p6sag ciicd l '-*f"n-am tr' rhe pFius nare, and so does nor btns our Mlil\ {lntrutjns ttiruds 1the w! n .nd r@snLron o ai. , tuar"4 p. a5, Ol"din;* Lg'Dridn Paqumrbh rh. d b T'"dirion hul 'rhFn'P r\ kid., p. 45.1,and dnt, p. 67.14 t.!snnl Ta.qid. p. 46., and thc refeftn.s given r . l 'b . 5 1 2 8.n o L r 5 8 0 ( SFa n l U |JL l .p b 4 q |0 m M ;l i tl 7 1 4 ,t4 1 2 ,|s) n ] ; o i d . o ||- - tr m .e V,n /, l p b 4 9 l M 'd i n "s"_ r , , , p .,,At. l tu a q d | v. P tO4 l ? : l ^ d M rudin' t u o l a 'i tt D 1 l 7 . D o ,J8 Or .h r b ', s4 d ' v P l l l i .m d i o D n r"-,". gi..' n' Ibn Abi \d omh I r" crd ZLhn bs ri || ^q tu'n Md'l 't. i'^k* the s.".rl obF*dion rhat thc poPle of Medina hre no boL'ksl.lqe! kl1M I'rr) (lbn ibi Zay.l, trt', p 148 1, .nd .a Fdawi, M,Va, I P 478 l) to 'Umal Ldrrs, vt l*hw, Ii 83, n!c rl78 ''|

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ditions hc wr.rte,2o'and that h had bumt his law-books on thc daY of the Barth of lhe Harra (in the ye 63),r'0 r. so that thcy should not fall into the hands ol otheN in e event of his death- lhis last at least presupposesrhat 'UMa had books.zi' Yet posilive itrvocations of ulhorities ofthis generation in tavour o writing e hard to find Sa'id ibn a]-N{usa}yab in orre tradition gives a pupil petm;ssion Io Mi in considcration o{ his Lcble memory.'lL: 'Umar ibl 'Abd al-'A,iz in a Irell known lradition $'rit$ ro e Mcdinese Abn Bakr ibn Nubanmad ibn'Amr ibr }]zm 1d. 120) 1(] lvritc dowrr Rophetic dd other T'dition, sin.. hc ars the dccay of'r The b'dds indicatc lhis repoft Presumatrlywe should take il as a tradition in lavour to be N{ of rvriting, tlrough {c are not usuaily told ho$ Abn Bakr reacted ro .15 The N{edincse CompanioDs, i a lltnn the Prophet him $ sell, arc of (ourse no monopoly ol thc Medjnese traditionists, ancl arc usuallv mobilised by olhers. Thrce traditions ;nvoking them are neverthelesswolth atlention here.
, TaeiiA p. 60a: Ibn Ha2r,Tanl, \rll, p. llrl2 (lnnn $c laan Asna'i ld 2131, se?\tiL:z,'atd.b aLtnnol, ':d. B.'^. Matnf, B.irut, l!85-92. l\, p l9 l'11 xl, p '125 no 20.90, In a '' Tobntaav. p. i33.2oi Abd al_Rtz-q, ,veJ,'n,l slbtle saphic \.rianr $i1h rh. sam dr4 his bol metely sol burna, perhapsin thc pillt; Llr.wins tl,c batle i1nmi'. p.75.+) Nl rhesearc vcdinese_Ycn{:ni Ii cl 'tjtua\ r.nfooaof lns rn lbr {ilins to .ollre vhi.h slts dr pfoPrieq ol usral, wdins lor granr.d ('lal" ll, p. 453, no. 301i, a Medn$._Syna. iradiliotrl id. r'fcrc.c.s ro rhe a.tul pra.ri.e ol Mitins..c not hard t, tnd Thus N: ^r llgi ha.l the matcnd lic had heafl fron lns parfon lbn 'Udn. nr tie lm ofa rar@ which hir pupils s.uld r?zd k' t'im \'laboqd nLann aLnut nm,n, p l4:13)i .lser'nerehe is po'irayed as di.nting to h stud{:ns.bul dre aditnrns b queion ar nor llediresc aFiLn, no 34 iNtc..n)r' lsndn, tro. 5r3 (synanl; ALn Hallana, ^!1, Ul (Medin.\e Basan). Ol ako .t1al, P. 'r70 ')' fdyd. p. 9!^, and anii, p. 73.19 eccanl. no. 1j007(Basran-Ni r'r layb.n!,v/rdr', p. 330, no. 936; 'lkl.l, p tSt), no 50: Ia4rt4 P l05d-.i 1rr',VIil, p. J53.9j riz,,a, no 493i Bubri, liai,, 'iln 34 lntatal, rr/ll. p. 13,r.16i l= t, p. 17 16j rhe mrl fDlo\is the rextt; tusrt ltdt, l,pp l't3ll.61114; rnd Col&i]le., ,{t/rd-m'dani'.htShl'iia,ll. P 2l0 lt ore Erini it is specitied icc arready whi.h ho was in 86-9rl)i1rl,I. p so)i rhai'ljrnd is golernor itr. ol Ncdnra, r Can. in nother hc is Caliph iBt\at. ol lonb altgn, ed .l Za)id, Tlt. 197j7, I, p. 2t6.61 Seealso S.Iocler, Nlijndfi]l,c Thon , P 227^lpF eta.i sP(rl' io ve':'on .a(in ol th. mrtri.l ro be fe.o.ded varicafrem v.rr[ ril \tos ofrhem shr. Yant ibn Sa'id al-^rsif rs r'\,ornmon linr" lwo ol rln itrn him r.ti N..lineses. Srvhnis \ehi.n; Int\d, p lll?: tn lbtrr rrnsnnt^ rr,a,, no +93)i rhe orh.r tlt laneni(es frn hnn a'r r.spr.tivclY Nle..rn nr (l ?al) aDd wa\iti ni ?aqd, p loi{l,,nJ lbn Sad\'Nl l\. Ycnn'h (r.d l n l2sr$i arc on rh iniha.ny of Nllil. iviih.ut hlsl'.. nzr lnrl-rri l'i: r\rrr rltrif d iflrrr &a 1s, onf ol$l' ( li l\ Nl. dnr ! , { hil. ( h f l i h f i s l i r r n t r i n i [ r {r r l r 'r r:'Sall,rfi i{ lnr f ' r h. r nniln{ ns i Pnn, ! : n r r l i t r r l " . 'i r t r '8 , lir,liri,i lhr

464 ! 46 The fir is a opheti. uadirion trmsmittcd by,{b Huraya.!'b Ir is found in \arimt vcrsions of whi.h that given bv lbn Hanbal is fajly l}?ical: the Prophct catches his Compdions engaged in writing down rradjtions they had heard froln him, md rcprcves them r their IIy h seekjng to sct up a book alongside the Book of Cod; the oflending writings are duly collected and burnl. The irzdl is uniiirm l \l edi n"s inr o r hc l! r . r , . , nn. l . Fnur y: " nd Abu Huravra 'Ar' ibn Yasir Zayd ibn slam 'Abd al-Rahnn ibn Zayd ibn Aslam (d. 182) 'fhe simil^rity belveen this ,ad and e J!edineseparr .,l the inad of thc major Basu Prophctic badition against Miting is no accidcnt,'i'and I would be inclined to see in this Mcdinese l.adirion an ccho ol the Basran tradition.:i8 -fh second tradition is likewise Prophetic, th;s rime trans ! 47 milled bv Za).d ibD Tabit.?i! It can occur alone,,,obut is usually und withh thc &amework of an arecdotc in rich Mu'awiya has a tradirion of Zayd's vritten downt Zayd rcsponds by invoking thc Prophets rn.,h;bition of the sriling of Tradirion and erasirg the oIending rec,d.P The "connon tink", ;f we ma) speat ofone, is the llcdinese Kalir ibn Zayd (d. towards l5B);1? one of thc tlro tansmjtLers from Kalir is likewisc Mcdine*.?'1r the orher a Knln.,,1 This could, thcn,
\tn,ons.nerl frDdi Faiw rcp.,t rhar Abn Bakr did pr.paF wdtten r.xq onc $alcs Llrr 'Uma. died befoF lhq, $r sentto him, rh orhd th.r tlry vcre lsubsequendll " rhn Hanbdl. .t&r27. ttt, p. \2.29t 7a4)id.pp. 1J3b,3,1b. Ih Scltujrr\ adi , r i I : i : s c eh n N o d l i .l '. Th o r a ', p p . 2 2 1 .2 3 1 1 ,2 3 3 ,2 ,1 5 t ^ ' se. abovc,! l4 Tliere i\ a va'ianr nr slicn tn. Conpanion tnrnnrcr is not \ ,f llura_vrrhnr H^\int, ivaino, at.d&',i- (]iro, r35? 3, r. p. t50.231, ,. I nre Bas.Nn ^bn t.rdn,onsrand as Scho.:l{,.iuher points our, lbn HbbJl\ versionot \ll' llurayra\ udition is rduallr pla.ed in hn n',1 of bi I r ". pp. 2,15f Ca alsobelos, S 5.r. loic 26s. on the dl..t of lh. rrudiiionresafdins ). ', ,
i I upL, i ' dl \l .u \i ,. /, T' ..' o ,o \' i . 'o ' ,1 ' (i,nra S.hocloas rj$ Lseeabore, $ l6t. I his is S( hoelcr's tndirior I .r; s$ his Nlijndliche Thor , pp. 2112,239, 24n. s..,rl l ,v.. \ 2q, r!, t]17. i rrl l ,r N l l nl l n l ]i l r,o' r". t)t) )32. 2j 9t. ^\ s1,,!",.', iltrL fuL.Lltrl i2t n\ t Utt. p t,'t. \1tr'^l nrl \l t,l ' ,,.i i i .!l ,1tr' l ,' l l /"1),' y ' rl 2l rt, ^l l ^ ' l '


of veiea) ransnilted by Abn li2yhma (d. 23.1) with a puRly Mec.d M.1 though Sufynih'Uyayna aDd '^mr ibn Dnir (d. 126)t,36 shall .nmenr on I tlis line of tnnsnision i! ..,nn.tion wirh In e ,lr,/,lla' of Mlik we rad n rhe one hand oi .Umar\ .rrD.e ofwhat h. had wien dohn gdding ihe inherin.e ot dr pa1mal aunr,!' and od lhr oth. ol the p.cscNalion ol 'Umaf's wrikn tucJ instm.rions.,l Nrnhr case shows ay concem lirh rh. propriery oa Miring as sucL.

be a Medinese tadition. However, Schoeler har plausibly suggested that this Prophetic tradition is a back-pojection of a Companion verand Zayd snubs him without sion in which the oHender is Mavan refrence ro the Prophet.'Is This version is lransmi(ed by Kuns'l5 and Barms,"' but not by Mdinese. g 48 The third tradition which deserves notice hee is itsef a Companion tadition, likewise directed against writing. lhe protagonist Again is'Umar, who is indeed a favour;te authority ofe Medinese.'?l8 conceived there are considerable va.iants, a.ll to thc eIcct that'Uma a pld for reducine the jzr", (or rhe nna, o "these traditionr") to writing, but subsequendythought berter ofit.'1relt could be argud that this is an authentically Medines tradition, since despite the geographical hetercgeneity of the lower i,i,tds with which it occure, the "comnon link" is Zuhri.i3o Such an infrence liom a "common link" is, however, in my view spurious, since it ignores the phenomenon which Schacht designatedthe 'lpread of 6rdds".*r Thus the role of Zuhri in thc Mads of this tradition may refiect his presrig outside Medina rather thm the orighal prcvenance of the arecdote. (l) {i49 A mor detailed emination of the ntu of thistaditionL asaonows. The min group is thar in which, d indicatd above,Zuh.i ir the comnon linh.
Zuhf usually tnnsnits frcn 'UM4 above whom the nad is idrcftptd'iL r psibl. indication frchaism. Th Knfan Surynal-Tawf, howevd, Lansmils one ve.non in vhich G nzd is .onplebd by th. inrdiod ol lbn 'Umar, and dother in which thrc n no d./ abov Zuhri.'33 The lower ina roy : Ycneni, Knaan. S}Ti2n or Es}?tid, bu1 de in d .ee Mcdinsc."' (2) On vad&t is d.ribed ro Malih, wirhout hiSher M"7.'3r (3) Finaut, ther is a rtriot (or sruup

| 50 On balmce, this discussionwould suggesrthr thc Medinese confibution to the Prophetic and Companion radirions lor dd against writing was rather limited.l3q

::5 Schoelcr, Miindliche Thra", p. 2.16. 22 atui', p. 65.9t Tdba4dt,ll/rt, p. tl?.a. "r Ium, p. 480b (wher it sp{i6ed rhar this was $hil \'asin

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{ 5l Mcccan Tradition on the queion of Miring (and perhaps in g.eral) is maked by a srking discontinuity.,{ Meccans of the latc first and the fint half of the second ccnturies appar lrequcntly in our sourcesj but i! the second half of the second ce tury a sotid core of continuing Meccan Tradjtion scdcely eists. Instead, rhc Meccan rradiiions of the irst halt of the second century are regularty exporled ro other .cntres o Islarnic learning, norably Iraq; or altcrnativeiy, if oDe hl<cs a more sceptical view, they are fabricated rhere and imputed to N{eccan authorities. S 5? The only clcar cxception, though in quantirarive tems a sign; i.ant one, is the matedal ransmitred by Sufyn ibD'Uyayna (d. 198), a Knfan who by virtue of long residencc is virtually a Meccan. These (ransmissions, however, display a ceriain chronological stroin: Su4'n, whGc date ofbinh is givcn ar l07,ar regulay rlansmits dircctly from rh. Meccan 'Amr ibn Dinr (d. 126) Dd his conremporaries. In an anccdot. which I hav. discussedelsewhcrc,,l, Sufy transDits ftom '^mr a hadition about an imporrant 6gure of Neccan history, tbn il Zubayr; chIengcd as 10 rhe romplcreness of his Ma4 he inserts rwo funher transmilters betvcen 'Amr and himsel4 one of them a


r! S.ha.h! e.416, p. ?5. :! Se th .efrencer siv.n below, E 49. '{ Cl. S.hlr, "Mundlichc Thora , pp. 226, 230. '!stCt. Aook, tutb M6ln doga. p!, 109-ll, ll5f. and abole, I 16. nr.81. 1"" Td4i4 p 194 Ca^i', p &..19i 'Abd al-Razzq, M6dD4, xI, p. 257, no. 20,484 (wirh Yemeni lower oa4; 7d4,tl. p, 49b (with Kfan lowcr im4: irA., p. 50b (*ith p. 50c (with an addlrional transnitte. beMeen 'Uruz ad Synd bwer nz:4r '1d., Znhn, and a lower il,.d bline us t E$?+ '\3 Taqd, p. 49ct Tabaqa\ lll/1, p. 206.5. Ukerne the Knfan vamnt noted in . pKious note is tmnsmied 6y Suryr Tavn. For th. K-fr .ole, conpare lso rht "l radition rhat 'Umr wrot to his golcmors not to peQetuatc a bool fro, hin (lhn Abi Sayba,nt$druJ V, p. 315, no. ?tj.4421. ?r See the indicalins civ.n bv., nots 232t rr5 CdnI, p.64.14i'utbi, Mukbtag\ apudlbn Ruid, r9d.la_,, Xvll, p. 194.8

'" Abn Ija}!!na, tu-, no. 26\ Taqrd, p. 52.q Cnni,, p.65.i. "r'r:42, ed. rrr Nli[, ]tterda', l'id l0 M.f. .bd.1,Bq1. Cairc, 195t, p. 516, n.8t. {= (iffpare the Knad hdni.n desibng sinilar epodeit Toiaqt,lll/1, p_ 216.1A. r'r MiliL n un,a. zalr II pp. 2s7 9. no. 23):aDds.e Schrch! l= ed. Abd al-Bqi, " lhus I $c l$ ofa \'ledineserol. in the nabng of tl[se raditions rhan dfts

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nny cae $eakcr than that of Twns he ransmits Ntcdinese baterial |o'Abd al Ru,q and othcrs which is indilercntly irr or against5L Emples are, on the one hand, Zuhfl's fadition on how'Umar oughr bcttrr of his project fo he tunan to writing,,s? and on thc othcr thc traditions which nrvolve ZuhrI himsclf in lvour of, or in .xcDse ol, wtting.llr Ma'mar is lsc,the transmirler, through .Abd, of wel,know. coUecrion of some 1,!0 Prophctic badirions known as thc Salz o Hammm ibn Munabbih (d. 132?).13! This rext cx;s6 ;n thee somcwhat variant re.cDsions, of whi.h on. is in rhc Muinod ol lhn Hanbal.:35Thc $'ay the text is presentcd in the Musnad nrakesit clcar thar it alreatly existcd as a collecrioDin the th;rd century. | 58 Docs this mate.ial tell us whal \'erenis thought, or is its pro\erance srbjcct to doubts such as w. encountered in the Meccan .se? Much of th. marerial egarding Ma'ma is tmsmiued ourside the Yemen, and h. himself is by origin a Basran; thus we cannor wirh assu'ance adducc him as e'idenc. ol-Yemeni attitudcs.!36N{oreover, ,,,u{ul ,h. n, dr er iaiin $hr h lsur pldsnpar r again, r wir ins, "m e. Io us frcm Malnr ud where it <loesnot, ir comes through channcls which ar ot Ycmcni at all."l Convcrselv, rhe rso traditions ;r which T\{1]r appears on the orher side hav. non-Yemeni trzals- I' sum, bolb Neccan and Yemeni Tradition provide useful cvidcnce of the conroversy over wriring, bul in ncither .ase can great weighl bc placcd on the provenaDcc o rhe material.

()nly t$o figures rcaliy counr in Y.meni Tadition: thc native | 55 'l wns ibn Kaysn (d. the Rairan immigranl Nla'mar ibn Riid id. 153). '^bd l-Razzaq ibn Hammm ld 2lll is for our PUF poses only a transmit|eJ, without discernible opinions of his own. rr0 He \ 56 TwDs is presented mainly as an opponcnt of rvridrg he has books bumq':rr h. bums accLrmulatcdlettes;rr1 dislikes lhe habit ard h. igures prominently in the trans of writing on one's sandals;'?)3 mission of raditions invoking Ibn 'Abbs againsrwriting "l But he also appears on the other sid.: he tansmits a tradition on thc document in which 'Abd Allah ibn ', wrote dohn $hat he heard from e Propher;r- and he dictatcs io the Knan Lay! ibn Abi Sulaym, uho writes in his pesencc on tablell (aloai).rr6 | 57 Nlalnar loo is mainly identiicd widt the oPposition to wrirnrg. H aHirms his disapproval ofjl, though tacitly accepting dre rebuke of Yahy ibn Abi Ktir (d. 129);1rrtbn 'Ula;ya states that he tiansmitted from mcmory;lrs and a tradirion liom lbn al-Mubrak (d. l8l) contrasts him with Yirnus ibn Yazrd al-^yli (d. 159), who wrot. down eveDthing he hcard fron1'qOn lhe oth.r hand, Ibn Hanbal tells us approvingly that it Yencn (as opposed to Basra) Ma'mar lreely consulted his books rhen rransmitting-oHis oralist idenlification is in

oaLur \tjts ro Me(, the nN 01 $hn:h $s i'r 187,irl, [I, p 139, no 46ll and te shouldbe rerd as 187 and cf. I, pp. 5tj0c no. 1338rin l, p.473, no.6019 thf nor la!.) TICF n a k$ dou.ful rcpot to stnilar ctf.ct lrcn Ahn Nu'aym i^bii Zul, Td'n.p 471. no. 1225). r"' Schoelef no1* Isns, and n is bryelt as a $lt ol thn ihai tu vr.s the oplosiinn ro wdnng in Y.n.i s nininal i MnndlichelhoE , l,P r35f) rr 'Abd al-Raz?q, ,tIa,,4 Xl, p 42s. no t0,90li rnhetat,\,p 3935 !r3 lbn Abi Drwnd, i/6try', p. 4.9. Mu\amt X1, P ?53. no !0{8i; (nni', 'Ab.l al-Raz?q, '' 1n0d, pp. 12.-4:tba p 6,1.24i ?a\ lI, p. 387, no 2727.iTmditjons brnging ir lbn'Abbs on is sidenot iaovdted by l.wrs a.. Iard,p. $.\ Cdni', p 65 21, 65 23; ?i/,4rr, \'I, P I79 1 r t" 'lkl,I, p 260, no. 377 ltre bleh a.e .1c$nbedas lars., doubdes $irh th. impli.ation tl,at TNns .ould nol tlvc filed b noti. Lncn tn a parallcl Srlen h) !a$i rhe same infomant *at.s ihd slr. ncler sah anv{nr L,uLLa)1 lri.ns rn tlr p. n -v'rt o TT ; hn\ Uan a, 11. 111\ \ 't-q ,.t. | 1 , d '? 4 \ l t , ) o \ LJ J - R i / / 4 , . r p ^ r "- . r'" ..aldlI, p 305. no. 513 1 " tb A,1. p. 1i2, no. t t ) \ , ls lb n Hra. , Tdr d, . j p. 3l2+ ir r S. h. . l , r . \ l u i ( U '( h ' l l , o f u . t ) t , l l r ) . 2 : r r . VI 236. Cl rh. //rl, l. nt, lll2li r,, l0r ll. l) 51)0,r{, lll(10

1L Ar notrd in Schoeler, "Mnndli.he llora , p. !r9. ''i' raqd, p. 19^.: Cni', p. al Razzq, MttnnnaJ,\1. pp. 2571, nr. 20jA\ 'l\bn|nt lll/1, p. t06.5. rr3 Id{rl, pp. ro6b-lo7bi nnt, p. 7i.2a,76.2a,T.bajat,lt/lt, p. t364\,!r!d trr?7^9,MttotlnaL\1, p 258, no. 20,487. ia Sczein,c.hnhb,I, p. 8ji S.haeler, .Mundli.hs Ihora,, F. ?3st I bt. rhe ,ltrih dare of 132 ltun Bubri,p. 23t', \o. 2847)jfor r r.cent dMusion, ! van Es, Ir-logt, Il. p. 705. A\ nored qr S.heLr i,Miindtiche Tho.a,,, pp. 2.r2, 'I t H . '. '. d ' p ,\ d f,. n zd .r . n r L i "r .g . i r ,u 'l r 'r d r " l l n l l d,h d l r , ? /. d . Sd'. ' \\1 .p L .2 ..t,, n i o n1 0 . POO- 8 _ i ,.tu . h , o ,h i , nr. seeI'L Hamidunh, ta'liffi I hadi! al-n bns". fi.dlalot Md.!na, 'nm\ tt ;ltui dl 'tal,, 28. r 9s3, and id^qdambn Nk t tuotkM ttt Hetut Sanatt Hnnm , liu tt\ \hdahbih, Pari\. 1979,pp. ll8 q7 l wh' S.hocl$ ac.ou.6 lor Nr'nar; Ji.queor .onsultfi.n of lns book in rhe \flr.r' ph.* oflir.xrt1r h.. ab.\r, i 57. nok 280) jn rcnns of rhc |ow \.'lr'rrn' ol (a.hnrg $ir|! h. n iddnrs ar .xphnan.n \hi.h tLJnHanh"r did 'rrs, ' l l r . l a rk.' Ar ) ,f r .N sn h / r t . l l t ) l i 7 . tr ,, r ,/:,/ ll ^lr l ) .'$ r r t. tr l vtr 4 t, 1 t) ; t&!r 1 t) t2 1 ], 3 tj : 1

4J l '\j," S 59

inasmuch as ir ms pan of a culogy. The Paleinian SuccessorRa' ibn layva (d. 1 I2) congratulateshimself on havins Mitten down a tradition he would otherwise have fogotten-'?e5From ttiry agaiD, Bqi)ya ibn al-lvald recounts how Artt ibn al Mundir (d. 163) would, on hcaring a tradition from him, ask him to dictate it even in the middle of the stret.'e6 Thcre is a.lso a rradidon that anotler long-lived Syrian Companion, Abu Umma al-Bahili (d. 86), saw no harm in the writins of Tradirion \kitabat al-'iln).'e1 $ 62 The Syrians a.lsotransmit fom non-Syrians materials both r and against writing. S 63 An intereing hadition against writing h one in which 'Umar collects and burns wrirten traditions, r'ith disparaging ei'erence lo the Nirhnah; thi$ comes to us lrom the Medinese Qasirn ibn Muhmmad deciwith a Damascen mad.!'g8Zuhrls tmdition egading'Umar\ sion not to reduce e szzaa to writing crops up with a Himsr n a/'1e lranrmits a slatement of Abn Hurayra's tl he did not writ ^wz'i not allow othrs to do so).rrr Among later authorities, the did {or disapproval of thc writing Damasccnes cite q.asim ibn Muirammad\ of Tradition,3o1 md his refusal to allow ine Damascene 'Abd A[h ibn walid ibn M uJim r r ansm it an injun, r iun ,l - {Ja' d. lol , o sr ir . 1@ of the Kufan Ibrhim arinst writing,3o3 and Awz'i reports the dislike of it e;n.ed by tne Ba;ran g 64 n favour of writing, the Syrians play some paft in the transmission of the tradition regarding the pemission obtned by 'Abd Allh ibn'Amr to write what he heard lrom the Prophet,$ md one of rh repofs of thc document which contained these Faditions hd a Himsi 6,ad.!6 A similar tmdition regarding the permission to write (,bra;ned by dothcr Companion, Raf ibn Uadi, is transmitted by
) A b n Z u r 'a , Zu 'n r ,p .3 6 5 , n o .7 9 \ Ta 4 td ,p .l 0 8 a r &d ,,n o .5 l l rhn repo is Darnascene. Th e n zi r o f

l radition in geneal is probably underrepresented in lor the wting of Tradition thc materials il otrers are scanty, but sumcient to establish the fact of the conlroveny. S 60 The leading gure to appear among the opponenr! of Miting is Awz'i (d. 157). According to a repo'1 transmitted by th Himsi Abn 'fMuira fAH al-qaddrs ibn al-Hal (d. 212), hc disapproved of witing.'?8' His eloquent lament over the lifelessness of learning onc consigned to books is transmitted by the Damascrne Waltd ibn Muslim (d. 195).'$ Damarenes also appear in eir oM right. Two Dmasenes tnnsmit the bodt ofa third, Sa'id ibn'Abd al-'zz (d. 167), never to have w.itten doM a tadition."' In the geneation ofthe Succesors, rhe Damascenc preacher and 4adt Abn ldn:s al-Hawlni (d. S0) asks his son whether he is widng down what he hears from him; vhen the son rplies in rhe amrmative, Abo ldris has him bring what he has wtten and destro)s it."'1 $ 6l There is likmisc evidence of Slrim paicipdon in lhe polcmic in favour of writing. fhe longJived S)rian Companion lvtjla ;bn alArqa' (d. 83) is said to have dictated Tadition, with his studentr wnting ir down in tont of him.'qi We have two venions of a badition which thc Him! Baqiwa ibn al-Walid (d. I 97) tmsmits regarding the codcx in which hir fe[ow-toMsman t]alid ibn Ma'dan (d 104) his leami g;Fa one of them can definitety be taken as favourable, Srian

!3 For difreni virs, .mely tht Synd Tmdinon was ncld wll_develoPedj se C. Rotter, Abn Zur'a ad-Dinaki f. 281/894) und das Prcblcn dd frnhen anbi_ in d.t shcn Ceschi.htssh.eibuns Stien , Dt Wtek Gint:,6, 1970_1, 100. P 4! .iud, no. .t61. cnta *!cEl repos sivd! by Abn zur'a which t.nd ro Pr_ suppoF the opposnc(Zdt7, pp. 264{ nm. 372-5,nd P. 723, nos. 2311_41 1{ lerrZ p. &a, Sch.Id, "\nndiche lllo.a". Pp 226t Gaat'. P 68.2i in bn Zur'a. ir,''r, p. 790 1hc lment is lsotra,Nmitted, difent ard le$ 364, ,lo qr.n ' r"m . b) r h- r npdr ' L Khur danun l ' d r \ l l b " 'd L S / u . . n o l / 1 a .n t p 1. 11,r c m Ahu v ' . r r d. 2 B : \ i d e . n o 4 r l 'o m V r 't u d n i h n r Nuhannad al-Tta.l d. 210) ro. otd taditions about 6im b sihila. cfd, *e Ab. 7.$'a, Tanb, p. 318, n . 602 (cll no. 603). and p. 363, no. 737 lbui .onka l1, p 36s, no. 795, wheF he i invLcd in wdtten trsmissin) Th. Damas.ene Yazid ibn Yzid (d. 133) likeMse had no hool titil, pp. 363i] no. 783: ct lls no 789) N tbil.. p. 363, tu. 7a\ T0q'1, p 7fi \^so ltum AbD Mushif) lnis is usualty told of Abu Mtrs (re above, $ 35, nots 163-91. !3 lbn 'Adi, lii,l, p. 37.r (Dalr]dene). Y ' A,I, p. 3a9, no. 2i01, and Atn Zur'.. T.'1ib, pp 3491,no 7l7 l(loAlinji IL. Abi D\ilrl, t6a1,{ p. 134.19.Conpare the ..pod thrt il,t Himsis s. qT1, ibn 'A'id rhat rhcy w.uld cxrrkr rrnt ated the 6@rs of thc Conpanion '^M rrl rhr u^qu. llilnrsi, ,Vdn;/n,ll, p 3lr:J d pos n or rli. d..r ol ^llh legal.ontnr

Zu r. l0rA. p b08. no .72b t nlid p !k". abaat. \11/I o. l\24: . . , r , '. o I'a . ,4 ^Lu | .1 .u .TL ,r l u h ,' Ia "/ fg l a n a Iaboqit, \, p 1403; and seebelov, $ 123, not s80, an! furthd f.renc.s. " p. "" Taqrad, aob. For this thdition se above, $E a8t \" !h/1.,p.42^-l' suun, i.. 17a, 7 abaqt, 7l/11,p. 119.16r drnt',p.66.11 ' \ l , J 7r r 1 a h p l cl . n o - 8 r : Id {r '1 . 4 6 , F. l '' T a b a q n\, p . 1 4 0 5 "' /d{}i4 t)t) 75n, 75{l-7lrl

the Himsi Baqilya ibn al-Wahdio? and the DamasceneYahya ibn The story that the Ba;ran Companion tlamza al-Batalhr(d. 183).!03 Anas ibn Mlik used ro make some use o written recor& (na!tr) in Among late aulhorilies his teaching S)ian.3o'! is invokedby the S)Tins in favou of writing are Uasan al-Batn-,3ro Nafi' (d. 119) he nauh Ibn '<Unar,3rr md the Meccan 'Afa' ibn Abi Rabah.3r'l
Abn lDad'an inte.[ 65 The Syiansa]lo bansnn a.omr]r Companion prctarion tbc bunedtcasureof QXVIU, 82 asconsisn'rg writnTradi.ion of of (d,/';tr).,', r.}li, *hn:h 6sursin one of in $ranse ets of Uadir in "."'"*, lne Koruic legnd, blongd to two orPhms,dd n we Cd's wh tlm n shuld pas to rhn when ther cane ol ag. Io interpFt the trdufe d a litrary on is us ro sd.lion a parti.ular\ Rgmt form of wnnen hnsnissio.. Mr. conmonly is intryretaiionis aftibuted to rbn bbeso. his pups.l that .here had been conlroveny over $ 66 This material establishes the wnting of Tradition in Syria; thanks 1o the continuity of Syrian ;ztds into ih second half of the second century, the provenance of the material is not open 1l) question as it is in e Meccan and Yemeni cases. The chronology of tlte Syrian record is morc elusive, unless of coune one takes a ascriptioDs at face \alue. In the light of the hos tility to writing atbibuted to Awz'r, it seems plausible to infer that the issue was a livc one a latc as the middlc of the second century. lt may well have been older; that there are archaic elements in some of the S)Tian traditions can be agued on weak grounds which I relegate to small pr;nt. E 67 Th poirt fiai p.rhps v.nh .nsidnng thc follwing,11)Th. anecdote abont Abn ldn. and his son is a doubleror a mor widely attstd one abour Ms nd his son.i'' Il one is lhe prctotpd of, $cn ia we asuns ^bn a tndn y to imp.ovenenl in tle trolution of traditons, it n the Slian
lrn of the o.y whi.h i3 lilcly b bt old: Abn Idns is rh lcser auonty, being bolh a youngr ud a l* prertigiod 6gum. (!) On similr grounds, wc

miahr take thc purly $ian ir"rd of the tredure exeSesis be oldef rhd the to cl6ct dcriplnn b schml of Ibn 'Abbi. (3) M f thc md.nal lting ro 'bd 11h '^mr Hizi bt lntue of i6 trdni$ion ibo by his T'ili dendant 'Amr ibn Su'ayb. But against this family irrl nay be rt mough Strian cdournrg ro suglr thar 'bd AIah ibd '^nf 16 onginaily a ligu.e of Synar rdner than Hizi TEditjon. Il is only in Sa thal Le 6nd ge.s.aphically h(no gencusntu& fd rhe adirions rgarding his pennision ro rrirtr' a,rd the dmumenr containing what he wrcter3r' likewise d schablogical tradition in which he refe6 to rhe Mishnan i' San.3id (4) A tEdilon sdi an rbrptian n'd Fcounrs how 'Abd lrz- ibn MRn thc Una})d goverdr of Eg}?t frn 65 to 86 \@te to the Him Ka!i. ibn Mum (d. in th 70s?),$ho had knosn lrs. numbds of edly Companions in Hims, io send him in writing ft tradirions he had heard lrcn them.3r' H.e agdn we haw a tndition snich iDte! companson wi1h a no.e vidcly 2ttestd one, in vhi.h it is not Abd :fAziz bd his $n 'Umd who nales the reqEs! and the Mediner Abo Bakr ibn Muhamnad ibn the itu cablii!, is a 'Amr ibn Hzh b whom h Mir.s.t0 This ry, ^ Medines. aninr, and it is eilhe. unknosr to thc Strians o. igfloEd by diem. Sinc. 'Utn. ibn 'bd alrAziz i a Cie.ld autho.itl ftan h! fathr, th. suspicion ds.s that n is rh t adition rega.ding rhe lrhr which n the prcbqpq and Medina is by.I, end.ds a nr dbvious pla.c to *el Ptuphcd. Trdidod tlk. Hims. In this ana.lysis ofthc San matcrial, I have scarcely rcrred ! 68 to th repotu of initiatives taken by the Umalyads to have Tradition

wtten down. These repo.t!, which are nor in themselvesimplausible, are givei proninence by Schoele.3?'He agues .hat they are to be taken as in essence historical,3?': and that this UmaD,ad pressure was a major stimulus in shaping attitudes to writing in oe centres.3i3 My main objection |o thh view is that, had these iniliatives been histocal, representing a concerted effort on the part of the authorities in Syria, we would have expected them to ieave a mak on Syrian Tradition; but this is not in lact the case. The traditions involving Nu'awiya and Marwn are lraqi.3':+As just noted, the badition that

"1 lbid., W. 72n-73b. 36 R nzhrnnzi, Muhaddil, p. 369, no. 330. Zur'a, .mnb, p. 364, no. 79, (ud d '1L,p. 369, no 795 ^btr 3r' Jr/@, no. 5l2j Rmahum\n, Mthdddt, p. 313, no. 344 (udi this is a mistakc for 'Ai zl gurs.i (d 135),cl Miz,i, ,rlt , XlX, p. 300.10). alsoAbn Zura, Cl. ra'a1, p. 369, no. 795 bis. XVl, p. 5 l?, ''' S... adrdahplq ldq&4 p. I l7b{.i Taba.i, Z,/ir'. Cno. 1i123,9. 3rr see abov, 60, nt. 292. ! 3rr &d2, no. 5l3i

", p. 76.1:,.1. also itd., p. 76., and dillcrenl Syria e.d picted up bt r Ba$an, ,rid, p. 8la. he r]g}Ptians also have this tradidon frcm a Sy.ian Succ6so. &"a,, no. 49lr al-HIim al-\aysabn,Mtidnt, Hydembad, 1334-42, p. 104.18). I, n r are only paially indic:ted by Scnoclerin his tabulation ("Miin.Iich 'I hora p. 240). For thd Palcsdni.n .omc.rioN of'Abd Ih ibn '4tr, sc M. t .!r, , '' I he estats ol r\mr b alrs in Pal6tine: notes on a nes Negd Arabic inscriptian", BAhhn ol tllr SLhal ol lri.nkl ud A.nndnSt di,s, 5t, 1989, pp. 2.1, 30-2. lLr ?n4rz p.8sb (Hinsi); cf. scnoder, "Mndlich Thora pp. 2.13,2.18t "" rr&n, no. 482r and seebelow,Q 128, not 583, lbr ln{her releFnccs. " " Tdaqn\ \11/Il. p. 157.13 Llrom L ibn Sa'd a.{rn Yzid ibn Abi Habib rl lr8) ,r S.. alxr?, q 4r, norr 2l:ll: 'J' Scc .spctillly, "Nftnlh.ll l horn , pp. 2271 229f. ''r /L, p 229, rrl cl: t. ?13 rri /rrl, t't,,2 r l , ? 3 1 , ? r Jl i ,2 4 !) " ' 1 , t r Mr 'l r * 'yr n r l l n y( l i l , l r l ,i r , r n l x'v. l i 2 1 ) ,R , l l J7( n sn o tl l r l '.'( . ( 1 ,.

476 has 'Umar ib 'Abd al''Aziz write to rhc Medinese Abn Bakr ibn Mulammad ibn 'Am ibn Hazn is ltol found in Syia, while that regardnrg hn ther is Eg}?iin. likewise ihe fad;tions rcgarding Zuhri ard rhc writing of Tradition are nrely lransmittcd by the SYtians, despite Zuhris rcng connection $'ith Syria.r A Damascene account attributes Zuhri\ .hange of pra{rice to the coercion ol thc Caliph Hiim, sho foced Zuhri to Mite for his sons; thcrcafter people wrot Tradition ion hin."6 Anothcr version fansmittcd by Damascenes lacks both tie element of cocr.ion and the intention of explaining a change of practic.; instcad, the incidcnt is used as a sctting for an anecdote regardnrg Zuhri's powers oi mcmory.3'i On rhe othcr hand, the fadit;on that Zuhri had no book other rhan a genca.lo$' of l,is I'ibe docs appear amo g the Syrians.r'lB 69 rhere is no other centre of learnnrg {iom which we have cvidence ol controvefty over the writing of Tradition- The scholan ol' Eglpt lransmit a good deal ol matcal from elsewherc, but solidly l-g}?tia rals are extremely rare in this ield,31! and the Egptians show no sign of having opinions of their own. The same is true ol tlte taditiDDists .rf Wsit and Mam. In any cas. none of therc could be describcd as centes of learning in the rclcvant period. Nor is 'ajor there evidence ol .ontrovcN-v among the traditionisls of Baghdad. $ 70 From this gco$aplical suNq, it is clear tirat conhovcrsy ove the wridng of fradition *as ridespread outsidc Balra ()ur sourccs indicate its existcnce in Knfa, tediDa, Mecca, thc Ycmen, and Svria, alrhough dre provenmc of the Nteccan and perhapr Yemeni material is open to somc doutrq h any .\Tnt, there is no indication thal any major cenrre o{ Muslim learning ras excrPt liom it | 7l Tbe chronologic eridetlce is lcss satisfactory;but thc Knfan matnal points stro gly lo th. frrst half ol the sccond cenl ry, and the rest of rhe rcgional eviden.c Socs firly well wirh this. How far, i1 at all, we can prcjecl this situation back;nto thc nt cemury is a ques tion to hich t shall return.rrd 3. Th? tututu a the aPPLitian | 72 In the ird {entury the rlationship bctseen the oral and the writ. had scftled down into a more-or-les stablc and consislent con llglration. t'hc old oral values had left unm;stakable and by ro ncans Yct the acceptancc of $dling was oveNhelmnrg: it lriviil res;dues.rrL nas used freely borh by tcachen and by studenls, both in class and at home. lf er now return to the second ccntury, can we identifv any if doublless unstabl- Patterns? or do \rc drs(ern comparably consisrnt only the chaos of conflictnrg attitudes? ln this secdon I shall scek to pjck out two such pattems. Onc is a compromise; broadly it .an be rhought of a solution \rich cornmandcd consid$able respecraround c mid-sccord century. Ihe olher ptrcm is an unconpromisirrg adhercncc to oral values; it presumabty belongs a! the beginniDg ol the evohrtion wc arc tracing, whcnever thal might bc.

hishc. nt../ Fo. NI*-D anrl Za)d ihn Tabn, see, li +7, ntcs 2t5-7. l here is ilv, r Brsan adnion in shi.l NlaMn, s govemo.of\cdina, seets to hare lln Hufuy\'lndition ldltd dorn (faqnz P alr. alcl Itt On this connection II. pp. lSll: se., tu. cxrrplc, rePofrsll!. st.old ^bboft,,tnlt,, '' lbn'Askir, i,-{n, ro 105, and cl no. I04 Both ol rhese fron a dil].rcnt sur.el aE discus$dhy trck{ (seeabove,S 10, nore l9sl ro. r Nu'aEn, I1tfd, lll, 3nnihr a.count fronr tl,c Raqqan Abn l-Malih (d l8l), se ^b. i" I6awi, ,r'ta'nln, p. 640.5rRmhunnnzi, ,Vt,iaZld p 397, no. 406j Ib.'AiIn. l, 3r Sec above,\ 33. trote 183. 'd Onc.rception is e tradirion.cganling'Abd al-'Aziz iL. N(afrn.onsi&Ir,l ibn An appaEnr ex{:piionis a satemenr ol'Alxl above,i t7. itcn (,1). ^m ^llih rhal \!r usrd ro be sith rhe ttophet wnlnlg down $hrt he said , ticl l,k.wis. hN a purelt Fl$Tda. nur? iAbn Zula. Tanb, p 555. no 1514).H.w.ver. il,is st.In. !, be a a.asn.dt of r longe. oadnnn in whirl' l,( ..nsnh r fh.r ol $ri(!1r Rolt 1 r Prop he as alin$ r . 6nd t h. us we' b r h. q u N i , t r ' s l , . 1 l u ( r i N r n t ' ) l t r , n s Rom. ia t. be nrnqerd n*r ltl)n H l . nl'm.l (1. grlair. , l;lil5, Il)n'Al!l il L 'J ? ! . , 2 5 1 , ! l J . r r l ( l l , l 'r 7 r l l rm. /irn i, n nr , f r l ( 1. ( l lr t r , , v , Nf w lha" l lel l)i'ir"i rl:!i n , ' r |r t r , ( \ r l' n r ' r ( li] r t r ,l" l, i\ . ' r , h , t r , q , i i 'L q 1 V '4 r . 't r ,

The .onPronw Pattzm ol \ 73 The essence thc compromise pattem is a dislinction bctaren rhe public and private domains of scholar\':wting, in lhis view. InaY b lolerated and cve aPproved iD thc pvale stongc ofTadition, l)ut should not bc allowed to feturc in ils Public transmissio.. Thc !nai,, featLrres this double shndard caD be set out as folows. o1 the \ 7.1 first, rher. is a well attesred practice of memorising t,,c\en(e ol on.\ tcachcr mate;als bich one latc writes dowr. Several L,rdi(ions indicatc thrt lhe $ririDg is done al homc, which emphasiscs rl,. pdvakr charactcr of lhe act.
' ( I l rl ,N. \\ l l rl -) Lr S !l '!rl ,T. N l rn,l l i !hf 11,,trr". I, l )17. ' i ,l ,l : rl rtr1, i 1. nore l 8 ]nr.x rqi c , "' Il ,'r !tL{ nri ri , a l ,ri ,nILL) r)LrI l tr $l r,trl (1 i -. l l trr". I't' :) l !l

l \l rrdl i c he


froDr me, I ll harc ir sntcn down ?r hone UA.hutB ,urrib tltJ'. H en takes rh udenl by the hand, aDd leads hin ro his honr; ther he shows him nun. ous booll .o.binins tdirions llod the Propher, anong vln.h !. linds the t.adition at isue.s In c oonnl .ou^r of dings, i n implid,the would hv. brn uDware of Aba Huraya\ 10 writirg. Another .ase in poi( is the Siriqa. the do.umnt conhnnng'rou^c th. t.ditnnr $hi.h'Abd Allh ibn'u had herd fioh the P.ophet, ln one a.counr Nlughid ibn abr, vho is on close iems w r'^lxl lll! .hes to visit nim, and pulk a $rol our frod undd the bed.loihsj'bd ops hin, .nd c+lains whar i1is.v5In this &.ount, rn, th Sdqa appears as a private ddnnenr ^Ih ud.n^ do ml usuatty go rummagins nr their r.acheastadclthts.B when Ynus ibn Yzid al-yli wdN Zuhn .o give n his boks. he appals10 his long seicc d discipli:hipr Zuhf rcsponds bt teling Ins shv.girl b letih his books though .oruary b Ynnus's cxp.taiionsi they urn out ro have no$ing b do sirb lEdnioD.rl' lhe Knfar Ibn Subtuma(d. 1.14) asled by an eDir whefe he q.s rhc &ditions hc irans is nib from thc Pmphetr the ansser ! a bool l[ [as at lDme 6atabradana).rB llie Basnn Hamm.n ibr Yahyi reacLcs orally, bul soes to look up hh book whcr challcngrdon th. a..u.acy ol a radition.r, It is doubtl.s in die lisht of rh pncnce ftat, sjrh Sezgin,e'0 should unde^bnd a rt mnr such as Ibn Haibal s w. that ft had ntrr seen waki with a book of cvd a scrap of papr.i Books are thDsa pdlat nanri tli. ndd.m of| public lih,nry" woukl b a conradicrnri lhirdly, thee is a marked rcndency ro associate early writ| 78 ten transmission of Tractition with a fdily corlexr; rhis ag'ain has thc cft.t of makjng it a private rarhcr than a public mauer. lhe aseirin of v;ren rransmi$ionsith famny nr ws norcd by I79 Abbor.r5r$nren do.umen6 are oien &.rcdii.d with su.h ifl A ..d! nan.e *ritten by Abn fo. Anas ibn Nik n iransmnred rlxouglr thc laer's imily.353 lcu of tft Ftophet on legal maGN is faosnicd in tlr fmily of A Ab. Bakr ibn Nluhammarl ibn 'nr ibn Hazm.r51 Som. 6scalnsucrions whi.h the Pfophcr prcpred, bnt nder acrually issud, passddt Abn Balr and tben b 'limar, appaEntly to L. hand.d dosr 1o the larer\ gandson Slih ibn 'Abd (d. lolj).riiAr tlF sane time, injun.rionsb,nr Tadition may b deliv, ^llh i1r ;r,t', p. 7+.15jsinilarly'.lal, ll, p. 591, no. 380?. rnnrt riat Abd AIih ibn 1\mr was givdr ro L$$ti.g about "' lhns Schoeler's Lin docun.dr in public ( {nnd[che lhora . p. 234) suld nol apply in this insan.e] and while in oth v.^idns he d@s indeedFt. to n freely,ther. is onlv ore in which r'f x.lually prn<lucer in reehnlg (Ia4ri4 p. 85h). it " '/laL lII, p. 486, no. j031: and.t Ibn 1\s.kir, Alra no. 99. " Ikl, I, r, j51, na. 682. Arhnhb.I. p 7A "\i Sezg,n, ' /lal, I, p. 152, no. 58. 'r '',,/i.a,.Il. pt) lll;l s o . ab " ^lrlrt, o vr ,\ 2 1 , r ( i r l o l r {!t H Nl. rll\las'.di, (lainr, D.1.,VIII, pp 57-60i. 'L Nx\i'i \irrlr,,lx\x"rr l'' ,,1 S,rl,', rl;rl?, 1()lJ4i lndi(li. \irrt, ,kr '1 i ll, '" lhr I.Irrl,rl, l/h,,I l r ^ u r r l ,.\r r d ,, 'trr r I r 'l tr l . t,t, !r '!; r n ) l 5 h l i ) iI'n l fl l r h r l , 'l l l 1 , N , l ,2 L l r ^ l {r Cnpanions S 75 TIE youns'Al'd Ailb ibn 'Afrr k pres.nt vith som senior whcn ihe P.ophct thralens Lith hell-r anyonc who delib.rtclv attnbuts sPu_ nous lraditins b him.r11AItema.ds 'bd Allh tufrs t the older CohPanions od asld them n.w, in the lisht of whar they hv. heIn, tnv .an devore rhn sclveswith such nergy io ,tParins vhat rhey ha. aro rhe PraPht The Companions laugh Lnosingty. and reveal rhar "r have everhng { have heard from him in a boot" 3i' A KDIan rradition relh us at A mas would her from k!q [al-Sabi'i] (d. 127),en.onc and vritc n doM ^bn Knfm 'Abd Allh ibn ld id t92) recalls rhe advice ol his fatLer, ldni ibn Yzid: Menonsc, dont v;t i when you s.t bck, wite it do*n".r6 He hinsclf states tlt he did not snte in tltc p.erD.e of A'mi and oth.r sholrs of hh sncrarioni 'l sould irs memo;$, nd vdte n dosn at home $h'n I got ol back'.'l' The Bav". Hmmd ibn s2lma sPak5 h.aring len t.JdiiioN or so, Dcnorhing tnr. thn s.itins th.m dovn vhcn he got b.lrs lhf, Wsili "I used ro Huiarr i Baiir (d. lB3) never $rot a fadiiion l/i 33!ln a t.Jdidon hoshle 10 the -iliJ)i hcf ii, rhen come back homc and write n down" p.rtice, Abn NIns's soDAbn Burda dd a .ricnr ol his a.e in t hbn ol hear ;ns aditions from Abn Nnsi, then soins ut b wit thcn doMr Abn l{ns .ealiFs whl is goins on, nd tlls 1h.n to memori ju$ d the old" &neEtion did.3ao Lik*isc ihe youthful Sufyn ibn 'Ut'M is denounctd bv a Mec'an for {niins from'^mf ibn Din.r wh.n h. gt honer'i Th nrdisnt}oung S'i (d. 204i lo. wLon in mahdty th sntrns f Trdiiion sa not d ntue nem_ in onses lht mowue, and then wntes dowr whar he hd hedd at home on bonee ibn al-Canh (d 196) left' wrot down $hich he kepr in;n tl jd.3{ w:l rlr tr.dition in ihc pr*nce of Sufyn al-Tawii but he did so on r.turnins hon' image of thcse Private notes kept bv stu$ 76 Secondly, the mifor dents is to be found in the written records kept by scholars whose

\ 77 hn Huav.a usuallyLnoM as a CnPanion vho did not wc h one ;rtrdotc. howev. h. scs iDro an rsxment with a dent wtio .laims to have Huray.a tels himi "If vou did ncr n h.ard a certain tadition frcn him ^bn 3rr For this cerebratcd PrcPheiic t dinon. ec Coldzihs, ,t1d,n'dmntht Stutlia' II, l90il, chPter 3 Whar lbl_ pp. l3tf, and C.H.. JulnLj\, Mdlifl trndnitn, Cnl,idgt, iws mates bcter senf ia the vEion virhout deliberatlt is a$umed' :n ' lao,d, o B a.o p q8\ Lu' qtho-r ' lauSh' ( on'rds 'h' 'ndi'io' ' r n^n' I 'd r c o m p " n a n ' " r o ' d " \ ' " h " ' ibn rh; s d, Abo. \ li '1 " "h nh ^m rhe Prooher sid ir ,n ,m4,. {s.c above, \ 69, note 3291 pp 3'l5l no 63B; lt, P J32, m 2471 I. '* io,l. p. ll2ai ;i^il^nf 'Ikl, 35 'tauj. p ll2c:.'Ikl,lll, P 452, no. 5921 *' Rmahurmuzi. rrt4ddt p 385, no. 378 rq Rmanumnzt, ML{zld;,, p. 38s, n 379. 'ldd w U, , ' / a. I l r ' oil, , l - b! \ , 9 'r " u ''2 'q b- A b, Ha; T ldab al, r ' ' ", 1 \ A I r d " l - H . q . { d i t . l q t P 2 4 r . F i ' San'rr.utu'l ,.."ptun.. of {hc snins of fadnion. scc his n4, ed AM' S'kn, Cai.o, 1910,pp. 371.3, 3824 p. 7li.151 S.hoeler,'Dic Fraseder S.lilUichen{xld mnndl(htr '' F,eM, tl4&, l, lJb.rlielanrns".p. 207.

179 his son'.ra Hud ibn '^li (d 19) his ercd in a lmily conrcrt. ^nas AttempL\ ar. made b foisi wincn &dition on 1heConpanion soN and nepltws.'35? Ibn Ms'trd and th Su..$or lbD, borh 6grrs .onsly oppsed to wri! ing, thrcugh lhily tit: a grddsn of lbn Nand rcls how hn 6the. pro_ du.ed a b;ok and sworc that n wG Mitn in lbt Nand's osr n.ndjrs and Hurayra *as brouShl bv on. of his Ibn Sirin's bok of tEdinons from 2:i4).$ La but nol lsa, thcrc k the case deyieddant to Ali ihn .l-Nadini (d ^bn ihn 'Amr.36 '^M lah is a$miated virh vritcn T.adilion throush of'bd H" i J'o srongh i.q rrcd wi h lr' \,dr4, ^Ih hiq * orl or PrPh"Li' 'mdr''on..4' - gdndo n- . I " 'n q f l i L " q r '. v b k \ i 'h l' . gr r ld m ' l) ! , , 1 " ' s r ' . e 'the .arly thi.d .tn(ury .onsided to be brsed on Miftn of n scvral adilionit tran.niision.r' tr is lllus pprcPnaE 1hat lhe wide\ a*ed tadidon Sardins thc pdmission ro $ntc which ne obraincd from e Prph.t is litquendv tan$ mincd by th same t\mr ihn Su'ayb %3 which $ 80 Fourthly, there is a pattern of dcathbed behaviour private, character of written records. underlines the persona.t, md hence in the relevant had;tions, have no ;nhiScholars, it is tken lor grdted bitions about possessing books. Dut .heJ have them destroyed when so that no one will by-Pass the proper channels they die, prcsumably of orat transmission by transmitting from such books.3*

-Ihe Mcdnres 'Lrea deroy.d his b.ors on thc dy ofihe llarde ofthc llrrn,h pr mably in .. he sas killd. Th. Balran Abn Qjlba bquathed his hooK ro mb; in one vnion l spe.iesrhar, 3hould AD,nb no ton$r Lr live, they shonld be bun o. to.n up.r., Ha$n 3l-Basf had his bolc .otte.ted and bdtr all but one ol manen he was near b dcath.,a-lhe Bastu! Su.hainm.r.d his son to wdh-r ro wash dd bu4-his b@ls whcn hc did. shi.h rhe son duh did.6 Subn al-Tv.i nade .Anmr ibd Sa]t responsible fr bu+ng his bmls {Itn he died.rii T [ BasEn Ibn Sirtu is asc.ibd th view thal .1ne Israelits scm hav only* of lx-ls they inhc.ikd from then a.e^,,.J, Cntrd tne deathbcdbh2viouroffie Hinsi Su.avbibn Abi Hamza rd. t62), wh rold rlosc p.esent lhsear my books.which I lhre.he.ked", and oudircd a numbcr of pro.du..s b, whnh tht mrght hc usrd in usniisn,n r', lbn Harbl culd seno point nr buryins books.3r some s.hola6 seen to have buricd dieir boots qilhout beins a. the poinr ol deaft. Ehpl6 are the Knlans'At'ibn Ntushn (d. lgol,r,aynsuf ibn Arhi d. lgs),risand Ab- Uema (d 2011,316 roscr}leruith rhe BasranMu,anmat ibn lsn' (d. 2061.'r

S 82 Fifthly, it is peaps againsrh same badground rhat we should see thc frcedom with which lel|es as opposed 10 boots are arfibuted |o ear\ authorilies; lett.n are usual\,priute communications 10 ;ndividuals a wav in whi.h booksarc not. in
ol r res over rhc .ron die ddumcnr misbt tnsmn ro posdty P. 5.6). rs See abok, 4,r. note 210. E 3" lnqyd, p 62.1t 'faluql, \tll/r, p. 135.9. 3 IbA' \ll/1, p. r27.\o. iDahabi, 7nlrt ,

E 81 lhe practi.c is ,cll atsted. Tltc Knian 'Abida ..Icd fof h books vltn he wa\ dyilg, and dard th.n, saying: I n 3fraid th.t sneone mav gtt pose* %' sin or.h;m wh.n I'n dead and nis.onrue them Urtal.r.t sY n@!i'it1di'

vanani whu. Slim reads th t.\t ro Zuhli in Il)l NIa, &ad. z2lr 9 (= ed M.L tlbd al-Bqi.C.iro, 1952-3. PP. s73f, no 1798). ra Sec above, 21, not. 109. $ r1r S* below, { 89, not ,03. II, p. 54.12 ln to l6n Sirnfs lnoM pnjudices' hn bro{ Yaht (d. . 90) app.^ as rhe a.turl po$e$of ol bolc t55l 't Cl. rs Ess, <Mtha Ia,1t u,,1 Ihe&git, PP. i Toct\d, pp. a1^-a3a ani', p 722t sud, no. 502j Ta6oqt.I/11, p l25l2' In lv/lt, p. !11lll, p. 189.13. one tndition dt S.dt4dand'Ahd Allh ibn Am.s p.hission to snte are n ntionedbsedkr (;rtl, I/lt, P l25 9i w/U, P 8.2s;VII/ll, p . 13 9.1 l) . ' r{ se the odnntu .olected by lhn Hd nr his td,m i 'Amr ibn SDrvb (id,r, Vtll, pp.4855), in ludinS rhos. f Hrnn ibn Ma'rnf (d 231) (;1, p 53 15),Yalry p Il, ibn Ma'in (d. 233) {ir,ld., .}9.1 an{l'Ali ibn al-Madtni (ird, p 53 li. 13 'Amr ibn Su'ayb appean in tLc nn.i ot seldt cn onr ol the 25 citations ol this hdirion collectd bl the Hati! (4,4r,4 pP 74a-8ldl $' On rhi p.aclice,s.s S.hoeler, Miindli.hc Thon , pp 216, l23 On the .datt{l of bur disti.ct problcn ol dnposing lols shich harc worn out, see Sadan, 'Genizah .J Bibliotl?td Oiabnt' 43 and Gen;rlllili pmclces in Islmic and Jevish taditionj, r98 6. 36 trs N, nlarid, t, p. 5a2lot Taqlid,p. rjld; and see ako i1., p. 62nr in," v, p.6 7.? ,67 . 9i&, a, , no. r Tli Taboqilt I , p 63 l A : 't l d l , l . P . 2 1 5 , t r o 2 4 ( r s o t r ! v r r ! ,lhrmriv. h .rx!tr. (:rnn ant l&k the fxplan&tr, anl bumiiA is m.nltunc{l as -r lli( huntr rlx 500 hrnnnnN h. had $irrrL {llrwn par. aho th. or- rhat 'r ^bn

t'' Ibaqdr, p 271.2j aor fude., 11, se H.-p. Raddar, r* St thng unt thdtutunqd^ Sujh at'Ta6, Bor!! 1967, p. 49. ii (kni', p. 65.8:8?, .t T.4t d, p. 6rt'. aid ,nal,I, p. 214. no. 235. rr Zurr, Irr1, p.43.1, no. IO55 {and.t no. 1054)itl., p. 716, no. 2281 n..l cl: m. 2280). Cohpa.e alsn r'6a{., ,t/,.4, x, p. 185.2 on rhe easy accs r lhe ^b. InrLs of dt Eglpian Haywa ibn SuEyh id 158)ier his dearh. "i rourl, p. 6,3^land seIbn al-awi, f,4.J ,lr[, Beiru!, n.d., p. u?8.8 (in the .,iusc oa lbn al-awzrs p.lmic again rhe de*rudion abooks,dl;pp. 325-Bl.But ktr one nRhn.e in which h. rs.omme.ded lhr buryins of bk, sr ]hn Abi ya.t, rx lbn Abi Htm. (lrr. IIVI, p. 336 ! l, she... Ibn Haaf Tand,rt, VII, p. 2t l. I 9. , 'r' 1ril, XI, p .10.3, oting Bubn, rdrt, lv/I, p. 385, no. 341.1. This is de of ! rrl by Abn Hatfan al-Tashidi id 414) ro justit hn buming of .Jusi6cadond,un aurodaa Itr o$n b.oks roiardr th. end ofhn lle (Fe N. Bdgc, 9, p.83.1.1 't lilr.s ,,lntual^ i'lanoloeiqus, 1C70. ,ubayd - p. 73t. ,'.t ", lb. Ha$.. rardrr, Ill, p. 3.14i a1e!||i, .t r, tfis. Bjbliorhque N,nniale. nr A.Jhe 2085.{. 65a.3in,. thn worh sceSezsin,(,r.t4I, p. t6sl. Atn ^bn lrtrlnd s dat.metrr.!s siv.n b_v uri iy,hon Ihn Haaralsquohs) reres atsor ttr lr'l,l{li ll,rhim ,,l-1.'unuri rd 2:16ras nc rvho buried his bo{,k. lof Ab[ I \,'nr's r.rion, ! rli, ^bn I h,'y,txr^fu'ri .\rrtdr, ed. NL.A.(tr at.Ljmari, Nlednra. ^l)n " M i r t i , l t\d tl ,, t\l l , t, l /l l l ,i l l Il ,r n r .tu d t, X. p 3 'l t ,1 .

$RIrNC Of TR^nffrO !


this comrole to play in privale, but not in public- Clear\ thc thid centDry; for promise i! stili a good way tum the attitudes of it precludes the practice. a.lrcady widespread in the second exmple century, of dictating Tradition in clas. At the time, it hardly attineeds emphasis that this view is some distance from strict orali tudes.3"' Those who memorise in pubtic what ihey subseqDendy commir to writing in pivale are precisely the object of Ibn Mas'nd's comPlint rs A that people iisten to him and then "go away and writ it dowr)" nan who reluses to allou a book to remain in his house ovemight'3q will nor look favourably on the private libraries of teachers, nor have occasion to deslroy his books on his dathbcd lf il .ould have ben tan for granled that Ibn Abi Di'b made use of written recordr in to qucsoon rh. p nra cl u f hi. hnm . . ir s ould har e b e c n u n n e , e *" n his slavegirl on the subject;3'!o and so fonh. lt is to these stricter atti' tudes that we must now turn.

! signiicant

! 83 The wddnss of 'UMa on t. lil of th Prcpher 6ke the lom of lern in answd @ qucnes r'3 l h {,ly wort se.iusly s.nbed to llasan al_Basn is his i, l t lr ' i b n M u a r m , d i b n 'l _ o H-r rDnro il'.r \ d, ' bohor r . ar br d o n c " 'T h ' .lbrr a . oo . bc H J r ' ""r d r d r " r -.rn " 'n 'p r n hbir ;i dcrovinq a..Dnularcd lenB is akibDred to {l( Yeneni 'la$ns, r'ho qL bu.m rhen.s ;nd to fte Su'ba, who would send his sn to bu'r em There se also those wlD objeckd vcn to left^ on rcligious questrons, pomt to which I will retDm.{' Ons might also dpect rhe ProPnery ol ririns to dPnd in sme medur on thc natuF of what is bids *nftn, and tLe re d.asionl indicalions or h'n$ tnal this is rc. lt $cms to be more acepbbl to wn dosr the ,/iaLld and 11 iJ,ltrrd,$r nd pdhaps scncalogy.331 is lc$ accePtable to write dovn the PeL e5 Of d'se Pons n i3 sonal opnions (tCr) .f scholar. and pfhaPs th rltu, shich he te{ed ft di grearer hosriliry to the Mitids down of '4l themes add up to the \lew that writing has a 84 Thesc \arious

Th, Prdminance of uat oatus $ 85 That an uncompromising oralist srance is widety attested in our sources is not in doubr. But was il ver the predanbnnt attitude dong e l.adjtionists? Or was it never put aboul by a noisy ninority? In whar fouoss I shall adduce some indired aryuments which suggcst thal oralism was indeed originaly predomiDant.i'q''I!ro lines of approach tend to thjs conclusion, rhe one p.osopographic, and the other thematic. The prosopographical aBtmenrs arise liom rhe Knfm material. I86 $ 87 ln the Knfan traditions against wriring, the Knfan Companion Ibn Mas'ud is a considemble figurc. He is ftportcd to have distiked the wnting of TaditioD lk ab at-';lln:).3", On djscoveng thar his son has bcen writing down rraditioDs hard fron him, he hd e wrjring brought and erases n.3q3 He also makes it his business to erase wric rogs which oihers bring him.3,a gaiNt rhis srrong idenrificarion with the oralist cause, I have cncounrered only one attempt to recruir IbD Md'nd on e opposite side: here we ind a combination of writtcn transmission aDd fmily n l../ such as is t}?ical for Anas ibn Mlik.,,' S 88 'Ali, by contralt, is ali$ed on the side of wiring. Hc enjo;ns his hearers to "biDd" Tadition (qryida 'l-'ild:q. Hrit libn Sue?yd] (d. 7l) recounts how 'li asked: "Who will buy Tradition (1ru) from me for a dirhm?"; Hri! d'ny gos and buys himself sheets of wrirjng material for a dirham and rtums wirh them, r.. ro write Tradition.l"

\oPherand then rutLos , 6rotu of '3 SeJ.Hrovitz,-rh. .arlie$ biosraPhi.s rhe pp. l, Cidrm, 1927, s18-50.
'! For thc* a; som dlhd earq rtligous texr d 9iles, 'ee c6.r. Edq M^tln 'tat' \, Taboq1, p.393.5r 'ALd l_Razq.,v6?i,4,4 XI, P 4!5, no. 20,901 rD sc blow, 131. I 1'1see above, 15, note 74. S s Ssr abov. 34. not. l83r li ti8. note 3?8 ! e' For the latbr, sc. above, \ 48 3s Seeb.low, \S 1091: rsr Tbe {$tin;;n is shalply! by Schoeh l'ltundli.he Thola" p 222) 333 S/,"2. no..l87i an{l {jt abov., | 7s. nore 3.10 ,r1 See above,Q 13. not. 59. 1s Sc. above,! 42, noie 201

'' Schoeler docs nor g. 4 faf this. He n in.lincd to se ihe 6r raditjons in rxvour of wntins as a Eaction "uf den wirgeh.nd $ltenden (rrd.trzrat Konsenss, di. Tradidonen rich' (:r il'bb BduL._uns) iedenns.tueiben,, (,,Miindiche Thra". p 249 (my also rrl, p.236).'lhis rakcswhat I have c.Ied rhe.ompromisc v,lution, h lhan stict oralm, d the bse-linc lor 1hesubsequ.m evolutioD. tq' Tau4 p. 3Ad\ .. p. 65.6 T!i" and rh folowins xclu,re hdiri""s "";s il_,.nl lbn Md'ird ransmnrcd oubide Knfa. 3!3 7nsd, p. 39a-biS.tioele., Mundi.l!. Tnora p. ,!6. , Llr lrd.. pp. sia,5,1a, and.f p. s5aj dart., pp. 6s.12, 66.13i .t Slu@,no. .183. h shouldbe not.d thal the chda.tcr nd contenrolth w;tin8s brcught to Ibn Ma{nd not alwars spe.i6ed, ad lhat where n is, srai divNity appcd in rhis orhtuise 'r homqened fadition. The va.iousspecif.arions-st.h zs had.t,4b, aldli! I 'rrhcr nht at bqt. e\.i 96at u qt'd, nay ihus b rcg-drded a se.ondry emorcscence, ind (Lc o;sinal tradiri.n tahn as directed sai. no!-$riprurat Miiings 6 such. Scc iLso M Cook, "'Anan and tuldr: dr orisins of K.aite scnpturalisn.,, Jrud&,a rdtJ u t t b t n d l tkn , t, l 9 r 7 ,p l h i r .n i l l l ) . " se. JrN., \ 71),tror '158. t h. !ta1 of rhe ;,r/ is Na.n ihn ,A6d at-Rahmtu) ih Mnju,l 'lrr '^1,(l ^llh " | t d , t t .'tt\. In r p ,",n l clvc'i i ,tr ' w | i t,r r i .,l l y l t,tn r M ./ U a ytn n n ^ 1 ,n


414 which he appears aga;nst the wriring of lradirion. He does not wish a book to be perpetuated fron him;, he repons that .,lhey used ro disapprove of witing";+'o he disapproves of it himself;al he nakes no concession to a student who wishes ro qucsrion him om wrirtD notes.aLi _Ihere are several counteNailing attempls ro recruit him in vour of rvriting, but they tend to be less asured. An original hostility to wtirg is .aken for grdted in the Hanal tradition which has lbrtm chdge his miDd.{'3Another tactic is ro have Ibrhim admir hh abstcn tion liom wr;ting but condemn ir asked why he is a worse bansmitter than his fellow-townsman aDd contemporart Slin ibn Abi ,l-a.d id. 97), he answen that Slim wrote while he himscl did not.+,t'fhe tradirions that have Hammd write in thc presence ot lbrhim imply no more than a tacit consenr on lbrhlm's part.ir5 And lbrhm,s view t-hat there is no ham in witiDg nores (dr,!O is a con.essjon rather than a capitulation ro e Miting ofTiadition.{16 AI this marerial, then, either implies or is compatiblc wilh the primacy of Ibrin,s hostility to wr;ting; dd it is in fact the worthy (d. 104) rather than the authoitativc Ibrham who appean as the charnpion ofwriuen Tl?dirion a'nong the Kn[a Successon. It is hard ro imagine that any bur a prevalent view could have appropriated rhe igure of Ibrahm in this S9l Sbi reconmcnd: sriting s rhe.\hekte t T.adition hqd al.ibn).rt H.

\ B9 '^li also po$.ses his fanous scroll frcm th. PrcPh.r, which n the subjci of a tradition fund in numercus rcur.cs,r* md is linld to the Constnutin of Mdin".s l hb scroll is addu..d in support of e Mid.s of Traditionim but this lools lile a *condr Ne of the mard:l In a parlcl v.sion or the lradi tion,'Ali\ place n taken by his son Nlubamnad ibn 2r-Hanan'a id gl)*' I have notd on. tadition in vhich 'Ali ia.L6 a md agzinst w;!ng: he njoi.r anvonc !o Ne$es a hook t eo honc and eBe ii The Ml .ntaiN rh B;d Su'bal- susgdti"g rht this misht be a Bai.a .udtFtadition It is in senel rhc rle of the 'lids to appar on lhe side ol Miting (a lcl Shi<it that i drbtles linked 10 e abs.ncc of evidenc fot the *urcet. H29n iLn 'Ali, incirins his sm md nQhews to engage in pursun of ledning, xplicitly Ecommendi lhN unable b neno.i didon hd Mo or thr Tlibids snte from Gbir ibn 'Abd AlLh (d. 78).{1 zayd a text conaining ibn 'Ali (d. 122)ldts TEdioon;o: Ito",n tO' 'tt t*,.,|h his latheis vie on a point of law.s But he.e, s ften, tnditio.s snich nen ion 1h. writing of T.adition in psing probablt have .odins orisinIy ro do with the .ontv.6y ovr sirinsi Hdan\ rrcnnendadon to h sns rd nePh*, by .dnr.6t, Iooks liLe a pr{duct of ihe contrcvent, and'Ali in the Knn 0 90 Now the espctive rolcs of Ibn Ma[d with SchachCs analysis of thc invocation invite comparison baditions of lecal authorities in the Kun "anci.nt school": he.e lbn Mas'nd regularly represents the prevalenl doctrine, 'Ali that of the opposition.a' suggest that the hostility to witing associated accordingly This with Ibn Mas'ud wd at one stage the prevalent view in Klfa conclusion would folow even if we discount Schacht's charactedsation This would

of the role of 'Ali; a maryinal goup in second-century Kn could hddly bave captured the figure of Ibn Ma'nd. { 9l A similar inlerence can be dram lrom the ole of Ibrhim al-Naba'i, who ar Scheht put it is "the representative schola of th Kufians".{@ Iraving asidc the B4a. and Basran-contaminated bad; tions regrding him, we have a significdt body oI Knn material in
lTa4tid, p. go^a Abn Uaylann, /r'ra, al llu,

susses thar de should srire on the bzl il tuthins beftr is avairable.{3 Hc .c. ommeds lhat no nem of T.aditioD b. lfi unMnren.',, IIe dicrares, AsanNt rlds. there is a tadidon in which boa* rhat he had novu wnkn.rL One va;m of ft hs r dedaringconrinuation: .onfeses rtni shai he had il,ebt lbqorcn vas enodght nate a nan,

$ 93 The othcr lin of approachto the questionwherheroralism \Ms originav predominantis rhemaric.h is a noteworthyature of

.tPlains the question in th smc *N

ry Str, fo. exahpl., lbn Hanbal, M@al, ed. Stln, nos. 599,615, 782,798, et rs Se AJ. wensinck, Mutnnnol ud tx Jtu: aI M.dito, ti'. w. Behd. Friburs i Breisgau, 1975,pp. 6-8. n aqnd, w. aab-aga. \'. ^, Ttba4aa p. 77.7 (virh a Basm dd4. {3 7a,?t4 lwhencSchoele.. Miindli.h. Thor", P. 222)i .tro,, no 5l7l Gani', p. a2.taa'tut, 11,p. 4r7. .o. 2865. e Toqtid, p rol^ b 1n5 'Ilal,II, p. 117, no. 2467. n 1rr., I, p. 346, no. 639. aorSchacht,(,r'3..'6, i2411. p.


I6ir!., p. 4Az. SunM. n. 142. r Ai-t., p. 68.9i Tiho4aa \,t, p. r9s 22.

p. ' 1 7a4rL p ro8c-di 1nbo4t.1;, 2t)3.r\ an|, p. 70.5j ,r/naz,no. 4al. L Se. rbov., 33j 149. ! '' a;.ut', p 72.16ia.d v:c hcl.b, i I00. ' Taed, t. g\\ht Cnr', p i5.7. I ' l/?rii1, pt. 1,9(!10()li rabtutnt, p t71 \tl, t5: ./tal, I, p. 2t{j, no 243 ' I l t t l t . t,.:\ r ,,,r ,.r .,,..t. r:4ri I t,7 ltt 1 .,.,", l l .i ^ r , tr t, |l i .ti L i ti t!...\ t,rr '/.,r.r/, . Vl ti | | [i - ,.,,.

the baditjons in lvou of writjng thai in several respects thev presuppose a background of gencral hostility to it.{'3 Thc main points of this indiecr testimony arc the folowlng refer to the { 94 Fint, the Prcphetic traditions in favour of writing practice with phrases of a euphemistic' or at last evasivc, characte' i favourite injunction, thoush one which seems to appear onlv in Prophetic traditions, is to "use your.ight hand" (i'kt b4annika, ^nd thc like).4{ The hinr is dropped in response to a man's complainr of in poor memory, and ir one variant is reinforced bv gesture;4':5 anolher to writing is rendered cxPlicit iine of transmission, the implicit reference Anothcr much used image is the "shackling" of Tradition by a g1os.a!6 tratioy;ia 't';t'n, and the tiLe){'1rIn some versions of the Propheric by a lti"ns ;t i' ,rsea by thc ProPhet hinsclf;{'13 in othen it is used as Agin, we encounter the questioner, and the Prophet mercly assenb Mi r' o Lr h. num en o n l a l o s s i n sr' trd rrc mi rrm ) mdk' r rel Frn' i c ro : o h tu e i u ' n m a y " l n rr i r by eu;nq on tu ask and ing. x pt i, ir.,o shackle it [i.e. Tmdition]'?",4'or the Propher himself h;- d;.' {3' tn most of this there -. may even include it in his original injunction is an evasiveness which suggests tha! the supPorten o written Tradition were starling from a posilion of weakness. imaseis to Q95 Unliketlf iniunction "se vo!' right hdd, rhe "sha'kling" 6gur qmung i oi\
6!rbd 'I ndr. and rr' du'hanu" dlo n Lu,'pdntu q ll. l"n Ab b ; " lb n u m d " ''d A nd ompd' 'hr \n"'r'L' Mdl i \'" 'bn

s { n A .n l dr' J u' s no {J, rsoa rr h' J S d' h" H r' .i n tdl B } n "no u.". ph6" In l x . u"n nghr . N t.,,dn l bn C r' .r d t50j . ,,i .' \"1 'h c ' n. h also tansmit the sipriors ro 'Unar and lbr .Un&, and apprab in some of thc Prophctic ifla-.r4, In ncarly ,ll 1hesc no.,Plophctic vcrsidns tne rel: crd.c 10 Mitins i explicit.

$ 96 Secondly, there is a significanl feature of rhe badidons relaf ing io ZuhrI which ha already been poirted our he makes ,r.6.r lbr his charge oi'practice, be it the flood of rraditiors iom lraq or the coercion of the Umatyads.aalThese traditions are not hostite to witing; th excusesac.ordingly point ro bad conscience,again an indicat;on of the prcvalence of oralist attitudes.tll $ 97 Thirdly, a large body of traditions present writing as a dispcnsalionrin the woxls oflbn Hanbal, who hinselfhad no rescnations oD the question, "mmy people dispproved of n, and some pemitted itabbasa) it".45 Thus Sa'id ibn al-Musa)yab sranrs such a pcmission to a pupil whose mcmory is bad.s Ibn 'Abbs permits a Kufan pupil to writea{' but only just, a paralel version adds.{4 Above all, there is rhe widely artcsred uadirion to thc eIcr that 'Abd AIah ibn .Anr asked and obtained the Prophet\ pernission (,1") to wrire.{ae This rradition is, of cousc, used as ammunilio by thosc who wish ro legiti, matc witing Ir aI and sundrv, and il is aheady taken in rhis scnsc in the negative eactions evinced by the Basrans Su'baso and Ibn 'Ula;ya.a" But the origind intemion rvould seem to be no more than to establish a personal permision, no1 a generl principle.{5, This is

r'vhat is siCnilicam hre is not *har 1h. oPPondG of vnting brucnlv 6e' but "r rarh{ wlrr i6 dcfcrdes kidy con cde li i* ia . oo. or o- o"- oi. . - M l n d l h r l h o 'd m l 2 2 1 1 6 l :I _ ' r . s ""a- . ,',,'la u ;,ni lh. P' ophr r r ' . { m P ) at dt u d . P 6 d o 2663 \ ll pp lll ''' l'miqr , J d. r , m | dll l' H r 'i b i b n ; d h J d ' "" ?d dl/. o. or d. . , ls o n. bao {' s.ioere;, 'Mtudlich. Thoa", trp 237,21a p '' Td@id, r , a 6ee4 t 1nt w 721, 7) 1 2 1i t4 'E 7,0i4 pp bgh{ 6qh 11b: Cni P TaUi./, w 69b, 75b. '! $ As irtt. Dp. 68c-69a. irl, ;. 69cd. I Er thi o a conda4' developmen! 'r' rrr ^s S.heler, "Mndli.h lhora", p 237 50:l pp. altaa4 ni', p 7? lli J:/,,', 'e Tnqvtd, 'd ' tti , t 2"- o 4io " e, , ?. , 1 l\ ot d. r ) lt , az t . ir l T l o r r 'n | n {i 'i ' t t a! , 1 t , t t i o dfll t t d h: ' 1 , . r h . t 'o t h " ' l h n ^dr'

"' As rrL, pp. 68c-69a. | 'r1 Cl: als. r specialcircnnd.cs-ve.crovded cldses undd whi.b As uoDld u r l h . e i l r . ,.t1 . n a q a ,! n l a L l a q "d . p . \a , n 'd 1 i .1 1 . " r n p i d , p . l l 5 t.Aa n i ,p .], Inatd, p.99a:, dnf, p.13.19.

r '" 'r a D d , pp .7 4 ^ - a r d tC a m i .,p .7 1 .t,7 1 .5 ja b a g t,r /r 1 ,p . 1 2 5 .9r V/II, p . B.2 s; i vll/ll p. 189.ll; als lv/II, p.9.4i Srru, no..l90i lbn HanbI. Mrfl,r'. ed. Ski., .ilrn 3 (= IV. pp. 60f, no. 36a6). ,r\ j510.680?,6930,7018,7020iAbn Dwnd,,tua,, ' lhis is onc al rw) nrffNitrB mrd. by lbn (uraybain his arempt to Esotve rl mnd h.rh..r 1ll. (lirot,rr hltnnrn r nnn aboul sntjng (Iddl p. 36s.ts] l r n i N L . n rr r 'i r 'Al xl i l tr ' '^ n " r ,.r t,r f$ l ,i s r ta l ( { n r n cr m n si o nn r h . i h '{ I n l y r ' l ,h r n l ( x\ I'e i l ,rl!h lr ''/r 4 l ^ ' l l I' 7 1 1 ,.7 ,1 .1l,d i .

-h 7 92 .6. p. rh,h "

11 7a0il. pp !)lit 1,7d

441 clea in the tadirion in which Abn Hurayra exPlains whv 'Abd Allah ibn 'mr knew morc Prophtic Tradit;on than he did: his nvai arj asked aDd oblained th Prophcl's permission !o wite, and did so Such dispensations in favour of writing PresuPposc a norn of disare dre traditions $ 98 lourthlv. perhaps the most lelling of all tradjlions ProMde suP which scek to open the door by a chink poft for the vicw lltal it is Pertnissiblc1o writc dosn uaditions as an aid to memoisation provided onc the e.ascs them csPecially ii the tradition in qucstion is distressinglylong By latcr standards so batm' less a pra(tice las hadly in necd ofjusti6calion, aDd the .listc ce ol such traditions implis that at one timc r\cn rhir s,s .onccsston thal had to be fought lor.
c \ 'l ' '4 l *M r " u' r 't 't r d 'J h \ , \ J npr ' l' \ . |' i. od a or \c,' ' "di \djuq i n l U F '- r u ..^ r,r-n p' , 1' ' i ll, ' , \ 1 . ' J V"c , \ d ' ' Ls Al.]rmr 1o wrne fo. l)iIn '^lqam lt?lies: Don't to! kno{ i(s wrcns to snter" itsr.rq clea.lydo.s, Ir h. dsrcs: I onlv look ar n !d lhen e6e n 'A1qan n appcrsctt jhacs dl nghl ttHl rorhe K.aan. '^sim illl Dm'r ld. ;arl-v70sr,rvould li\1ento dzditnD and {rne n dos.i when h' Ind meno rised n h. $out,l .ll fof s.isvn rnd cut n up.1r5Ite Bas'an Ibn Srrnr '\{ no ham n, r tlan herrirs ! tadition, {dritrg it do*1r, and 'nitrg ir rhen ht ol his rupils rrole onlv one adnn'r ftonr him' dd had mtnorised n'i'5'or larer B$rn, Ulnl al_Hadd' duly erard n aft. he had ncmonsed it"'I nvas id. ll), n*es rhe boa: "l hav. nov.r writ.n anvlhirs vdosr, unless '
' Ahd r h _ " " 'o F he 0. ' i' , H"m n.r'.rJl' "nr "' ' bn: . r , c.nrury) o TLc \ted'nA' 'U$a re'rlls 6r Rahmnibn Slmaal-a;unahi tar. rgret em:d na'r Tdition rnd dren, io h;s suDsequem rlni r'" l"a.lrt." Sp.aLinsof rl dals ol Ztrhn, Malik abst--ts: ?e.pL did nor Miic, rhev l$r d,vihing, he did so onlv $n[ a \iew b d'no_ memon*dr i anr ol rhcn rln 1' Th Nl'dinesc lLrhim ibr .isnrgn. rnd wlt.n he had done so. 1,f .rsed u n .'d .l r" " q h li,dr J r hr n I h." "' on_d r" Ih_Ld" r i dl

sa d trnsmis ad rhc pra.nceol Zuhft bimself,iom lMulammad ibn) 'Ilrim,{] {ho lilr lrnn a(ud.d tln: clls.s of tft Nedin*e A ra: l\re used to Mire, b( Zuh.i did nor. Somerinesdre tadition was a lDns onr, Zuhri roul{l takc a haf fronr vrilins materiah A.|a usd to hrite Korans and on it he vorld wiG dostr dre hditioni thcd hc would rcd it ovcr ^tas dd ds. n o. tlic spor. Somtilin.s h. sould trle it a$a_\, hirh im, read ir over, and then e.6e it .u $ 100 lilthly, one l-orm ol-$r;lten Tradirion uhi.h we hve ..asioDally/cncountcrd above is ahdl some foD of noGs, sornedmes if not alays prcparcd ir advance-r6'$ether one should use dtl is a mtrer ol-.onboversy. rhere is nolhing lrong In on lrad;tion the Knfan Ibrhm says that wilb writing atnl+!! In another, his pupil Hammd srites what he hears tron hinr; Ibrahim's rcsponse is "Didn't I tell you not to?", ro $'hich Hammd repl;es "They're only at4rf'.sr ln a parallel venion ol lhis radirion Ibrhim has rhe last {ord, con-

d.mnins su.h te ot ataJsa u.;a il)n Muab a sarabsi $ho died in 160)went io Su'ba and pulied out some notes; Su'ba looked unhappy, lvhreupon Uria assured him they were only ain{ to rhich Su'ba sa;d nothi g.6'! Here the use of dln!/ is prscnt.d as a special case, nnplying again a gencra.l background ol hostilit) to the wr;rg of Traciition. t.adidons shi.n i.dicatethar d,,t hF {firen h advarce rhc are \ ltrl Some lll.ins Ibn siiir mec6$e K.fd iAlrida*nl, dr4land qu.srions lin"" In
rh. second .frl,c two v'sions ofrh. onf.ontation behleen Hammd and lbrhim, Hannad has drrlwith him shen he queions tbhrn.{;r Militr re.atls hoe rle) prpad d,nal trh.n Znhri.Mc r, thn, in ordcr thar he .ould be luestioned libn Ma'inl (d. 233) sars rnh rcfcrncc ro Hnld ibn

1 rrl o n 8. / L. Br i, : nn nd r l, l5 rlrnrt ll / a l p ' h n ', 1 4 1 : d n . l 'l l a $ i lbd { B, r ' F: t . r r ulr . Wld L dre s'ns' ol hicrc rhe fole\ af Mtu.n,l and'Alqana rre "'^'d p.555.9, ao.a't in tlis rndition,' ' 1- ./rt., p. 59dr Tata.tnL \11/r, p r+\'21 h r' h r'ad l'r d/ ll, "r .9ad; no !i6i fdasi, ,r:1d"!,4, P !391 i\lhere,fita4 i ' t '? n J t t t a a l ' lor at ' t t d. . p ") o "d' 1" 1 ' i r 'u-n n 'r '! r " l' Nl r|l \tuh .. i, 9' a' , e' |l .n - =u 'Ja ..1r , ' dl ". . t' ld atd r t 9t , TohdqotI I / 11 | ) \ lt \ 11, , ll l' / rl' r 'r l d d ! ' u r? 1t , "t ur |' P";'.1 ,; '.,, $ Rnahum,uzi,rvlrd&,!. P 382, n. ll70i lisawi. ,tltla ll. p 52:l l'

16rSce lbn Astir, Arr, Do.6.1 l 'a l a q \ r d ,p .5 9 a :Ib n As ki r , a a r t, n o s.6 2 1 ,a n d .l n o .6 .1 a's C:t Sdb.l&, "N{und[:he Tho.a, ol IrP. 2]6,235. lhe eaactsense tl rem ii rhese eadv rexa L not cnrircly.1... t, nr (.t Azmi, Sltlia, p. l8s. and belor'. q l0l) qr ann{, p 12 t6 rhe narl is Kn!.. '' .!na, no .r6,1iaDd cl: '.lrrl, II, p. .137,no. ,928. Th. odrnvi$ Knaan n,t1 if,ld$ th. Sasrn Ihn Awn Parallels p.675. no.2n4t) lnr'a i.Tn'nb, siven by ,nd F!ah{ i,t/a'4,4,, p. 28j.15) har Baan iransniiteA liom lbn Awn. 11. ^bn ltt lubu4t.\l.p M 17, wiih a Bdra. ranrnnrd from lbn'Am. " '//,1, lII, !. 1,10,no 505tr ulqi t1hlal,i I-a1,.J, Lfahltui.Gini',p 722lralso'/l,lIl,pp.78l,no ' 16091 ^nntu ri J75, no 2t731 In a fadni.n slkn by lbn sa.d (?nra?.r,vil/II, p.27.17), Ibn n:ikcd (lx noraAnlll qu.nn,n: ab\a Abu ltuhnnmr.l ibardabi atrJlvinj ^utr ,//,,na mrrk..r n'rrrdrlal ln (rn. lirjhl !n rlr prrallclsju dtjd, s1j rar r:xt: atqa t,rtin llrhtnrntul:lh t,trtul. whr'r "\l'Ll,.trn,nrd'is ll Snn,. Ihr hoo.$nh { llr' r l i fd ,f\tr ( l \ k, r l sr l l h w r n n r r r n r r ^ ls d t ( t . \l t, l tttt 1 l dh ) r r i / / a / .l l l . t, r ,'r r t. ',,

Salamar "I i--"a !'lsmrq i" v"^ so I sould go 1l) had oblain.] dtf of his tdadiiionsl frcn so_dd{o' l bn H "nbJ n I i l F' r - n , d n l h ' so "lL ""r . ti' h \' m d r l u r i \' lr d ' r ' r uhr rn hu' vd had '\oLr' "i 'l " \"ul d'n"''m'o r n"'u or h ,m ' ' It r, "d wnnen rcco af kadi_ A, B comer b havc sone rt'i'gL tabi., * - ,.r "t' .e ,"q r" euF r' I nnd I ID _ L'n' ".-Jn h'r -' *",.a r ^ r :i d m ' d ih ,,". ".. ql r{rn n }' l oP c' "nl l dhon n r ' h r m ' l' ' r d d ' tj tu t6 dtaf m'obc ho"_ r . l l , c n ^ r \e b h n o r r h .,o - i{ b ,r o n "n ndor a'6 h h'a6 f'dn lbrhim a Ecoftl which Hammd mal.s d

traditjon;st literature preserves substantially authentic materials lrom the second half of the second century; if handled carefully, it can tell us a good deal about thc rst half of the sccond cenlury; but it is not ir general usablc d evidenc for a period anteriot to that which is not to deny that mu.h of it may not in fact deriv from such a penod, and it can on occasion be shown to do so. This vicw is reasonab]y close to thalof Schachq it is considerably more conseNativ than that of Wansbrough, somwhat more radical than tlt ol van Ess, and very u,h mor e r han r hoceo qbbo, ' dnd Sezgin. "u | 104 A gneEl discussion of such views would not contibute much ro the argument at this point. $hat may be worth saying is that Dy approach has at least the merit that, in the present contclt, works. For example, the reconsbuction of a distinctive Basran hostility lo wriliDg ;n the second half ot the second century is a historical hpothes;s that mals sense of a consistent patlem in the ra o the relevanl traditions; it is not obvious how this can be done il onc assumesthat Mals ar even in this period historically abitrary ascriptions."3 Equally, my reconrucdon of an evolution frorn hostility to acceptance in te pr.vailing attitude to writing h a plausibly simplc one; this simplicity is lost if one takes for grmted a substantially greater authenticity of early fradition. One has thcn to assume tha raditions which I takc to be rctrcjections are in fct an accurate record ofa controversy which continued inconclusively over seveal generations, wi later authorities regularly ignoring e views of earlier oncs, the PropheCs included;{?'g or, altemalively, one has to find ways and means of sweeping the ora.lisls under the carpet. $ 105 It may be morc useful al this point to compare my aPproach with Schoeler's. Both of us operale on thc assumption that larg However, Schoeler amounts of Tradition are likelv to be fabicatd.{3lr is signiicantly more inclined to accpt the authenlicity, or at leasl th datc, of traditio s than I anl A major reason for this is his accePtrltdi^, p. 17\ znd .f ;d, Sktdin n;|itu. p. a\' Q'ud ''' Ct l{anstfousn, ol a g.od deal ol l ndition ; inaurhcnd. n by fa. the sinplc cxPlalalon "" Iid preentd above lt is nor vry likely ., nunrb.. ofcont.di.tins evident in the natnal rl'r1 $e Pfophel boih en.ourugd his Conpanions t, sha.ldc whd thd hea.d liom t, do sor that 'Ali 2nd lbn 'Abbtu wet ldn hy sdtins it down, and also lorbade fi.n he lrans ri'nilrrly nronstcnri .har bu Hu.ry.a ncver $rore, an{l yei hd ctrrding ,"nrcd wriu.n down rr h,n.i rhar Tuhri did not wnt, and yer Mo1 d.rydnng he rq s..,,itr,xJnpl,, rs r [nr' r' i v ]l "1i rn,s hjr vi.$ ! rhr [r!'] rh. Pfur,h.rn: t,ditions lor :nd asanNt ' i rr l ri ' \l ' trrl l i (1,, l l ' ",x . t,tJ 241;. 21!)

of argument set out above' can be $ 102 From the various lines prevaited conclutled that it is likely that oralist altitudes at one time Unfortunaiclv, Ihc evidcnce I have among the early Muslim scholars. lt must aaa"cea d".s not sufiice to date this stage with arry precision residual bation o{ hostilitv o b. oider that the isotation of Basta a a iFt hall' th. siling of'Iradition, shich pushesit bck at lcast into ih the beglnof the seoml century. It cannoq of coune, be oldef than s nings of Muslim Tradition itscll but on mav datc these beginnings ea as tfre fife of e Prophet, if one foltow the N{uslim traditionists' vicw o .r u. t.t * about the year 100, il one holds w; Schacht's ln what follows I shall |ake the prcvathe history of lgal tladitions.{7' withlence of oralism to be a 1ature of the ealv second 'entury, but out setting much store by this gucss 4. Cncludirs Ena 6 without some | 103 lt would be disingenuous to end this chaPtr reconstnctirn advancecl .ema.k' o" the presuppositions on which tbe such in it res. Any;n. r'ho uses Muslim tnditionist literatue fo a DurDose must form some view of the extent to which baditions Pur' I poding I o b e h a n d .d d o w n tro m a n e a r rrertnod are i n fa' I authenri ' reconstruction is more or les the folowins: ir'. U"- Ur'i"a -y "-n
.1 r^d},, ndiJ. r. r. I tt t^ Itut' tuadtutut atitIl ' t'l !,qn Dm a!:.t 'L am P a r t b L d P 2 1 t ' L L t 6 d 4 t . t m q o t HMd ldtunh alqt l lor ' h' uv o / i r ' n' F d / 'a l ' A \ \ n h L b b t r u b a l t a l 't I ) s dr y dn \ !.15 iir, "h. , . ' Lrntu "m d {'r'a?g' Pa z$ {hdr nom rbnbl .n qu^u"n" 'rm 'Ir'ko\luutj -,; radition seems^-' have been ni$o!$rucdl. to rhh .'at l. p. 560. no. 1333. '{ laqatut a nnh tbn Abr Hd \ab,ndld ur or ' ;;;;'";-", '\r quba r nd' r ' "rr h d t q l 'r n r \ c ' 'm ; ' r l - l '" ' s '\ ' 5 'n Hm.a b.d lq5l. ; 68. l Hi, " k ^J had u ' ,, d r d n ' 'r 'r 'i 'd " r h r h ' '" n m n r ' , i* . a, , 4 .. , i-I'j, s u\ : n hd" " l d h t m n,-..t'. r, ", . - t ". 1. b 'i r i " { r ' d "' ' '-t,t ;@. no aba ln . p; r ek G r h r h' ' d n " ^ m / H d m d ; F " o ' fren notes l'llal, ll P 437, Do l!281 iather qucstioning Ibrhnn p 5. 'r, Orl*l]r.

ance ofthe "common tinl' mthod 131 On the basis ol i",td-analvses,"' Schoeler is then willing to reconstruct l{ith consideable caution a history of the controveny in a period abour which I have been silent. Thus in hi, view the prohibition of writing is definitely datable 1l) the last quarter of the fist century,as traditions in favour of writing.4{ At e same dme, he considen that a limited discusion of thc issuc very prcbably began at m even earlier date.{ri5 lhough unabl to establish such a chrcnology mysctl I have no serious objection to it. L . The a&in af thp Muslin hosin\ ta th. Mitiie of Traditiin 492 the w;ting of Tradition wilt give r;se to a book (or bookt atongside the Book of God, or lead ro the neglcct of Scripture. This concem wilh the relarive status of Scriprure and Tradition is clearly a centml one, and I sirall rctlm ro irt in itselt, however, ir hardly seemsenough to account lbr the oppositioD to the emineDrly convenient pmcdce otrecording 'fradition in writing. Oer culrures have possessedrich litera_ turcs alongsidc a scriptural canon vithout scriously encountedng such S 108. Th. n)llowing .xanptes itlu.ale the lhcnc in qu.stion. ttr p.opheinr a lradirion dircded aeaiNt w.iting and kansmnrcdlr- r\bo HuHy4 dtr rhero, .all): 'Do you wnt to hav. a bookorhcr an rhc Bookoi cod?,!s TIr Conpanion Abn Said al-4ud.i En*s ro arrob snting. dkids: "A.e you ro adopr as a Korrr-{ It i t' deferenc the arus of e E.ok ofsoins ro Go that'Una. abnd.m prcjcct rlrwntinsdokn of tne lbn .UIna his for

S 106 What is the source ol the hostility to writing analysedabove? Sevcral possibilitiesprcscnt themsclves,none of whjch l]an be entirely excluded. I sha.I leave til lst the one which seems t, me most promising. ! 107 In the first inance, the quesrion is whether an adequate explanalion of the hostiliry can be found within Islam. In thc de\@t r r " dit ion" a n u mb .r o f m u ti v ., o r rh . oppoqi ri onro uri ong app" ar. Ibrhim al-Naba'i refers to the danger of rclying on witten textss (presumably with the implication that oral sources arr: intinsically mor reliable). Alza'i laments rhe lifelcssness lcarning once consigned to o books, and the daneer that it will 11 iDto the wrong hmds.s' A specific hoslilitt is directed against the wdting down of personal These points, however, receive only narginal attcntion; by far the most equendy attested motive lo. opposing writing is concern to safeguard the unique status ot Scripture.{8'g Many traditions cxprcs a lear that

r {r t 4 i 4 ..r l q h n g d ,d 1 4 h r h .td n o Fn l p r J b ,, n . ,n c tr ., d , t.o "' -. p h h au l i r o ,,u p ! ,l - - tu .h ,s $ n h ."t.b n o * l d ,t- , r h d xi r h .h e Ko r d x.". l66him disapprovB f the wntng of iadition in qunes l,{z,,ri beaur n woul.l reshble Koruic codices (rarttM 'lhe t}!em is ofrn accompnied by ro rhr warning cnnpte of pr. \i,,u. l .n r l r d l r r h h u p ,n r h r n cy, y,r ,v. 'r tr F n .:

* Src t il., pp. 246-9, n taditions II I ro w 2. s1 p. 2.16 (spealins of tnc qua. of the eiShrh century A.r).j. -a4. "' 1r1., p. 249 (spcaliry of the b.sinrnng of dr .idrtn .nlurv A.D.). 135 . lbiT W- 24n, 249. 46 C.ri: p. 68.8,68.9; j.dradl \al, p. 139.22! and seeS.hoeler, Miindliche lbo.a . r br relrences see abov, 60, nor lgoi lso Scldlcr. 'Nu li.ft Thra , ! p. 123 (.1), and pp. 226f. s Seebelow, l09t SS $ Schocler, "Miindliche l'hoE, pp.221.222fpoint (!l an{i (2) hnh a comparison to.ludajsn which I shI tlc up in ihr ncxr r.ction). Cf. al$ Wxnsb.ousb, L./"'d n:4a, F. 80. (It is nol naweve..the .de that Nluslimoralisnris no lnoF than a.Dlention , if by this WdsL,ugh intendsto dny th. pFt,.al ol rhr IrF {rasionrFe spe.iallt bo!c. ! 841

g 109 An alternative endogenous thcory ws proposed by cotdzihcr.lq! In this !.;ew the hostitity to writing arose trcm the concem of 'lhe old faJ, schools" to avoid hampedns rhe frec developmcnr ot iaw, as the existcnce of a large body of Tdition inevitabiy did. Th;s view has recendy been restated and rcaffirmed by Schoeler.a$One can cerrainly imagire thar ora.listattitudcs coutd have acted as a brea! on rhe ons.t of rigidity amoDg rhe lawyers. Goldzihet did no(r howcverj pro, vidc any evidence that could substantiatc hjs prcposalt and;hile schocler has attemptcd to make good this deficiency, the onty texr he has adduced that seemsto (he poinr concems rbe unwilingess of .Amr ihn Dinr to ha\e his pdsanal opnion written down.t,? As wiU be seen, '^'nr's rcluctance on this score is not isolated. Bur personal opiDiDn ;s !! Traditionj and I kDow no instaDcein which a desire lbr ffexibitity i\ linked to opposition to the \,,,iting of Traitkn..fha the opponents


"' &tun, no 4tu. Snnil \ l)rl+ak lit Mu?himl i.l. \ot tlaqrd, p. t7.l) "1 rk'l4zih.t, MrhaukhA1? ,\h/t , tt, t)p t94t s r l x r l , a , _ M tr r l |n l r l l r tr i ". p t, 2 ,1 ,r? ? s- 7 i,u r d .J p p . !1 2 , !3 3 , V, ' I4bnqnt, tt. l\t 5

of writing should not proclaim so nfajous a puryose is ol course no undentandable; but that those in favour of witing should make u n l ,fl .nng mor;ve i l i t w a\ une n ro .u ,h oolem ir al r.l F n .. "n l r m u .( a l s o .o u n r a s a i n { thi " vi es rhar rh' " arl v l l ' nafr i, ' a, . , - a, . school doctrine m in ivour of writing.{s
l he I'i nd' o A m' h .F h ' ni -oml o J!h 1 u r s c ll0 'bn q\ '. s i 'l l f" n l "vi nq I'd ( - " - " , " i o ,- ' ,m b i' ib n I b i' n m im ' ' h r"' /x,l umc\ md\ br q' 'srI i"o n lvh ' "p in io "**' a ' , J"*i., "ndd ' and notltus is said snt is in queion is clarlv T'adition, rln ro v;^ion

494 ofthe Arabs themseives. The Pophet is said to have described his pcople, in a we -looM tradi.'on, as an i[itdate nation which could neither writc nor count linnd unna unni)a k naktub ua-h ra,4iz).5s He himsell is gneraly held to have been ilitcrate (though chinks in thc amour of Prophetic illiteracy appear among the Shiles and elsewhere)-,8 A1 thc same time a case has been nade, on grounds both general and specific,for the ol rather than wrirren transmissionof Ghiii poetry.:r{i lve could thus interyret hostility ro writing among the early traditionists as the resislance of a people of ingrained oral habitx ro rhe iirroads ot l i rcrdq r n r hcr t new , u[ ur al . unounding. . | 113 This hili theory hu not lacked for proponenrs. lt was advanced by the Andalusian tradirionist lbn 'Abd al-Barr (d. .163). ln his view, those who objcctcd to the writing of Iradition were mdely Ibllowing '1he way of the Alabs (.nadlabaL'Anb)", whose outstanding mnemonic powen he illustrated precisely from their memosation of poetry.' | more receDt representative ol this vicw is Solomon Gandz.5', Gandz indeed wcnt further than Ibn 'bd al-Bafr, and posited that a negative attitude to wriling alrcady exisred in rhe hililya.., This theoy has a certain inhereDt plausibility. However, rhe $ ll4 c\idcnce in irs favou is Dot strong. ln the firsr place, Candz had no attestation of actual hostiliF)' to w.iring in the Cahililya; his case rsred too much on the exmple ol the poet Dn 'l-Rumma {d. 117), which I shall take up shordy, and oD a modern parallel.5ra second and peA haps more serious objection is that, were the theory true, we should cxpect a background of general iliteracy to figure in one way or aDotherin the traditions for dd againsr iriting. ln facr rhese badi" Ihn Hanbal,116,,l, cd. StLi.. nos. 5017,5137,60.11, 6129.rd nnm.ousothc.

u iii.r' conr,l co"r-ca asr,r;unns 0.nbilt')'m sa'id ibn al"Musatlah one

q n .non' u ril ar"d abour hi' Pasnldl oP' ^n 'hs h urdruo di' " 'dr' o. . ' " t ''; L n : h n Z 'd l t r o l 'L *i r d om "a i rillnd DenI ' ' ""' ng" r ' ; p". o' I oPn' o "n' c n J o \ n h ' n " \ t ''' J l 'h ' F h i ' o'riU r i, h" ;;;J,"* " "; " ' ng ! \ r , , ik "hr ; ' " . . , a r a , e o r t u 'r \ - - " i p a m ' - ' an s r J : t 'r n p {q r o ' " \ u h h. TJ . lid " u\ o' " L) 'i r u ' dr r ^. ' np ako dcnbed to the PrcPhet s lll Schocle has also put fovard a new iheory according to

which a maior motivatio behind thc hostilitv to writing wd the opposr Against sition stine up by Umalaad attempts lo 'odiry TFdition this musi be set the doubtful historicity of the ccounts in qucation,:6 a'd the lack of direcl .xPression of such hostilitv in the traditions aeainst writins as we have them '07 Ii instead we to look outside Islam' the most obvious Q ll2 placc to start is the hililya That is to sav, the ear\ hostilit) to the writing o l radition could be sccn as a residuc of the barbarian past
b rs s.e, 3li van E$\ citaiion of Cldziher nd S'hotler vi 'efe'en'c i.mtub|tt' l' P lg9 n 16, dd sc abo!' $ 33 not i\bn Ynsul is thu; inapp.opri^ie FPres'nta cl 1481. lso s,,hocle;, Niundlich. Thora", p ?24, ciring E he on laref an i', 11,p. 113. 2\ ' r obaqdt , lllll, p ll7 . 3 'rnqfd, p.35r; Cdn{, p. 63.2r. 1ri.L.11.D. l'14]s li pp. r l , l i . l 1 r . / hh da v t t t . D i. r ' , ( . A \ l J 'd r a " n r ' r o q I n a 4 'a n ' r't-,'d ..;'l- "- . b, t - " I ose rhis r.ftfence t sumrtv Handani' Al'abib; 'Abd al'A,tl. 5!1 In on of th. Prcphcdc traditions asrin trririns, .he Prcphd ol']j'cb b tLc Pr rl, l L o l o 'h " t"Ar- p tl' r lr h. i: o' , 1' . 1""' " o m d " - 'c r ' '' d l r \ a " ' ! i i 'J ".,.!' . a. { . pp 3 r ' f h dd lRs -...,., a tuin h.l? t t ' ior ' ' L hu ph' r ' l li' " 'h 'r l r 'a ' u1 n". ier r "P' r'.,'g"-- " 'l 'p " 'r ' ' 'h i uth (se efe.ially Tart|d. P A0.) 56 Sc abov,\ 6s. Note ako $ rePod rhat'Umaf rbn'Abd arAziT $as 4{'''r "unifmitv 1sM,,. no 634..ned in S'hcht, t*'6 PP 95fi but 'on' ;f !N inDosiLin ,hir kdnion is Basran.nor Mednrcs'l o* ,,1S.l-r','" *^.-.., ir r\s nol.d l,r, scho.t. i"nt,ndlichc t horr'. p. lill 8 'A r r

rm For .ons *atements ol thc posiri.n rhat the Prcphel l lirdt., f. xm, r,l, lbn Bbawayh, '.arrlrl irt't'. ed. M.S. Bahr al-'Ultun, Naal, 1963, pp. l 24ll n6. l a l,r' a gnr.l di$ussion of rhe jssue, se T. Nldel, F. Schva]ly ,, aa, C6dn a Ar lrrra,i E.on'1 edilion, t ipzis, 1909,38.I, pp. ll-17. ' i Nl. Zwldr. nu ol ,a1liti.r o.^io! Aebi. pEV. ColwlbN, Ohio, 1978.Zwetde.'s , nnral rrgurnentlrd Len h.avily.riticised,secC. S.Leler, Die Anwendung der Litdatnr", Dr lrra,,58, 1981. l'rro-T[.one aul die arabische Ca j p.69.12t ca lso, Miindli.he Thora,', p.223. 'S Gand,, "Th. dawn of lnerature", Oitu,7, 1c39.pp. 3101(on oFpNnion to \rrrrns n, scnei), 475-515(on rh besinnin8s rabic hertu), of ' Ii)r both.r rll.k I:r li.d on C:otd?i\e\ Mundnntdturb &di.',. I, p. I12. H rl5!, r.m ks xr th. (ihnNi:!' Arb l)o.( '^(li ibn Zayd Is nol count.d nong die ! L$( t)o.s rx(fur-l'( wnr i, r,w'*n'rr u(l In.w b a(l and {rire rbur th aurhor r v ) 'r q m k .s n r o ,i r ,l ,F! r ,n r 'u !n r I'i r r !) l i r .r {r . '.l i .r r ..

l rl l )

495 6led to abstain from rions ar. ser in a iilerate societ) which is being it: illiiirr;'.*re one which is unvilling to cinbrk on i" ",,iiirr". ".r ""never adchced as a circumsEnce PreLludig the $'n1;t .f-*, **" ancl thc ora'lisrsassum( that $'ell-meanDg pcople ;ns of f.aaiti..,''' . until thc error of their avs is poinred out ro *l rJnrv In "";," ".r"*irr' l '*1 r\ In i rl -r i l l i r' rd rc ndrri uniI ari . t , e' n. lr c " " . \t/l \ri ' ' s" uu l ' !d 6 o " P ' ' l ti n a l l ' r' ' h ^^ our br ' r n, n n i ,a l ' u u r," ' (he i"* to be at its nrost intels' on its home ground i..,iri*:-t. '*i reports o the nr t" po"try, gcnealogv and associared ;;#,'-" ritttd' and $'as soon'r ilhili)!. lhis lile.ature continued to be lrans e might txpcct to * i,,r". ..a"."a to wnring;'I vet thc 'onlmver',v It is lnksard fr.* fr"." e.."..,"a bv rhis tra"sitiorr is not allesttd'rr r" wririig $nii'h evaPonttd $'ilhout lmcea t'"siilitv r. r'.* .*i ield of cronrain,whne lca\ins so stotrs a residue in the '; 'i;;."d \ ll5
! !h oa tlrr pod Dn lRummr: disL.!.red b l,c ln.nt , h.i brgged hI ' 'l! be hnsrd up.'r! Whrt is at stak. ltrc is cl.rrl-\' rhc aurhPrtitit\ of llre bdunr Dofi. nor lhe srt nl shi.h hi\ Pocd,v should ljt transnrntcd Dn I Rtrmma hin' bcnrg wnen rs hdlnrg anv .sr^atio.s rhour hn Po'q :cr is nd pdkaled 10 of ndrg .l.rin,j and is quotcd li.f a *rong at.menr of rhe {P..iollrv trL l ..J '

Q 116 II w. l.:ave asid. pagan Arabia, \ve are left wirh rhc.ullural and rtligious uadirions of lh \ F,a$ in tatc aniqutt')' I I I7 \'Ve cn quicUy eliminatc rhe major traditioDs of the s'.stem Near ast. Scho.l.r has emphasisedrhe parl pla)-cd bv oral transmxsion ilr .onjuncrion $'ith wiliDg in the (]rcck culrurc of lat antiquiry;:1r but ihcre is no trace of hostilily 10 \triting in this sYmbiotic rclationship.:r{ Gethardsson has arg{ed that a rnore cxclusirel,v oral iransmission was at Nork in carly Chrisrianity;rl but dris had disaPpeared ..Dturies belbrc the r;sc of Islam lhe major traditnn of the easrcrn Nca. Ea $as Zoroas \ llB trianism, a[d r]rls requirts closer attention. lhcre can bc no doubt thar oral transmissionws prominent in Zoro:rsrtialism. lloth as a \alue atld as a practice.ii" There is consideabL.doubr 2i ro $hen rhc Avea wes
of {l o'r-'. l schoeler's'lciDen nnd vtIDltnr " l)r1., p. 2161 IoI rdisns pp 1,, hdi. pp. I I|.irn,g \la'ubr,\ .t1,,niiat, fd '^ N{ al Bii$i (lain'. 1965, 28l 12, :g r: i;i,U,it.', tLt,h,.."du,n" \'hldl I, p ll2, .nnrq Abn l_Fa! J IsLah'ni' ,' r l u l R u ',,',i .l +',!j .a \\l l l .p .a | - /r . 'r " , l ' a4l ?ri4 L l r _ \l l r 'q l l o ' r .- "r i L d i I R 8 l . i h - r "l l \.1 , 1 ,4 / l 1 r r ' l \l \ r 'l : 1 1 , l l l .,' \ ' .o ' , " ', "a , i u '; . C l u l .". l :i l l , p .6 2 1 1 . a n d l b n n n ,, 1 q a r r 'n ,.d l I'.\ r l N r fu C r n o , " Srf S.h..l.r, \ldrzrbn, rnd Snli as .ndl ni the rPrmur not rr sef rhorr. l. non lr The Prs.ts. is l,r' III p l9i iom '\l'b.ii i!&/''. it,n;z lIqatM.l, 's p. 11.61r sh. nolcs a Pralltl gire. b-v ll,n al-Rai( 1'rtdd, ed \r ali|qa;rn. R.nur. l!188,t, !!011. Ih.r. n iho a Plrrllcl at raqtil' P llgi r,age drr l'iadi.hrn .d.r dnrdlnh'n ULerlic"runq ' '\\.i'"*, '-s."a-, ". trirhi mrndldr'. ' \\har is iNolvd h.rt'. S.h(xild P's I litu g.h.rr.. I . , L n l d u ns l n l .. p 6 7 . ll (lrrlrd$on. \lor,D etl tunntifL, U|lPsala,l9jl: xnd ci S'h"ler. \liin'lvrlu.r rhe liYing ord l,f lhorr'. pp 215 227 lhe earlt Chriian auJror PaPias x\'i\. I = rd 3nd ta rr! h..ks as i .our.c liusrbiur, Hnbtu {dN&na,IIl. r r l l . R l \ . Pr i s. 1 9 5 2 6 0 .I. P l i 'l i I o {e th n ..l e .e n .e r o N i .l r e l l xn cu : a n d se ' ir, l,.nn\!n', l/o,r4 n,t ndxlnf.. 1) 211rlBNI of Cnesartald ]\.l) 379r h a r.lirion: but ttlrr rlrn d.r's not invot? Il oml funs ,,r,1\rivc,.,n1Jr ol irNn'],' , '- r i , , , 1 . i',n ,l ,i r r d ' r '\r tn r r q .r .l ,i u l \ l ,o n i Il n r u l d . N {r n d i ( l r . n ' n u n r L.,hLo,' th thn,r',r] thuthl 1, \r /rad,/ lrdAzl", L'lnnrrsh ,, tut 'tat 'tuth r a l l ,. n t,r r l ( l n tr 'r ( ) \|i '1 . l r .'1 ,\ ,i //n ,/, t,,'l ,l 't' I th r "tIt,i t. ll\\ a tr '\,,1 ,1 4 a r ^ u @ h n . r r , 1 , , 1 !' i . s \1 '.,1 ,, /tr r 'r t L tn tu i t"n

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wriften doM; bur despite this, it seems rbat evcn in the Islamic period it was still conceived s d onl text.5?7 thc same .ime, rhe liveliness At 01 oral practic atrecd lbr rhe sixth ccnory A.D. by rhe case of lsho'sabran, Magian who on convenjon to Chrisrianity dked his new mcnton for oral instruciion, as coming more easily to one of his religious background.!?3In a latcr period such a man mighr have made an cxccllent Musiim traditionist and wamed th hearr of Ibn al-Gawi. Civcn te sfength of the Pesian presence in eaty Islamic Iraq,5" a Magian colrtribution to thc mnemonic powcrs of Muslim traditionism is not 1() be excludcd. Three points, howev.!, tend to wea.kcnany hForhesis ot a ii ll9 Magian tLa" of Muslim oralism. Firsr a d Do g.nerally, the dircct jnfluencr of Zoroastianism on Isiam hardly seemsro go beyond points ofdetail.5r! It is thus unlikely that Zoroasrrianism should in this instance bavc exertcd so deep an influcncc. Secondly, ihe context of oral transmissjon is siglifi.anrly dilTerent in rhe rwo Iaiths: i! Zoroa$rianism, in (onrast to Islam, it is prccisely divine relclation which constitutesthe oTndition par etuua.a. l hjrdly, therc is no evidence in Zoroaitrianism o hostiliry to Miting; on the contrary, its literarure provides several accounts of thc witten copy or copies of the Avesta which existed prior to the Macedonian .onquest, only to be destroyed by rhe wicked $ t20 ll may al$ bc $onn notinSrhar wc nnd ine opinionsof saanim juists ro be .ned &om avowedltwnn,wheres in hlami. circlcssrh mrt;al would in pnn iple be transmnrd ordlt Refren.cs Mirn sou.ces ro in rhe M.taudn i hal 1,r^ria.'? Thus s 6nd cirationsof rhe opinn,ns ^btl
London 199.|,pp. 128-31(I d ideht.d to the.utlor sion in ad!r.c of publjcation). Ni Bzllet. <atu6t itn ,abLnt, p. 162. n)r lettinSne sce is

ol e jun Vyryf iD such foms as ,as \,yyr wrcte,,, ..\'ryyr w.otc thar...":.!r tnn Vyiv.. n oDc of th. tw S^anian junsb w}lo cd be da(d. mmely t. rhc reignof Khusrarv (rulcdA.D. 531-791 t6r iblowins I or senentton..,' $ i2l The only orher releva.t rcligious tradnion

it is lor a Jewish origin of rhe Muslim hosrility to s.iring thar I shau argre in what follows. 2. Ihc J--'h p,iralbl

is Judaism, and

| 122 One ofthc cenrral features of Rabb;nic Judaism is ns dichoiotny b.twen thc "lvittcn l-orair" and the ..Oral Torah".5i5 Thc "Writtcn To.ah" is of counc rhe Bjblci rhough crtens;vcly memorised, was in fo.Dal transmision and lituryical usc a w;tten docunrrnt. 'lhe "Oral lorah" is rhe non scriptural tradii;ou of the Rabbis; whatc\er the role of writing in its a.tual prescnation or trarsmission, ir *.as in pinciple designared as oral. This dichoromy sas as old as rh. I'harisees, and ir rcma;ned a bas;c con.cption in the .tuclaism ot rhe ealy lslamic pedod.'$ It was accompaDiedby th. principlc thal ir {.as to rcdoce c "Oral Torah" |o writinr thoDgh ;n practice 'mproper thc inroads of sriting considerable.lhis tension has receivcd frequ.nt akntion in |he moden sccondary lircralu.e.r3r
Babylonian Tlnud. ares: You mal not hansnn5l w;dn wolts omlh d1pt: yoD nral no' hnsnn rl ,o'ns nj Lriijng".5{' T6e se.ond, in lhe patci;iar 'l aimud, $ares: 'Words whi.h I[? been rransmnred oraly lmu bc ransmind]

| 123 Thrre de rso seneml n,mulations th. pdncipl..5rN nr. in rh ot l.he

1! F{,. a @F of a raditioni$ dknrg shop il Pcnian, ee ,tht, I, p 29a, no ,t7 1, on rhe Knfdi MuiE ibn Miqsm (d. 134). iro Ci the sur.y ofJ Duchesne-cuil.ntn, hlam cr Mzdisne', in Mita4g.r /rn d!0tutu db* Hdn Mbsi,'f.l\ni, 1963,pp. 106-9.The dirusion 16 tended to dircct or indir.i inltuen er on rh. Prcphd Nluhammad, nthr rhan on rhc pa played hy Zordtudanisn ir rhe dev.lopmeni or hlam aarr. .onqucsa. In inn connection Coldziheis suggidns still awan evatuation, h :v.rat insnces probably nesatjve (se L CoLlziher. hlamisme ct Panisme , /.rr .tu lhb a@s khndiul d,hnbir dzt zldm, Pdis, l90l 2, I, pp. 127-u3). nt B^net, Dutxn n ttutm <na'ti@ fiabbtu, W l5li, 153, l53t 157\ Sl\:1"?,, il,n, p. lll \ore rhar ilc 66t ald ld includ. rlr Zand rirtr dr 5rr Fr this work seeC. Bdholomae, Zum sdsmidis.hcn , pulJti\h.dnr ivf pz\ in Sikune:b.iht' dd H.idtlbq tulnv d t;yff^a', Phito,tt,iv tr-lisrtrisr hr


Krrr. HcnL[f,Ig, 918-!3iand sc ms, N |It(t\, DB aonidirh. pehhbuh, bMn , ha.n ddb\hni ot I), \isb^det, tgn:L. irr Bartoloma, "Zum esanidi,hen Rechf., no. IIl 0.n.sang 1920, lll. bhand . rrn'st.p. .14i no v da_lrsang 1923, 9 Abhandluns).pp. B, :Jgi and se. Nra.uch, ltah+rii,, p. 10,line 4 p. \64. 'i .J t. d. McrA.r. r: ?rftulol;a8 fuakr tat t dtut1laidr, palis, 1961. pp 251 r,] 'ri rbr x hdplil p\.nrdrcn, sft (}erhddson. ,nm,rr dd nd@n!\ pp 19-29 'i lbw much mat hav..hangd h the medt;ne is a qu6d.n 10 wbjcL I shall rdutr is( bdos, El 1,1!Jt) , ./rr. pp. zrJi. r57-6ji u.l, sa.k.Inturuan b t tatad a,,2ai?r, ptikhlphia. l,irl..pp l2r0;.J Krpt2n, nk rtu.hor rf ttu Baqbnw .latnud, New york, r9a2-3. ,r, ?al rrrriY N. Epsr?in, ,ldu b nriil. ta Mth,,r, lerond cdirion,Jorusalem aDd Tel n , t '1 , t , . .,f d t,n 4 . r ,o r .\ " ,i , ,, In \l c, d .r l ,, h r ;fl l ? . " | , i . , I , r a t. ir L t,,+. .,, ,1 ,..,..J,,,tr r r r r * '- 'i ' " lr wl'xr l!'ll,)w:, I l!.,Nr .$i(1. v!fr,,t \tntradrn v,uRls khos. | ! r x l r ! l r r rl r ,i 1 l ,i ttr f l 'tr ( !,r xt [tr 1 tj . ti n h .f D j .( .i . s r h .y . i T, vr . r h c l ' ai r .i \!r '1 .,r n r ,. |'|, ]!r 1 l 'n l ,'1 ' l f , , l \ 1 r , , tr ."1 ]'r r ,tta n ,) | n l i t \ r t\t tn u ,,j tr .| ||r 0 tr t, r h r i t,,tr \ i r ,

ordlly. and \{ods whi.h luvc beer ranenitte{l ,n $nting [nu be tansDitedl Othe. fomulations nr the Brl\lonian Tlmud relat. flre.iicrlly to laws r,r!{.,4 On. lormulaion i\: ?tutr [d,l5a' tou mat srit., but you mat rot wnte las '! Anoiher is: "Those sh. srit. l2vs rrc as on. h. bu.ns the Ioralr, and I. eho leams lrcn thrn ruL.ivcs no rewrd 4,u p.ohibitio.s, whi.h ma]' haYs dilereniorivatlons, re{rL orher Rrlini. genres tn rhc Fan:inirn Talhud a Rrtl,i sr8 a boot ol 4sd1zl (.oughlt dr eqnn?lenl ol tai6), Dd .xp.c$es the $ ish that the hand 1hrt rvnc i1 bc cur o{r1r 'l he To fta a.d both I almuds ha'. *' rhe salins: "Tl,o* eho wit blesins J,,,r/4 an 6 rb6e who bum tlr Toral, In the $n(en hs, itnnatcd Sr.iptue) lit(.nis the objcrr of dhaPpr.ral Palestinirn Talnud, rea.ling il f,n r $ntn coPy in a slrasosuc is {lnddnncdrr of hodi Talmudsrelatea oc in shicli disapproval r ra'lzn of rhe B@t ol.lob is erin.ed br bur,vins i. Lruiklins-o.r in prosc$ on rhe lemple Ntouri,rs ! n' re Babllonian lrlnud tlis ory n r.ld b .tp.oyo a s.holar encountered sining al I irblt rcditrgrhis !ork.51! TlrE aF also ,nc $tcd,cDt in lav.u ol vndng, dough rhey r. l* in

numl,cr.rt', Tne oDly gcncral in a someslut apolog.ri. va.iant . t hey reply ihrhMa dnatua) t, o e ol th. kcy tex$ of rhe aabylonian Talmudjl Ib the sayingsforbiddins wnrjngl rlDt tlr Rahbh [d ind.rdl relv on wnat de! l c d ' L \ l r "n {o ^ ,JL l b r l .r ," r t,q . i . tJ n Jr tr , o tl r u ,sr h n q r h .) q r r ,,g , .o .- h ,,r ..ta I d o r I a n .td r D o i i i r . d n d r \r .'tr \ t.4 l i n ,,r , L n ,{ h hd, how.vd, h.en sueg.rcd thrl rhn variant is a tater Cco c ne.potanor.,3 Tl,cr ar also of the sririns of,14<ald,1. Two {hdaE woulJ .onsuh a btuh oa rnqarrn on th. Sabhath, defcndiry n d. in .trc{r, a lcsef evil thrn rhe disappcaran.c ol the Tor.I hrael.i5l The uew lso .rpF$ed rhar Lc wo lcarns,t!4gdla lrom: bool{ will nor qui.klv lL'rg.r },ld he has lcarnr.555 hrall}, the N a sbay srggsrion dur it mighr bc p.missible to rnt dom a .ew opin nrn.rh lr is ri!'ng thai ther kin.nh rend io lNrify Mirjng tu . hser lil mrh.r rlian as an imrinsi.dl_\r comn.r able pradi.c tu has bcm seen,nris nraicnal atpraB in botl, Trlnnds. h ir n.v.ftheles rit ing dut all rhe au&o.itirs.ited and rlre ra.smitten ftun n Prlestinian.r In dde, the marcnal nosiile 10 writing is arribed r. utlx,rities mging frh il,r liN cemury A.D. to ihe etuly fouh; rhat io fa{,ur to audoid;s ol thc thnd .entury. 'l'he major discusonof thc issuein ihe Aabylodan tlmnd nrrr l,av. be.n asrmLltd atcr fi. fi^r lll.t the lbudt ..nhrry.553 ruy hc h nolcd rhar on. auihoritvopposcs writinBoflss bul tronN larofn4sdlar.5 die

rhe oi.rl. iI Lir. ibe Brbvlonian Trlmud from FPrinrs ol th. Wiln dnion o 18S0-6b! rhe $rn{lrrd lolirtion, which alrP.rr Jso nr lnc Son.ino anslriion..d ln L tFstnr, l.ndon, 1935-52. citing Rahi rcxa,I aPPlyrhe samcrnvfntions the Penod is in .nt,s -AJabic rx6: i standsn,. "ntio , aM the numb.r lU{,wing tlt lin.-nnmbef.) l he au Dnty lor rhn sarins n R. Y.lldal, bar Nahmari. the lnte. prere of R. Sllnn'on Len Laqnh Laqish) 51iPale$nrianl almud. t/sudl, 4:l (vni.., . 1s22,t 71d 16 M. H..sel .r al ie.l.), tlbrvtanr tu.\ Taln!'l ldt\hol,ni, lii6in$n, 1975-, Rand lll10, p. l3s; nLo J N.Nn I .r i,tans.), n. alnu.l { ltu lad dl /var, Chnaso ard Lordon. 1982, xlx, p 1421. 11,c srying is qmFd br R. Ilassri f.un R. Samu.l bar R lsra. 1" T[e reler.nceis t, L\o.lus :XXIV, 27: nd dt bl said unro \'1.s.\, wnk th.u ,{,v ru: li. artrf rh. teno. oi 1r4l tles v.ds I hav. nadt a torenant virh irr Babyl.r,ianTlmud, C,irt, l' ioh l tii ;Lin., Tnuah, I l !b.l 3 Tht unnamcd as autlo y i specilied lioD d,c $hool of R. hhmael i l lb 5. Tlt saling is bv R. ALb. son ol Bnrybriar Talnnd, ?-d,r, R. Hiyfa bar Abba Yohana.. Comparealsothe rnonydro arement th. .o' 'n nen@r- 6 M.<.,lktk'dttt: '\\e do nor wriic la n, a tok (H. !i.htrBtn,, "Die 1r,,, l6rnroll., .ine Unrrsuchung,urixlis.n l.I.dtischen Gerhnhre", in trtn Ctllry /1n 1aL A-9, l'r3l 2, p. 311.6). i1i Pale*inirn T*nndj $ldrrdr l6il ii l5c'll = raN. NeNrer, xl, p.'112). Thf bbi is R Hiwa brr Abb.. !r li,.efh. Sr?rrar, 13:4 (ed. s lieb{,mur, N.$ Yo.k, l9i:).ll, p 5r, Lt 15 Ncw York and Hoboken.197786, II P 't9, wnh J Nuir.r ,l dr Lirans.), 7d''J?2. .omnenrar- ni S. Li.hdnan, T6tfu hJ\hdah,N& \.k, 1!55-.l lI, P ?06)iBl4lo.i" Tlmd, .Vrarr,r, I l5b.8i Pdcsiidan Talmud, .Vrra\ 16:l li 15t 29 = lraff Ncnsn.r, I shnh liil$ls R Ish,nrl XI, p..tll). The salng n anonrmous,t,ut nr $e anecdote ates a.tion in a.,.ordan \'nh jt lseetEl.rr, \ 132, norc tj05l. ti' Pal$tii.o Tlmnd, M.riUji. 1:r f. r_'1d.15 Hetrgel,Itbdet.un| B^Nl lt/ttt. = is quord bv R th{tii p. 135ralso@nr. N.usne.. x]X. p. 142l. lhe.ondcnni', lmm R. Sanud ba. R. Isaac. * Babionian I almu ,tarrdr, l laa +l: Paleslinian I:'Lr.ud. Jila?,rrl, L il: Ltt 5 l, d, a Xl, Tli. ord.r b bury n wr\ rrvN bv Rrl)lu' (;rdl,l( | rltr.l,l,r kans Neusn.r. p 4091. . 'r' Bab rl,riu I al' nun, s , r , r r , r I ll5r lir r ' llit n ! n ! , l , l l \ R \ '', r ' 1 l " \ 1 r 'o Ril, l) r n ( ir "r ' i' l lr hf L r I i r l ! t r 1 Ilxhlir, q l',' rlnh ' f t ", , "- l

'A . n i - l b v \,r u 1 ,' - \tu d l i ,h , tt.a ,d p l t' Bibllo'L;' TJlmLd nunn. | +6 4. ' Thi. varianr in rh righGh.nd narsin 01 tic Trlnudi. re\r, onohtiod 4, fmn rhe tirr&{ nqubrs.t (= So :ino rtansl^non, 99 n 2ti aDd *c B.srlel /tli<.kzi, ,ttt al turybbzat,at n r*Jut tnudh, cd. r-..D.jlaD, Ben. s738, p. 17.?7.r lolow dF rcadingand hanslatio.ofEpein i,tt /0, pp. j96. 6981. tjebe|rlr aker the "dcposidng ofthc anftn rxr ro h a fom of puLtn rn,n lH. a,n i J,Lith hL\nq p Aq. i the pEsenr nbirn.e_ however,lh. {:onrextrlo$ rct Fzll, nrppon ir sbtes rhar rhc san,etexr aFpea^ a (]eoni. r.sponsun 6 the wnls oa rhe C&r hinrl L{td,, p. 696t. t,ieh.frran infeN tnn tlji rhat rhe pssagr is iir larer nriqDlaiion in rljc 'Iarnnd" (td&,,h ;, jtua tut :tim. p. 86 d. t6l. Iiosder. (he , p2i\agein tL. G:oni. resposun 10 bhich Ep(in and t,ieb.m& refe. n so rli{Enr rlr ir cdnot bc id.nhied as a lrnion ot our lanr 1U.S.Weiv, ..Stndin n,. ha (;enizah". in f, Bl^n t.A.), Itrhnf 2_M 5Ajik sa Bsbrm ./a im. J6?t th,js uttladrhul, u Rtula!'n.BuAape, 1927.llebEw se.tion,p. 96_tin.s 8_10). '!1 Babyloniad T|lmud. Ud,tu. f. l4b.t5. Thc .hola^ aE R. yohanan 2nd Rcnr Palennrn Tdmud, taat,4 5:l /t 9a.10: Hengel, t/rr@,s, Banri I, p. r.1tj l\1, r.rn\ Ncnsr.r, I, p. I97). Tlt iuroity quord is R y.hnan. lr"l,.lu l J I u .l . Ia |tu . tq b .1 t | . .r m " .o n d , r m .u . ' ,n -, ' rbr ddails ol the s.notan naned in the precdiDg .ot.r,- see Situk. Izro&.hr, L' rh lahun ad 7idnth, \nd.i of proper names h Brbyn,nian I a|,i|n, lmltan. t. 1.11,, ' lh|livrrshr a;\es Fom a lcr.. shi.h l{ l)'nri {oul(l lura hk.(l !,:fnil lio'n Pnt.jirn.!) R nr labvl.nia ,eponns I r,.!l,ri,,r )'. i,br l(.u!t I',ir R .lddn,,rlr ,rt1. t L,1l.1lt; Rat,l,isno;nshc r h . l ', n L n l l r r l ! l !r 'r l ',!1 tr 'v " R '' N , , t r n 1 ,- \,,r L .u '." \!.,'l ) ,^ 1 .",'r '. r l l .,,( t 'r .r 1 l t( l ,,1 $ L h r l ,t,r r t{!\1 ,
r .!t,n' L,'1r tr ,, , r ! 1,1 , , ! t r, t 1 , . -, i , t , ! ri , . , r^ , . r! { f jll)

124 Here, then, we have ar attitude to writing bmadlv similar to what we frnd in ear\ Islam, and this siniladtv has recendv been talen up by Schoeler.$o That the Muslim attitude was bomwed from the Jewish one is a ht?othesis which can be supported on a numbe writing maLes E rfS t" tt'. fist place, the Mudim polemic agairst lrequent refrence to the mrning example of the 'beoplc of the Book"or some similar phrase who wrote books of lheit own alongside the Book of God, md so went astray.56' The exact idcntitv of the target of these traditions tends to be left vague: "the people of the Book", "sme of the people of the Book", "a people belo vou", "the nations before you", "thos beforc your). Yet one not infrequentlv has th impression in Tradition that such phrses refer primdily to the Jews, and in the prsent instance it is th "Isralites" who tend to appear wben e reference is made more sPecific. 6 l?6 lhe Knfn Conpdin bn Mtu al-Ai'di evs: Th hralitcsMot Th BalI5 succsr i.lown) a bok ed fon wcd ir, 26a.d.niDg rhc Tonh".56? went dbv onlv beou* of boLi which Lhv ibn Sin-dneres:"Thc Israelirs rhis inncntedfrcn rhn an.eoB".3 (In a p?Iel vBion,Ibn Sinn Presenc d is the n.v of Dastscholanrs in vcl anotner !riant, thc suggesriod rhar tc hntns weni stmy th.oushl,l,s b.ols of thor dreston )w The Chnsti{s aE o..sionaly brcught in inpli.itlt hv lhe use of su'h telm 6 nd m.noonf bnhnP. nly' nrcuch Lsotuath a bon- d 0,I al krLtrr. o' .{rrU, q rh' h'q th' iool of Hohafl rd Lhr'loBn
rhr C6DLI dlonbide hols ' "I *.onda; e-b;iderv. Th* afe va;ant ofa single tadition rccoununs th eF surr nfr rn'rna bt $. Knrdn Compcn'onlbn M'id. r' \'n'nr "pr"r 'imh!\ b hhhpsnd \cF h'lF you * lh" lrirr Dl! of tho*;o 'd.N pn.'t-\ supr. , Ddnmi,t:mib i \cFi"n qrl tnc idrnq'al lrri co,rt pro_ ,fr/ io; r\. wdi" \,id ibn H.n" .1 ,)Ob "lx h 'Pcd unl\ o ' 5r0 ple ofthe Book bf;.. you" md thcir nsLct of'the Book of their tn'd

Similar i$us of specilication dise with othd tmditions wLi.h male .efcrence io thc exmple oa ln. 'peopl of ine Bm[ ' and the liLe. One c& i thc famod tradirion .eSading brcak-up of rhe Muslim .mhunily inb 72 sectsrsr'he.e ni one veBin tle Prcpner rtab rhat h connuniry wil splir up on ede lines a (aL n ttand(pt 'olaJhi) The vlr *nom tEdilion predicti.g dEi the MusLins sould foll@ the pa6r of tho* sho were b.lore cn span by span may likcwis h specincd t rd.r b th hrielites.'3 'At' ibn Abi Rzbn, refusing the stalu! of pople of rh Bmt" ro th. Ch;3tid Arabs. sives lhe idtftsting e+lanadon: The people of the Bool arc the Istulits, t whon fte Torah dd Gospcl w. .svald; as lor othe^ who hav entered thcir mnlq tl!.y do nor bclons10en 5r1Notethat the Bann h|' of thc Muslin sumcs are nor alaats the Biblical "Isr&her" d oppNd b the lattdday Jes".'5 $ 127 At the sme time, the baditions which refer to the waming example ot the past speai somctimes not of "books" but of "a book". This is so in the tradition iom Abn Miis quoted above ro its speciicadon of the Israelites and th Tomh. W aiso nd this in some versions of the tradition decision not ro write down the 'Umar\ hc explains his decision as follows: "I recollected how som of the people of the Book wrote (down) a book alongside izzaa. In one venion the Book of Cod, and devoted or Minah, themselves to i1,576abandoning the Book occasionaUy this book is identied: i ls }Le Mdnah, a te.m lvhos in this context wa already noled by Coldziher.5?s No Chiian book, nor any othe.Jewish book, h named in the !.aditions against writing;s?'qthus the Mishnah may represenl the p.ime larget of the whole polemic against the literary misdeeds of the "people of the Book". Such criticisn of Jewish malpractice regdding

a scheler, Mn.Iiche Tnora", PP ?13-21,and ct PP 224t 'l!oid, "S'heiben und Verjflntlichcn", pp, 37t As h tirlc "Mn. i.hc Thora und Hadif' mal4 dear' ..-"-*" ot !.** ;; Mu"LT dt'ud- h -}.tr F"pr' ti". oJ I Bdiuons s' rntral Hr dus nor ' r @ P \ r r . d i s L ' t h r P o J h 'l r v o r d J " M ! h r* r,jF o l s. h; r . , pn' , "h ,'1d ot th. M6nn h,tilitv io Midns "" S.., r o, . - . pr ", I aoid. W t \ i r 4a. 4n . 4 q d c . l o o - i , / r . 5 l d . i 1 d . 5 b b1 7 b . 61h; and seSchoeier, "Mnndli.he Tbom , pp 22l' 223 pint (2). 228 $r T,.otrZ P 56b! s!'d, no 486 6a Abn H;vb4 n, no. 152, wnn. Taqd. P 6lh &tr,tt 56 Id. dt., a\?t 'lnl,I, p '2r'1, no 235, frcm lbn Hdbal

485. 's 4, 9 53a; Sue'. nos. 403,

r" See, fo. cmple, Ab- Bli al-xni, Jm*4, ed. M.H. ar-liqi, C.irc, 1950, pp. 14-18, where nude.ous varianb are @ll(6d in .hapcr on Wq dl rMJ drini^ 5'r ,/rd, p. 17.12; a.d $c L Cl.lzihe.."Le dnonbFment dessects nahomhd", Rau d. I'hi\hir. d4 ,.liCiN,26, 1892, pp. l3m XI, p. 369, ns. 20,764t ') 'Ad zlRezag. tluMv 5r1/r!:C., vII, p. 186, no. t2,712, rd se VI, p 72, no. 10,032. For rhis vicw *e ,'l$ Tabd, Tdrir ed. M.M, od A.M. Ski., Cairc, n.d., Da, pp. s7s..r,577.1(b q v, 5), andbuting rh vi.w ro Sdi'i. \t\ Sc Tabaqt,l/r, p. 2A.2A'1 Rc^ling labbn'alqhi l.f. ragnil, pp. 49a, 50b). t1 1aqd, p. 5O.; and *e ibid., p. 49L Tibdqt,III/1, p. 206.5. i 5rr I Grd7ihcr, "Kilmpae um di St.lluns des Hadit im lslam", Z.ttilh4f,16 Datt.ha ,\h@lnnditha CaAInhaL 6r, 1907. pp. 865f; also T. Nldkc, ,\d A,tt4r .r raihr Slnatku:\n tooq,St^*bu'g, 1910, p. 26 n. s. "ln " The "Bool of l)anicl" o ?-aOrZ pp. 5la, 56., ir n pparent exception. but e ,hili.l the radnions i tlr{ rhn is a worl to b. supprsedaltogrthd. On thi! bok, whn:[ ir lik ly r, n.rnrrnt {rr. hr' l)uni.l* ratnd $an $e Bibliczl hool 01 rl'd rm., r. lndhrr M,l Knr.r, U ldnhn rn bani i\r'{ wa-l hril , /yal ttin rl Stwltt, r, llr7l, I'l) l'l5ll

-T X
503 nr rhe writins of Tradition poiDts to an awarnes of Jewish oralist pnnciples which is nonethel.sssignGcantIor being epressed in negativ
Q l2li TLc cafl) rlefences b il,c M.l,,rl d the followins (l) In a tEdiiion.n.d by Goldziherliom Ibn Sa'd. rhe MedineF Q"sin ibr n Nluhanmad (d. 107J dkd by rhe DaDavicnc'Abd AIh ibn 3lrAl'(d 16'1, it n said at tlc g. of 89) to dnutu tditions to himi qsim n:fusB L aUow hin ro, and re.ounb tlis necdod h th. tint of'Umaf ibn al-HatFb, Jwdrcnl raditiors Ffoliferared, sa hc told peoplc to brins ihem io hn4 whcn tlrey dld r, he had dun bumt, and said: A M,J,. lile rh ]tn'tnh or rhe Pto ple ol the Bmki"Ni Thc ransm cr arom'Abd Allh is likevir Slrirn. Ttu smc '^hd Atlih (hen ideDted hy his e,!!,, Abn Zab, aho transnia |tutu q-inr a free variant ol tlis in whi.h Llmrr's dictun luns: rmntla ta unn lat dl L{aLir.'r This will pa$. since otu of the Ko.ani. us.s of thc plural at r,t n in connectnn wnl "drose sho urit. lhr Book Rith their hrds, lhm say: This i3 lrcn Cod" LqlI, 7q)rhut n n mofe likely that u? ha]t 10 do with a.orrupiion ol Mdrnr,'r The t.dsmiftef tiom 'Abd Alhh n Vad'nri lrl qrn diinct tion th t.dirionof'UDar\ bon6rc,dd Inuch more widely qnoted, n an $Llkrologicl adinon fron 'Abd AIh ibn 'Anr whi.! was krdkn sources. l)finls versin,one of the 'signs In n, Goldziherircn ol rhe Hon. is thal t}[ Maldn {ill be recit.d lkrl ln ,hr) and none vill bc question.d to the round to put d itip to ths k )iad mn /4q),,/,1;r3: nanins of $e rem, 'Ahd Allih ibn '^mf 8lo$es it arl boot that n wfit.n dosn (!'ttdd) othrr thm dr Ko.a.".r Tht s.coe ! set Dear Himi, and tlie Mal is HnNi no rhe mid sond ..nrd]

{ 129 significant slrucrural s;mila.ity between Jewish and early Islamic attitudes to wriiiDg is the tendncy 1l) disling sh in this connection betlveen the public and privie spheres. The Muslim evidence for this dislinctjon has been prese.led above;5sa .Jewish analogxe the has been dalysrd wel by Gerhardsson.56The cleaest illushadon of thc point is the roie of mitten notes. On the Jcwish sidc, the characier o such material is nicely caught in the tem "secret scro " (zq?Zal setarin:) \\hi.'h is sometimes used for the written notes of the Rabbis.!6 Such notes, though acknowledged to exist, do not nomally appcar in public. Thus in a Talnudnr anecdole one Rabbi tels anolher to "go out and iook through your nols (tutJ1;lta'l'; he does so, and duly finds ther a certair The parallel wilh Abn Huray.a going home to check his private records,5s Hammm ibn Yany going otr ro or look up his booh,5@ close. As in earty Islam, the existence of such is wril|en narerials js beyond doubt;5s but Gehardsson's remark on the s,ay;n which'1hese private nores and soolh arc only ehnped in the souce material'j'gr is equally true of many ol the early Muslim

on dr Muslim sidc is rhe $nsc of thc ! 130 cl.sely rdded ph.nonrnor inprcpdety ol conraminatiDg onl transmission thmugh the intrcduction ol mareriJ drivins fron liierz.) linds. In a Ba\.rn t.adidon. 1he KnfaD Abida is dked bl the Basrd lbn Sirin: "If I nnd a boL slul I lml in ir?"{' or. in a veid

s Tnbo4,t. p. 1.10.3r V, also Dahahi, J]}r, V,p. 19.13,andid., r,4 all:lan, ed 'U.A. Tadmun, Beirur, 1987-,teds l0l-120. 22014 lall lrm d)e Zayd ihn Y:hy (d. 207)). This taditron is not uln up bt the vdtcs on sdni, al lal'lr, and For a rianr tEnsmitrdLy Ab[ Nushifld. 218) i\ dus isaffed by the lexicosraphds. w|i.h makesno mention of rhe ,ttdl,rr, seeAbn Zu.', dn?, P. 363, no 7B5 s'1 Goldzih ranslats: und da$ es nicrrdd :inden'. Howe\frj I tak n drar 3,l,td is b b undestood d in tasil araun q .mpte rbn Al' Szyb^'s J. L N'6uM aioa ntird in the lrNion cilcd in dr fDlovnrg note. Io. a t.adition in shich 3d1tr" a glossed qqJinn m'dba, sce Abn Zut'a, 7dt, P ltl, no lr2ll but this docs nd nt 3 .\tua, m. 4B2. The ody orher version wi n t.l tnom ro ne i onc g'!t. VII, p. 50 1, do. 31,54\ to tu1b LMalnith he h8 tuqn' by Ibn Abi Sayba lM6dzl dltulan'a@in\ mltzt bcnrs deturedas every bool tlr than the Book of Cod")i th ;u l is gain Himsi into ihe mid{ftond cenury. I b appsa.dtt of the Phral mJrri he.e ii li[cly to b thc tcsrt or a e.tndary ltrtu Jcili.ri in seneral. t]tt d$.us sidn ol fie Koranic n l,i in dr Muslim sourcesbert no rulatio. to ou. ,|/abrn (1 tr. Rubn! "Eicgcsh and tf'in: e crsc of lh. sever ,t/,rtlt", in G R Hawting and Yor[, 199]l; RuLin .it.s Ibn A.A. St,tee|, rfaabt b Ltu @/', London aDd \s Shaa\ um, Md notesSulatrr .iratior oan (ld, p. | 5 3 n 2; Snvnti,al ,rtt al nm!tu, co, 1314,VI, p. t2.3sll. Of the vesions Dnd only witllour n,t, o'tr' ^b dl ["d4. .d l\i\h tuan' f n bqndhun bi 'l Mdlnnh) is qn&al lry lLr al_Caw?i (;', 'A. al Q-al'ai, Bcn(, lr)85, I, I 130.16lal,broviricdllrd lhn rl Ai k/,\ildrr /i (lrro- lt)(jJ5.l. I, r?5 ?0) lLr dh sa nl) an t e l^ 2l- r ui r n, l N{ Nl. r l ir r r l , , .

1nl\t t.eirh tut!d' al Malnii| 'ult u'tri 1 tui is by lir tirc rno{ oat r .n.d; n i alrcad} qivenby Abn 'Ubay{t (rr1t al ralt, ed. V A. Khin. Hydebad, 1964-7, p. 281.8)l lv, i1i dls awhari. sir, rd. -{.n. 'Aur, cairo 13767, col. 2294h.r3,and later lexi Znbian, al-I'14 l idnb ol ndd,t, e.l. 'i.M al-Bijwi md M.A. Ilrh.n!, Cairc, '.t 19,15-9,I, 15S.16 p. iwith Ibn 'UIDI' for "Ibn 'Amr"); A. JetuN Gd.),m Mqaddi% h tlo (b"un tdd:, Azirc, 1954, p. 260.3 irhe Muqdddind ol lbn 'rilaa). tlle nore ,tr l$s mr.l .xplanalion of rhe ren Matnh dd!.ed hy Abn 'Ubayd (.ot Abn 't'bavd, a Col.lzih.r td Nld.Lc b.&!d) (Cdrn al L14, n', p. 282.1) is lrquendy ,l?cat.d in ]ci sourcB. re Sec ahove, 73 1,1. $$ pp. 157-63jud cl: S.hoelef, Miindiche '!' Gerhard$on,Mmat and nnMl\ p. 16A, tut t\EC nEilt rLtin. Cl. |l1c '* Scc Orhar&sr, Md,r, a,1 uadqt, ddll whi.h ibn Mlik wd to bring our vhen his cla$es were over.rovded ^nas 'i' Ilabylr)nun rrtmud, nla, i 44a 23i see 2lso (;e.i2rdsson, Mmory oad nanL\d|pt.
'"' S,r rl!N.. | 77, not. 341 ' s.r )L.!., \ 77, ror' J41). '" l i r a,ol hrrk , !,1 .)N nl i nrc { rtk r,\. '' (;c'l rnr l i !' . thrut i ' tl unrbt,l tt I

Srra.k. /,t/r.tu

b th' hlnd


fom: tfl lind a book, slHI I read n ro youl,,r,3 (r. r. obrid aron you thc nsht of traBmisnn,). The ansrer is rsative lt is a$in lhn Sirin sho in one vananr o{ a hdnion .onside.ed abov irtu6nil\ lhe vier rhat thc ls.aehs wnt any dy lhmusn finding boo}s oa their anceo*,.,1 implicidy .ndmninr( an! such pncrice i! I3lam. CivnJevish aritudcs 1o\ds onrl rdNmnsion, one 6idy supp{Nethar this view d ke.ary linds wuld be shared b} rhe Rabbisj bur I have not ncountered an arerion in a prelslami.JrGsh sou.ce.r,' Ir is, ho,dr.. r .ompaie the Muslin faditions jus colNidcrd wjth Jrwisn 'nreEstmg t.xt oI ihe nlnth c.ntury A.D. fiis dne ere had exi.d tor some d{ads vilhin the R.bbrnire .onnuni\ a quarcl bs,een t]t fo1lo'e6 otrhd palcinian ^r and Bab,lonian nb, a.d tn text in queio! is a uabylonjaD poltmi. asanN drc Palestinids. O. of tie alegarioi\ mde by ns .utlx,., a ceMin Bcn Baboi, is dii the Paldtinians had taken their erd on book Mihnai. and ralnudi.l whi.h tliq had Jdld h.r tbey had becn iiput avay'.r{ h is in line wift rhi tlDt the buryin8 of L{xirs is aho on lhe.lekish sidr;5!rbul r hart not Fe. a Jewis! parallel ro thc &2thed disposals of books which abound in rhe qu.siion $hich is rclrd to rh disrir.6n hesen pubti{: rnA ! l3l prnare sph es is the prolncty or orhefris. of Mibng lenets on ..ligious mare^ ^norhr Thc pra.nce was douhtle$ widesptuad in early Islan, lDt it is occa'on llv .,alred r', q r'ui n one l e " e r a k i , 'q \ m d a o 'r {m , ' r 44idu' ,' ". . r ' a' . or ' , i v in maef, Ibn 'bbs sould say rd the beder '.,T.I c d rur ariend thar 1h{:answer is su.,h-2nd{uchj sc nly wite down l.k and 1hKomn',..!i The txl rould sen b hk been mangled in ,me my, bur rll. undrlying rDsc oa the radirior ir .learlt hoilc Wlth 1h we rnay conra a.orl.r radidon in which tbn nhb:6 Fce'v.s lette. liom sonr wonranaftef dr ons.i of his blindr.!:, and pases n to Sa'id ibn ubay. so lhar dr laiter cn n b him , S.i.I al.{r'appea$ a badition wli.[ arributesa hosdhy b$ards lee^ r Ihn .I]mar: tlrc Kufsn\ ffir ro Sa<id{i que*iotu ro b. pui 10 ]bn .trnr, and Sa.'d th.n qusraned him liod the lerrerr had Ibn tjmaf reatisc.l r1is, he ad&, drar wonrd have bcd :'t lbit, p. 1r Gur: . !. 67.2, i7 1i and .t 1d0id. p. 4nai Sune,N. 176:,!hL,I, 5!1Seeborc, 126, nore 565. E 5!5 Ntc, however, e raer disindiv. style in $,hjch c .ibtion ot such rindj is acrnowleds.d: Rav said: I found (,64'r) a $c.d scrclt ot the s.lbol of R Hiyfa n, which was Issi ben Y.udah sats:..." (BhylonianT^tn\nl, Aaba tuti,a, f. 92a.23isimiidly t rA, "t{dr,fr 6lr.19,96b.,12j alsoPJ$rinian .tatmud, rr'q}ir, see l:l (l: 27a.5= hans.Nusner,IV,p 2l)). ComprcMunim cirions ofth. typa".laulia ib| rtl.!, Il, p. 88.8j llt, pp. 22 15, 216.3). f urltz (see, eranplc. liasawr, 15 rbr Bn Baboi! polemic asair Pdesnniane:Li^r.e at 4ann... Equ.h, see S. Spieser, t -fardhar na,pnlmos shrl Pi.qoi ben Babi.., i^ Honr Aab\n ttatJ:n iuht* utw, Jens?]n 1965,Hebrcv Sectior, p. 273.17,vith .onnahry at pp. !53,8. '!r For th. .tue of Rabban (lrmalici I rd a ,rrs!, oaJob, *. salylo;ia" Tr-"d, Shahbat, ll5a.4r, od Pal$nih Tilnud, Shbat, t16:r tt. t5c i = rans. xl, p.409). For tbe liew thar a wom,out..boi* of toh, rhould b. buried ator{ \ide a scholr, seeBabylo.ian Talnud, ilq/rr,l, t 26b..rt tlnr th. pradnt n dso lound 5!3 IdOl, p. 42d: Abn Eylanz, titb at 1tn, no. 2i \a lbaq\, p. 180.25. Vl, Bur rhe tdan,,e ofrhis ro tln.,onrm!r,\! (out(i tx."rr, nous:wc nay hale to do wnh a norir dcra.h.d lr.m hs.r rrdrn,, ((ix frf.(l ,,,i mrnly sh funruarion l.ll'bd alRn?/.(t, bnntu|, r. pr llr5l: ,j 7rl

thc .nd of n rclationsiip.n A toter attitude is prhaps ro Lr :n in the uaditions !o rh cfliar rhar 'Liwns;, a.d Su.baa, vonld buft or bury z.r nzl,r./ lette6r but it is nor clcr \Lhethd Lrcrs on rdigiur t pics &c inien{ted l , ', o n r h e J"i .r ',1 " r h . J'i , b , e . r r i 'n g tr "r ^ o n ,.tj sr ;F, d ,,.,. r m . r {r b h d !, h tr n ,o n m u ',, o "g h 0 L u ' h ",c r o o ,, i 4 u i r p a 4 ,,n ,h r cal.d in querrioD.TLc menrion ol a h)TDtheri.l lcr.r lion onc Rabbi 10 udLr .n a quslon ol law prorides the o.cnn f.r one of the ctdn. TJmudic die cusions of the writing of Tradition.u 5 l ', r B ca 'c^ l r "\i r r ."o i r , p r .tEp . o o l p i ..r ,, q i ,h r , u r . ' b .'q ,, 1 - ,,-r i m V'r d ,d J1 r .h d r u ,,d , . ,.

xn'i ne. d l I,i Leh nl r o' .4 ,,!u,,r,.,. ' ' hr \^h., mi gt, l - ' hre dLd , ,. .h. -a4r ' ,u' ar , i .i c n. .r, i . R nmd,. Palestinc and early lluim lraq. Rabbi khmel h.aa rel ofa nan who harboun r r.ll of writc. prayc^. and gtrs oI to inreligart gha* a. tl!. sound of rhe RaLbi\ or rhc ladd.r, rhe oiicnder hims.f thros the rolt nrto a bo{l .t vat...'5 lbn lls'nd is bfousl nosoipurat dtinSs of wious tinds by rvcll, mdl.s Knnsr [c cdls for the bo{t as hn (runenr o, despar]h.s Andher shared rheme sdting on th Mlt.s' rhis nanner of,raling notes ^ 'Iatmud.w lhe t ancrd in the Palc$inian sar,c xpedjeDt is re.omnended on the Muslim side by Sa'bi "When tou somerhiig, Lriie it downj cven on wal'.m Such advi.c is aho arribd{:d to tl Khur tnian Dat rk ibn l{uznin id l05l.u" Suqn al-Twn would wrir. dom adilions on rhe vall ar nisht ;nd . K ntan A l l ,1. i x nd. "'n, 'l rm ' h' a-\r d").' Oft of the non-snptural wndnss ol rhe Rdbhn $,as a g.ftatosrcal sork. _ Zuh|i in onc radirion possrs.\ no boot ex.epr oDe on ttr sereatoey ofhisribe.,

6tu 1'a4rd,p. ,t3d: nL, p. 66.t. ' L b d q o ' \ | l q , , \o d i l R d ,/d .l r r a .r ? d ,.\t

p . t_ ,. i ,, ,tl ].,Ol

" . s . : . 'o . - mn ".L p {.i ,. v,,a . I,p u a 't r cp h . n r r .n 4 p p 1 L l l 4 B - L \ l , t ud n l Jr r u tn r L ,r .t tl l tt !r L .d u l l .d | |l i , a l , , d t , . \ ta n b d ti r r o L i ,t- m n n . . i ,,1{ \r u .n i , l t.1 4 q ,w i .l ..mmmtary D Liebennan, 76'fu kJihuloi. III, p. ?otj, and id, HAt nin in Jtui:h farnr, New to.[, 1950,p.206 n. 3Oi and.t pal$dnian |alnud, Stad, 16:l il: 15..29- m$. N.usne.,XI, p.4lllr Lbttodan Talmud Jrzrra4i I15b.9.Liehemd baslates ry', as !ail". rl,oush bdilf' o.\il" would be morc usual *- Hx .hon iffftmmt n^y ? t.aei,1, pp. 39a, 5.1bror ral (rhd., pp. ^n ltgnu 53r s,1a, and paratlekii and (:t abov, ! 87. note 3S+. ,rUi U*a *" .,;t , 1;. " r,. .10di ./rr( l, p 211, no. 2u61.'lhe seDrri.,ranse is..Lu._tcf, ,.bin,,, ..h@1,,. q5 h v s,tr j , l !tu ..d i ,h - th o ,J L ' .th ' 'r i P d r "i.-d r m u d | t.2 , IJn .. \".,".. t\.,,. /l !!, 7n?r4 pp 99d-l00ri Jo ^ Taba4t,w, p r71.tat,1ta1. p.2lrj, no.2,13. somc ve. r, .nn$ stf,d oi ll,c rvirl rvirh rhc d{:tinne a{ i: rhr indnnr (lli .tjmtrr il,n .hd al-rviz snrackd ofhis sfu tor writ ' I on. ^\ .l*t 11tllr I K,tr.r'n ,tr r't.rrt k\rt trr rh. wa| (./zl t, Dp. !lril m. 244). ''q. \ t\\ ik t"q,t r,-,ti 7,a.*, 1,""""i". r4th,t rlrlq, lrL,,trli, ,t"*, ". ''" s r r , 'r , N e \ l r l r ! r ! l l l

ginr thes @monliris may b set a point of contrut O. the Jsis side, we encountr lhe suggsrionthat i nay bc pni$ible to vntc somdhing doM if n is na interprration (,llr4 arrr).dr'llr's vould enttur with the tendenct on thc Muslin side b.onsidr rhe witins down of Pe6onal oPinion as pdicu_ larly udesnab,6'6 Finally, il shuld be notd thatjeish aitudes, lile arlt Mudin ones, are not narled by ny monolitliic consiency. A Rabbini. schliat, in xPlainin8 a Ph;si. &tion again a Sdduac lawboolq staies: "Wc do no1 mite las in a b@k'.61r Yel tnis matenal is iMl containd in a .mncnbry on a non s..Pturar mnng of Rabbis, lhe M,sal rd'dtt or "Scrcll of Gsting" Perhaps, however, w should undBbnd rhat rhre is a paiculrt ndkd objecdon t the wndng 3 of l,@. s is sid: Tto who wnre h*3 ar as one who burns the To.ah" It my b ju gni6cnr in this contxt lhat the is u abse.ce or leC tdt marerial r sntuivcs ftom the peiod berRcn tI liom sucn Jsiih nduoipt thi.d and ninth cerruries A.D.6r'qBu1 how rhen a wc to xPlan the h-sal con_ rnt of tne insnprion on th noo of a Pl*tinian synasogxe at BcLShan, for which a dat sho.dy btfo or aft. ih Arb .onqu hs been suggLcd?llq Despnc smc .omide.arions bt Uebman to soi.n e blow,srr it would be hard to w.ire lav in a mor public lishion. $ 133 Two poinb set out in this section support the hpothesis of

Prophetic injunction to 'rite nothing from me except the Koran",6'i dd in the rhetorica.l retort of Ab[ Sa'id al-Uudrr to a udent who wanted to write Tradition: "Ae you going to take it as a Koran7"6t On e Jewish side it lies bhind the first half of rhe Rabbinic dictum: "You may not tlansmit Mitten words orally; you may not transmit oral words in writing".6'{ The Jewish ernphasis on the written chaater of scripture6s is iadeed stronger than what we 6nd in Islam.6'?6 $ 135 This simiiarity betwcen t}re two religions is not a tivial one. Some sort of distinction between "Scpture" md "'r'radition" is common enough in thc world's religions, if by this one intends nothing more thm a rcn ol epistemological nkng of comFDnnts ol'an authoritative heritage. But it is quite possible for a retigion to insist on e ,ral hansmission of what we would otheMis be tempted to call it! "Sdiptures": wihles drc caes of e Avesta6'?? and e Vedas.6,3 Equaly, it is quite common for "'liadition" ro be 4r?1rr without even a formal i$isteDce on tnnsmission; this has been the cas in Christianity since a very early epoch in its history.6" The dichotomy btween a written revelation and an oral Tidition is thus not merely something which Judaism and Islan had in common; it was also, at the tine and place at wh;ch Islam took shape, a combinatioD that w6 peculiar to them, and one to which I loow of no para.llcl elsewhere.6e It is then an obvious \pothesis th.t thc wholc notion of an oral TraditioD is .nm$i ng $hi. h I slam bor r owed r om Judahm .

aJewish origin fo the early Muslim hostiliry to the writing ofTradition: the way in which the M'rslims themselves associate the issue with the Jews, and e doseness of the shared distinction between the Public and pivate domns. In the next sction, I sliall try to show that the h)"othesis of a Jewish origin finds some support om a wider context3. Tb uilar nnteKt $ 134 In both the Muslim and theJewish cses, lhe TraditioD whose above exists alongside a wdtten revelaolal stalus has been emined tion. This duariry finds succinct expression on the Muslim side in the
6rr BabtlonianTalmud. TaMn, t. l4h.l+. 6 S&, q I 23, not s44; ,ls Grhddsen, n,@t! d1 tu66tpt' W. 2af fh. ' date of th. Rbbinic commentary to rhe {rol is un eaini the sdI prcpd is 6 t Babylonian Ialmud. Tn6t" t. 14h.5. ds Se M. Beir-tui, "Thc Munich PaliDF6cs! a Hbrev $rol vritten bclo lh 8th .m." (in Heb!w), iraa Sdb, 'r3, 1967{, PP, 4l I-3, 421, '124;.l also S HoPhns. "The ordes d2td duncnr in the Gen;a?", in S. Momg tt il. led.). Studi^ ir fudaim pp. 87, 89, dil 1de, Jenszlm, 1931,spc.ially 6! Y. Su$mm, " hala$ic inrriplion frcm rhe Betn-Sned vIey (in Hebrw), ?i,n , 43, 1973-4, drau to hy a{emion by Haggt Bcn_SMmmaii for rhe dalins, sc. are ba'nly rlrri4,pp. l54i Th ins.riptions which r{ord thr p.iely couNes (rru,r) rldn1 hcre (se fo! exdple R. Dg.n, "Die hebneisck lns.hrifi DJE 23 aus d.h 414 h' J.n n ..vry Erm i'Th :ht$ h' Lpls'oPt . ). 6'r S Liebenr, halalhi. inrripn. from thc Belshcan vall.y (' Hhrw), 76hi., 45, 1975-6, W. 511

6?'sLe bvc, 123, nore 540. ! pp. 45-4, 64. "r Se Gerhdso., ntaot dl tuMifl, 626 Nob how stu .rly Mullin aurhonriB dielite beinA led in prayr by d h.' :.ling arm .oder {mqrzr, since this resemblesthe'leople oflhe Bk'('bd lRazz.A, MMM ll, p- 419, ns, 3927i l6n Abi Syb, Mq daer4 [, p. 123, no. 7226, rnd .f. p. 124,no. 72:l0iSitu,,4t cd. . al-Atru, Ityderabad,1966-,I, p. 206.,1). Seeabove,$ ll8. "r 6rr ct h1tu, 162. E "r' Seebovc,I Il7, note 525. '30, explicit hostility 1 Miiing, thowh nor confired to JudaiF and Islo, !r'ms to b distincdy r8. Candz wantd b se suc hostility a a nomal fealufe of ,rlturrl ddclopmenq bur of the fudhf instaces conectd by hih ("Thc dwn of h.rarD. , pp. 3l0f), 1honly one tlat bed nBprdion is lhd of th Druidr * desdibed lty J|jli Cks lcrMhni dz b.L Caho, W, 14 (= ed, f. KEn{ md W. DitenItrrscr, B.lin, 1898,pp. 25lfi translarion Gandz. 'The .lwr of lit.rature", p. 346). in t, Ca.sar'sdc.ount, rlr ducarionof Druids involvesthe nemosatinl ^..onlins |,tr{(rmounb.l matnd n, v.n. lh.y.onsi.l. it improp.. b wntc dd{n lhis mattri lt,.tv l at ltttni nmdui), n*pi\'ikn ia. u$ ol ihc Creek icript ^! l r h .i r , h . r a {x( ( o^Ahmnt l 'l i , n r l ttr i vn r rl i l . t) 'i

one. lt was, for example, $ 136 This idea is by no staled liorceuly by Margoliourh,63r and later by coirein;63, and moe recently the parallelism has been uDderlined by Brunschvig633and Schoeler.6s{ it is far from having bccome a commonptace of lslamic But lcr alonc F.eiving Lhe dcrild scruriny !r mffiL.. "tudl.s. thc ol towddsqueions | 137 lhis mat in pan renct rnhivalence coldzihr oiJcwisi innue.ce Islan. conin aldy spke coldziher\ Freferncc on of lr 'la.alleh' ratherthd "inlludncer'inthis tield.d5 rhc irsucs On wni.h concem us hefe,howotr, he wasinitiallt s.onglt vr* ro ..n.edins oen a paralI. In an unchdaderisti.auyp.lni., pa$ageol 1890,he dnouncsd .onparison rhe
ofdr Muin data with &e Jewish diin.tion betven a wdnn dd D or2l lav, and the ddcitcd pruhibiiion of lhc snting ol ft. s(ond, a mleading falsc ^ aDlosy. compleielt nntenablc", bdcd on a kDpe.srirjon' (whnh no.dhd.s rDms ou! to have had "ndy th.oreticzr dnden amontdr Nuslim then, slvd'1 .onceming "the had_th's odginl dcstiny tr oral hdnionii.63' Ir wasj on. suspects,Goldzihe.\ dislilc of is very analogy wirh Judaim which led him to ralc sids $ 6mly aganN rhe orlis and "supcEtjtion" in h k.tncni of the Muslin ov.r the Miting of Tndirion. Son liatcn yea^ Iare., h{cr., Goldzihef vas happy ro adnir dualisn of Kilrn and unwnr.n law in bo$ Islan and Judanm: both had bomwd n inderEndntly lion Rond bvdr Ohe Roman pdallcl is b f{t fa. weake. than rhat hlm and Judaisn. sin.e unvitten law'in tlrr Ronan comext is sinpry law wli.t hap pens not to havc L..n Miiten dou, withour dy inpli.tion thd il ought not to bc) s By 1907. Gold?ihri aritude IDd hllowedi he lelt th question ofJ.wish influence op.., rhoush prsendngthe Muslim polemic asains 1h. Nlnhnan d viden.e qdui such an influcn...F! lhe idea that Islam owes its notion of the orl Tradition to is,7aa Goldzihr, an inherently plausible one, however hdd Judaism it may bc to demonrate in det2il. AI I attempt hee is a brief discusion 6r' l).S. Margoliurh,1lt cab d4eL?ndt o Mohintudhlh, Lndon, l9t r, p. 67. i! S.D. Gonein, Ju dl,4r,rr, Ntr YorL 1955,pp. 59-61. 613 Brunrhg, R. Hmneutique nmtive dans le.Judaismeer dans l'Islan", u drlh ,Ldrlrnia N@Mb da /td Clas dl Scicnzemomli. vol. 30, Rome, 1975, 631 Schoeler,"Mnnrlichc Thora, esprciallt pp. 213-27i aL. id.. Sch.eibnund Vf.nrlichen , pp. 371: 635S.D. Goncin, Cold?ihe. d sn rhrugh lis tcre6" (in Hebrew), in S. t s,ingt. at. led.), ts,M aku.ihd nm,ial nlun', Budap.t, 1948 udJetusaln, I9$. r, p l9 ar C.klzi6e\ MuhmtunMsrlv .'lt.&r, II, p. 194. ur L Coldziher,"Th. p;n.iples of law in lsld', in H.S. hlilians led.), -at ,nb M' hnbry o lv btU, Lndor and N.$ Yorl, 1908, Vlll, p. ?97 ioriginalr publisl,.d in 1904-5). For a .nticai dse$mrnt of coldzihd\ vie$ of th. influence ot Roman l* on Islm, se P. crcN, Rtu\ p,eiukl ad ld. C&nLrids., 19117, 3. pp 102,6. ^/z,l' !$ /rid.,p. 104 n.d 4. is Gold?ine., K.npL un dn Slltuns d.\ lradri, p.8ri5. | 138

510 of a specific bur central fcature which thc two oal Tndirions havc in common: the paem o ascnplion knoM on the MDslim side d the S 139 One of the most telling cascslor a Jewish borowing at the oot of Muslim Tradition was advmced by }lorovitz in his discussion of *is topic in 1918.6a' Homvitz showed rhat Rabbinjc chai$ of authorities provide a good para.Icl to the Muslim Mad, and at the same timc that ro othcr plausible sourc., Arab or reign, can be adduced tor this uDusual phcnomenon. Subsequent discussionot rhe topic has adduced no cvidence at could seriously challenge his findings.6a,
aken n,orc or leir ar.andom S 1.10 lkanples of Ral,binic.hains of authorities, tion the Babtlonian rahud, ar. r}le fotlowing: .,R. Zeriqa said: R. Ammi said R. Simeo. b.n laqish said:. .."j R. Ychudh said: Samu.l said:. ..,,:aa "R. Yehudahsaid:Rrv said:. . .".*r "R. Ahba said R. Hila bar shi sid: Rav eid:. ..".tr ExtoNile dah n,sarding chnns of or n.rc autlx;rjs in t{abbnnc w.rks stre .olltded bt Beher.r His Fsutts show dre nnch gr.rer a.e{tuen.y of snch .hains in tan in lnniri. rcraruE.'s and sinitarlv thar rhv r. oore .onmn^m.rai. talestlnirn than in $c Bbylolian lalmud;h1, in the parallels to th. Muslim fdilt ntua ar occdiotDlly found.6 hilabt be expecie.l, t.r dilions {itl .hains of aulhorilies re&hntg ba.k to Mo*s arc rarc in Rabbinic ^s

"'! I ac.ordidsly Ieave asid. l,.ro the wholc que*nn of JcsL! innuenceon rlc ,,rt ollh Munin orl Tradition. 6L Hdoitz, "Altr und U^!run!a der knad , Dr 112,. I, 1918,pp. ,r.! 7 J. !: Schelr, who oprN hi di.usio. of ttrr pallelisn b*.-, ti; Jesish dd MLlin liadidor! snh a quolationf.on HoroviL l.,Mijndtiche Th.d,,, p. 213), {rns ro hin she. dis.usslns 1hc arriprion praciice o{ the r$o lieons (,r/., p 2171. While nor excludins Jevish innum( (vith .Jewth mn'dls to Isn a the ve(on, ,s.hoelercddsides ir morc likely tha. trc haw ro do wnh pa.allet develophnt ,tn!.n 4 the mechi.s of a schot c o.d -t radirion. My abj(tion r ns woutd be ihar we nnd no conparahl. d.velopmem in the .ich s.holasri. oral tiaditions f India vl, for eJlmplc, O. ron Hinnb{. ,.r BAn, lr $hnh nd jitu :nhiflrihk ;t ii thdh. \Linz, I 990, pp. !tf, aor a discu$nd of a re froh rvhi.h rhe id of r iqaid n, fo. rr nbngly bsenqihn wo was kitu1ly dmwn ro ny attention b)' S.hlerl ()thu sussestioDs Schoeler!ar hlon up beloh,. 1.r0,notrs 659-61. of \ '1' Babylonian lalnud, Ardlr,r i llb..l8. " thid, Ikbd ruia. | 59b.1. |' Itid., Madtlat, f. tsb.a -' Ihul., r\r"Ittn, t. t6b.t9. "r w laflier. rndtt;at und r,onakn in .t n S.htLa pakitnad und tkjrt ni, lJjlipzis, t)1.1,cl[pies 7 (or Tannttic .bains of authoriries), (AmoEic-Tannaiti. 10 chains), :r5 7 1^,noran:.hrinsin rhc P,l{ad,ia. Ialmodl, ?8f(Amonic.ldns in the tsabylonian .,,(l ' lir rlln inv n, Inn"iin. lir.rrrurfj t. ,lj I. tl,t. tirr rhe rernx ,.frnnaiii.. " . rt tr 't,,w .\ Ll t. i n ( t r {t l i t,l ^ndai,

surces, bul the! do .xis.r')Lr cu,p[ is dr nnbwins: R J.shua eid: I have r..eived las r tradnionl li.m Rabban Johanad b. Zatlai. r'ho hsa.d fron hi\, ard tii,cr fron his ierher. rs a /1,/a/k, lgiren ro Mos.! fr.n Snrai, rhat lijah will nor cone ro d..lar. . .lun .. .".61 'thc argumcnr s.t out by Homdu .rn be feqlhened Ly fie obsc^ation rhar af.haic Mlslim mrls are closer to Je{ish cnaitu ol a Dritirs rlan are oncs. TLc ol&r Vuslin ,ui.s rhound in nnd vhich aE unsaiifa.rory by .lay sical ddards in that $cv &:.nh mqlti i. do not so h{k ro the Propher but onlt b latr authofties, of rh,l, i.. in, throush the omnsio. of int.m.dirte iransnitles.{r l}oih tiaofer are at hom. among tlrc Rrbbis. As rhead,- &red, adiions gotig b&k ro Mos$ arc rar.:iil and th. onrnsion or an nrmdiat & n, a .Ian, of rurhoriiies is expre!d_\,sanctioned.i55 Both cultu'rs, n lny L. rddcd. ph.c r hish value on herins r adirion dj.r hom fie sarr. R. Zera, o! heanng a cedtn t diiod luatu;i one nn.rr, .\pr.*d dr hopc Llut lrr nould onr da) so up t. Palcin. and hear rlc evj t,{ .q d h - 1 "n n kr .) d ' a . \,L l - ql i )a J. o0 'ns.l'iur ',,"11,,r.h," in Baa rhev s.ukl lF told irdjdoN on tl,c au Dns of Companions at .ne r.mor, rnd {ould nor re rill they had ndden ro Nedina ro ha. tlcn lron the lips of the Companiods drdx.lvcs __ri 'Ihe susscion has been nrade ar rhe o.igin of drc tyuT lics in rlr p.a.ti.c of tatumisnr aDng tlc prc ls[nni poet\: r poet hould have wh. $ould nenoi\e a.d re.ite his !oetrv.'5! But n. cxanples l'tvr b{: pro duccd of t. cihtn,n of po.try thmlsh a .r@r o{ ni.h ,td.tu llre pra(ri( of

nednd iion is the ^lMrd;an rea(l rs in tat. a,riquny Las drc been addu..djh'the objcc

In sum, Ratbinic Judaism and car\ Islam arc unique in { l4l sharing tbe smc general concepdon of an oral l'radirion which exisls alonside a Mittcn s;prurc; and wirh;, $is gcneral framsork, rhey share not jusi hostilir,vto the wriring of thc oral Tradition, bur also a spccii. patlem of ascriplion. fu accordingly seems unlikely rhat thcse are paralel phenomena }.ar jqsr happa&l ro cocxist in the saoe part ol thc vorld in e sam period. 4. "H.u ut6 the |t'ltndlt |nLten?"



tr:7 (translatun trken lrom H. l)anby hnnr.t, fl?,Url,,r,

11 SceS.ha. h! O ns in\p 22l. nn\ he, M t f i' : l 1 , p p . 3 6 , 3 8 f i o n r o n u r a | T h i s . snnanon was ahedr tnorn ro HoriL f.on M.rlih\ rraurd) illorarit, lrer nnd thlpturg", ,10, .idns Got&il'i. ,UuhanftdnLrhr ShLlia. tt, p 218\. f! Ct P. (irone Nl. (took, Hagaim: th? n lliu of iu arU, C:nb;ds", ^nd ^knn chnn of drnc linl$ i sir.m.d L,_\, mditionins onh the li$i and la iBablonian ' Tal,ud, ,\kr, t 561,.41r. ^ 'rf rio. ihe tem thmr'dh/nn'b, see \\r. Bach.r, i' .aqs.tu Imiarksz d6 Jii,li a I,a!l;ti. l;batu\ l,?ipzis, 1899-l !0:,. l l, pp. 222-+, an l id , Trddtion nn Tiulnt n, p p. ll-1 5. '5rt 8ab)ronian rahud, \"illal\ t. 4q^.ra. r5 lAla q |, lll/ 1. p 82. 3; AbnZu a, Za' , ,p . 4 0 2 , n o . 9 2 . 1a n d p . 6 1 , 1 ,n o . 1 7 . 1 1 ; , .t a \o (:o.k, hhtb Mulin d'enu,p 109, $d pp. !024r.7. r!" Sro Nold&c r{t S.hvallr. (irththt d.s qtE, ll, pp. 127-9i Sclo.ld. "Di. Fras der s.hdfilichen.dcr nlun.Ii.lrd {n{rln:nrung", p ?28: an{t ci id, "\leiteres znr Irase {ir s.h;lili.h.n oder", p. 63. Fo. llor{Mrz's ftply ri S.hhaily, lceJ. Holrvnu. 'No.l, .innJ dn: llcr(unft des lsnad..,/)l' /a,,, xI, l9:1. pp. 26.11. d lhe.ha b uhich Schel rcfeA fvcilcrcs zur Frrs. de. i,h;fdnh.r od., mnddlich.n ljberli.a.runs", p 63 n rr9..iting se?gin,a,ir.rtrr. II, p.22r ! h t)i,l a coN'1rct ot noddd [da^nip. bui m.s .f n d.rires hom a .1 ,\1,! Nuhallin id. 2r3l luor.d b-\,Abn ]-larag al-lrbalr..i aLou porc $lt. {.r. iso zn.,: of rhe poenr'ofodr.s: TLr la !, .onhin. p.erry trnd ,n,r, rr; Ku.,rvr. rah, sri d r d uri.f (lam ili Cam n s i ( h r t oia o Huilh r i I l , n l l r s r s r h , t u , o , , l l 'i r ) - '1 . Hu Ltr'i * N r h, t . iu oi Z' r hr y i iil( , , r . \ lll. t , ! r l r 'l l 's r , f ( 1 , ( 1 . $r\!l,rlo

$ 1.12 That Rabbini. Judaism ad early Islam inhabircd rhe same part of the woicl is not a problematic cla;n: thc tradirional Rabbini. ccntres of Bablonia and Palcstinc lay in territorics conquered by the Muslims at an early stage of their cxpans;on. 'lhat they shared time as rrell a! space is in irself equIy uDprobleDatic. sincc Rabbinic Judaism rook shape $cU belrc rlrr risc of Islam, and sDnives to this day. poblem docs, howevcr, anse bri.g ; to play the *z.l^ qw ol rhe Rabbinic lradition. The classicage of Rabbinic Judaism, lhe Tannaitic and Amoraic periods documenled by rhc Mirhnah, thc Talmud and reltd sources,w! ovcr by A.D. 500.6r Our knowledgc of the ncxr nE'or phase, the ceonic penod, scarcely bcgins unlil scll into thc eighrh .enlury, and only becoms cxtcnsive in thc ninth ard Lerth centuries. TLe history of Rabbinic Judism in the inten.eniDg peod that conkmporary \ilh rhe ris. and early dcvelopnent of Islam is thus sonrlhing ol a da'k ge. lhis disc.,rrinuityin the nrighr not matte. nuch for rhc purposes ol this srudy werc it nor thar
)uts it, a'Reihc von l)i.hief-LD..Lidc..m thar , bur ir d..s rt n.rion as an inzl A ro sar. n is nor a .hrln of rurhrriries wlii.h .ne .iles $hen quonns ihc p...,y ot, s,h,,l ,' -l r' r l ..r Ld r, Ldn mu i ,l h, hrn trbn trt,and p z z ri "' n' 1, ,L -\\ri r'r . ( hf,hr r,,, u f"c . d", ., h n od", , n.!, 1-, p. 1!. ", 'a: a:1. ib,1 pp. 63i, wlcr. th. ' l -di ,l ,, is I nodem con{ruct. .hain ''' l he l annairic pe.iod la{ed Lon th. i.* cenrury A.D. to lhe rhnd. rh. _\noni. l',n thc rl,ird to the ih, and (lle (;.onic lion pulrps rh. tare sjxrlj ro tc etevcn.h I k.^f asnn rhe ralhrr sll'dos Sahorai. pcriod s,hr.h intencn.s b.seen ihe .,'(l rh. iu,n.l li \hould bc norll ih^ rhc notr{p..irtist tike mys.lf is mu.h 6.rer ^morai. .d!.,1 |,tr rl l r' tr' rl i ,.r' l trn)ds rl i an 10, rl n (;i anrj . N t.d.ftl n.l i t.r .,!,cL[..,di!' tni !!l \i .' f.!ti rr(6\i t)tc r|rn,A htri nni ( ^' r,trri l s ands (m{ taN rtr\ l ,r',)t! .!,,s r.,rt,\ Iv i i ,nr' .trr L"r' .nf.\ { (j (1,r ti r.r,rtr. r!1hi n r|)rl " rr).r.!Lrfk r,i i tr l l i , , r' .,' !,. rtL t 1,.,\r ,^.,t,"rk !1 \i { r i l k .ui j r.bL\h D n.i .,t .,,f r rl ,. , ,tr t,,, rl i , tD (,tr,r,,i r\ ',

some kind ol shift awav from the oral and rowads the written s.cms to have taken place in thjs period. It is at some more or less arbitrary date wilhin this pcriod that the redaction of thc Babylonian Talmud as {e know it is usually placed; and at the samc tjme, wc lind no evidence olcontinuing hostility to the writilg ol the Oral Toah;n Gonic sourccs. The question wc must theefor pose is whcthcr the oralisl altitudes lound in Tannaitic and Amoraic sourceswould stil havc survived in the early Islamic period other tha ar lileran {irssils. As this section will show, lher is no cled answer to thb qucstion. lve can trsr begin try taking ou stand tos?rds the end of the Geonic p.riod and working backwards. ! 143 An oblious rting-poinl is the $ell-known epistle vrittcn .. A.D. 987 by Sheria, the Gaon of ihe Babylonian academy of Pumbedita, in response 10 the qDcstions pur t.r him by some scholars of qayrawm6o or more precisely, lct us begin with the questions thcmhad the jndependence o mind (or sehes. lhc scholars of qayrasd perhaps the scnsiti\ity to Kara;t polemic) to raise questions not a,/im but aorl the l radition. Thcy began by asking how the Nishnah was wittenJo' was it alrcady the (probably ahistoricail Mcn of dre Great Assernbly who began to write it? Coutd it really be that none ot ii sas writtn until the timc of Rabbi ($ second-cenrurvrcdador of the N{ishnah)? Further .lucstions lollowed in the same vcin:6t6 was the Tosefta written afto rhe ftda(don of the Mishnah or at the same time? How were thc Bara,rlas wiitletl And ho$ wd the Talmud \fillen? From the argumentation wi whjch lhese qDestionsare intenvoven, it sftms clear that th. s.holars of qayrawn did not scc a distinction brtween the composition of an oral lext and irs rcduction to witing;661 they took it lor grdt.d that ese processeswer. one and the same thing. Wht is more, thy took or granted ihe facl in their timc undtniahl-that the Mjshnah (lil rhe othcr work to xtrich ther rencd] was a oof.ln reply, Sherira s.nt thc scholars oI qyrasn a long and inlbmative account of the history of the Rabbinic TadilioD. But with
6! Sheira, .kqrd, ed. B.M. IrRiD, Hail, 563l. lhei. is no{ r Englishnanshnn' $hich, though nor the worl ofdl a.adenic, n hehlul l. d noripcciilnr iNI) Rabinoviclr ird. and aDs.), nr Itsr't aJ RdNSh. a;/,,,.Jerusalem.lqslrl rol aE Lh rexr ikll, I .ite lf,vin\ .ditioq aI n) references ro dF Fr.n.h" vr':ion Lt*' i.z belos, li 1.1.1t, tr:Gr\ lcfGhdd cohmn "i' Slcnra, k.4 p. 5 3 (= tos. Rbnosich, p. 2 n6 Shrira, t{rzr. p. 6.8 t= t.ds. Rbinoslch. p 3 ' A\ Rabnn,wi.l riAhl\ indicales hi\,,, tltr qurn,, rr'.1 b.I. i\[i A in sa\ not lror t|r Nnbnab \!rs rvnm ru.

5t 4 rcgard to thc repeated relrenccsin their queions to the ?rn' the of ()ral Torah, his resporlsewas bricl and unhelpful. Hc assLrred queshis tio en thal "Talmud and X,lishnah scr. not Mitren',, and rhal rhc Rabbis wdc careful to .rcite baditions iion ,enory, nor rron wiuen sources;n explanation he addu..d rhc otd prohibition of thc wriring ofth. a)ral Torah-r,s As to hos it had come ro bc wrillen in the mean_ dn., he ol.rcd no commenl.
q-1.14 Ar!1h poin6 in sheri'as cpisde there is a.rrucial .liL.n.e in r$plj.i of dr' $ridrg of d,e OiJ aorah heMen d,. tu! vc^n,n\ in rvhi.t! lhe te\r ir prsetud, the S!rnslf'and rhc,ifrcnch,: drc retire...s ro wriring the ro nnr aE ab*nt in ihe l r., an.l dr ov.NLei s srcu.L nr p'tfei.ins the "Ftndf rdsion, $c.. discu*.d hy ubogd.s, rjpsieh ad{ls ihe sisnin.ant pon thrr, hen Sltnn .n lis ovn eprl.; r.e. *.p"""", r,. ao* .I.ench,, $ in a re\r Lhn.h cor.sponds to rtu r.nD 610 shrira mals an inieEiis .,.Gren.e to rriring h a (,.1enrpo.ary a.adeni. (,*L H. dEss dr ddost L.twrrn ihe icaLtins o r!. Trn;ad. Sg.s ard t]I pra.ri.e ofus os. da\: $t detiver .orunenr2n prcsumably or rl,e latrnu.l rnd our udcnrs aI wnre ihis dow( .rh of ttrrm i. his o$n s2v'r

! 145 Shffira's rcgarding thc w;ring o the Ora.l .Iorah was Dothing ner'. Half a ccnrury or more belorc him, Sa,adya caon ld. A.D. 912) had $resrlcd $irh the h;tory of thc Rabbinjc .t.rattition undcr the prcsurc of Karaite polemic. Conrrary to a impr.ssion, se have no w,rrh$,hile evidence that hc made explicir reference (o sriting;r his pronounccmenrs o. the nibject_
cther c -vhar Mi\h.ah o. die ralmud *He *,rnrcn do$n at rhc rime rhev $.;,mt,'r-,1 l ' , Il ,hrk .anr. o' t\ i r ' .o.t,,' \r^,{ t r r! Lr \e.,on J !, nor go bryond rh. irm r/rri tn spcatinA of(hc Mhnah ald taj,n!{lj6,1rnd this,

\ I.16 _ln

w. p6r$ ol llis /,!s,t4r.,a .t(,.s nor adu|]lv 19,thar

r R i L i ,,r ,.p Br \.,td I,u ,d .,.n 1 o ,..,, kg ,,t I, . a 'l t '"n . I r , , , . | o " i , ,'dl J m u d 1 a .,tu ' 4 u ,' r ;u ,, . ,,x" ""' I ulh.scn, wie rtrt es nm dic -zuei Rezcaionen ds S.hcri B.i.tcsl,, in P:.tLlnJt.Ln 75 ialilsd Jhtt |tot ta t't!h.h titukeLLhn s.n;rb: [rm.t"bttb S4ltaneuft\t^rt, fr ,t J.N. Epsrein. lzrro1rrnr /, noaiu ttsalur tin Hebr* , Jen"nd and et . a r l l - l J' d ,l . L .M . ,t,/ \h .n ' 1 4 e r a .i ,a h ".p p n |t,".n !. ^vn i \ 'a d /.J.4 ' i r .r l r ',. F"L ;,.h L t, l , ." i .r ,.o "i t,. r ..,,- ..,,,,, ,l,n th. Spads veriod Comra Nlusim s.holNrif pr{tj.. s d4,,ed b} S.ln.lef ,r.fer.cs abovc,q .1,notc l8t. '' S. s.hechtd. a;e.i2a sp.{iimens: Sard}ana t, Z,.1s, qu,br!, Ra.itu, 1+. 'r01. p..15, linis 6 v'qt) nnl lO ipj\t Cox,pr.c hn usc.fihe.oor 4r, with ret: n . R . r . r r i r 'rr h n u d ( /t/.l i n . tj l ,\ |^r|,irr. r/tn n,t trGtu t{,\n,1tir t;bn I.h,t I Jinl,892 sJ2). R'*k^ to ttbtrh,Ia 1^,tLn, Lt.\n't tr' ll,ttrf1!. nr h,j.ta./ia un Mitht;ltnln. ttt\ a, r.1 t:. \ r l '1 f , J r f ( . l r i r L l , ,r r r t. r l \t,,tj !1 . .s.,.i l L L ..,.. r ) tr - /";t\hi ) tu l h R n ( t. \t|r r r ti 1 r /. i 'r ' r t

thousn sugge{iveof iution in Nritins, is n t cxplicit'rr'fhe tfrt ir.r h equallv tl!t $ed b' Sa'adya hen he ni pdsing to ihc ..daction oJ rhe N{islhah in a p.lemic pibablv d,.tctcd gjins rhe Karnt ll]o Sqa$avhir-n s alsothe r.m w[.h appe]rs. n, rcspecl ol both Mnhmh and T3lmud, $lef Sa drz's ties is quot d bt the Kraites Qfqtani and Ycact Contrsl Sady\ sraigh! "' nrmrd .etrenfts to dre trririns {losi, l&rrd) of the t.nut.u.n as qnotd b} is dnly ir vh,l arc rIguabiy less..liable Karairc ar Sa'adta i\ dadc to of the wlit,ng down of the Oral To.rL Thus rhen Qrqisani himsel,late.lis o.casionto refor Leh to sa'adya'svics, d oProsed to |omarrr quoting i! he snxnrrrS dal&tnhu ti, albotnla'rr Salmon h{rn Yd uLnr' Sa'adt: with thc to sl,on a neasurc oa po.ric li.ense {:[ bc con..ded. sadd]cs Tlre view rhat the Mishnah was -inv:nb.d" (a4qdtrtl."rq onlY rexi tlLr .n carry d'' anr ..nt rry {eighi is th{: r!dtnous Karairc Parqrhnse Publish.d by Ha|kq d,. riiten $onl 1d1,..&rr),thoush sn ud rhe'r ro rru* But dr releFn.e slcd out by Fa.tary ar .onclusive Prr thd S,'arha held tht \idman & ha! b... yfitten do$. in the data of th. tannin, is unpanllelledin anr' ofthe .1h{ heF .n{id. \rodern s.hohn lrc teDdedn, bl. thcn cue ion dt l.$ resp.nsihlc Karaite v.nnDs TLus Sa'ad'a\ falourne r\Ebi. i.Br !,,r hd be.ana an r.n:rcd.c io nt,ns in tllc rannatns f Harkaladr rd rs the m.l a snnihr .hansc is nadc by wiedcr ;i PnraPhratins llcbrc$ Naner.'8r Nhi.h li i\ of.oune po$ible that Sa'adya.xprescd hnnsellek$hc id rerN sould hale ju$incd rll is, and thrt dr. Karaic $as r..urate\ rcpmdu.nrgthe wording of 'nc lost Passre. Bul given rhe dtln:lcy of thc n\u., vo :rt ror en_ ided b asune thf lhis silence ol Sherira and Sa'adya on (hc writing of lhe | 147 Oral Torah cannot be laln to mean that thc Problem had not octuted to Karaite attacki on to thcn. It was brough! to thcir Dotice tha*s thc authenticity of the Rabbanite oral Tradition. Salmon bcD Yrruhi'n,

X 5r 6
a younger cotempoEry and vi,ulent critic o Sa'adya, made great play of the inconsistcncyof the Rabba itcs: rhcy claimed thar cod had givn thcm an Oral torah, and yet again thcir own principles rhey had teducfd this supposedly oral revetation to writing.@5lve can ta-ke it, then, that thc Rabbanite silencc was an cmbanassed one: thc major scholars oi late Geonic Judaism had no explanation for the c1 thar a literary situadon had come about lhal was iD flaglaDt conlradiction ro the oalist principles enshrined in their heriragc. I l4B If lye sek to work ba.k turrher jnto rhe Ceonic period, rhe answersdo not becomc ny cleaer. kt us conc.nuale lor rhe prescDt ([ the Tatmud.M Our firsl testjmony comcs liom the &da tannain Ne atuarain,a vo* whi.h contains a dating cquivalenr 1() .D 884.!3r lt alls into two sections. lhc ist gives a history of thc }bbinic Tradirion, and il makes no mention o the wrjting of the Oral Torah.3 The second sectjoDis mcthodological, and at ceftain poinrs i! lerx slip that rhc Tllnud is now studicd as a wtten { 149 Working b.} forn rbe latc to the eady rintir ccDtury, ihe polcmic 01 the BabyloDian Bcn Baboj aga;rst the Paleinian Jws har two things lo oflr us- In thc lirst place. he makes explicit reference ro thc cxisten.e of written texts oi the Palesrinia$ Se.ondly, hc quotes an intcreing statement of Yehudai Gaon, a Babylonian s.holar wh., lived vo gcncrationsbeficrehim:6,r "I hav. never answered a question on any rnattr about ri.h you asked mc unlcs it was on regarding ehich I had prcof lrom rh. Ialmud, and u4rich I had learrt ,', sdnon be. Yeruhim,a,,t it us 4 d tk, r."1, plt.3al i=\, LraibankoL
sh I res.eIhat I do nor Lnow G. daring ol rle oldc .xrdnr Talnudic nanusdipb, fragment frcn thc Cairo |,rsunbly ar K Kahh kd. rnd rrans.l, *n6 Tantun bAnr,n, trankfurr, 1935, p. 7.3 = r) 3. q 4. the datins is grvcn in th. .ras ol rhe carid nd oathe Gr.cLs)j bur sec \ xni ofrhe ediro.'s nrodu.iion, nonng ftar thc {or[ is likcly ro De conposir.. (irl., p 6.8 = p. J. \ ,1a). a\ is the ddt ol rhe Talmud i ne.tioned " The .rrr /ar of tLc mttul by the Saboraim ttd, p. 9.1 : p. 4, ! 6.j. pp. 28.1, :28.13,29 5, 29.I I = pp lzli in iienr '" Khan, *dd Tnnnain tnra-,, of d,. section. Tluc ar. lotrr, but in tlftc of lem 'irl;] !.niu r.rdings are nored bt tlc cdito. rvhi.h eitbe. onrir thr rtfere.ce 10 v|jting or ln^nne nm ol drc xn ',n'; tar$ flibl alrcrdion .ould at .ou6e accounr fo. dr ' s( i l !^,. \ l l J ).,rn. tr)l i I \i hr(l nr $n\ (:.nn , s ' n.! |, rt".( i nrt i I' rl f v fa^ i s h..i fi . te4na.l t. fi 17 r, i,tr R,rrnDr)sr l' t) | ri, . ri' rlf lr\n r 1[. ! In.'r,toai,.trt rtrr.r jrJ)lti(1l by shcirr t I' Li l ,rtni rl . l tr\ k r' trf ,)t thr tJ ' ,,,,u,tri t.!,t,n!frnt \ l ) i ri r S l !" , , . ,,,,,, In $.' .l ,l ' l ' 1.,r

"'1 Conta Sa'adya\ ui: ol tle terD kllrn i. a contextwhrt i( clearlvdo$ not ftlcr ro Ni\hnah or Trlnud in Ha.krvy, Srznt, P ltjl ll rx H. H':.hl ld. :ll[ Aiabic ponion oa t Caifo G.nizan.r Canrb.ids.",7. uork. JMh Qa,tall. Raeq 16, 1901,p. 108.28,l0l32 For the idennn.dr of il]e nl Antut tu I no.ti|, .d L \em.-\'. Nrw Yofk, 193943 1 "Knit' p 126.1l, ad lo. Ycacr,who.laims r, quote Sa adla ln.rdl!, S Po?nasld. nire anis", 7n?.7,rt'^ @'rt, drd,8, l3'rri, P 687 n. 6 ," qrlnni.,,tn1&. t. p t2rj.2. "'q Salmon ben Ye.uiin, mr B k oJtlt tut a th. tm,]. cd. i Daudson, N.{ Yorl. 1931, p.,r2, lilt 58 i- L. N{:f,to}.lfarrr? dr{,1,g,, \.w Haven, 1912,p 771 H. hrs aL.adr nsed the word wirh relren.. b (bc redn.hon ofil,r "O,al b rvrrn( r,d aI t* latt1. p :tn,ln\es 76- 10 i= i\.mov. a?d* a//lr/ in hi\ o\o ignr (8,'r 'y'rrr a! llarldv!, JrA@, p 195.18jand.i thi\ ru{l!r\ use ofr'). \d} ddrr,,a. r|n rh,: phtse tudn al-Mi!'nah tikn. P tla 11. ftr 1r,id.. l!16 n l! p. o r M lier ."Sr adir ir . lir s . I 1! 1. n' ' . | { i! l .x , 1 1 il,,xr,, " "rN \\'n r lu. t r " 7, , t u, " n, l1\ n Ln r nr . l,! t r r l ! ', . l 'r l ') . r 4 ) l r 'l

'i 1

as hakkian b nd'6cn lthc law that is actually to be aPpljedl iiom m)" teacher, and my teacher lrom his teacher; but if ;t was a matter cotr'I^ln[d, hn io hatakhah ccrniDg which I had lonly] proof from the I did not answer vou"-Er lt seemca plau1l n/'adl from my teach.r ' sible inlrcnce h^ it t},e haldJl4h na'ai is something one has liom then th lLnud ;s something else, and Plusib\' one\ teacher,6'g3 though not nccessarily a wittcD |exr. But a plausible itrcnce ;s a long way from an explicit stalement. { 150 l,et us tum now liom the l almud to the M;shnah6q{A's might b. expectcd, no good evidencc hal bcen produccd for thc early #Ling do*r o1 the Mishnah.6!;This nee.t not Puzzlc us' inasmuch as rhe.e is nothing inher.ntly poblcmatic about i$ oral transmission as a ixcd text."etBul wc aft left in the dark as 1() thc date at sicb thc Nishnah h lct becamc a w;ttcn text. { 151 In a suain.datutro erLlishthecriv {nhs dd{n orrh' Nilllnah i:lp$e;i iwho nisl,r be de$;Lcd 6 smcding of r J'wish sezer) dvanrn sev'
era! rrh hi.! Ir consids to ac* th$ Th eali. wnnes t, a wntten lvlishnah n. nr his !ie{, the Phra: "it mi! ta"ai'"!'TFo Poi s ren in t Mnhnat," whjch d,.ud on.. in rhe td"li'n! sralen rhi\ aitlitation [i^r, ihe phrasc is iblat.d ]vithin ihn rrher hono$neous alld nav wel sork, nr wlich Gc Ntishnah ir regularlv .ited as o':l Tndition,6'" af of rh. imncdiaclv Prc'edins ero. unde. tlt innr;nt bo a scribal 'ihtions nrms on rhe drdng of rhe vo'k io th' Scripru:. S.ondly. trpei s rrgxncr as lfc d rh' by Marnr but tle wo|k could date lifth d'nnrry rdr.ced 'rom 'lhe ncxt .tesation Mshnah advanced bv trp$ein'to is tlte 1&ntu of a wirtr

ol drc Toldrn J*rsh ro aihrisirniy, daridg fron Al) 637.;0 Ir ris do.nnrenrtrre .oNra rnrnse to b.nd ov,r all rhe \rdrirgr lhlrr'arr irr rhen synrso$es, wherher ".mlontative . rradnionrt, L'a' qn\ deta6 olletL,mrj. al ''apo.4phal". lt i\ .lea. thar rc hav. l,cre a relrncc!J t.adnionat r.xr of sonr kind in Miren lonn, but b id.niJy (hem as rhe Mnhnah nr pdi.ular is arbi.ary. lndccd, 'ldld lirquendy Ins l}je senseot ..Scnur6,j a cargory ro wLn,hthe anrho aivii'ul apo.Dphal $ri|nss pre$rnablvrelrr, rjd allar lound nr the nago4res. Thc t."diri.nal \ tlgs r.. rhu\ s tikel), to l[ te$ ol I arsun r of Nlnhnah. Op*ein Justnnan\ Noeella 146 ofAD. :i53 a \idmc. ofa wriG rcn \tuhnah.r I aui ihe .onrerr is dr rete o sc.ipturr, so rhf,i fie r.,n az,rrJ6.rn hardlr.cliir k, Vnhnahj and n.r impoantt_\,. lhd n no indjcation tl)rt {c have i. do wnh sdre'r iets.rl rpein\ Llcrr$t Amonic eunplc of th. vdting oa lstnul n a projedrd sponsrn in which a 116.fron ih. Nlnlnah $s k) b. in.hrded.]i1 llis eviden.eoadncrsent readnrqJi!is nr. d,e nr. pa tunl,isru as beF\ee. sntteD and otul ansmissjonld drr p.riod in qleron. Unleasse ral. thc Toleda. ,/".rr,z ro rcfc. !, rhe \lishnall, ill. .rrlie$ .lear the vnbDah as a {ncn rexr sould n, b. dr. \{usld rrudi rions on rhe ,r'la,rr. Thi\ $or]ld gi\c $ a t'ninu nrt qmt strrctim. in rhe ead! hlaniL poriod. l his docsnor, of .oun.. rell d !.ry mu.h abonrrlr. .L1lcai s hi.h rhe {nhnah was nr facr Fitren down \ 152 In conhas( lo all this. there exists a C.oni. responsum \rhi.h deals unfiinchingly *ith thc;on of thc hrning of rhe Orai torah. Here the Caon, afier quoting one of c 'l almudic pohibitions, .ontinucs as illorvs: "Now that our mcntal power! ae so diminished, and e\cryonc n.eds lo consult wri|er t(xts (r6nd, iL is perfecdy in orde. ro do as m do, $liting dom la$s, ard he rvho learns from thcm does ;ndeed rcccilc a reward".'o lhis rlarement ands oul lor its ctcar cceptan.c ol writing. i'! l-. Gii2bers. r,i;:a Jrr'tr, N.r'Y.rk. 1928_9, p. 55813 tl' of Bab)lonia, spat5of "rlt na*-44' "" ElseFhde ;n Babd. nr extollins tltc RabbN l' ra%.4 dn.L n in rhi. mourhs, $tri.h th.v learnt fron rheir teachen, and thei' Irvin, Genizr Lag 1ehe6 f.on rheif t.r.hes, ba{:* ro our kril MoFl'PM 1 Hehrwi, Tdt{, 2. l93O- , p 396 I l r ar Nan snglq'tud,thn Pasagerems ment" inr Di l 4' ' " J \ ' ' ru Lr J d.rl r |nFr upr l ^ J n' . ' io "r ' ' " n s /,r, L lrr' ' P :r . H""^' -\;a on r , c d' i' p. . . l 6'!a t n.c arc Nlishn;lt ftal4nent itD th. a]aim Geniza rhich hart been daul n' i'xr ii Babv later Jiar rhe ninin c.nlu,r,;tu P Kahle andJ weinhc.g, lhe N{ishna rA, 1!3s, P. lST lrut tlt' gfoundr lof rh' dnn'!", H.b,tu Lhim CDlty "lnfual, ar. noi givn.and I .io n;i klbr hou this ,laing is soy srd'd, or Lhar orher m* nal IDv hav been found 16 (;efi^nlssn, Mnory Mn nnn&tilt. PP \591. tt l;?bnna , H ain ir.1tuish Pdrrt'r. Pp 88_90 cd \t lrn'ddann Vnlr r' | 'ror' "" Ep$ein,Ma,, P 702, cnn$ s.di EAdtu lhl)ah' p 72 2. ' ilt o Cf irl i ] r 726. and dr Pa$aBs . n. d a r p p 5 1 r r I 'i k l l n n n n r n i r {h x 1 '' lilivJtr' lrr'rdc'\ii Seet n r.lnl.!,1n.7daa, a '\' ;''' Iitxni", '!t,,. pt, 7ll?l r($ion to la(erday Yet characrristicallv it lcg;dnares it as a conweakness, not as a practlce desirabl. ;n se do not have a firm darc {br this responsum; irs human

itselli Unfonunately cditor was incl;ned to asdibe it ro one or other of rwo Gaons ot lhe

rniddnth centuryA.D.r1'r .a 153 It may accordilrgly more fru;lful to shiii liom chrono tre
' .1 Jtrs. kt 7lalj d.a'l'Eryn' nne;n, Pans, 1914, I, p. 373 I 6i tutl tcxt nr l{ df urena y sdrrtfud, ,L l$t'Ldn gno hi:!)na. Nlatnjd. 1905,pp. 5731: I E|nrni. b Lb abnu.1a,n M"r^L p. 20 -Ua-, p 6!3i r. dso Sra.k, /,r.&./d i i (.i/'y'rn:' di,/6, cd t. K.uescr, aa. Edln! 19.t1,Ilr. p. 716.q raGradon in l'li lirhl., rt {dn l;,rqa, r.ond .diri.r,, Oxlrl, 1959,p. jlj Irl}tn'. n,,,. p. tol, rnn,s llihrlotrian T"ln,ud, ljaba bdt'a,L l5a,^.2+. ' l.i|ntni. ,lrrr'. t)p i{)l1l _s.r tlii" . rli, tin. 8; I !^q. ltr. rrn\tln,r i. chisrirn. Il:t)as li.r rh " l\r17. I , . \ t x i t r r r L . ,i ,r ,vf \ l t) r tr !i ! i ) r i t,r r l tr t,L tn ,r l i ,t) i sr cf.( h d {t|l r r .. r .r tr N ..

logjcal approach to structural one. As we have se.n already, preIsla'nic Rabbinic.Judahm ws ma.ked by a tendency to supplement mcmory hih manuscnPt, bul to rclegate th. latter 1o lhe pri\tc sphere. l1 wor d not lt surprising if this double standard had Pcrsistcd to a gealer or icsscr degrer into thc Geonic pcriod, and rherc are indications that it may have don. so- It seems that a schola sdll had his '\ecrcr scroll",rm and that the prolssional memorise6 ltannun) ol rhe pre lslamic pe.iod still played signilicant ole in acadenic life'@ Indced, recent studies tend to drat the establishmenl of a fix.d wordnrg 1br the tex! ol thc Taltud look place considerbly later than has been thoughlr "al lca until the ninth ccntu.y the l aLnud co rued to be transmilt.d by way of loosc oral recilalion $ithout bcjng bound to a writlen tcxC'.ro Tl i. in a collexl ol continui! ambiva lencc such as this that $e would havc to place the Muslim indebtedres to Rabbirn: Judaism for whi.h I havt argued- 'I his hrlPs lo suggcsthow the Muslims could at one and the same ne have appopriated the oklist pinciples of thc Rabbis whilc condemning their lit520 lrom case to case. ()nc obvious distin.tion that can be made is between the unselfconscious ora.l 'l radition of an illiterate or largely herate society on the one hand, and the sef(onscious oral l radition of a literate or largely literate socicty on the other. In the fiFt category belong ihc lolk Tditions of su.h pcoples as the Irish or thc lcelanders pnor lo the advcnt of Chrislian literac)-toge ther, no doubt, with numer_ ous foll Traditions which, like those of thc English or the Slavs, ailed for the most part to suwi\c $c onset of lit rate culturc. In the second calegory belong thc scholastic Taditions ot Rabb;nic .Judaism and o together, if ancient India and Iran after the introducrion of witing wc trust Caesar's a.count, with that of the Druids. lhis distinction, rhougb a rough and ready one, is ey enough 1o apply in most instances lr is somewhat complicated by lhe fact that i! the cases of India and Iran it teems clear that se havr lo do with lraditions which were initially unselfconsciously oral, but surived as selfconscious oral Traditions atur witing had b.en introduced into lhe society on a signficant scale rdenever exacrlv that may havc been?'r Fo all ree know, this could also have been the cas with th. oral Tradilion of the Druids, whereas it clearly wd not so with Rabbnr;c Judaism. But rhar one tbing can turn into another need nol prevent us distinguishi g beareen them. | 155 r'hcre wa no such uansition in the eart Islamic period. This was, howevcr, a context in which bolh kinds of Tradirion .t S 156 Unselfconsciousorl radition wa represented by the folk 'Iradition of the pre-Islamic Arabs. In some form or other much of fiis was reduced to writing in the early Islamic period. Intersting comparati\c qucstions arjs about both the content and the redaction of ihis material.r" Bur given the Islamic cndorseme t of the Arabian idenrity,iLl it is no suryrise that e rabs should have beelr among the recording their folk l raditions for literale pcoples who succeeded | urto ,1\'. ind onl Tradition wd being broughl 157 Meanwhile a sclfconscious lxing bv the Muslim traditionists within an already litcrate soci This was a more peculiar, not to s3y peNenc, crntural poject, I have argued iD this study that ils adoption makes hjsto;cal sensc

lY. (:oncluson g 154 Or1 -Iradition is a phenomcnon known iom a diversiry ol places and times, and ljke many such phenomena it varies ii charactcr
D l03B) adduced bv GinzLtrs: Thns vn' '" As in a pasase by tlai caon id nr whi.h th.y ea.h in ^lis s(re1 i.nrsilat rknr,, rli. lonrcr s.hoh^ \ithhir), '.ll onginabns witl, rhe anrho.iri$ r.colcd. lof their ora, usc. iant leachinss (Jer',,) lL (;, (ie,ra, oJ Fmorei dm.s Ltu dn. tunam), slo lired belbr. RabbiJtludai" Nes Yo.L, 1909, t, p. 71. Tlt rcfcrence r. Yel,udai, tho{gh ambistous, suggststhal th relatcs ro prd.ticc in e Geonn l,diod 'ahml\ r!! Bc.lin, 1915, pp l!, Dr g.d,,n r. rmmLt .r1 O'lnmr .J N tip*.in, p.99 aor dt r,,min in rhe nri. pe;od, a'l tunt&tt cncd Ly Ccrhardrson, ,tlm? re r1, pp. 9J-9, and cl. p 1601.Not. thar re ha!? hrn rn sour. di{nd from d., nourh ol one\ i.r.,hrir lrom shich Yehudai nighr have r.c.iv.d the l alnnnl ila above. ! l4'r, and notc 692). "' E.S. Roscnthal, I he hisror' of e re\r and ptublcN of feda.tion nr rhe udr 19878; tlr quorarion is l.oln rrolrhe Babvlonian Tlmud (in Hcbre{i, ?rd(,57. Erglirh ab$.act. My imprc$ion is thar thc audrr's lnerary an:lysis (whi.l) tak.\ u\ clor b Nlurlin pn tr.e ,rf tansmi*ion s des.nbod tr! S.boenr, 1i JL!!.. { I. but as he indicai.s lnnsell rh 6a\is ntr his.hnnx,!',si noto 18)'lr mrier.onvin.ins cal .laim l.l. :r,14, pp 7l !l 6 les \olid. F.. r sin ar apptuich ind lnxlnF, \a tlli.'l Y. Brodv, "Sifnt ha-Geonim t ha-t.qsr har l alnudi ', n, Y srsmann ' kl I ) l{ "( labn Talnu'in r,rA2-',vol. 1,J.,! lq91r, fsl!1i.Jlv lil) 2'l!)4.,/rt ed), ("r,\ , rl'is rrtr c. r!l rri 8l il ^hhqd am nlclrlcrl b (;ideon Lihr, lor r.trdnrg nr'r N i . ' r i x l H n r !it ln r r si\tin ,r wir h i( s.,' n .r r

s,."' l or rhf rrsrnndn rl,rr i'r rh. lndirn .as. ilis $6 no ea i.r rhan ihe a.lit ,; w'ridr r$hn1' \.n'ld trlf us ro th. tlnl (rttrry B.(:.1. s.. von \^n,s f\'ddr. t ih,lt nt htr dtnlthlhtuit Inlnl ttn\nx\. ])i lrq II s( K!1,l r' \,1,!trri ' , ,,1 i l r' ,r! I]ral !,8,- ni th' \ !oL' tr' r rr 1.,u" S 1 I' i rr[ tr, ,r' ]y .' In' $l ' \,i r. ^ri ,l ) r" I' x h trI' l rr ' n

onty s a residuc ol Rabbinic Juda;sm.r'1 I havc nothing further |o add here about the origins of }uslim ora.lism,but th..e is somcthing ro be said about its dcmise. A . u ' a l frd d j u n . So . rh r \tu \t,nr r\p.ri ,nrnr w , .,ur pdr_ { l: 8 licularly succcssful.fhe rraditionisb mainrained ir Ibr somcth;ng lik. a century, and then lagely abandoncd ;t bar the ibmalitier. Why? ,l.he availability o{ {riting in a literate society.iearly consi;turcs a standing temptation lb the would-be peryeruators of a scholasticoral .l.radirion. But wc stil have to explah why thc Musljms suc.umbcd so much sooncr than rhe lndians or the.JeM. the enomous incrcase irr thc volume of mareial to bc hdsmiued is somctimes appealcd t.r in cx_ plaiation of rhe capitularion to r'.itjDg.r'5 Bur this is vaiid ontv on thc r ' . ' um pr iun r )L L .v r^ n n p h a .," me n ,o n .. ^" ryhrns. | 159 ,{n alrernarive rvay to put thc question nighr bc rhe tlowing: lvhat does the compa.a(;ve rccord suggcs{ drt thc Nuslims would have hd to have done in ordcr to maintain a succcssfutoral Tradition doM rhe .enrurics? My limired knowledge of orher culrurcs suggcsbone cxample ofsar rhey did .;ght, and rwo ofrat tLcy did $ 160 lir, what they djd right. A comparison of the IraDim and Itrdiar casesteaches a .lear leson: unlike the rcxt ot the Vedas, rhar of the is in a stare of conlnsion bccause ir was (ransmitteil for ^vcsta long periods by people who did not undeFrand what they were recit_ ;ng. Ihe Vedas are in a language no tess ar.haic, ad herce likely to be no less problemari. for transm;tlers, tha, the Avesla; but rhe gap is bridgcd by an impressiv. phitotogical appararus of which rhe
-'l^h\ dio R ,.o p ' q r .h d p r cr ,, i , h. h ,.rL,". thr R ,t,tn, ' h tr r Ju Jim c s , i ' " u n l - " l p f"lL d .- o, r F r h . n n .n h n ,o w h s. /nd r eyp.i nJ.,,n advd(d by nodem Judai$s ' l- n "h ,o r ac.ordtnstv rnd !r lack texrual f;undations {a; nocd n, \_lu,l,a. -vulJli,hr llo ' i.n 2 2 1 .,in a r .,p t,.t p.tLnoa !.,,b, In t,, -b,n.r d dfn'r0 m r ' - a lid . q , m ich ' q p r , Jo ..c b r to||o$,,3 ,nr It,i . i ngrni ,oF .l R r h b ' t u I d d n o ' , L a . ,i. p h . "r-' - . n ...h r r .r.o"., 'h. Telv l',m L .il,J o r ' \ wi' $ tu ,h t,.sh d dJn,rd,d rrorco,tr, " rl,ing \, -p'ur lnglJd. In \., L "nd ther dddive tnditions {a ono way to .ounteract rhe porousnes of rh. boun.la4 sepdatl.s then ftun eir felo$,,Jews ll.ot s .an an.l do end up the wr.hq lRnd;. on\r those rho.hoose to !rii.iFie ad rF a os.d rJ d. so r.,.riv. o,.Ll rnstru.tin in such r milieu. T][ situation ofrhe tard Rabbi, L ol.rt. lj,,sitrr rtr, donisr\)w subsntialy difirenr, so rhai on rlis h),Dothes dr o.hsn or rrr R:t)bi,r I ndition would d rcsidDat ati.r, \ay, the nrn..nrtrfr ri lhur S.!ele., "Mdndliche Tnom", p. !2t (rnd.t /z/, ^.D 2l1r, on rln..J!.wnr, p \u.hdL,n 4 i.' .s t,,".1 .,,.,{ i t,,,i .,t,,1.,t V ,.t,,.-,,,t,. ,, 'd". .d h" U,"r". rt i" tttr '.r l' .JU, L ,,t t\,t , ..1 t, t.',. ' , n . , . ,.

corncrstonc is Prini\ .el.brared granmar of Sdskrit. lh. absen.e of such an apparatus among the Nagia s docs much ro a.count Ir the sorry state of the Avesla. Ilcrc dre Nluslim scholars clearly cornpare $'ith thc Indians rather (han (|e lraDjans: their philological pparatus ol grammar an.l lexicography has t ccn a sig licant 1.tor in the a.curate bansm;ssion of dreir Tradirion. $ 161 Now lor what th.v did wrong. Indian culture rwo classic examples ol thc acliicvcnents of ransmission. Onc is thc Pali cnot c .s.riptures" of l hcravda Buddhism. $hat is impresivc herc is thc quantitv 01 the malerial fansmitted radcr than the qualit.v ol-the haDsmission;rr6 the quantity ririmprcssivc te Tha; priDG but iDg ol-thc canon published ii the 1920s oc.upies forty ive volunes. w thcn to imagiDc that Ruddhisl rnonk mrmorised thc cntirc ^re canon? This sccms unrcalisri., elen h a culture which made much oi memorisation.rrTln {.1, thee atc clear indications ol a division of labour. lhcrc $cre monks whose particular busines ir was to r.cite and transrit tcxts; moreover these lr,irrd,4,6 wcrc not individuIy responsible for lhe endre canoD, but were assipcd spcciic patls of ir.rr8 { 162 The other striking lndian .xample of the potenc,v of oral rans'nission ;s the Rgveda of thc Bra.hmins. Here quanriry is less nl play, and ir is the quality of thc transmission whjch is impressive.rD 'fhe system has bccn desclib.d iD detail as it exists today among thc

li (iomprison of tl,i: P]li .an.n $rrh vhal n exnt ol the .anons ol othc. Buddhisl ais indi.ates rry .oNidcralrl( divc.$nccs n lhe transmxsion 01 rlr san,e rorll, and I G.lear drr nollg ihc vanous BDddhi*.a.ons, the Pali r.6ion has !o pnvil.s.d 'rtu,li tDsiiion .x.{:F bv riue ol the exrenr ol irs snival ls.c D. I.luwallncr, t in.lra Md thz ,qLanin!\ a Luldl&t tihettt. Rome. 1956jJ. Bn\tstt, Itu condhan t)hannld.lo,landon, 1962. pp. 26 34). The mnemo.ic po$eN ol in-comnrg Buddhi( !n,nk\ set a miyd rcvjer itr rI Chincsr rccord. Alonsside some embardsing lapses , ii b. $t drc .ae oa a nonk shom rhe ( resad nr A.D. .ll0 by sdting him r,, trrrnoni: nr three davs a hrge volu0. of 2nd .cnr drta. trI,(h h. lubscqucndy roiir{ $jthoui a sinale error lP. Demi,:!ilc, "A propos du (, \^i i ,i J, fb ME P da, + 0, 1951,p.245n l ,.i tc d nr v on 1nfi be\ Lra R qi n dd '\ ' Ih. id.a.l a monl lnowirg rh. whol..rnon hy hcart is not. hovever. mlreafd ,l ,\.cl.b.d Bral,nii (onvLd ro lluddhism r r.puted ro have mcmonscd n drcc ,'rrl,r,vo" Hn,ul,.., Dn lt.a4ni,1n s-hn/i. p. 68t On. rrxr divnl* nonks nft , r.q, !n shi(1, rr! hi{r,fd is fxp(rt h t.anr rhe enriF.rnon lttl.. pp. 6B-70t. Nttrnr.,,. /t/l /t/r? i .l litrntr L(it,,r rnbt rl Intliai bbnhz. rll. ',s.tKR \'l l . l .tr, 2.1\i .\1rx t,r, i ,)rrt. I,l , rt.,' dl t !t t,I, l l ti ,t. Ll 2t (i ' "t,rft i tr pn,ns , r{ ,l i ,,r i r rnr r, , ,,d,{ J ,(l .fi ri , | .rr!^r. \ Li r. ror. 70rl ',,.,1 tntL t,L,,4a, ,n . t h'h,r 1,1 t't'trn ttnr^n. r,,t t. t.r! t. ' si, I (;!!!., 't l \n,.l ,r' 'r/ |

Nambudiri Bmhmins of southcm India.r,o In the finr place, thc Brahmin boysrN arc drilled in thc memoristioD of the rxt; memorisalion, iD othd words, receives sftong extemal rcinforcemcnt. Secondty, thcir mcmorisation is not coniled ro the straightfoMa.d recitation of rhe text: they recite with dd wirhout word jDncrion, md in cornplicated permutative pattcrns, the effecr of which is to immunisc the rext to the unthinking linguistjc drift that so easily compts oral ransmission. \ 163 lhese Indin cascsillusuare $c kinds of th;rgs the Nlusl;m traditionists would have had to have done to maintain an ornt lradirion. What te Buddhisr aDd B.ahmir solutions have h common is a willingncss to organrv scholarship. Only withiD the framework o some kind ol orgdisation of learning can a division o labour be iDstitured and fo:ma1 drilting tale place. Dy conbast, among th. early Muslim raditionists it was everyone's bDsiness mcmorise everyrhing, whib h the to actual pro.ess of memorisation the tradirionisr was left on his own. Zuhn, Iirr examplc, would wake up his slave,gil to repcat to he $e traditions h had just heard; when shc protesred rhat thcy meant Dothing to her, he exptained thar he undersrood, but thar it helped hin to ix the rditions 1r in the futurc, and when it came, the N{uslin Trad;lion had tong ago been rcduced to Miting. ln rhe conrext ol- early Islam, one might say that thc tradilionisrs faccd a choice: to cmbrace orgDisationor ro abandon oral |radirion. Civcn the aoripathy of earty Istam rowards academ'c reginentatioD, ;t not suryrising rbat the oDtcome was what it was. If tlre traditionisls did not wanr to be orydbed, then gi;ng up Tradition mu be sccn as somerhing they did right.


Rcfcrences are to the notc in which bibliographical dctails are

'Ab.t zrRe.z^g, ll6mnal; t89 Abn Dnd, &d,, 7.1 r-!ra, ,tia 520 Abn ^bn Ua)1ama, 'It'n. 44 Abn Nu'ayn, /tra, 195 Aho 'tDayd, ,netl, 198 <Ubayd,air7, 583 Al'n ^bn 7\r'a. fo'nh. 14 li/'zla\ 376i ms., 376 Amnd ^g!ni, de Mendieta, s,. 3d,( 525

Dahbr, sia" 52 Dhab, 1'a'nb at'tstnn. 58a Degen. " Inschrift , 620 Deri6/ille, "V3li , 716 DuchesF(luillemain. Isluet

Rabylonian armud, 540 Bachc, b.E tiich. Tminakgu, 656 B.hc, Taditi.n und Ttoneln. 647 Rley, aotu8bitu ptubt,a, 526 Ba.llrolomae, "Zum esanidisch.n Recha , 532 B.i1 A.i, Munich plimpr", 619 Berg. Juifi.2lion", 37s Bcslel Ashtenui, Shiutu tuqubl,rt, 55? Bt El', Gon n DhMtu tda,716 RruDs.bvig, "Hemneutiqne

}lbogen, "Zwei R.?ensionen, 669 Fr?clopaala Judaia. 6t3 Lnlrctntudid or Inan, 7+ F,psein, Coaniinth. toMk\ 709 Ep.].n\, Inhodu.tiot, 6 / t) ns, vd, E;\ v^ti, Ess, v^n, E$ebi$, r.view of Qt'dn rdrJ. 33 Ihaltg und Cs.lLrhan, ()i <Mnt,n nodt unti m.obs;2,89 Hilh,a {rLtiltn.t, 525


i,iz!r,a, 7l ti

"0 SeeJ. Sta.l, ,Vdr,?tt tuiL.ira.'fhe Hague, 1961,chapter5. ,r' Th nom mong Br2ni$ n thar bo'1 cnbart on rh menonetion of the Ved ir their cighth year. s lon Hinnber poins out, dns sives rhem a lcad san .rcr Buddhisi nonl$, tur whom menorisarion cannoi bfgin bcforc the ase or fiticen LD, B'sAt dd SAdl. pp. 6711. Th. education of a NusliD kaditionfi $us *'rblcs ihr( ol a Bralmin virh respecr t tlF Koran, but drr of a !tuddhist Dont w j r.sad !, r!' Dababi, .'idr, V, p. 334.1i lbn ,^slir, azrn. no. lO3 (anrl .f no. rj7, u.hen, Zuhrrs .spotuc is nore chudish). The Kiifan ibn Ra l/ ea'tl sc(rd , , tury) would sarhef lelbor and recnr hi raditions ro rhen il ordcr nor r, t,'s1 then (lasatri, Ma'4, U, p. 610.41. Jf,&: lhis ud), was6n2lnedin tlc sunnn. of 1993.Rdi Rrrr\ i. w{trtG rr,fr ti,rt, .oiins l[v. been updr.d in pr..tit, b[ no n,.w ti(rxrun, hns lrfr x(ld.,t

Gall, I otun, 26 6rrfi s.. nn 'Atxl al-B,rr Gandz, 'DaM of ]!e", 5l? Gethartsson, MtutJ and Mu'op\ 525 (jinzI'er., Gaad studis, 692 Glnzbery. Gentu) 1QB (](ritdn, "Goldzihf , 6:15 Gonei, jd\ atul Anb" 6:t2 (lold?iher,',572 Coldzihrr, "lsLnisme ct Parsism, ( i ,,l ,l ,i l ,r r , K.n n t) l a. 5 7 l l





l)$k, [a!r Mdin ,l.Ano, 8l (ix,h, 'Fl hdolog' ', 8l lint, Rmo, l,.rn, l dl l&., ^tnu ( r Dk. /r a ,,u ,, l ,'l I

( l '. 'r 'J , l

* ,I.



Gor]ziJ],e\Mrl@tudnichr Stltiii, 24 Gol.lziher, "Principlt', 637 G.,ldzi,h.t, Zahinka, 50+ CM4 Wd. li!otaft, 719 \tnim, M6tal *,316 Hmidullh, "Aqdd ta'lif', 285 H@in laj,, Edli$ .rtnt wl' 285 md Wdk.' 613 'ltta\.y, Url oLbad|,26 ry*ib, V^\b, r/!a, 93 Utft, Taoid, 38 H^/r?m, Ma&,/ dt aa'A' 2t7 Hjanbe\ !on. B.Ein da Srhdt, 642 Hischfeld, "Aiabic poion", 675 Hoptins, "Oldest dted dmment , 619 Hoovi1z,"lter und UBpruna", 641 Ho.ovitz, "Enie bio8rphics01", 378 Horcvnz, "Edlest bio8nphies [2]", Horovitz, "Herlunli", 659 Ibn 'Abd 2l-Ban, Gdti', 4 Ibn 'bd dl-Ualom, nrt' 329 Ibn Ab. Dwd, Mdalil 60 lbn Abi ll,ij,n, ,|dd al-Snf, 3+2 Ibn b. Etim, a{ri, 142 lbt j$ Hdt;n, Td4din , 415 +5 Ibn At' Sayhv, M@, lbr !\b Y^1., Taboq,15 Ibn Ab. Zayd, da',: 183 Ibn Ibn Ibn Ibn lbn Ibn Ibn Ibn Iba Ibn Ibn llm Ibn lbn Ibn Dn Ibn 'Asljr, -a,,trt, 183 583 al-A!r, "Ntr-rd, Bbawayh,Iu4,7, 50 Bbawayh,'/l.t, 509 Hat, Inan, t42 Ha^, Tztdb, I 15 E.nbal, Mmal, 69 lanbi, M6nal, ed. Skir, ll3 Vil*.n, Ma$aln, taa al-Gawi, C/,,r. 583 ar-GaMi, 1/d(. I al-C^vz, Talbx, 373 imi, d6d's. 520 al-Gunayd,.t/anr, 516 Ma, ,td, 355 qutayba, Sit, 520 quttyba, r,'"d, I l?

Ib! Ra-b, &"i1, 16 Ibn al-Raltq, 'Utdd, 522 Ils S^'d, Tobagdt4l qm al'nut4tun, 188 f, a!'hat, 49 rr^ Ibn ^-S ^\,'Ut 5 al'Std, /44

Plstidn Talnud, Pozmsli, "K@ite

541 n!.e[mies",


Sr^uh, Ubt 4fa&e, 27 Stmck, Intadutirn, 537 til, Adab al-launh, 52o Su$mann, "Hd,}nic 620 Suynlt, Dzt, 583 insc.iption ',

Qjrqisni,,.l"aa', 676 R Suta 4 T@, 310 ^ddztd, Ranahumuzi. M4.ld7, 46; os., 04 Rippin, 'Zuhli", 193 Rosenthal,"Babyloni Ta.lmud', 710 Roite., "Abn zLr'4", 284 Rubin, Seven Martznt". 583 Sadm, "Gnizah", 36+ Sf i, ,R"rto, 342 Sarmon bn Youhim, Saybina, .,1j, 626 Saybtui, ,,llar, 146 S^\Jrn, M@Lrlld, bA Scheclter, "Geniza specimen', 672 Schocler,'Anwendu,B", 510 Schoeler, "Irgt", l8 Schoeler, "Mtn<Ulch Tho.a", 27 Schocler, "Schreiber", 519 Schoeler,"Weire(t', l8 S.d6 EUou tobbon, 691 Sezgn, Bah/i'in kqna,*I1, 2I t/dr, {i79

Tdrdtdt dl qtm al-tuttmin: Tabdqt: ee lbn Sa'd

'It^d, Ibnd', 49 J.n, 'tolh.t ,ltiw^Pht, 203 Jctrery, Tu MrqdddiM, 543 Jster, J4,6, 701 Jtttl>oll, Atthz*itiE, 26 J\r\\boll, lulif, ta1$InL,333 K.t18, S.d6 Ttun, 687 Kable, C6rb Caia, 703 Kahle Nd Weirbe.g, "Mishm txC', 694 K!^', Itlan, 519 K^IiM, kdutian, 531 Kistr, "Ead.lthn , 579 kcler, "Zuhri", 195 kctr, "Btates", 316 Lwin, Geni fngDents", 693,'fdte!rcI", 544 Liebelrr@, "Haiatic in*riPtion", 621 \ebetuin, H.lmin, 605 I,.a.tch, SatdnatutuRahtibarh,532 Malter, "Sa<ha Ddies", 673 Fnb d@t'Puat, 631 ]''tgorionrh, lr,.ant]Dm, Mu@ial, 520 Me.asce, de, far, 53'1 Mjz., Taldib, 209

Tat , ralv, 3t+ . Taban, f9In1 d. Sti., 574 Tabwi, .Sdt, 86 Timi, Jzlir, I ll Tnsa ldnd,r, 50 Urena y Smenjaud,Zsr&e\ 'Ubi, M6aira1, 202 701


Wdsbrough, Ql/a, rrrltr, 33 wdsbrough, &.rd@ rla. 26 HannschiJltutunb,I Weie, "Sdidin". 553 Wedincl,,lUrnz,,?ar', 399 Wiede\ Jud@ sm :, 6a+ Yhye ibn Ma'in, rz", 516

SpisI, "Pi.qoi bcn Baboi", 596 Sprc.g$, "Origin", 23 sp.engr, "Trdirinswesen", 23 st^^, rYanbulii v.da iecitatbn, 72o

Zmablan, I"9, 583 zDlu, Jv,trit, 193 Zwele, Odt taditi'n, 5lO

Netur, Kanit aluloeL 679 Nldek,"iru -Bat{g., 578 Nijldke rr d.s @td\\, 5otl "1, Non^n, Pli liharu1, llA Nu'min, D.t'n. 503

Abn usma (d. 201), 81 Abt Ytsuf (d. 182), :i3n. l09n 'Ali, cariPh itur.d 3s,40), 34, 88,90. 95, l0.ln 'Ari ibn ar-rvadnii(d ?34), 79 'Alqma (d. 62), 15n. 99 (d. r48), 36, 75 'Ammd ibD sayE 8r ^,mai ibn'^1i,r-!ars (d. 249), lt,!n 'rnf "{mr ibn Dl. (d. 12ai),49. 52j again Miting: 5.1, 75; agairur sriri,rg 5+, t09ft Md oltl: a{, 'd): loln; and lb. 'Abbs: 54n '- A m r i t D S u'a yb ( d . l l 8 ) .5 4 ,6 7 , 7 9 And ibn lrlil (Cortpa.ion), 21, 2?ni ''sha.l];" Tradition: 95i and overc.osned .la$cr: 21, 6,1, 96n, l29Dr llmny !ro7 21, 79, 87j ical ordinan ofAbn B!l: 21. 79; nddJcs.s sons: 21, 79 Ata {d. n7l, 38, 99 ibn nl Mundir (d. 163), 6l ^rth ibD Ddn. (d. dly 70t, 99 'Asim '^t'ibn Abi Rabh (d. ll4). 54, 64, ll4n, l2ij 'r\' ibn Muslim id. 190),8l 'tu' ibn Yd. (<1.103), 14, .11j .At rr-uusnj (d. 135), 6,1n AM'i id. 1571,60, 63, 66, 107 r\db ibn Un! I I 4n ,{t}-b al-Sabti}'niLd. 13?t, 24n; llows wrv of Basrans:l2li n, l!on. ol wriling: 19; legareeol' bd q bl: 19, 81; and arrl Ilaqi'la ibD al-Ulid id. 19i1.61, 6.1 l)hhth ibn N{uzlnn id. l)5). 108n. t32 l.r il)n Ilalifa id. t53t, 36

Ilammd Abi suralmn 120), ibn (d. 3213i, 91, loof

Hammd iti salma (d. 167),21n, 22n, l0li wmt. fien e.ased:99i wrcte ar honci 23, 75 Hd..d ibn Zayd (d. 179i, 19n,23, Ilammm ibn Munabbih (d. l32i), 57 Hammm ibn Yaby (d. 164), 22n, ?4q .omrnon lint ot major Prophetic tradition agairst wnring: 14, l7j looks up book 77, Hna ibn Mus'ab (d. 168), 100 Hnt ibn suwayd i<l 7l), 88 Hrdn nn Ma.ruf (d. 231). 79n Hrsa. al-Basi id. ll0), 34.64, 83; attitudcs: 20; "sb&tliDg" l r<lilion: 20n, 9l; deadrbcd deruction of lnr rrasan ibD 'Ali (d. 49), 79, 89 Hasa. ibn Mu}ammad ibn al-Hanri})a ld .. 100), 83 tlsib ibn (d. 132 o. 1.1.1j?), 2?n, 30, H2wa ibn Surayh (d. 158),81n Hiim, crriPh (ru]ed 105,25),.10,68 Hiim ar-Da{!s'i {d. 153), t4n Hirrm ib. Hasn ld. 148), 23, [99] rlirm ibn ,utua tt. 1.161, 42 Hniaym ibn Bir (d. 183), 75 lbn .Abbs {compdiDn), 54!. 56, 65, 67. 10.lni drd Sr'id ibn Gubayr: 16, 5,li "sha.kliDg" Iradirin: 95; givrs gndging pcmission to Mite: 9 7 j m d L tte n : l 3 l Ibn Dfb (d. 1591,4!, 8.1 rbn ^bi 'm (d. l5l), 29, 331 l00ni way of Bffmns: l?; liosrility to witing: 13, lgi rgainsr arrjl: 13,

R.rcDces are ro paragraphs, not pagrs. I hale extcndcd the ca|egory ol "tradiriorhd' slightly; thus it covers Caliphs, but not, r example, po.ts. Tradirionists who arc also aulhors arc not covercd in the lauer capacity, and oDe \rho di.d aicr 250 are included. A rcfcrence of thc iorm "21n" hdicates that thc penor ii question is mcntioned only in a notr or notes to $ 21.
Abn ibn Ahi'-\a! 1d. r38), 2rn ibn 'A'id icompdion), 'bd ^Ih 'Ahd -Allih ibn al'la' id l6.t), 63. I2 il 'AM All1, ibn 'Amr ibn al 's icompanion), 69n, 75i ol,'rn's Propheaspe.hsion to trrir: 12. 22, 30, 54, 64, 67, 79. Itj his ,.Ldr9d: 30, 54n, 5l:'.61.17, 79: ransnns \ha.}ling' tndition: 51i $ith on ,rlabah: 67, 128i d'4ar.d 79 Atrn Humyra: 97r fmily drl 'Abd AlhL ibr Idri3 ld. 192), 75 'ALd Ailh ibn al'Mu'amnl 1d. 16!), 54 'Abd Allah ibr alMulann, ?1,,, ?2r '^bd al A,i? ibn Nrtun lgolcmc{l Egypt {j5-861,67, 69n 'Ibd alRahmn ih Sallma al Cumahi nar. lst .entur"l. 99 ',{Ld d-Rahmin ibn Zayd ibn Asln' Ld. 182t, 46, 51 'Abd il-ltazzq ibn Hamnrm (d. 21 |, 55 , 57 'Abidr ib. 'Amr al-Salmni id. 72), 3.1 1,8 1,l0 t , I 30 Abn 'l'iva (d. 901, 23, 140 r\bn 'An. ibn rl'Ali' (d. 15.!, ll.ln Ab u'^ sin , al - Nabn ( d. ?121. ?2! ]\bn ' (1. 176), 34 Abn RkI. (lariPh lNled ll-131, 13. 21 ,79 ,81 n Abn Rii(r ibn Nluhrlnmad ibn ,\m. ibn Hzm id. 1201.44, 6il 7') ,\lrn Snda id. 1011,3r. 75

65 Abtr l-Dad' {Companionl. 321 Hanif, l.t. 1501, Ahn ^bn Humtm lcompaniort,79, l04n; tmnsmi$Popb.!. traditionagains rvnrntg:1.1n, 16,46, 14, 108;did
.ot (ilos to) wrilel 63i and N{anen: 16. 68ni .ompard sith 'Ab.l Allh ibn 'lmr: 97j hrr \dttn Ko.ds aL hodc: 77. ilgi and Biir ibD Nahit: 23 Abt lbfihim al'Ta.umi ld. 23ljt, Abn Idris al-I,la$l.i i.l. 80), 60, ti7 Abn Ishq alsabi'i (d. 1271,75 l9n 'l-]ttalih ibn tna id. '.18), Abn ^bn l-Malil,r alRaqqi 1d. i8lr.6ln Abn LNrug_ra 'Abd l Qdds ibn ar rrai (d. 2121,j0 luuhallirn 1.1. 2.18. L40r ^bn Nn! ,l-,{i'ari icompaniont, nd Abn bis sor 34f, 60n, 67. 75i on lsEelit precedenr:35. 126l Abn N u s b n ( d . ? 1 8 1 . 6 0 n . l 2 8 n .!rn Nu alm al Fadl il,. Dukatn t l. 2 1 9 ) .3 . s 4 D , l l l n

19, Abn q bad. 104r, 2:r.lrl

Sa'id al Hudri i0rmpanion), 28: radition ^bn trasnnts najor Prulldi. rgrin w'iring: L.ti repLa.6 Al)n .16ni reinscd Huralaa nr n,/ p.inGsion to wdte by Pl,tnr1: lln , l 5 n . l l j , 1 6 n , 5 1 i . . l n s . s pupils I).riissio. to kite l5; ,r' ' ad o p t i n g n J s i K o i n i L l ) 1 , l.: 1 1 . on w n r i r s r l , r . l n i $ ! , r : 1 5 . l r I l : " ) r n [ J l ] r 1 i l r ( | r n t , " 'i , r 'r . r , l ^l, n

rbn Gurar 150), 95 s4, id.

t ; r b n i b n 'A b d l l h ( d . i 8 j . 8 9 ( r , i l , n i l n Z a yd d .. IOO) , 3 , 1 1 0 2 l i r l u i h n B u( l a n 1 d . 1 5 4 1 , l 4 n l r';.t'ir ibn al H2rnnl ld. lll{l), 36 ^bd l l . n n l i l I h d ( Ll ( !l l l L t. !J,r ) 'l r . , l n l i l , r N l ,f( 1 .,,, L r ) t. r 'l {i l l . r l , l i l t r , l t " ',' r ,l i l ,o j ,.'

Ib n H a n b a l ( d . 2 4 1 ) ,3 f,4 2 .1 7 , l0l; on tssrar way: 12, l'.li rcnnri..nce of lbn 'Ula,}a: 12, l7i remn cen.. .r suryn ibn 'Uyayn: 54i on Ma'mar: 57, 5B.l on pernsion to Mit: 97; Dn ll," \laJnd (irnpanid'i. 27, 1J4, 90. !,(r: )srin wirnqr 7, 1,1. B7i f'.'!i "q : l J7 , 1 2 1 ,, :1 2 :o n w n r n ,g l

hlaind and *tban: lsn fnilr lbn al-Mub.ak l8l), 38D.57. 60n ld. lbn S (d. 110J, 20n, 29, 35, i30j Illows way ol tsdrans:12; hostllc to wrjtirg: l3i on the Isrelite!81, l2lj, l30i won\ keepa book ovcmisht 13, [8.t]j les hostile uiludcs: on $ritins then 19j e.asing: 19,99j anl ahd' l0l; (d. Ibn Subruma 144),77 lbn 'ut4ya ld. 194),57, 108; re,.rion ro radilion bour 'Atrd Allh ibn 'onr:12, 17, 97i ansmits tadidons aglnstMiring: Ibn 'Uma. Companion), 44n, 49. l28n: s.ilst hritins: l6i and Sa'id ibn Cubarr 54; hosdc to l.!k.s: 131r'\hrklins" Tradition:9s lbn wahb (d. 197),20n Ibrhimibn sad (d. 183),42,99 Ibrh.m al Nbd'i (d. 96), maidy unl\ourablc aLdrud.s1o MirinA: 34i 63, 91, l07f; chansed h; mind: 32, 9l; nd Hdmd: 33, 3s , 91, l00f j d d a tl 3 5 .9 1 , l00f 1mrD ibn rlusrn lcomPnin). 23 ib Abi Hli<l(d. l4sJ, lr.rn lsn<ibn Ra'(l. eadt {..n<l Ka! ibn Mura (d. in the 70s?), 67 KaEr ibn zayd (d. towa.ds158),47 Iay! ib Abi Sulalm (d. 143),36, 56 liy! ibn Sa'd (d. 175),.13n, 67n Mlil ibn nas(d. 179),3Bn,39n, 43n,41n, .19,99, lol; neve.wmte on tablcts: 38n; a8ainst Mitins n4qr.: 43i agaiBt wnting ol his ibn Rrlid (d. 153),s5, 57f Ma'n ibn 'Abd al-Rhmn, 87n M2nsn. al,Mu'tami (d. r32),4, 35f ibn lvlatrn, (fulu.c) cariph lruled 6.15), 2q,47, 68 Iasn ibn Iuhmmad l Trt ( d. 2r 0) , jon
Manq id. 63), 99 Mu'ammd ibn Ism< (d. ?06), 8l rvu.iwiy. criph tured 41,60), 29, 47, 68 Nu.auiya iln qun! (d. ll3), 23, 34 ]!u'siya ibn Yahy alsadali, 39n Muhid ibn cab (d. r04), s4, i7 Muin ibn Miqsa (d. 13,u, 36, l18n {uhanmad: see Profhct Muramnad al-Baqj. id. r l4l, lrn Mnhmad ibn 'Abd AIiL .l Ansrri ? { < 1. 1 5 ) , 2 1 n Mubmmad ibn 'bd llal' al-zubari (d. !03). 29n, 47n Nluhamfrd ibn 'rnr lj4ti (d. 1441.:l Muhammad ibr ar-Hr.iD (d. 81). 89 Nulurhad ibn 'Ikrima, 99 Mulam ibn aLsabbh (d. 149j, 2?n Nri, (d. ll9). z/,1r ofDn Ns ilf Tanl I l.1n .umar,

Stlin ibi 'Abd AIh id. 106), 79 S]im ibn lca'd d. 971. !l ^bi sari ibn YaIy! (t 167), 20n Sli'r td. 2041.75. l?6n S)bni ll 189t, 32i .1.1n su ayb ibD Hamza (d. 16?), 8l Su'ba ibn al LL (d. 1601,21n, ^bi 3,lll 81 diTragcl 'Abd Allh ibi .Amr s Pefmission:2?n, 97r dsruction oa his boots at death: 8ii buried iccurulated 1231, lcrien: 83, l31r and arr47 100. Suin jbD'Lvawa (d. 198), l6n, 19. .10n,.19,52, 5,1, 75. l01n Suiyn al-TaMi Ld. 16l), 14. 28, 36, .19,75,81. l0lD, 132 S u l a ) m ni b n Bi l l r d . 1 7 2 ) ,4 7 n suliuir ibD larUn (d. 1.13). 23

warnrnni Nrusnm 1951,60, 63 id.

\!ila ibn al-,\qa' (Con+anioDl, 6l Yaby ibn Abi Ka! (d. 129), 57 Yaij"r ibn llamzr al Batalhi (d. 183), 'I'aly. *u \ra'in (d. 233J,79n, r0r, Yal.r!- ibn Sa'id.l-Arsfi (d. l4:ll,

Yahyi ibn Si'id al-(lartn td. 198),

22, 3ri

ophet (d. ll), tmdiriDns on writing rrom. 28, 50, l04i (1) radidons agairst miting: t.mmined by A)n Sr ' id : 1 4 1 7 , 2 8 , 5 4 j t r u s m i t t e d b y ,\bn Hurayri I4n. 16, .16,54, 108, 1l0i tanshiftrd bt Zard ibn Tbit: 1,t., 28i 47i Prcphet refuses Pcrmision to Abn lja'id: l4n, l5n, 16, 46n, 5.1j i2) traditions in favoul of wntingi "use your right hmd": 22, 30, 94j 'lhaclling Tradilio.: 22, 54, 94f l04na Propbet gives pemission ro '^bd llh ibn 'mr: 12, 22, 30, 51, 6,1,67, 79, 97, md .l: 69., 75nr Sivespem;sion to R6' ibn Uadi: 6.1 qsim ibn Muhmmad d. loil. 44, 63, 1 2 8 Q at . l ai b D D i ' m ( d . l l 7 ) . 2 3 , 6 3 Rn' ibn ladi (Companion),64 Ra' ibn rjarsa (d. ll,61

T.ns ibn Ka)$.n id. 106). l3n, 55-8, 83, 131 lumna ibD 'Al}] Allh ibn -{nas. 2ln, !2n (d. l0sl, ^llh 'Umar, Caliph ln d L3-?3),.19, ilr {lnl n.t w;fti: l3i .hr.grd his nind about rritins rhe fld,: ,!81. 57, li3, 108, and .l: 3; on ,taha: 63, l27fj \hackli.g" 'Ubayd Allh ibn '^bd 'LJmar ibn '^bd alCdliph . 4 .1 i r u l . d 9 9 - l 0l . 4 0^ziz, , l l i .. l 3 2 n i Mites to Nldina to ha! Tradition rrirLen down: 23. 33, 67f 'lj,va ibr al rxbay. (d 9.1i, ++, 4q, Nald ibn al-ana d. 1961,L3D,

Yrb! ibn Sirin id. .. 90t, 79d Yazid ibn Habib (d. 128j, tjlr Yrzid iln, ^bi Hirtu 1. 2061, 126 Yaztd ibn Yazid rd. 133), rron Ynnus ibn 'Ubayd ld. 1391.23 Ynnus il', Ya?i{t alA}li i{1. lJgl. 57, 17 Yn i r f i b n i d . l 1 l 5 r ,8 l ^ sb r Z'ida ibn qudma id. 16l),36 zyd ih 'Ali td. 12?, 8q Zivd ibn Aslam id. 136), 1.1,lij. ,t6. 5.1 Zayd ihn Tbit (Companjon), 40n; hnsnns Pidli. rradnion rsn*t snting: l.lD, 28f, 47i and l{u'tuia o r M !tu n : 1 6 , 2 8 f,.1 7 , 6 8 n j again$ Nriting ofhis rd): ll0 Zryd ihn Yahyt kl ?07), l28r Zu h r i ( d . 1 2 .1 ) ,5 ,1 3 n .3 7 - 4 2 ..1 4 ,i 7 , 7 9 n , l 0 l . l 6 3 i d i d n o r s{i tc:3 8 , l04n; srote then erased:38, 991 h.d onll a lDok on grnonogy: 38, b8, l32r no liadition in fte b.ks b. lDs.$.d: 3B, 77i rv.ot errhins he hard: 3!. l04n; left vlst liteary .rmanNr 39i Mot. on his sanda\: l3r, 39i bis.x.u.s li} wnting: .10, 9lji and the L_malaads: .10. 68, 96i .nD.n ln ,,f tmdition on 'Umais chanse of

(.r. sa'bi roa). r3? 35,9rt,95,

Sa'id ibn '^bd .l-^ziz (d. lijT),61) Sa'id iltn Cubayr (1. 951, 13, ."4, l3l Sa'id ibn al-Nlustaab l.l. 9.11, !r7, 44. I l0