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nd

International Conference on Information Processing and Electrical Engineering, ICIPEE’12 -Algeria

Multiobjective Artificial Bee Colony Algorithm for

Economic/Emission Optimal Power Flow problem

S. Mouassa T. Bouktir

Department of Electric Engineering, University of Sétif, (19000)-ALGERIA

souhil.mouassa@yahoo.fr tbouktir@yahoo.fr

Abstract— This paper presents a new application of the

artificial bee colony algorithm (ABC) for solving the

Multiobjective optimal power flow. The MOABC is to

simultaneously minimize total fuel cost and emission cost of

generation with considering various constraints i.e. limits on

generator real and reactive power outputs, bus voltages,

transformer tap-setting, and power flow of transmission lines.

This approach is evaluated on the standard IEEE 30-bus system

with six generating units .The results obtained using the

proposed approach is compared with results of other

optimization method. Simulation results demonstrate that

Artificial Bee Algorithm (ABC) provides better results than

other heuristic techniques.

Key words - Artificial Bee Algorithms (ABC), Multiobjective

optimization (MO), Emission/Economic optimal power flow.

I. INTRODUCTION

n the last decade the basic objective of optimal power

flow has dealt to minimize only one objective such as

fuel cost [1]. In addition, the increasing public awareness

of the environmental protection and the passage of the Clean

Air Act Amendments of 1990 have forced the utilities to

modify their design or operational strategies to reduce

pollution and atmospheric emissions of the thermal power

plants [2], which are pollutant gases (Nox, SO2, CO2, CO) .

Several options are proposed to reduce unit emissions

like installing cleaning equipments, changing to fuel with

less pollutants or dispatching with emission considerations

[3].

Conventional optimal power flow cannot meet the

environmental protection requirements, since it only

considers minimising the total fuel cost. Traditional

optimization techniques, such as gradient-based method are

difficult to extend to the true Multiobjective case, because

they were not designed to deal with multiple optimal

solutions. In most case, Multiobjective problems have to be

scaled to a single objective problem before the optimization

[4]. Different techniques have been reported in the literature

pertaining to emission/economic optimal power flow

(EEOPF) problem. In [5] the authors present an enhanced

genetic algorithm (EGA) for the solution of the OPF problem

with both continuous and discrete control variables [6]. In

[7], the authors have proposed the use of an Bacteria

Foraging in human intestine invented by Passino to solve

environmental constrained economic Dispatch, is used to

optimize the generation schedule for any power system. Two

conflicting objectives (i) cost and (ii)emission are optimized

simultaneously. In [8], the authors have proposed the use of

an ant colony search algorithm to solve the economic power

dispatch with pollution control. To accelerate the processes

of ant colony optimization (ACO), the controllable variables

are decomposed to active constraints that directly affect the

cost function included in the ACO process and the passive

constraints which are updated using conventional power

flow.

This paper proposes a simple approach based on

Artificial bee colony algorithm implemented with Matlab

program to minimize the total fuel cost of generation and

emission gaz cost caused by fossil based thermal generating

units and also maintaining an acceptable system performance

in terms of limits and security constraints.

II. PROBLEM FORMULATION

Emission/economic optimal power flow involves the

simultaneous optimization of fuel cost and emission objectives

that are conflicting in nature satisfying the system and unit

equality and inequality constraints. The general problem

formulation is as follows.

The Multiobjective Economic and emission optimal

power flow problem is converted into single optimization

problem by introducing price penalty factor [9]:

= ∗ , + 1 − ∗ ∗ , (1)

where the scaling factor λ was selected as 550.66 in this

study α is a compromise factor varied in the range 0 ≤α ≤1

The boundary values α=1 and α=0 give the conditions for the

pure minimization of the fuel cost function and the pure

minimization of the emission cost [10]:

Subject to :

g, = 0 (2)

avec ℎ, ≤ 0 (3)

Where

g, : is the equality constraints ;

ℎ, : is the system inequality constraints;

: is the vector of dependent variables (state variables)

including load bus voltage magnitudes .

: is the vector of control variables including real power

generation outputs except at the slack bus

1

, voltage

magnitudes

**of all PV buses including the slack bus and
**

transformer tap settings.

expressed as

=

1

,

. .

,

1

. .

,

1

. .

(4)

where , and are the number of load buses, the

number of generators, and the number of transmission lines,

respectively.

Hence, u can be expressed as:

=

2

. .

,

1

. .

,

1

. .

(5)

I

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International Conference on Information Processing and Electrical Engineering, ICIPEE’12 -Algeria

where NT is the number of the tap changing transformers.

III. OBJECTIVE FUNCTIONS

A. Fuel Cost Objective

The classical economic dispatch problem of finding the

optimal combination of power generation, which minimizes

the total fuel cost while satisfying the total required demand

can be mathematically stated as follows [11]:

, =

( ) h c P b P a

NG

i

i Gi i Gi i

/ $

1

2

¿

=

+ +

(6)

where

: total fuel cost ($/hr),

($/h MW2),

($/h MW),

($/h),:

are fuel cost coefficients of

ℎ

unit,

**is the real power
**

generation of

ℎ

unit

B. Emission Objective

The most important emissions considered in the power

generation industry due to their effects on the environment

are sulfur dioxide (SO2) and nitrogen oxides (NOx). These

emissions can be modeled through a combination of

polynomial and exponential terms [12]:

, = ( ) ( ) ( )

¿

=

÷

+ +

NG

i

Gi i i i Gi i Gi i

P e d c P b P a

1

2 2

2

2

2

exp + 10

(7)

where

2

,

2 ,

2

,

and ¸

are coefficients of the

ℎ

generator emission characteristics.

- Equality Constraints

Power balance is equality constraint. The total power

generation must cover the total demand (P

D

) and real power

loss in transmission lines (Ploss). Itcan be expressed as

follows. [1]

( )

¿

=

= + ÷

NG

i

loss Di Gi

P P P

1

0

(8)

The total transmission network losses the power system is

obtained by

=

( ) | |

j i j i j i

NL

k

k

V V V V g o o ÷ ÷ +

¿

=

cos 2

2 2

1

(9)

- Inequality Constraints

For stable operation, generator voltage, real power output

and reactive power output are restricted by the lower and

upper limit as follows.

≤

≤

(10)

≤

≤

(11)

≤

≤

(12)

= 1, ……. ,

also Transformer tap settings are restricted by the minimum

and maximum limits as follows.

- Security Constraints

Theses These incorporate the constraints of voltage

magnitudes of load buses as well as transmission line load-

ings as follows [13].

Theses incorporate the constraints of voltage magnitudes

of load buses as well as transmission line loadings as

follows :

≤

≤

(13)

≤

, ∈ (14)

- Voltage Deviation

One of the important indices of power system security is

the bus voltage magnitude. The voltage magnitude deviation

from the reference value at each load bus must be as small as

possible [10] .The deviation of voltage is given as follows:

∆V = V

i

−V

i

réf

NB

i=1

(15)

where,

**is the reference value of the voltage magnitude
**

at load bus i.

IV. OVERVIEW OF ARTIFICIAL COLONY

BEE ALGORITHM (ABC)

Among the algorithms based on the foraging behavior of

honey bees, the ABC was designed to deal with numerical

optimization problems. ABC is based in two natural

processes: The recruitment of bees into a food source and the

abandonment of a source.

Three types of bees are considered in the ABC: employed,

onlooker and scout bees. The number of employed bees is

equal to the number of food sources and an employed bee is

assigned to one of the sources. [14]

A bee waiting on the dance area for making decision to

choose a food source is called an onlooker and a bee going to

the food source visited by it previously is named an

employed bee. A bee carrying out random search is called a

scout. In the ABC algorithm, first half of the colony consists

of employed artificial bees and the second half constitutes

the onlooker. For every food source, there is only one

employed bee.

The employed bee whose food source is exhausted by the

employed and onlooker bees becomes a scout. In the ABC

algorithm, each cycle of the search consists of three steps:

sending the employed bees onto the food sources and then

measuring their nectar amounts; selecting of the food sources

by the onlookers after sharing the information of employed

bees and determining the nectar amount of the foods;

determining the scout bees and then sending them onto

possible food sources. At the initialization stage, a set of

food source positions are randomly selected by the bees and

their nectar amounts are determined. Then, these bees come

into the hive and share the nectar information of the sources

with the bees waiting on the dance area within the hive. At

the second stage, after sharing the information, every

employed bee goes to the food source area visited by her at

the previous cycle since that food source exists in her

memory, and then chooses a new food source by means of

visual information in the neighborhood of the present one. At

the third stage, an onlooker prefers a food source area

depending on the nectar information distributed by the

employed bees on the dance area. [15] As the nectar amount

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International Conference on Information Processing and Electrical Engineering, ICIPEE’12 -Algeria

of a food source increases, the probability with which that

food source is chosen by an onlooker increases, too. Hence,

the dance of employed bees carrying higher nectar recruits

the onlookers for the food source areas with higher nectar

amount. After arriving at the selected area, she chooses a

new food source in the neighborhood of the one in the

memory depending on visual information. Visual

information is based on the comparison of food source

positions. When the nectar of a food source is abandoned by

the bees, a new food source is randomly determined by a

scout bee and replaced with the abandoned one. In our

model, at each cycle at most one scout goes outside for

searching a new food source and the number of employed

and onlooker bees were equal [15].The probability

of

selecting a food source i is determined using the following

expression:

=

0.9∗

+ 0.1 (16)

Where

**the fitness of the solution is represented by the
**

food sources i .

The food source in the neighborhood of a particular food

source is determined by altering the value of one randomly

chosen solution parameter and keeping other parameters

unchanged. This is done by adding to the current value of the

chosen parameter the product of a uniform value between -1

and 1 and the difference in values of this parameter for this

food source and some other randomly chosen food source

[15]. Formally, suppose each solution

= 1,2, …,

consists of d parameters and let the solution be:

=

1

,

2

, ………,

(17)

With parameter values

1

,

2

, …………….

In order to determine a solution i,

in the neighborhood of

, a solution parameter j and another solution

=

1

,

2

, ………,

**are selected randomly. Except
**

for the value of the selected parameter j, all other parameter

values of

are same as

, i.e.

=

1

,

2

, ….

−1

…

….

+1

…

of the selected parameter j in

**is determined using the
**

following formula

=

+∅

−

(18)

Where ∈ 1,2, …. . , and ∈ 1,2, …. . , are randomly

chosen indexes. (D is the number of parameters to be

optimized and each parameter is real coded), although k is

determined randomly, it has to be different from i ∅

is a

random number between [-1, 1].If the resulting value falls

outside the acceptable range for parameter j, it is set to the

corresponding extreme value in that range.

V. APPLICATION OF ABC ALGORITHM ON (ED)

PROBLEM:

In ABC algorithm, the position of a food source

represents a possible solution to the optimization problem

and the nectar amount of a food source corresponds to the

quality (fitness) of the associated solution. The number of the

employed bees is equal to the number of food sources, each

of which also represents a site, being exploited at the

moment or to the number of solutions in the population. In

ABC Optimization, the steps given below are repeated until a

stopping criterion is satisfied. [16]

The following steps describe how ABC algorithm is applied to

the problem under consideration:

1. BEGIN

2. Initialize the set of food sources

0

, = 1, …. . ,

sources

3. Evaluate each

0

, = 1, …. . ,

4. g =1

5. REPEAT

6. FOR = 1 to

7. Generate V

i

g

with X

i

g−1

by Using equation 18

8. Evaluate V

i

g

9. IF V

i

g

is Better than X

i

g−1

10. V

i

g

= X

i

g

11. ELSE

12. X

i

g

= X

i

g−1

13. END IF

14. END FOR

15. FOR = 1 to

16. Select, based on fitness proportional selection food source

X

i

g

17. Generate V

i

g

,with X

i

g

18. Evaluate V

i

g

19. IF

g

i

V is Better than

g

i

x

20. V

i

g

= X

i

g

21. END IF

22. END FOR

23. Generate new food solutions at random for those

whose limit to be improved has been reached.

24. Keep the best solution so far.

25. g=g+1.

26. UNTIL g=MCN

27. END

VI. THE SAMPLE PROBLEM SOLUTION WITH ABC

The function given in Equation 6 is taken as a sample

problem. The number of variables is assigned to 6, while the

iteration number of the algorithm is assigned to 50. The

focus should be on ensuring that the size of the colony is

twice the number of the variables, because half of the colony

will be assigned as employed bees. At the first step of the

algorithm, the colony is created randomly. This colony is

given in Table 1. As seen in Table 1, half of the colony

represents the employed bees and the other half of the colony

represents the onlooker. After creating the initial colony,

employed bees nectars are replaced keeping their minds on

the amount of the nectar in each nectar resources. Employed

bees transfer the amount of nectars and the position

information to the onlooker bees in each cycle.

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International Conference on Information Processing and Electrical Engineering, ICIPEE’12 -Algeria

When the employed bee finds a new nectar resource having

more amount of nectar, it replaces the new resource amount

in mind. The information change in the employed bee mind

is presented for the13th and 14th cycles in Table 2. change of

the nectar resources belong to the 1st and 5th bee mind, in

Table 2, It is seen that the position information change of the

nectar resources belong to the 1st and 5th bee mind, in Table

2. Since those two bees meet the criteria for nectar resources,

having more nectar in the 10th cycle, they changed the

position information’s in their minds [17].

TABLEAU 1. THE INITIAL COLONY CREATED RANDOMLY

Employed bees Onlooker bees

113,060 63,091 17,584 14,805 19,889 28,637

171,697 44,791 18,813 13,521 11,355 25,33

106,940 25,918 49,35 14,271 27,953 22,31

209,326 64,073 32,388 21,645 15,771 30,35

197,907 58,238 15,784 17,789 15,381 38,27

109,148 63,091 17,584 14,804 19,889 28,637

171,696 44,791 18,813 13,521 16,810 25,324

200,00 64,073 32,388 21,645 15,771 25,215

197,907 61,968 15,784 17,789 15,380 38,269

171,697 44,791 18,813 13,521 16,81 25,324

TABLEAU 2. THE CHANGE OF INFORMATION IN MIND ACCORDING TO

CYCLES

48th Cycle 49th Cycle

113,060 50,130 21,891 14,611 12,982 12

147,994 50,133 21,888 14,622 12,891 12

106,948 50,097 21,891 14,612 12,818 12

200,00 50,089 21,890 14,622 13,013 12

197,907 50,110 21,886 14,624 12,926 12

113,060 50,074 21,891 14,614 12,796 12

171,697 50,133 21,888 14,622 12,929 12

106,940 50,097 21,891 14,614 12,844 12

200,000 50,089 21,890 14,622 13,013 12

197,907 50,110 21,886 14,606 12,926 12

The ABC-OPF has been developed by the use of

MATLAB version 7.9 and the system configuration is micro

portable processor with 2 GHz speed and 3 GB RAM. It is

tested using the IEEE 30-bus system [18].The system

consists of 41 lines, 6 generators, 4 Tap-changing

transformers, and shunt capacitor banks located at 2 buses

(Figure 2).The parameter settings to execute ABC.OPF are

number of the bees in the colony=20, limit=160,

maxcycle=100, the power mismatch tolerance is 0.001,

S

b

=100, the power demand equal 283.4MW and other

parameters are presented in (Table 3).

Figure 1. IEEE 30-bus Electrical system topology

TABLEAU 3. PARAMETERS OF THE STANDARD IEEE 30-BUS SIX-

GENERATOR TEST SYSTEM

U

n

it

Cost Coefficients Emission Coefficients

c b a c

2

b

2

a

2

d e

1 0 2.0 0.0037 4.09 -5.554 6.49 2.0E4 2.86

2 0 1.7 0.0175 2.54 -6.047 5.64 5.0E4 3.33

3 0 1.0 0.0625 4.26 -5.094 4.59 1.0E6 8.00

4 0 3.25 0.0083 5.33 -3.550 3.38 2.0E-3 2.00

5 0 3.00 0.0250 4.26 -5.094 4.59 1.0E-6 8.00

6 0 3.00 0.0250 6.13 -5.555 5.15 1.0E-5 6.67

To demonstrate effectiveness of the proposed approach,

three different cases have been considered as follows:

Case 1 : Best minimum Fuel Cost

Case 2 : Best minimum Emission Cost

Case 3 : Best Compromise (Fuel +Emission)

The results including the generation cost, the emission

level and power losses are shown in Table 4. This table gives

the optimum generations for minimum total cost in three

cases: first is the minimum generation cost without using

into account the emission level as the objective function

(α=1), an equal influence of generation cost and emission

cost in this function and at last a total minimum emission is

taken as the objective of main concern (α=0).

TABLEAU 4. THE OPTIMAL RESULTS FOR THE THREE CASES

Variables min max Case 1 Case2 Case 3

PG1 (MW)

50 200 178,1896 68,0584 129,9592

PG2 (MW)

20 80 21,395 71,204 56,5821

PG5 (MW)

15 50 21,395 50,00 25,7065

PG8 (MW)

10 35 21,5015 35,00 35,00

PG11 (MW)

10 30 11,8695 30,00 22,4951

PG13 ( MW)

12 40 12,00 68,0584 20,1588

VG1 (Pu)

0,95 1,1 1,100 1,0516 1,0552

VG2 (Pu)

0,95 1,1 1,0903 1,047 1,0387

VG5 (Pu)

0,95 1,1 1,0591 1,028 1,0088

VG8 (Pu)

0,95 1,1 1,0551 1,0337 1,0204

VG11 (Pu)

0,95 1,1 1,0016 1,0960 1,0847

VG13 (Pu) 0,95 1,1 1,100 1,0994 1,0781

T6-9 0,9 1,1 0,97 1,03 1,07

T6-10 0,9 1,1 1,1 1,05 0, 96

T4-12 0,9 1,1 1,00 1,01 1,00

T27-28 0,9 1,1 1,05 0,98 1,05

Fuel Cost

($/h)

285,8 1404,67 800,9275

934,126

819,997

Emission

Cost ($/ton)

0,230 0,44117 0,3712

0,2174

0,2701

Transmissio

n losses

(MW)

_ _ 9,1783 3,5208 6,5017

Algorithm converges to the 800. 9275 ($/h) which is the

lowest cost in Table 4, and those results are compared with

GA, Bees algorithm, in Table 5, clearly demonstrates the

ability of the proposed approach to find the least generation

cost than the classical and non-classical optimization

approaches It is necessary to note that all control variables

are remained within their permissible limits.

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International Conference on Information Processing and Electrical Engineering, ICIPEE’12 -Algeria

TABLEAU 5. COMPARISON OF DIFFERENT OPF METHODS OF

IEEE 30 BUS SYSTEM.

variable GA [6] BA-OPF [8] ABC-OPF

PG1 (MW)

177,28 176,467 178,1896

PG2 (MW)

48,817 48,736 21,395

PG5 (MW)

21,529 21,730 21,395

PG8 (MW)

21,81 21,272 21,5015

PG11 (MW)

11,325 12,128 11,8695

PG13 (MW)

12,087 12,532 12,00

Fuel Cost

($/h)

802,0012 802,305 800,9275

Losses

(MW)

9,4563 9,467 9,1783

Population 50 40 20

Iteration 100 50 100

In effect we have compared the emission cost calculated

in the case 1 with that of case 3, in see a reduction of

27.23% the gas emission in the atmosphere. The

convergence of fuel cost and emission objective functions for

(α=0, α=1) are shown in figure 2. Figure. 3 shows the typical

convergence characteristics of best compromise solutions

through the algorithm proceeding, (α=0.5)

Figure 2. Convergence Fuel Cost & Emission Cost of ABC-OPF

Figure 3. Convergence Best Compromise Fuel Cost of ABC-OPF

VII. CONCLUSION

In this paper, Artificial Bee Colony Algorithm has been

employed to the multi-objective optimal power flow. This

approach treats economic and emission impact as competing

objectives, which requires some reasonable trade-off among

objectives to reach an optimal solution. The feasibility of the

proposed method for economic power dispatch of power

system with pollution control is demonstrated on IEEE 30

bus system. It can be concluded that the ABC can be applied

to a wide range of optimization problems. In the future,

efforts will be made to incorporate with many constrain

(transient and voltage stability), and practical large sized

problems will be attempted by the proposed methodology.

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1 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100

790

795

800

805

810

815

820

825

830

835

840

Iterations

F

u

e

l

c

o

s

t

(

$

/

h

)

1 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100

0.21

0.215

0.22

0.225

0.23

0.235

0.24

0.245

0.25

E

m

i

s

s

i

o

n

C

o

s

t

(

$

/

t

o

n

)

Fuel Cost

Emission Cost

1 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100

815

817

819

821

823

825

827

829

831

833

835

837

839

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International Conference on Information Processing and Electrical Engineering, ICIPEE’12 -Algeria

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UsefulNot usefulAbstract This paper presents a new application of the artificial bee colony algorithm (ABC) for solving the Multiobjective optimal power flow. The MOABC is to simultaneously minimize total fuel cos...

Abstract This paper presents a new application of the artificial bee colony algorithm (ABC) for solving the Multiobjective optimal power flow. The MOABC is to simultaneously minimize total fuel cost and emission cost of generation with considering various constraints i.e. limits on generator real and reactive power outputs, bus voltages, transformer tap-setting, and power flow of transmission lines. This approach is evaluated on the standard IEEE 30-bus system with six generating units .The results obtained using the proposed approach is compared with results of other optimization method. Simulation results demonstrate that Artificial Bee Algorithm (ABC) provides better results than other heuristic techniques.

Key words - Artificial Bee Algorithms (ABC), Multiobjective optimization (MO), Emission/Economic optimal power flow.

Key words - Artificial Bee Algorithms (ABC), Multiobjective optimization (MO), Emission/Economic optimal power flow.

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