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jpg There are many different neurotransmitters and more than one kind might be used between an axon, gap, and receptor (together called a synapse). When metabolic processes are functioning normally, the concentration of neurotransmitter is quickly reduced and cellular 'housekeeping' takes place to keep everything healthy and in balance. Everything happens in milliseconds or less. Too much of a neurotransmitter makes it excitotoxic. The receptors over-activate. Ultimately the nerve cannot keep up and kills itself (apoptosis) or triggers a nearby cell to devour it (phagocytosis). Any time a cell's energy is reduced it becomes dramatically more sensitive to glutamate. Even normal levels of glutamate become excitotoxic when cell energy is low. Brain cells are particularly affected. During excitotoxicity, ATP production may be reduced, stopped or even reversed. Genetic mutation is associated with excitotoxicity and mitochondrial malfunction. Excitotoxicity also causes high levels of calcium (Ca2+ ions) to enter cells, in turn activating a variety of enzymes which proceed to damage cell structures including DNA. Excitotoxins promote cancer growth and metastasis. Cancer cells become more mobile when exposed to aspartate or glutamate. Glutamate is the most abundant neurotransmitter in the brain. Glutamate receptors also exist in every part of the body. They are found throughout the heart, the digestive system, and in every vital organ. Aspartate is a neurotransmitter found abundantly in the spinal cord. Glutamate and aspartate are excitatory neurotransmitters (as opposed to GABA and glycine which are inhibitory neurotransmitters).

Glutamate comes from glutamic acid and aspartate comes from aspartic acid. Glutamic acid and aspartic acid are "non-essential" amino acids. The body synthesizes just the amounts needed via a tightly regulated metabolic process. In unprocessed whole foods, glutamic acid and aspartic acid are not free amino acids. They are bound together with other amino acids in complex proteins. They get digested and absorbed as combined amino acids. They get broken down in the liver and released at very low levels the body can deal with. Excess glutamic acid or aspartic acid is detrimental and results in excitotoxicity. Food science has explored and refined a variety of processes to convert whole foods into basic materials. These materials are manipulated, combined, and added to foods in ways that meet performance and cost requirements. Ingredients are engineered to achieve attractive taste, texture, appearance, and shelf life characteristics. Hydrolysis is a process in which proteins and starches are broken down into amino acids, simple sugars, and fatty acids. Hydrolysis can be achieved using chemicals, enzymes, heat, and other techniques. Except in rare cases, two particular amino acids are always liberated in the process -- Asparagine (Asn) and Glutamine (Gln). These convert to aspartic acid and glutamic acid. disodium inosinate (E631) and disodium guanylate (E627) are food additives often found in instant noodles, potato chips, and a variety of other snacks. They are used as a flavor enhancers in synergy with monosodium glutamate. They are relatively expensive additives and are not used independently of glutamic acid; if disodium inosinate or disodium guanylate are present in a list of ingredients but MSG does not appear to be, it is likely that glutamic acid is hidden inside another ingredient. Soybeans are naturally high in glutamic acid. When soy extracts are produced (hydrolysis) the glutamic acid is released and concentrated. The resulting levels are often higher than in MSG-labeled products. Batches of yeast are broken down to provide amino acids -- on a food label this may be read as 'yeast extract'. These are also a source of highly concentrated excitotoxins. Citric acid is most often made from the fermentation of corn sugars. Free glutamic acid is introduced from the protein remnants hydrolyzed during production. Be aware too that citric acid is often produced at chlor-alkali facilities, and mercury contamination may have occurred early in the process. Excitotoxins penetrate the placental barrier and reach the fetus. Some consequences are Cumulative harmful effects on the endocrine and reproductive systems Changes in the brain that are irreversible, particularly the hypothalamus Deterioration of the nervous system, organs and tissues Infant formulas are typically based on soy. Many baby foods contain ingredients like 'caseinate hydrolyzed protein broth' which is a significant source of glutamate.

Excess glutamate impairs a baby's nervous system and can contribute to developmental delays. It can lead to juvenile obesity. It can lead to sudden infant death (SIDS). Look here to see the amount of excitotoxins added to popular baby foods. 'Edible' films and coatings applied to foods -- both fresh and processed -- have various formulations that include hydrolyzed proteins. Produce that has been 'waxed for appeal' can contain excitotoxin in the wax. Consuming a meal or drink containing MSG can elevate glutamate in the blood by 20x. When the glutamate receptors over-stimulate in response, effects such as these can be experienced Brain headaches (including migraines), irritability, aggression, depression, confusion, uncontrollable cravings, seizures Esophagus reflux, indigestion Bowel irritable bowel, diarrhea Nerves tingling sensations, ringing in the ears, visual sensitivity, changed sense of taste or smell Heart cardiac arrhythmia and cardio artery spasm (heart attacks, both can be fatal) There are glutamate receptors on both sides of the blood brain barrier. Exposing these receptors to excess glutamate causes irregular opening of the barrier. This compromise in the brain's defense system allows chemicals, viruses, bacteria, and other foreign substances to move in. A similar problem can occur in the intestines. Normally, cells regulate the molecules allowed to pass through, and structures called "tight junctures" seal the gap between intestinal cells so that molecules don't sneak by. Excitotoxicity can cause these tight junctures to open up and allow molecules through. Technically this is known as "paracellular transport" but more commonly it is known as "leaky gut". Other tissues such as bladder and kidney can be leaky like this too. Excess neurotransmitters aren't the only chemicals that contribute to excitotoxicity. Others include Chemicals capable of binding with receptors, or otherwise eliciting a reaction at receptors -essentially stealing seats and hanging around Chemicals that interfere with enzymes responsible for naturally reducing neurotransmitter levels -insecticides and nerve agents (chemical warfare) are examples Chemicals that interfere with metabolic 'housekeeping' processes

This turns out to be a large and growing list of chemical ingredients found in pesticides, pharmaceuticals, over-the-counter medicines, vaccines, and other products. Interestingly, many chemicals that are excitotoxic at one level are endocrine disruptors at another. Synergistic excitotoxicity has been observed. For example, glutamate or aspartame combined with colors found in snack foods were significantly more neurotoxic than any of the chemicals alone. Heavy metals cause glutamate to act more strongly towards neuron death. Dr. Russell Blaylock, M.D. articulates it well: "A number of studies have shown that mercury, in submicromolar concentrations, interferes with the removal of glutamate from the extracellular space, where itcauses excitotoxicity. This removal system is very important, not only in protecting the brain but also in preventing abnormal alterations in brain formation." Chemical body burden leads to increased brain immune activity that activates excitotoxicity. Oxidative stress also promotes excitotoxic degeneration of synapses and death of neurons. In fact oxidative stress, excitotoxicity, and ischemia (lack of oxygenated blood flow) appear to work together in a kind of "death spiral". Viruses can cause excitotoxicity. Many types of virus have an affinity for nervous system tissue. When a viral infection breaches the blood-brain barrier, it leads to inflammation within the brain -particularly in the microglia, which form part of the immune system of the brain. This is important because of the role of glial cells in the brain. Astroglia cells (aka astrocytes) surround neurons and perform many functions including Formation of the blood-brain barrier Providing nutrients to nerve tissue A leading role in the repair and scarring process in the brain Another very important role is to maintain a balance in the brain between excitatory and inhibitory neurotransmitters. When the virus -- or an antibody triggered by it -- starts killing the brains astrocytes, then glutamate

builds up in excess. Excess glutamate is excitotoxic. You've seen that excitotoxicity can play multiple roles in disease progression. Yet another is by disrupting methylation. DNA methylation is involved with gene expression. Changes in methylation can alter protein activity which can result in an array of detrimental conditions. This study found that Aspartame (Nutrasweet) has an effect on gene expression even after just one week at the maximum recommended daily amount. . This Italian study was very well done. It was a lifetime study, which is very important with these toxins. They fed animals aspartame throughout their lives and let them die a natural death. What the Italian study found is that if you take these same animals and expose them to formaldehyde in the same doses, they developed the same leukemias and lymphomas. If you look back at the Trocho Study conducted in Spain a couple of years ago, what they found was when they radiolabeled the aspartame, they could actually see formaldehyde binding to the DNA, and it produced both single and double strand DNA breakage. We know that when formaldehyde binds to DNA, it's very difficult to remove it. It will stay there for long periods of time. What that means is if you just drink a single diet cola today, or sweeten something with NutraSweet, you're accumulating damage every day. Eventually, you're going to produce this necessary pattern of DNA damage to initiate the cancer, and once you develop the cancer, the aspartic acid component of aspartame will make the cancer grow very rapidly. discovered that outside of the brain, there are numerous glutamate receptors in all organs and tissues. The entire GI tract, from the esophagus to the colon, has numerous glutamate receptors. The entire electrical conducting system of a heart is replete with all sorts of glutamate receptors. The lungs, the ovaries, all the reproductive systems and sperm itself, adrenal glands, bones and even the pancreas are all controlled by glutamate receptors. They act and operate exactly like the glutamate receptors in the brain. So, when you're consuming MSG, the level of glutamate in the blood can rise as high as 20-fold. You get very high glutamate levels in the blood after eating a meal containing MSG. You're stimulating all of the glutamate receptors. That's why some people get explosive diarrhea and dyspepsia, because it stimulates the receptors in the esophagus and small bowel. Others may develop irritable bowel, or if they have irritable bowel, it makes it a lot worse. If they have

reflux, it makes that a lot worse. The thing about the cardiac conduction system glutamate receptors is this may explain the rise in sudden cardiac death. we find in MSG-exposed animals is that they prefer carbohydrates and sugars over protein-rich foods. That was one of the characteristics of this type of obesity. It's very difficult to exercise the weight off and almost impossible to diet it off. The appetite is out of control, but the metabolism is also out of control. They have metabolic syndrome on top of obesity, and so then you have a state of leptin insensitivity. In terms of obesity, they have a leptin insensitivity. It has been shown that you can produce leptin insensitivity very easily with MSG. You've got a mixture of toxins with soy products, and the people think they are eating a healthy, nutritious product. It's destroying their nervous system, as well as other organs. You've got a mixture of toxins with soy products, and the people think they are eating a healthy, nutritious product. It's destroying their nervous system, as well as other organs.

What researchers have shown is that there are glutamate receptors on both sides of the blood brain barrier and that when you expose these receptors to glutamate, it opens up the blood brain barrier. So, the glutamate itself can open the barrier , "Well, glutamate appears naturally in other foods, like tomatoes and seaweed." What's your answer to that kind of defense? Dr. Blaylock: Sure, but you see, all of these types of glutamate are bound. They're in oligopeptides, polypeptides. They are bound in amino acids groupings. They're not free amino acids. If you have it as a complex protein, you absorb it slowly in your GI tract. In the GI tract, there are almost no free amino acids if you eat foods such as tomatoes. The level of free amino acids is nil; it's almost all absorbed as combined amino acids, and then it's only broken down in the liver, where it's released in very low concentrations that the body can deal with. Our bodies were never intended to have free amino acids in such high concentrations. Well, when you hydrolyze these proteins - or you use yeast extract or enzymes to break down these various proteins into their free, released amino acids - they're not natural any longer. What you've done is artificially release the amino acids in an unnatural way, and when they enter your GI tract, they are absorbed as free amino acids, then your blood level of that glutamic acid goes up significantly. As I said, it can go up as high as 20-fold, in some cases 40-fold. Your blood brain barrier is not constructed to handle such high levels of glutamate, because it doesn't naturally occur that way. It can handle the lower levels, but it can't handle these very high levels. Is there anything that a person can take to block the absorption of MSG or glutamate as a defensive

supplement? Dr. Blaylock: Well, not necessarily to block it. You have other amino acids that can't compete for glutamic acid absorption. So that may be one way to help reduce the rate at which it would be absorbed.

Mike: Which aminos would those be? Dr. Blaylock: Those would include leucine, isoleucine and lysine. They would compete for the same carrier system, so that would slow down absorption. There are a lot of things that act as glutamate receptor blockers. You know, like silymarin, curcumin and ginkgo biloba. These things are known to directly block glutamate receptors and reduce excitotoxicity. Curcumin is very potent. Most of your flavonoids reduce excitotoxicity. Magnesium is particularly important, because magnesium can block the NMDA glutamate type receptor. That's its natural function, so it significantly reduces toxicity. Vitamin E succinate is powerful at inhibiting excitotoxicity, as are all of your antioxidants. They found combinations of B vitamins also block excitotoxicity. What about other popular chemical sweeteners like sucralose in Splenda? Dr. Blaylock: There's really not a lot of research in those areas. They have some basic research, like with Splenda, showing thymus suppression. Over 800 million pounds of aspartame have been consumed in various products since it was first approved. Ironically, these food additives have nothing to do with preserving food or protecting its integrity. They are all used to alter the taste of food. MSG, hydrolyzed vegetable protein, and natural flavoring are used to enhance the taste of food so that it tastes better. Aspartame is an artificial sweetener. glutamate, as a neurotransmitter, is used by the brain only in very, very small concentrations - no more than 8 to 12ug. When the concentration of this transmitter rises above this level the neurons begin to fire abnormally. At higher concentrations, the cells undergo a specialized process of cell death. Hypertension, diabetes, head trauma, brain tumors, strokes, certain drugs, Alzheimer's disease, vitamin and mineral deficiencies, severe hypoglycemia, heat stroke, electromagnetic radiation, ionizing radiation, multiple sclerosis, and certain infections can all cause the barrier to fail. In fact, as we age the barrier system becomes more porous, allowing excitotoxins in the blood to enter the brain. So there are numerous instances under which excitotoxin food additives can enter and damage the brain. Another system used to protect the brain against environmental excitotoxins, is a system within the brain that binds the glutamate molecule (called the glutamate transporter) and transports it to a special storage cell (the astrocyte) within a fraction of a second after it is used as a neurotransmitter. This system can be overwhelmed by high intakes of MSG, aspartame and other food excitotoxins. It is also

known that excitotoxins themselves can cause the generation of numerous amounts of free radicals and that during the process of lipid peroxidation (oxidation of membrane fats) a substance is produced called 4-hydroxynonenal. This chemical inhibits the glutamate transporter, thus allowing glutamate to accumulate in the brain. Some individuals may be especially sensitive and develop severe symptoms and even sudden death from cardiac irritability, but in most instances the effects are subtle and develop over a long period of time. Also, in the case of tomatoes, the plant contains several powerful antioxidants known to block glutamate toxicity. Hydrolyzed vegetable protein is made by a chemical process that breaks down the vegetable's protein structure to purposefully free the glutamate, as well as aspartate, another excitotoxin. A growing list of excitotoxins is being discovered, including several that are found naturally. For example, L- cysteine is a very powerful excitotoxin. Recently, it has been added to certain bread dough and is sold in health food stores as a supplement. Homocysteine, a metabolic derivative, is also an excitotoxin. Interestingly, elevated blood levels of homocysteine has recently been shown to be a major, if not the major, indicator of cardiovascular disease and stroke. Overstimulation of the glutamate receptor can result in accumulation of reactive nitrogen species, resulting in the concentration of several species of dangerous free radicals. There is growing evidence that, at least in part, this is how excess glutamate damages nerve cells. vitamin E is known to completely block glutamate toxicity in vitro (in culture). Whether it will be as efficient in vivo (in a living animal) is not known. anti-oxidants work best in combination and when use separately can have opposite, harmful, effects. That is, when antioxidants, such as ascorbic acid and alpha tocopherol, become oxidized themselves, such as in the case of dehydroascorbic acid, they no longer protect, but rather act as free radicals themselves. The same is true of alpha-tocopherol. They found a dramatic and statistically significant increase in the related cancers of lymphoma and leukemia, along with several histological types of lymphomas, which is of interest because H.J. Roberts had written an article saying that there was a significant increase in the primary lymphoma of the brain. An alarming number young athletes are included in these deaths, in high schools and colleges as well as among professional athletes. While in some of these individuals cardiologists found evidence of coronary disease and scars from earlier silent heart attacks, there is one mechanism that's getting no attention at all: the excitotoxin damage caused by food additives and the artificial sweetener aspartame. This is despite growing evidence that the excitotoxic mechanism plays a major role in cardiac disease. Previously, it was thought that excitotoxic food additives, such as monosodium glutamate and aspartic acid in aspartame, cause their damage in the cardiovascular centers in the brain stem and/or by overstimulating sympathetic centers in the hypothalamus of the brain. Both mechanisms have resulted in sudden cardiac death in experimental animals. A particularly deadly combination occurs in young athletes: Low magnesium intake, high calcium intake, low intake of omega-3 fatty acids and excitotoxins in food additives. Strenuous exercise, especially in extreme heat, depletes the body's magnesium stores, as does consumption of carbonated drinks and taking calcium supplements. Also adrenalin secretion, increased during exercise, intensifies heart muscle irritability and further loss of magnesium as well. When calcium supplements are taken in the face of an existing magnesium deficiency, both magnesium and calcium are driven into the bones, producing a sudden magnesium-depletion crisis. Low magnesium produces seizures and causes sudden cardiac arrest. In a classic experiment it was found that stressing magnesium-deficient animals resulted in an almost 100% mortality from sudden cardiac arrest. Adding magnesium reduced mortality dramatically. A considerable body of evidence has

shown that low omega-3 fat intake significantly increases the risk and severity of cardiac arrhythmias, the main cause of sudden cardiac death. A number of studies have shown that Americans are significantly deficient in these protective fats. Finally, recent research has shown that the brain is not the only tissue having glutamate receptors. Numerous glutamate receptors have been found both within the heart's electrical conduction system and the heart muscle itself. When an excess of food-borne excitotoxins, such as MSG, hydrolyzed protein soy protein isolate and concentrate, natural flavoring, sodium caseinate and aspartate from aspartame, are consumed, these glutamate receptors are over-stimulated, producing cardiac arrhythmias. When magnesium stores are low, as we see in athletes, the glutamate receptors are so sensitive that even low levels of these excitotoxins can result in cardiac arrhythmias and death. This is especially so when combined with the other factors mentioned. Under such condition, free radicals and lipid eroxidation products build up within the muscle cells, leading to the same outcome. High consumption of aspartame adds an additional cardiac muscle toxin: methanol. A number of studies have shown that consuming aspartame and MSG (and similar excitotoxins) together greatly magnifies the toxicity. Young people live on junk foods, most of which contain a number of excitotoxic additives. Several studies have shown that the levels consumed by our youth equal those that cause damage in experimental animals. Humans are 5X more sensitive to these toxins than any animal.

The brain provides other amino acids that counter the effects of excitotoxins. The job ofGABA (gamma-amino-n-butyric acid) is to calm brain functions, and some people with FMS and ME/CFS say GABA supplements help relieve their symptoms.

high concentrations make the receptors on your neurons misfire, amplifying pain signals, or creating uncontrollable anxiety and irritability. When concentrations become high enough, neurons become so hyper-stimulated that it actually kills them.

The chief excitotoxin in your brain is glutamate (also called L-glutamate.) The healthy brain works hard to regulate levels, and there's even a specialized type of glial (white matter) cell whose job is clear that stuff out of there.

Another common excitotoxin is aspartate (or L-aspartate). Aspartate and glutamate both occur naturally in your body, but you don't want to do anything to raise your levels.

Aspartate is a component of aspartame -- the artificial sweetener known as Equal, NutraSweet and AminoSweet. It's in diet sodas, sugar-free drink mixes, and all kinds of low-calorie packaged products.

your pain receptors are actually in the spinal cord. That means every bit of aspartame or MSG you ingest has free reign to get your pain receptors worked into a frenzy, sending a whole bunch of extra pain signals to your brain. They actually cause you to hurt worse. And some of what slipped through the blood-brain barrier may also help your brain amplify those incoming pain signals even more. Some people who are especially sensitive will feel the effects of food-based excitotoxins immediately, but for most of us they're much slower and more subtle. Sources of processed free glutamic acid (MSG) 1 (Last updated June, 2010) Everyone knows that some people get reactions after eating the food ingredient monosodium glutamate -reactions that include migraine headaches, upset stomach, fuzzy thinking, diarrhea, heart irregularities, asthma, and/or mood swings. What many dont know, is that more than 40 different ingredients contain the chemical in monosodium glutamate (processed free glutamic acid) that causes these reactions. The following list of ingredients that contain processed free glutamic acid has been compiled over the last 20 years from consumers reports of adverse reactions and information provided by manufacturers and food technologists. Names of ingredients that always contain processed free glutamic acid: Glutamic acid (E 620), Glutamate (E 620) Monosodium glutamate (E 621) Monopotassium glutamate (E 622) Calcium glutamate (E 623) Monoammonium glutamate (E 624) Magnesium glutamate (E 625) Natrium glutamate Yeast extract Anything hydrolyzed Any hydrolyzed protein Calcium caseinate, Sodium caseinate Yeast food, Yeast nutrient

Autolyzed yeast Gelatin Textured protein Vetsin Ajinomoto (1) Glutamic acid found in unadulterated protein does not cause adverse reactions. To cause adverse reactions, the glutamic acid must have been processed/manufactured or come from protein that has been fermented. Names of ingredients that often contain or produce processed free glutamic acid: Carrageenan (E 407) Bouillon and broth Stock Whey protein, Whey protein concentrate Whey protein isolate Any flavors or flavoring Maltodextrin Citric acid (E 330) Anything ultra-pasteurized Barley malt Pectin (E 440) Protease Anything enzyme modified Anything containing enzymes Malt extract Soy sauce Soy sauce extract Soy protein, Soy protein concentrate, Soy protein isolate Anything protein fortified Anything fermented Seasonings The following ingredients work synergistically with MSG to enhance flavor. If they are present for flavoring purposes, so is MSG. Disodium 5-guanylate (E 627) Disodium 5-inosinate (E-631) Disodium 5'-ribonucleotides (E 635) The following are ingredients suspected of containing or creating sufficient processed free glutamic acid to serve as MSG-reaction triggers in HIGHLY SENSITIVE people: Corn starch Corn syrup Modified food starch Lipolyzed butter fat Dextrose Rice syrup, brown rice syrup Milk powder Reduced fat milk (e.g.., skim milk; 1% milk; 2% milk) most things low fat or no fat anything Enriched or Vitamin enriched

Information provided by the Truth in Labeling Campaign Web: Phone: 858-481-9333. e-mail: Low fat and no fat milk products often contain milk solids that contain MSG and/or contain carrageenan, guar gum, and/or locust bean gum. Low fat and no fat versions of ice cream and cheese may not be as obvious as yogurt, milk, cream, cream cheese, cottage cheese, etc., but they are not exceptions. Protein powders contain glutamic acid, which, invariably, will be processed free glutamic acid (MSG). Individual amino acids are not always listed on labels of protein powders. At present there is an FDA requirement to include the protein source when listing hydrolyzed protein products on labels of processed foods. Examples are hydrolyzed soy protein, hydrolyzed wheat protein, hydrolyzed pea protein, hydrolyzed whey protein, hydrolyzed, corn protein.. If a tomato, for example, were whole, it would be identified as a tomato. Calling an ingredient tomato protein indicates that the tomato has been hydrolyzed, at least in part, and that processed free glutamic acid (MSG) is present. Disodium guanylate and disodium inosinate are relatively expensive food additives that work synergistically with inexpensive MSG. Their use suggests that the product has MSG in it. They would probably not be used as food additives if there were no MSG present. MSG reactions have been reported from soaps, shampoos, hair conditioners, and cosmetics, where MSG is hidden in ingredients with names that include the words "hydrolyzed," "amino acids," and/or "protein." Drinks, candy, and chewing gum are potential sources of hidden MSG and/or aspartame, neotame. and AminoSweet (the new name for aspartame). Aspartic acid, found in neotame, aspartame (NutraSweet), and AminoSweet, ordinarily causes MSG type reactions in MSG sensitive people. Neotame is relatively new. We have not seen it used widely in the United States. It would appear that calling aspartame "AminoSweet" is industry's method of choice for hiding aspartame. Aspartame will be found in some medications, including children's medications. . For questions about the ingredients in pharmaceuticals, check with your pharmacist. Binders and fillers for medications, nutrients, and supplements, both prescription and non-prescription, enteral feeding materials, and some fluids administered intravenously in hospitals, may contain MSG. According to the manufacturer, VarivaxMerck chicken pox vaccine (Varicella Virus Live), contains Lmonosodium glutamate and hydrolyzed gelatin, both of which contain processed free glutamic acid (MSG) which causes brain lesions in young laboratory animals, and causes endocrine disturbances like OBESITY and REPRODUCTIVE disorders later in life. It would appear that most, if not all, live virus vaccines contain some ingredient(s) that contains MSG. Reactions to MSG are dose related, i.e., some people react to even very small amounts. MSG-induced reactions may occur immediately after ingestion or after as much as 48 hours. The time lapse between ingestion and reaction is typically the same for a particular individual who ingests an amount of MSG that exceeds his or her individual tolerance level. Remember: By food industry definition, all MSG is "naturally occurring." "Natural" doesn't mean "safe." "Natural" only means that the ingredient started out in nature, like arsenic and hydrochloric acid. We would like to hear from you if you have found additional MSG-reaction triggers . McDonalds The eggs reputation is recovering, but scrambled eggs as a part of McDonalds breakfast include much

more than egg. Their pasteurized whole eggs have sodium acid pyrophosphate, citric acid, and monosodium phosphate (all added to preserve color), and nisin, a preservative. To top it off, the eggs are prepared with liquid margarine: liquid soybean oil, water, partially hydrogenated cottonseed and soybean oils (trans fats), salt, hydrogenated cottonseed oil (trans fat), soy lecithin, mono- and diglycerides, sodium benzoate, potassium sorbate (preservatives), artificial flavor, citric acid, vitamin A palmitate and beta carotene (color). McDonalds coffee drinkers get the following chemical list of ingredients: sodium phosphate, sodium polyphosphate, Di-Acetyl Tartrate Ester of Monoglyceride, sodium stearoyl lactylate, tetra sodium pyrophosphate, sodium hexametaphosphate, sodium citrate and carrageenan. McDonalds salads have some interesting ingredients. The salads with grilled chicken also have liquid margarine. Several salads have either cilantro lime glaze or orange glaze added. Along with many of McDonalds sauces, both the cilantro lime glaze and the orange glaze contain propylene glycol alginate. While propylene glycol is considered GRAS for human consumption, it is not legal for use in cat food because the safety hasnt been proven yet [10]. Propylene glycol is also used As the killing and preserving agent in pitfall traps, usually used to capture ground beetles [10]. The chili lime tortilla strips that are included in the southwest salads have several ingredients used to hide MSG. They also contain two ingredients that advertise the presence of MSG: disodium inosinate and disodium guanylate. The chicken has sodium phosphates (of an unspecified variety). It could be trisodium phosphate (a cleanser), monosodium phosphate (a laxative) or disodium hydrogen phosphate [11]. Why would McDonalds add sodium phosphates (a foaming agent), and dimethylpolysiloxane added as an antifoaming agent in their crispy chicken breast fillets? It isnt dishwasher detergent. The other point to remember is that all chicken is raised with genetically modified grains, hormones, steroids, antibiotics, arsenic, herbicides and pesticides. After slaughtering, they pump the chicken up with a solution of High fructose Corn Syrup, MSG, salt and water. Burger King Its interesting to note that the BK Veggie Burger has six ingredients commonly used to hide free glutamate (MSG): calcium caseinate, hydrolyzed corn, yeast extract, soy protein isolate, spices and natural flavors. At the end of the ingredients list, it states This is NOT a vegan product. The patty is cooked in the microwave. Burger King has three salads to choose from the TENDERCRISP Garden Salad, the TENDERGRILL Garden Salad and the Side Garden Salad. A salad may be a little boring without a dressing like Kens Fat Free Ranch Dressing which includes titanium dioxide (an artificial color, or sunscreen, depending on use), preservatives and the ingredient seemingly mandatory in all ranch dressings: monosodium glutamate. TENDERGRILL CHICKEN BREAST FILET Chicken Breast with Rib Meat, Water, Seasoning (Maltodextrin, Salt, Sugar, Autolyzed Yeast Extract, Garlic Powder, Spices, Natural Flavors, Onion Powder, Modified Corn Starch, Chicken Fat, Chicken Powder, Chicken Broth, Disodium Guanylate and Disodium Inosinate, Citric Acid, Partially Hydrogenated Soybean Oil, Dehydrated Garlic, and Artificial Flavors, Modified Corn Starch, Soybean Oil, Salt, Sodium Phosphates. Glazed with: Water, Seasoning [Maltodextrin, Salt, Sugar,

Methylcellulose, Autolyzed Yeast Extract, Partially Hydrogenated Sunflower Oil, Modified Potato Starch, Fructose, Partially Hydrogenated Soybean Oil, Garlic Powder, Onion Powder, Dehydrated Garlic, Spices, Modified Corn Starch, Xanthan Gum, Natural Flavors, Disodium Guanylate and Disodium Inosinate, Chicken Fat, Carmel Color, Grill Flavor (from Partially Hydrogenated Soybean and Cottonseed Oil), Chicken Powder, Chicken Broth, Turmeric, Smoke Flavor, Annatto Extract and Artificial Flavors, Soybean Oil. Taco Bell Taco Bells website didnt have much emphasis on health. Under the nutrition guide, at the bottom, was a link to Keep it Balanced, a token nod to health. It had no serious information on how to really eat healthy. They recommend foods like pizza and tacos (no surprise) because they may include ingredients from several food groups at once. Including several food groups does not necessarily mean its a healthy food. The seasoned beef, carne asada steak, spicy shredded chicken and even the rice all include autolyzed yeast extract (hidden MSG). Disodium inosinate and disodium guanylate are flavor enhancers used in synergy with MSG. Therefore, menu items with disodium inosinate and/or disodium guanylate also contain MSG. This includes the avocado ranch dressing, southwest chicken, citrus salsa, creamy jalapeno sauce, creamy lime sauce, lime seasoned red strips, pepper jack sauce and seasoned rice. According to Wikipedia, dimethylpolysiloxane is optically clear, and is generally considered to be inert, non-toxic, and non-flammable. It is used in silicone caulk, adhesives and as an anti-foaming agent. Appetizingly enough, its also included in Taco Bells rice. Wendys At Wendys, there are several tempting salads. The mandarin chicken salad seems healthy at first glance. It has diced chicken, mandarin oranges, almonds, crispy noodles, your choice of dressings and five different varieties of lettuce. Then reality takes a bite when you check the ingredients list. The almonds are roasted and salted. The crispy noodles are not whole grain. The mandarin orange segments are not freshly peeled oranges; most likely canned. The diced chicken has added autolyzed yeast extract (MSG), disodium inosinate, disodium guanylate, sodium phosphates (soap?), salt, more salt, sugar, modified cornstarch and the universal umbrella ingredient list: spices, natural flavors and artificial flavors. In the ingredients lists for the salad dressings, one surprise was titanium dioxide in the Low Fat Honey Mustard Dressing and the Reduced Fat Creamy Ranch Dressing. Its a very versatile chemical. It can be used to manufacture paint, sunscreen, semiconductors and food coloring. Wendys Southwest Taco Salad is a salad with Wendys chili. Once again, the chili has hidden MSG: autolyzed yeast extracts, spices, artificial flavors, natural flavorings, disodium inosinate and disodium guanylate (MSG give-aways). Its puzzling to try to understand why their chili would need to include an anti-caking agent such as silicon dioxide, also known as sand or glass powder. See if you can spot the sunscreen, MSG and soap in this Wendys ingredient: Seasoned Tortilla Strips Whole Corn, Vegetable Oil (contains one or more of the following: corn, soybean or sunflower oil), Salt, Buttermilk Solids, Spices, Tomato, Sweet Cream, Dextrose, Onion, Sugar, Cheddar Cheese (cultured milk, salt, enzymes), Corn Starch, Modified Corn Starch, Maltodextrin, Nonfat Dry Milk, Garlic, Torula Yeast, Citric Acid, Autolyzed Yeast, Natural and Artificial Flavor, Artificial Colors (including extractives of paprika, turmeric and annatto, titanium dioxide, red 40, yellow 5, blue 1),

Disodium Phosphate, Lactic Acid, Soy Lecithin. CONTAINS: MILK. Subway If a sandwich is advertised as healthy, one would expect that the bread would be whole grain. Not so with Subways wheat bread. While it does have some whole wheat flour, its the third ingredient, listed just before high fructose corn syrup. None of Subways breads are whole grain. Ammonium sulfate (a fertilizer) is also added. The bread also contains azodicarbonamide. From Wikipedia, Use of azodicarbonamide as a food additive is banned in Australia. In the UK, the Health and Safety Executive has identified azodicarbonamide as a respiratory sensitizer (a possible cause of asthma) and determined that products should be labeled with May cause sensitization by inhalation. Most of the meats at Subway contain MSG and/or sodium nitrite. You have to wonder how Jarred lost weight eating Subway. KFC The chicken, the gravy and even the rice all have monosodium glutamate added. Not surprisingly, the chicken in the salads also has MSG. For a healthy menu item, the House Side Salad without dressing has nothing more than iceberg lettuce, romaine lettuce and tomatoes. KFC claims 0g trans-fat per serving for all their fried chicken, but the Extra Crispy Chicken, Colonels Crispy Strips, HBBQ Wings, Boneless HBBQ Wings, Fiery Buffalo Wings and more have partially hydrogenated soybean oil listed in the ingredients. So, if the trans-fat content is below 0.5g per serving, they can round down to zero and claim zero grams per serving. It is clear that if you want to be healthy, you cant eat restaurant food or grocery store food. No one can change overnight to break the bad food eating habits, but if you just change one thing at a time, you can have less disease and spend a lot less money on doctors, drug bills and insurance. To Your Good Health Excitotoxins: a substance added to foods and beverages that literally stimulates neurons to death, causing brain damage of varying degrees, and can be found in such ingredients as MSG, aspartame (NutraSweet, Equal), cysteine, hydrolyzed protein and aspartic acid. (1) References 1. Blaylock, Russell, Excitotoxins, The Taste that Kills. Santa Fe. Health Press NA Inc. Olney, J.W. Glutamate, A Neurotoxic Transmitter. J. Child Neuro. 4 (1989): 218-226

Commonly Known Excitotoxins:

MSG Glutamate Aspartame Hydrolyzed Vegetable Protein Hydrolyzed protein is often made from un-salable vegetables. These ugly (rotten?) veggies are boiled, not in water, but in vats of acid. The plant tissues are broken up and acidified and eaten away by caustic chemicals. It doesnt end there. After this bath in acid, the veggie-acid slurry is then neutralized with a

caustic soda. When this is added, the proteins coagulate into a brown sludge that then bubbles up and solidifies as a sludge mat on the surface of the vat. This brown sludge (the end product!) is dried and powdered and is sold as hydrolyzed protein and is next seen on your tongue after eating. ( Hydrolyzed protein products currently added to foods should be considered a detriment to ones health. (1) L-Cysteine Homocystine These are found in almost all processed foods, soups chips gravies fast foods, soups, cookies, chips, gravies, foods, frozen foods, salad dressing and croutons.

Excitotoxins are being added under disguised names such as:

Natural flavorings Spices Yeast extract Textured or soy protein Liquid forms of artificial flavorings (found in soups, gravies and diet soft drinks) Liquid forms of excitotoxins are more toxic than the solid forms because they absorb more rapidly into the body.

What are Artificial Sweeteners?

Artificial means that the sweetener is not found in nature, but is instead a man-made chemical compound.
List of Artificial Sweeteners:

Aspartame (NutraSweet) Alitame Sucralose (Splenda) Because the chemical composition of the sucrose in Splenda has been altered, it must now be called "sucralose" on all food labels. Remember, sucralose (with an "L" in the middle) is an artificial sweetener, and sucrose is normal table sugar. Acesulfame-K Neotame Saccharin (Sweet n Low )

As the three cornered molecule are metabolized it releases methyl alcohol, plus phenylalanine and aspartic acid, both neurotoxins. The methyl alcohol breaks down into formaldehyde, then formic acid. APM methyl alcohol/formaldehyde poisoning, engenders a host of cumulative degenerative diseases and functional abnormalities. Isolated phenylalanine and aspartic acid are neurotoxic. Aspartame's three components are: phenylalanine, which makes up 50 percent of the chemical weight; aspartic acid, which makes up 40 percent; and methanol (wood alcohol), which makes up 10 percent. (5) It is more commonly known under the names of NutraSweet and Equal. Today, NutraSweet is sold in over one hundred countries, found in over six thousand products, and is consumed by over 250 million people. It is commonly found in diet sodas and chewing gum. H.J. Roberts, MD, coined the term aspartame disease to encompass the complications, symptoms, and ramifications of this chemical sweetener. He has written an immense 1,038 page medical text called Aspartame Disease: An Ignored Epidemic. This paper addresses the many types of health problems that can occur from aspartame use.(13) When you consume aspartame your body takes the phenylalanine which in turn decomposes into DKP, a known carcinogen. The methanol can break down in your body as formaldehyde. The Environmental Protection Agency defines safe consumption of methanol as no more than 7.8 milligrams per day. One can of diet soda contains almost 16 milligrams of methanol.(3)

Did You Know?

The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has received more complaints about aspartame than any other ingredient to date.(2) Over four billion gallons of diet sodas are sold per year.(3) Early safety studies of aspartame conducted in 1967 by Harold Waisman for G.D. Searle & Company identified potential neurotoxic side effects. In one study, out of seven monkeys fed aspartame mixed with a liquid, one monkey actually died, and five others had grand mal seizures.(1) Neuroscientist Dr. John Olney showed that one of the main ingredients in aspartame, aspartic acid, caused damage to the brains of infant mice. Searles own scientists confirmed these findings in a similar study.(4) An article published in the July 2007 issue of Science Magazine featured 12 prominent health experts who support a ban on aspartame. It also featured a letter to U.S. Food and Drug Administration Commissioner Dr. Andrew Von Eschenbach requesting approval of the sweetener to be revoked due to extensive evidence that it causes cancer.(2) Also, when aspartame is paired with carbs, it causes your brain to slow down its production of serotonin, leading to depression and insomnia.(2)

Dangers of Methanol Poisoning

Once aspartame is consumed the methyl ester is broken down into methanol. Methanol is also known as a wood alcohol/paint remover. There is no natural binder for methanol once it is in your body. As a result, almost all of the methanol is metabolically converted into formaldehyde, which is five thousand times more potent a poison than the ethyl alcohol youd find in a glass of wine.(6) Methanol and phenylalanine both increase dopamine in the brain which can cause a high to some extent. This is one thing that makes aspartame highly addictive. Methanol is classified as a narcotic. Dr. H.J. Roberts, MD, stated after treating hundreds of aspartame reactors, the optic nerve swelling, retinal degeneration, and visual impairment associated with heavy aspartame use is identical to the pathology observed in recorded cases of methanol toxicity from drinking wood alcohol throughout the days of prohibition.(5)

More Dangers of Methanol Poisoning

It has been demonstrated that formaldehyde formation from aspartame ingestion is very common and does indeed accumulate within the cell, reacting with cellular proteins (mostly enzymes) and DNA (both mitochondrial and nuclear). The fact that it accumulates with each dose, indicates grave consequences among those who consume diet drinks and foodstuffs on a daily basis.(7) A relatively small amount of aspartame (e.g., one can of soda ingested by a child) can significantly increase plasma methanol levels.(8) Clinically, chronic, low-level exposure to methanol has been seen to cause headaches, dizziness, nausea, ear buzzing, GI disturbances, weakness, vertigo, chills, memory lapses, numbness & shooting pains, behavioral disturbances, neuritis, misty vision, vision tunneling, blurring of vision, conjunctivitis, insomnia, vision loss, depression, heart problems (including disease of the heart muscle), and pancreatic inflammation.(9)(10)(11) In 1999, the Western Journal of Medicine had a report suggesting that since formaldehyde is a known inducer of cancer, because it can alter DNA, anyone with breast and prostate cancer consuming aspartame should be concerned.(12)

History of Aspartame:
1966- Aspartame accidentally discovered by a drug researcher at G.D. Searle Company. 1967-78 Researched and brought before the FDA for approval. DENIED 12 TIMES!

Some Products that Contain Aspartame

carbonated soft drinks powdered drink mixes chewing gum

confections gelatins dessert mixes puddings and fillings frozen desserts yogurt some vitamins sugar-free cough syrups and cough drops

Diet Soda & Weight Gain

Research has shown that drinking diet sodas will likely cause weight gain.(22)(23)(24) A study about college students who drank diet soda was published in the Journal of the American Dietetic Association. The study found that there was no evidence that the use of artificial sweeteners was associated with a decrease in sugar intake. These results indicate that ingesting artificial sweeteners can increase a craving for sweets.(23) A study based on eight years of epidemiological data showed that drinking soft drinks increases the likelihood of weight gain by 65 percent. However, it was the diet soda that was associated with serious weight gain, not the regular soda.(24)

Aspartame May Speed Up the Process of Alzheimer's:

Dr. H.J. Roberts, the foremost medical authority on aspartame, believes that aspartame is partially responsible for the widespread epidemic of Alzheimers, because it speeds up the process. He has many young patients in their thirties and forties consult with him for symptoms of aspartame.(25) This is likely because as other studies have shown aspartame can cause holes in the brains of rats.

Aspartame May Contribute to Parkinson's Disease:

According to Dr. Blaylock, excitotoxins may be a contributing factor in the development of to Parkinsons disease. Excitotoxins, like aspartic acid (in aspartame) and glutamate (in MSG), excessively stimulate the brain cells, which then generate free radicals causing cell injury and even death. The reason why everyone does not develop neurological disorders from excitotoxins is because some individuals (e.g. those who eat a diet low in nutrients and antioxidants) have cellular defense enzymes that are either immature or defective, and are unable to protect the brain cells from excitotoxins.(1)(3)

A Good Use for Aspartame

Aspartame is a great ant poison. If you have ants, open a few packets of an aspartame sweetener and pour in the corners of the room that has ants. If this does not work add a little juice with the aspartame sweetener and the ants will eat it and it will quickly kill them. This ant killer poison most likely works by hurting their nervous system.

Microscopic photograph at left shows normal brain area called the arcuate nucleus. Photograph at right shows same area after exposure to MSG at 1 g/kg. White areas are dead brain cells resulting from the MSG exposure

Excitotoxins Effect on Hypothalamus

As early as 1976, it was shown that aspartame feeding in mice could produce lesions in the hypothalamus of newborns. It should be realized that these are lesions (injuries) that can be seen through an ordinary light microscope.(1) In animals made obese by damaging hypothalamic nuclei, one frequently sees accompanying violent outburst. We also know that directly injecting micromolar quantities of MSG into certain hypothalamic nuclei can precipitate an explosion of violence in experimental animals.(1) Exposure to high intakes of excitotoxins, such as aspartame, can alter the development of the hypothalamus, leading to sexual maldevelopment and endocrine problems that will appear later in life. For example, we know that infant animals exposed to excitotoxins will have fewer offspring and the offspring will be smaller than normal.

Symptoms List
Actual 1995 copy of aspartame related symptoms submitted to the FDA. The FDA has received well over 10,000 aspartame related complaints, more than all other complaints combined. Also keep in mind that less than 1 out of every 100 people actually file an official complaint and that of course, many people consume aspartame daily and have no clue that it may be the cause of their illnesses.

Excitotoxins Effect on Babies:

The Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology (FASEB), which usually understates problems and mimics the FDA party-line, stated in a review that: "It is prudent to avoid the use of dietary supplements of L-glutamic acid by pregnant women, infants, and children. The existence of evidence of potential endocrine responses, i.e., elevated cortisol and prolactin, and differential responses between males and females, would also suggest a neuroendocrine link and that supplemental L-glutamic acid should be avoided by women of childbearing age and individuals with effective disorders.(27)

Ever since aspartame was approved in dry goods and beverages there has been an increase occurrence of cancer in the brain and spinal cord among children whose mothers consumed aspartame throughout their pregnancy.(28)(29)

Military Warns Pilots About Aspartame:

Both the Air Force's magazine Flying Safety and the Navy's magazine, Navy Physiology published articles warning about the many dangers of aspartame including the cumulative deleterious effects of methanol and the greater likelihood of birth defects. The articles note that the ingestion of aspartame can make pilots more susceptible to seizures and vertigo. Twenty articles sounding warnings about ingesting aspartame while flying have also appeared, here are a few of them: National Business Aircraft Association Digest (NBAA Digest 1993) Aviation Medical Bulletin (1988) The Aviation Consumer (1988) Canadian General Aviation News (1990) Pacific Flyer (1988), General Aviation News (1989) Aviation Safety Digest (1989), and Plane and Pilot (1990) A paper warning about aspartame was presented at the 57th Annual Meeting of the Aerospace Medical Association (Gaffney 1986). Recently, a hotline was set up for pilots suffering from acute reactions to aspartame ingestion. Over 600 pilots have reported symptoms including some who have reported suffering grand mal seizures in the cockpit due to aspartame. Reported by the Aspartame Consumer Safety Network

Monosodium Glutamate (MSG)

MSG takes the flavors of any food and enhances them to the max, then uses its addictive qualities to make sure the customer keeps coming back for more. In order for a food product to be labeled with containing MSG it has to be over 90% pure MSG. When the label says it doesnt contain MSG that is not necessarily true it may just not have the purest form of MSG. That is why you need to learn all the names to avoid. MSG is used to alter the taste of food.

Products Where MSG Can Almost Always Be Found:

Autolyzed yeast Calcium caseinate Gelatin Glutamate

Glutamic acid Hydrolyzed protein Monopotassium glutamate Monosodium glutamate Sodium caseinate Textured protein Yeast extract Yeast food Yeast Nutrient

MSG Can Often Be Found In:

Barley Malt, Bouillon, Broth, Carrageenan, Enzyme-modified substances, Flavoring, Flavors, Malt Extract, Malt flavoring, Maltodextrin, Natural flavor/flavorings, Natural pork/beef/chicken flavoring, Pectin, Protein-fortified substances, Seasonings, Soy protein, Soy protein isolate or concentrate, Soy sauce, Soy sauce extract, Stock Vegetable gum, Whey protein, Whey protein isolate or concentrate. The amount of MSG in a single bowl of commercially available soup is probably enough to cause blood glutamate levels to rise higher in a human child than levels that predictably cause brain damage in immature animals.(36) In 1974 Dr. Olney demonstrated that MSG, when fed to pregnant Rhesus monkeys, could cause brain damage to their offspring.(37) Other researchers found similar results when pregnant rats were fed MSG.(38) In 1957 two ophthalmology residents, Lucas and Newshouse, tested monosodium glutamate and aspartate on infant and adult mice while studying a particular eye disorder.(1) Of the animals that had been tested with monosodium glutamate, virtually all of the nerve cells in the inner layer of the animals retinas had been destroyed. The worst damage occurred in the newborn mice.(39) In 1968 neuroscientist Dr. John Olney working out of the Department of Psychiatry at Washington University in St. Louis, repeated Dr. Lucas and Newhouses experiment. He discovered that not only did MSG cause severe damage to the neurons in the retina of the eye, but that it also caused widespread destruction of neurons in the hypothalamus. Dr. Olneys disclosed that MSG, when fed in doses similar to those found in the human diets, destroys hypothalamic neurons. This type of hypothalamic damage produces a particular syndrome in animals which causes them to be short in stature, obese, and to have reproductive problems. Again, this damage was most severe in the newborn animals.(1)(39)

How MSG Damages the Hypothalamus:

Recent studies have shown that glutamate is the most important neurotransmitter in the hypothalamus. (40) Since this early observation, monosodium glutamate and other excitatory substances have become the standard tool in studying the function of the hypothalamus. Later studies indicated that the damage by monosodium glutamate was much more widespread, including the hippocampus, circumventricular organs, locus cereulus, amygdala-limbic system, subthalamus, and striatum.(41)

Dr. Charles B. Nemeroff, who is a primary researcher in his field, has done an extensive review of the scientific literature and concludes that most reliable evidence, indicates that MSG consistently produces significant injuries to the hypothalamus of a wide variety of animal species and causes disruption of many endocrine hormones.(42) *The FDA and the companies that make excitotoxins claim that the blood brain barrier protects any damage from taking place. However, according to Dr. Blaylock the hypothalamus is not protected by the blood brain barrier.

Why Are Excitotoxins Still On the Market?

Lack of awareness by the general population is one of the main reasons aspartame is still on the market. If consumers werent demanding it companies wouldnt produce it. Moreover, the diet industry is worth trillions of American dollars to corporations, and they want to protect their profits by keeping the truth behind aspartame's dangers hidden from the public. If the FDA or any other government declared aspartame unsafe and pulled it from the shelves there would be so many lawsuits that it would almost destroy the food industry.

How to Help Protect Your Brain From Excitotoxins:

Magnesium has been discovered to help impede glutamates from overloading glutamate receptors. People with low magnesium content are the most prone to acute excitotoxicity that can cause a sudden severe digestive distress, headache, or even heart attack. Magnesium is vital to 300 biochemical functions within the body. So it is important for overall health in addition to blocking glutamate sensors or channels from excitotoxin overload. Magnesium content is high in green, leafy vegetables. It is also available in whole grains and many beans and nuts. Omega 3 fatty acids also block excitotoxins while repairing cellular damage. Fish oils seem to be the best source of Omega 3 for this specific purpose, according to Dr. Russel Blaylock, author of Excitotoxins: The Taste That Kills, and Health and Nutrition Secrets That Can Save Your Life. Selenium is another protector of glutamate receptors from excitotoxin invasion. It is available as a supplement. Small doses are recommended. Brazil nuts are considered a high source of selenium. Two or three Brazil nuts a day is considered sufficient for optimum selenium intake. Red Clover was recommended by Barbara L. Minton in her September 22, 2008 Natural News article Red Clover Blocks Neurological Damage From MSG. It is basically an herb that is inexpensive and available as leaves for tea, in tinctures, liquid extracts, and capsules. According to Barbara Minton's article, lab tests demonstrated a significant decline in brain cell neuron damage when red clover's essential protective ingredient was added. Zinc also helps obstruct the glutamate receptor channels from excessive excitotoxin absorption. Many in our society today are zinc deficient. A zinc taste test can be done to determine if one has sufficient zinc stored in his or her body. A solution of zinc sulfate is tasted for the test. If an immediate bad taste ensues, that usually indicates a sufficient zinc level in the body. To enhance and ensure detoxification, Dr. Blaylock recommends milk thistle to help the liver eliminate all toxins. Curcumin is the essential ingredient of turmeric. It enhances bile flow as well as DNA repair enzymes. He also recommends taurine, an amino acid that contains sulfur to aid the liver, as well as vitamins B1 and B6 and vitamins C and E. Vitamins C & E: The most important antioxidants are alpha-tocopherol or vitamin E, and ascorbic acid,

also known as vitamin C. The brain normally contains one of the highest concentrations of vitamin C in the body. The advantages of these antioxidants are that they can easily enter the blood brain barrier and reach the brain cells where they are needed most. The brain is very dependent on vitamin E & C for its protection.

Alternatives to Excitotoxins:
For organic and natural sweeteners, we recommend agave nectar, raw organic honey, stevia or xylitol.

How You Can Protect Yourself:

Become aware of all unnecessary chemicals hidden in your foods. Be a food detective. Purify your diet as much as possible, and try to enjoy natural eating. Educate yourself, your friends and family and anyone who will listen to you about the dangers of excitotoxins.

Conflict of Interest:
The Townsend Letter for Doctors (11/92) reported on a study revealing that 37 of 49 top FDA officials who left the FDA took positions with companies they had regulated. They also reported that over 150 FDA officials owned stock in drug companies they were assigned to manage. Many organizations and universities receive large sums of money from companies connected to the NutraSweet Association, a group of companies promoting the use of aspartame. In January 1993, the American Dietetic Association received a US $75,000 grant from the NutraSweet Company. The American Dietetic Association has stated that the NutraSweet Company writes their "Facts" sheets.(43) The Prescription Drug User Fee Act allows the FDA to collect user fees from drug companies. (3) This could be what perpetuates the FDA reluctance to bite the hand that feeds them since so much of their funding comes from the drug companies. According to Dr. David Graham, within the Center for Drug Evaluation and Research, about 80 percent of the resources of the FDA are geared towards the approval process of new drugs, and 20 percent to everything else. Drug safety is about 5 percent.(44) A recent survey that was sent out to nearly six thousand FDA scientists found that nearly 40 percent of them believe the agency is not acting effectively to protect the public health.(45) In an analysis of 166 articles published in medical journals from 1980 to 1985, Dr. Ralph G. Walton, a professor of psychiatry at Northeastern Ohio Universities College of Medicine, found that 100 percent of the seventy-four studies financed by the industry attested to the sweeteners safety. Although of the ninety-two independently funded articles, 91 percent indentified adverse health reactions.(46) HIDDEN SOURCES OF MSG: The food industries are always on a quest to disguise MSG added in our food. Below is a partial list of the most common names used. The FDA does not require labeling in the powerful excitotoxins aspartate and L-cysteine. The following excitotoxins might even sound good for you! A marketing strategy. Hydrolyzed Vegetable Protein Hydrolyzed Protein

Hydrolyzed plant protein Plant protein extract Sodium Caseinate Calcium Caseinate Yeast Extract Textured Protein Autolyzed Yeast Hydrolyzed Oat Flour Malt extract Malt flavoring Bouillon Broth Stock Flavoring Natural flavoring Natural beef or chicken flavoring Seasoning Carrageenan Soy protein concentrate Soy protein isolate Soy protein concentrate These ALWAYS contain MSG Glutamate Glutamic acid Gelatin Monosodium glutamate Calcium caseinate Textured protein Monopotassium glutamate Sodium caseinate Yeast nutrient Yeast extract Yeast food Autolyzed yeast Hydrolyzed protein (any protein that is hydrolyzed) Hydrolyzed corn gluten Natrium glutamate (natrium is Latin/German for sodium) These OFTEN contain MSG or create MSG during processing

Carrageenan Maltodextrin Malt extract Natural pork flavoring Citric acid Malt flavoring Bouillon and Broth Natural chicken flavoring Soy protein isolate Natural beef flavoring Ultra-pasteurized Soy sauce Stock Barley malt Soy sauce extract Whey protein concentrate Pectin Soy protein Whey protein Protease Soy protein concentrate Whey protein isolate Protease enzymes Anything protein fortified Flavors(s) & Flavoring(s) Anything enzyme modified Anything fermented Natural flavor(s) Enzymes anything Seasonings (the word seasonings) The new game is to label hydrolyzed proteins as pea protein, whey protein, corn protein Relatively new to the list are wheat protein and soy protein. MSG reactions have been reported to soaps, shampoos, hair conditioners, and cosmetics, where MSG is hidden in ingredients that include the words hydrolyzed, amino acids, and protein. Low fat and no fat milk products often include milk solids that contain MSG. Binders and fillers for medications, nutrients, and supplements, both prescription and non-prescription, enteral feeding materials, and some fluids administered intravenously in hospitals, may contain MSG. According to the manufacturer, VarivaxMerck chicken pox vaccine (Varicella Virus Live), contains Lmonosodium glutamate and hydrolyzed gelatin both of which contain processed free glutamic acid (MSG) which causes brain lesions in young laboratory animals, and causes endocrine disturbances like OBESITY and REPRODUCTIVE disorders later in life. It would appear that most, if not all, live virus vaccines contain MSG. MSG IS in everything! Annatto Flavoring Seasonings (Most assume this means salt pepper or spices & herbs which it sometimes is) Protein fortified anything Anything enriched or vitamin enriched

Flowing Agents Protein Fortified Milk Barley Malt Gums Reaction Flavours Bouillon Lipolyzed butter fat Rice or Brown Rice, Syrup Broth Low or No Fat items Soy Protein Caramel Flavoring (coloring) Malt Extract or Flavoring Soy Protein Isolate or Concentrate Carrageenan Malted Barley (flavour) Soy Sauce or Extract Citric Acid (when processed from corn) Maltodextrin Spice Corn syrup and corn syrup solids (partly depends upon process used) Milk Powder Stock Cornstarch Modified Food Starch Ultra-pasteurized anything Dough Conditioners Natural Chicken Wheat Dry Milk Solids Pectin Whey Protein Isolate or Concentrate Fermented anything Protease Whey Protein or Whey Flavours & Flavouring Protease enzymes

Yeast Nutrients A study of elderly people showed that people eat more of the foods that it is added to. introduction into the American food supply fifty years ago Suggested Supplements according to Dr. Russell L. Blaylock, MD , Neurosurgeon and Author of Excitotoxins The Taste that Kills Alpha-lipoic acid Exceptional for excitotoxin protection Co-enzyme Q10 & Niacinamide, Riboflavin & Thiamine Prevents excitotoxin damage by improving energy in the brain Acetyl- L-Carnitine Reduces memory loss in the brain (expensive) L-Carnitine Improved long-term memory and learning Taurine Function is to protect the brain & stabilize nervouse sysem excitability Lecithin Repairs injuries to the insulation of nerve cells (keep refrigerated) Phosphatdylserine Phospholipid with superior neurological properties / improved memory over time; natural glutamate blocker Dihyro-ergot Compounds (Hydergine) Counteracts effects of aging brain oxygen delivery and free radical scavengering DMAE (Deanol) Natural in sardines and anchovies increases choline in the brain helps moods, imporves memory and learning ability (even in children) Querestin & Hesperidin Protects eyes and retinal barrier may also strengthen blood-brain barrier Vitamins C & E Antioxidants (helpful also in cancer prevention) Minerals Magnesium & Zinc Excitotoxin protection protects the cells Reference: Blaylock, R. (1997).Excitotoxins The Taste That Kills, Albuquerque, NM: Health Press NA the diet. The key here is to eat food as close to nature as possible at all times. We should each consider clearing our pantries and refrigerators to eliminate all foods with MGS, NutraSweet and hydrolyzed vegetable protein. This includes virtually all processed foods, some of the worst offenders are soups, salad dressings, steak sauce, gravy mixes, chips, cream sauces and gourmet foods. Read labels carefully and re-learn the joys of cooking and a simple diet When a person is hypoglycemic the body is weak, the mind is fuzzy and neurons are already firing spontaneously because of the low blood sugar condition in the brain. Since the brain needs very large doses of glucose to function properly hypoglycemic individuals already lack the energy needed by the brain to operate properly. These tired neurons are now further stimulated by the addition of the MSG or other excitotoxins and the overstimulation causes the affected cells to die. High doses of MSG cause rapid death and low doses cause a slower death. Keeping a normal blood sugar level is critical to brain function and excitotoxin protection. Excessive exercise (like marathon runners and tri-athletes etc.) can induce hypoglycemia and these people need to take extra care not to exhaust the body because the brain does not get adequate nutrition when we are in a hypoglycemic state athan is demonstrated in any other species. Is there any way to counteract the MSG as it seems to be in all packaged foods?

Neutralizing factors to excitotoxin poisoning in the brain appear to include Vitamin C and Vitamin E. It is interesting to note that the highest concentrations of Vitamin C in the body are concentrated in the brain. Other antioxidant helpers are beta carotene, Vitamin K, Vitamin D, Vitamin A and the minerals magnesium, chromium, zinc and selenium. Zinc, magnesium and glycine are the locks on the system that block the calcium channel from staying open in the presence of unwanted toxins, thereby shutting the door. The American diet, however, is typically very low in both zinc and magnesium. THere are some good general rules to follow regarding amino acid therapy. 1) If you are considering using a specific amino acid, (such as glutamine, aspartic acid, cysteine, etc), document the need first. 2) Do not dose single amino acids on an empty stomach, especially those that are also excitatory neurotransmitters. 3) Consider balancing single amino acid supplements with a broad-spectrum amino acid supplement. profits. Also consider that the amount of MSG added to foods has doubled every decade since the 1940's. The innocuous sounding "hydrolyzed vegetable protein" is even more dangerous than MSG; it contains three excitotoxins (glutamate, aspartate and cysteic acid) and several known carcinogens. AA consistent supply of energy to the brain is required if neurons are to be protected against the damaging effects of excitotoxins in all forms. The brain uses 20% of the body's oxygen and 25% of its glucose while making up only 2% of its weight. Conditions like hypoglycemia can cause an energy shortage in the brain leading to failure of the main systems in place to regulate neurotransmitter concentration around neurons and calcium accumulation inside neurons. As mentioned above, zinc and magnesium play important roles in calcium channel regulation. Zinc causes the channel to remain closed, allowing no calcium into the cell. We can see how zinc in excess could present a problem. Magnesium also causes the calcium channel to remain closed, but if the nerve fires, the MG lock is blown and calcium allowed to enter the cell.To be sure, it is worth the extra expense to order a red cell magnesium for your patients to rule out or establish magnesium need for each individual. Adequate magnesium equals increased protection from the damaging effects of excitotoxin food additives, inadequate magnesium equals increased risk of neural damage from excitotoxin exposure. W in 1969, Dr. John Olney, a neuroscientist and neuropathologist working out of the Department of Psychiatry at Washington University in St. Louis, repeated Lucas and Newhouse's experiment.(4) His lab assistant noticed that the newborn of MSG exposed mice were grossly obese and short in stature. Further examination also demonstrated hypoplastic organs, including pituitary, thyroid, adrenal as well as reproductive dysfunction. Physiologically, they demonstrated multiple endocrine deficiencies, including TSH, growth hormone, LH, FSH, and ACTH. When Dr. Olney examined the animal's brain, he discovered discrete lesions of the arcuate nucleus as well as less severe destruction of other hypothalamic nuclei. Aspartame is responsible for over 75% of the adverse reactions to food additives reported to the FDA. A few of the 90 different documented symptoms include: headaches/migraines, dizziness, seizures, nausea, numbness, muscle spasms, weight gain, rashes, depression, fatigue, irritability, tachycardia, insomnia, vision problems, hearing loss, heart palpitations, breathing difficulties, anxiety attacks, slurred speech, loss of taste, tinnitus, vertigo, memory loss and joint pain.

What makes aspartame so bitter-sweet? The substance is made up of 40% aspartic acid, 50% phenylalanine and 10% methanol. Aspartate is a neurotransmitter in the brain, facilitating information from one neuron to another. Too much aspartate allows an influx of calcium into the brain cells, triggering an excessive amount of free radicals, which kill the cells. Aspartate is referred to as an "excitotoxin" because of the nerve cell damage that it causes. Phenylalanine Phenylalanine is an amino acid normally found in the brain. Human testing has shown phenylalanine levels in the blood are increased significantly in those who chronically use aspartame. Excessive levels of phenylalanine in the brain can cause the levels of serotonin to decrease, which can lead to depression, schizophrenia and make one more susceptible to seizures. Methanol By far, the most controversial ingredient in aspartame is methanol (aka wood alcohol). An EPA assessment of methanol states that it is "considered a cumulative poison due to the low rate of excretion once it is absorbed. In the body, methanol is oxidated to formaldehyde and formic acid; both of these metabolites are toxic." This oxidation occurs when methanol reaches 30 C. Formaldehyde A product broken down from aspartate is a known carcinogen and causes retinal damage, birth defects and interferes with DNA replications. The EPA recommends a consumption limit of 7.8 mg/day. A 1 Litre aspartame sweetened beverage contains about 56 mg of methanol, seven times the EPA limit. The most common maladies related to methanol poisoning are vision problems including misty vision, progressive contraction of visual fields, blurring of vision, obscuration of vision, retinal damage and blindness. Wheat gluten is 43% glutamate, the milk protein casein is 23% glutamate, and gelatin protein is 12%glutamate. (5) There are 4 main classes of glutamate receptors: the NMDA (N-methyl-D-aspartate) receptor, the quisqualate/AMPA receptor, the kainite receptor, and the AMPA metabotropic receptor. Each of these receptors has a different structure, and has somewhat different effects on the neurons they excite. The NMDA is the most common glutamate receptor in the brain (13). The NMDA, kainite and quisqualate receptors all serve to open ion channels. Looking at the NMDA receptor diagram, the NMDA receptor is the most complex, and had more diverse and potentially devastating effects on receiving neurons than the others. When glutamate or aspartate attaches to the NMDA receptor, it triggers a flow of sodium (Na) and calcium (Ca) ions into the neuron, and an outflow of potassium (K). It is this ion exchange that triggers the neuron to "fire" an electric current across its membrane surface, in turn triggering a neurotransmitter release to whatever other neurons the just-fired neuron synaptically contacts. The kainite and AMPA ion channels primarily permit the exchange of Na and K ions, and generally cause briefer and weaker electric currents than NMDA receptors. Thus, when glutamate/aspartate acts through kainite/AMPA receptors, it is weakly excitatory, but when glutamate/aspartate act through NMDA receptors, they are strongly excitatory. (14) NMDA receptor activation is the basis of long-term potentiation, which in turn is the basis for memory consolidation and long-term memory formation. (14) Normal levels of calcium inside the neuron allow normal functioning, but when excessive calcium builds up inside neurons, this activates a series of enzymes, including phopholipases, proteases, nitric oxide synthases and endonucleases. (1,3) Excessive intraneuronal calcium can also make it impossible for the neuron to return to its resting state, and instead cause the neuron to "fire" uncontrollably. (1,3) Phospholipase A2 breaks down a portion of the cell membrane and releases arachidonic acid, a fatty acid. Other enzymes then convert arachidonic acid into inflammatory prostaglandins, thromboxanes and leukotrienes, which then damage the cell. (1,3) Phospholipase A2 also promotes the generation of platelet activating factor,

which also increases cell calcium influx by stimulating release of more glutamate. (3) And wheneverarachidonic acid is converted to prostaglandins, thromboxanes, and leukotrienes, free radicals, including superoxide, peroxide and hydroxyl, are automatically generated as part of the reaction (1-3, 16). Excessive calcium also activates various proteases (protein-digesting enzymes) which can digest various cell proteins, including tubulin, microtubule-proteins, spectrin, and others. (1,3) calcium can also activate nuclear enzymes (endonucleases) that result in chromatin condensation, DNA fragmentation and nuclear breakdown, i.e. apoptosis, or "cell suicide". (3) Excessive calcium also activates nitric oxide synthase which produces nitric oxide. When this nitric oxide reacts with the superoxide radical produced during inflammatory prostaglandin/leukotrieneformation, the supertoxic peroxynitrite radical is formed (3,17). Peroxynitrite oxidizes membrane fats, inhibits mitochondrial ATP-producing enzymes, and triggers apoptosis (17). And these are just some of the ways glutamate -NMDA stimulated intracellular calcium excess can damage or kill neurons! When glutamate is pumped into astrocytes, which is a major mechanism for terminating its excitatory action, the glutamateis converted into glutamine. Glutamine is then released by the astrocytes, picked up by glutamate-neurons, stored in vesicles, and converted back toglutamate as needed. (3) This glutamate-glutamine conversion also requires ATP energy, however, and this anti-excitotoxic mechanism is also at risk if cellular energy production is comprises for any reason. (3) Also, excessive free radicals can prevent glutamate uptake by astrocytes, thereby significantly (and dangerously) raising extra cellular glutamate levels 5 main conditions which allowglutamate to shift from neurotransmitter to excitotoxin: 1) inadequate neuronal ATP levels (whatever the cause); 2) inadequate neuronal levels of magnesium, the natural, non-drug calcium channel blocker; 3) high inflammatory prostaglandin / leukotriene levels (caused by excessiveglutamate-NMDA stimulated calcium invasion); 4) excessive free radical formation (caused by prostaglandin / leukotrieneformation and/or insufficient intracellular antioxidants/free radical scavengers; 5) inadequate removal of glutamate from the extracellular (synaptic) space back into neurons or into astrocytes. To further worsen matters, humans concentrate MSG in their blood 5 times higher than mice from a comparable dose, and maintain the higher blood level longer than mice. (2) In fact, humans concentrate MSG in their blood to a greater degree than any other known animal, including monkeys. 1) Inadequate neuronal ATP levels. This factor is one of the 2 chief keys to preventing excitotoxicity. ATP is the energy "currency" of all cells, including neurons. Each neuron must produce all the ATP it needs - there is no welfare state to take care of needy but helpless neurons. ATP is needed to pump glutamate out of the synaptic gap into either the glutamate-secreting neuron or into astrocytes. ATP is needed by atrocytes to convert glutamate into glutamine. ATP is needed by sodium and calcium pumps to get excess sodium and calcium back out of the neuron after neuron firing. ATP is needed to maintain neuron resting electric potential, which in turn maintains the magnesium-block of the glutamateNMDA receptor. With enough ATP bioenergy, neurons can keep glutamate and aspartate in their proper role as neurotransmitters. Neurons produce ATP by "burning" glucose (blood sugar) through 3 interlocking cellular cycles: the glycolytic and Krebs' cycles, and the electron transport chain, with most of the ATP coming from the electron transport chain(22). Various enzyme assemblies produce ATP from glucose through these 3 cycles, with the Krebs' cycle and electron transport chain occurring inside mitochondria, the power plants of the cell. The various enzyme assemblies require vitamins B1, B2, B3 (NADH), B5 (pantothenate), biotin, and alpha-lipoic acid as coenzyme "spark plugs" (22). Magnesium is also

required by most of the glycolytic and Krebs' cycle enzymes as a mineral co-factor (22). The electron transport chain especially relies on NADH and coenzyme Q10 (Co Q10) to generate the bulk of the cell's ATP (22). Supplementary sublingual ATP, bysupplying preformed adenosine to cells, can also help in ATP (adenosine triphosphate) formation (22). Idebenone is a synthetic variant of Co Q10 that may work better than CoQ10, especially in low oxygen conditions, to keep ATP production going in the electron transport chain (22). Acetyl l-carnitine is a natural mitochondrial molecule that may regenerate aging mitochondria that are suffering from a lifetime of accumulatedfree radical damage (22). Thus the basic pro-energy anti-excitotoxic program consists of 50-100 mg of B1, B2, B3, B5; 500-10,000 mcg of biotin; 100-300 mg alpha-lipoic acid; 50-300 mg CoQ10; 45-90 mg Idebenone; 10-30 mg sublingual ATP; 500-2000 mg acetyl l-carnitine; and 300-600 mg Magnesium; and 5-20 mg NADH. All should be taken in divided doses with meals, except the NADH, which is taken on an empty stomach. 2) Inadequate neuronal levels of magnesium. Magnesium is nature's non-drug NMDA channel blocker. Magnesium is also essential, as just mentioned, for ATP production, and the small amount of ATP that can be stored in cells is stored as MgATP. Magnesium injections are routinely given to alcoholics going through extreme withdrawal symptoms (delerium tremens), and alcohol withdrawal is an excitotoxic process (11). Magnesium dietary levels in Western countries are typically only 175275mg/day (23). Dr Mildred Seelig, a noted magnesium expert, has calculated that a minimum of 8 mg of magnesium/Kg of bodyweight are needed to prevent cellular magnesium deficiency (24). This would be 560 mg/day for a 70 kg (154 pound) person. Alcoholics, chronic diuretic users, diabetics, candidiasis patients, and those under extreme, prolonged stress may need even more (25). 300-600 mg magnesium per day, taken with food in divided doses, should be adequate for healthy persons. Excess magnesium will cause diarrhoea; reduce dose accordingly if necessary. Magnesium malate, succinate, glycinate, ascorbate, chloride and taurinate are the best supplemental forms. 3) High neuronal levels of inflammatory prostaglandins (PG), thromboxanes (TX) and leukotrienes (LT). The excitotoxic process does much of its damage through initiating excessive production of prostaglandins, thromboxanes, and leukotrienes. Inflammatory prostaglandins and thromboxanes are produced by the action of cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2) on arachidonic acid liberated from cell membranes (16,26). Leukotrienes are produced by lipoxygenases (LOX)(16). Trans-resveratrol is a powerful natural inhibitor of both COX-2 and LOX(26,27,28). The bioflavonoid quercetin is a powerful LOX-inhibitor (27). Curcumin (turmeric extract), rosemary extract, green tea extract, ginger and oregano are also effective natural COX-2 inhibitors (26). It is interesting to note that Alzheimers disease is in large part an excitotoxicity disease (2,10), and 20 epidemiological studies published by 1998 indicate that populations taking anti-inflammatory drugs (e.g. arthritis sufferers) have a significantly reduced prevalence of Alzheimers disease or a slower mental decline (26). However, both steroidal and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs have potentially dangerous side effects, so the natural anti-inflammatory substances may be a much safer, if slightly less powerful, alternative. 5-20 mg trans-resveratrol 2-3 times daily, 250-500 mg quercetin 3 times daily, and 300-600 mg rosemary extract 2-3 times daily is a safe, natural anti-inflammatory program. 4) Excessive free radical formation/inadequate antioxidant status is a major pathway of excitotoxic damage. Various free radicals, including superoxide, peroxide, hydroxyl and peroxynitrite, are generated through the inflammatory prostaglandin/leukotriene pathways triggered by excitotoxic intracellular calcium excess. These free radicals can damage or destroy virtually every cellular biomolecule: proteins, fatty acids, phospholipids, glycoproteins, even DNA, leading to cell injury or death (1-3, 16, 17). Free radicals are also inevitably formed whenever mitochondria produce ATP (22). Reduced intraneuronal antioxidant defenses is a routine finding in autopsy studies of brains from Alzheimers and Parkinson's patients (2). Although vitamins C and E are the two most important

nutritional antioxidants, and brain cells may concentrate C to levels 100 times higher than blood levels (30), antioxidants work as a team. Free radical researcher Lester Packer has identified C, E, alpha-lipoic acid, Co Q10 and NADH as the most important dietary antioxidants (31,32) Idebenone has also shown great power in protecting various types of neurons from free radical damage and other excitotoxic effects. Idebenone is able to protect neurons at levels 30-100 times less than the vitamin E levels needed to protect neurons from excitotoxic damage (33-37). One of the many ways excitotoxins damage neurons is to prevent the intracellular formation of glutathione, one of the most important cellular antioxidants. The combination of E and Idebenone provided complete antioxidant neuronal protection in spite of extremely low glutathione levels caused by glutamate excitotoxic action (33,34). Idebenone has also shown clinical effectiveness in treating various forms of stroke and cerebrovascular dementia, known to be caused by excitotoxic damage (38). Deprenyl is also indicated for prevention of excitotoxic free radical damage. In a recent study, Mytilneou and colleagues showed that deprenyl protected mesencephalic dopamine neurons from NMDA excitotoxicity comparably to the standard NMDA blocker, MK-801 (39). The chief bodily metabolite of deprenyl, desmethylselegeline, was shown to be even more powerful than deprenyl itself at preventing NMDA excitotoxic damage to dopamine neurons (40). Maruyama and colleagues showed that deprenyl protected human doparminergic cells from apoptosis (cell suicide) induced by peroxynitrite, a free radical generated through NMDA excitotoxic action (3,17). Deprenyl has also been shown to significantly increase the activity of 2 key antioxidant enzymes, superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase, in rat brain (41). There is also good evidence that deprenyl, through its MAO-B inhibiting action, may favorably modulate the polyamine binding site on NMDA receptors, thereby reducing excitotoxicity(41). A basic anti-excitotoxic antioxidant program would thus consist of the following: 200-400 IU d-alpha tocopherol; 100-200 mg gamma tocopherol (this form of vitamin E has recently been shown to be highly protective against peroxynitrite toxicity, unlike d-alpha E (42); 100200 mcg selenium as selenomethionine (selenium is necessary for the activity of glutathione peroxidase, one of the most critical intracellular antioxidants); 500-1,000 mg vitamin C 3-5 times daily; 50-100 mg alpha-lipoic acid 2-3 times daily; 50-300mg Co Q10; 5-20 mg NADH (empty stomach); 45 mg Idebenone 2 times daily; 1.5-2 mg deprenyl daily. Note that some of these are already covered by the energy enhancement program. Zinc is necessary for one form of SOD - zinc SOD - and also blocks the NMDA receptor. However, high levels of neuronal zinc may over activate the quisqualate/AMPA glutamate receptors, causing an excitotoxic action. (1,2) Dr Blaylock, the neurosurgeon author of Excitotoxins (2), therefore recommends keeping supplementary zinc levels to 10-20 mg daily. (2) 5) Inadequate removal of extracellular (synaptic) glutamate. Excessive synaptic glutamate/aspartate will keep glutamate receptors (NMDA or non-NMDA) overactive, promoting repetitive neuronal electrical firing, calcium/sodium influx, and resultant excitotoxicity. Avoiding dietary MSG/aspartame will help to minimize synaptic glutamate/aspartate levels. Keeping neuronal ATP energy maximal through avoidance of hypoglycemia (i.e. don't skip meals or practice "starvation dieting"), combined with the supplemental energy program described in 1) above, will promote adequate ATP to assist glutamate pumps to remove excess extracellular glutamate to astrocytes. Adequate ATP will also promote astrocyte conversion of glutamate to glutamine, the chief glutamate removal mechanism. Adequate ATP will also keep calcium and sodium pumps active, preventing excessive intracellular calcium build-up. Intracellular calcium excess itself promotes renewed secretion of glutamate into synapses, in a positive feedback vicious cycle (3). An enzyme called "glutamate dehydrogenase" also helps neurons dispose of excess glutamate by converting glutamate to alpha-ketoglutarate, a Krebs' cycle fuel. Glutamate dehydrogenase is activated by NADH, so taking the NADH recommended in the energy and antioxidant programs will also

promote breakdown of glutamate excess. Excessive levels of free radicals has been shown to inhibit glutamate uptake by astrocytes, the major route for terminating glutamate receptor activation (29), so following the antioxidant program will also aid in clearing excess synaptic glutamate. In order to maximize clearance of synaptic glutamate, it will also be necessary to avoid use of the nutritional supplement glutamine. The health food industry has promoted glutamine use for decades, often in multi-gram quantities. A 1994 book touts glutamine "to strengthen the immune system, improve muscle mass, and heal the digestive tract" (43). It is true that many studies do show benefits form short-term, often high dose, glutamine use. It must be remembered, however, that glutamine easily passes the blood-brain barrier and enters the astrocytes and neurons, where it can be converted to glutamate. And the excitotoxic damage from excess glutamate may take a lifetime to develop to the point of expressing itself as a stroke, Alzheimers or Parkinson's disease, etc. But high dose glutamine can cause excitotoxic problems even in the short term. At last year's Monte Carlo Anti-Aging Conference, I met a man who routinely consumed 20 grams of glutamine daily. He suffered extremely severe insomnia, nervousness, anxiety, racing mind, and other symptoms of excessive glutamate neurotransmission. glutamine supplementation should probably not exceed 1-2 grams daily, if it is used at all. Rechts Regulat: potent enzyme-rich fermented drink from Germany that has been shown to break up abnormal proteins in blood and matrix. Of the thousands of adverse reactions [to aspartame] reported to the FDA, most concerned abnormal brain function, i.e., depression, fatigue, irritability, insomnia, vision problems, hearing loss, anxiety attacks, slurred speech, loss of the sense of taste, tinnitus, vertigo, and memory loss. Also included were a number of chronic illnesses, including brain tumors, multiple sclerosis, epilepsy, chronic fatigue syndrome, Parkinsons disease, Alzheimers, mental retardation, lymphoma, birth defects, fibromyalgia, and diabetes. Carol Simontacchi, The Crazy Makers Making matters worse, soft drink companies put their liquid products containing aspartame in containers made of aluminum. When this aluminum -- a known neurotoxin -- is combined with aspartame, the results are multiplied: As aspartame passes through the digestive tract, it is digested into methanol or wood alcohol, which happens most readily when aspartame is heated (as when it is part of a food product or is improperly stored at high temperatures, as often happens in warehouses in hot climates). When heated above eighty-six degrees, free methanol is produced and is rapidly absorbed into the bloodstream. One liter of an aspartame-sweetened beverage can produce about fifty-six milligrams of methanol. When several of these beverages are consumed in a short period of time (one day, perhaps), as much as two hundred fifty milligrams of methanol are dumped into the bloodstream, or thirty-two times the EPA limit. Symptoms of methanol poisoning include headaches, ear buzzing, dizziness, nausea, gastrointestinal disturbances, weakness, vertigo, chills, memory lapses, numbness and shooting pains in the extremities, behavioral disturbances, and neuritis (inflammation of the nerves). According to the Aspartame Consumer Safety Network information, The most well known problems from methanol poisoning are vision problems including misty vision, progressive contraction of visual fields, blurring of vision, obscuration of vision, retinal damage, and blindness. Carol Simontacchi, The Crazy Reports of rage reactions induced by MSG become clearer with an understanding of

the neuroexcitatory effects of MSG. The 1984 McDonalds Massacre in San Ysidro, California, had an MSG-sensitive killer. This situation was analyzed in a scientific journal, the International Journal of Biosocial Research. Dr. Robert Hall from Chaminade University of Honolulu received the data about the MSG Massacre and concluded that the data supported a psychotic reaction to monosodium glutamate. The amygdala section of the brain often has been linked to rage reactions and is stimulated by MSG as well. George R. Schwartz, M.D., In Bad Taste: The MSG Symptom Complex Regardless of whether MSG consumption can initiate cancerous tumors, it is very likely able to accelerate the growth of existing tumors. Accordingly, people who are currently battling cancer must take extra precaution to avoid exposure to MSG: MSG consumption, then, would pose a special danger to the cancer patient, since increased inflammation and free-radical production can promote tumor growth as well as invasiveness and metastasis of cancerous tumors. Russell Blaylock, M.D., Excitotoxins: The Taste That Kills experiments demonstrated that MSG could cause the hypothalamus to secrete excessive amounts of a reproductive hormone (called luteinizing hormone) which is associated with an early onset of puberty. Many of these endocrine effects did not appear until the animal was much older. Studies on animals show that the effects of MSG are widespread and complex: Animals fed MSG not only produced less growth hormone, they also lacked the normal release pattern seen in all other mammals, including humans. ...Numerous studies using immature mice have shown that LH, FSH and prolactin (the reproductive hormones), HGH (growth hormone), ACTH (adrenal regulating hormone), and TSH (thyroid regulating hormone) were all decreased following exposure to MSG. These hormone deficiencies were reflected in the animals by small size, low reproductive ability, gross obesity and low metabolism. Russell Blaylock, M.D., Excitotoxins: The Taste That Kills Consistently, the animals exposed to MSG were found to be short, grossly obese, and had difficulty with sexual reproduction. One characteristic of the obesity induced by excitotoxins is that it doesnt appear to depend on food intake. Were fat because our endocrine systems have been damaged due to MSG consumption as infants and children. We crave carbohydrates because our brains have been rewired by this excitotoxin. Also characteristic of MSG exposure is an increase in insulin release from the pancreas. As we have seen, the pancreas contains numerous glutamate type receptors, and glutamate in the diet can induce as much as a threefold increase in insulin release from the pancreas. In addition, experiments in animals have demonstrated that MSG can induce insulin resistance, exactly as we see in type 2 diabetes in humans. Russell Blaylock, M.D., Excitotoxins: The Taste That Kills a diet high in carbohydrates and sugars helps moderate the negative effects of MSG. But a diet low in carbohydrates apparently allows MSG to do its worst damage The following ingredients may contain MSG, but dont always: Textured protein Carrageenan or vegetable gum Seasonings or spices Flavorings or natural flavorings Chicken, beef, pork, smoke flavorings Bouillon, broth or stock Food products almost always containing MSG

Flavored potato chips Flavored nacho chips Canned soups and dry soup mixes Gravy mixes Bullion cubes Salad dressings Jerkies Frozen fish with breading Canned meats Box dinners Breakfast sausage Any dinner mix with a flavor packet Frozen dinners International foods Poultry injected with broth Vegetarian foods (typically contain yeast extract) like veggie burgers Meat broths (chicken broth, beef broth) Four years later Reynolds and others published another paper admitting that the monkeys had vomited after feeding them large doses of MSG. But of even greater importance, for the first time they admitted that their monkeys were under anesthesia throughout the entire experiment, using a drug called phencyclidine. This powerful anesthetic agent is also one of the most potent antagonists of glutamate receptors known. (It is related to MK-801.) This drug is known to totally prevent MSG lesions of the hypothalamus. Therefore, their entire experiment was invalid from the beginning. It is hard to believe that they were unaware of this protective effect of phencyclidine. Russell Blaylock, M.D., Excitotoxins: The Taste That Kills GROCERY WARNING How to recognize and avoid the groceries that cause cancer, diabetes, heart disease, high cholesterol, high blood pressure, and other common diseases by Mike Adams