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# 11.04.

2010

HYDRAULICS
Environmental En Dep.-Hydraulics ng.

A.SUNA ERSES
Assist.Prof.Dr.
erses@sakarya.edu.tr

Homework project :hydraulicssakarya@gmail com project :hydraulicssakarya@gmail.com (Tel: 0 264 295 5465) Sakarya University, Engineering Faculty, Environmental Engineering Department, Esentepe Campus, 54187 SAKARYA

AIM

## LESSON 9: OPEN CHANNEL

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Open channel flow is the flow of a liquid in a conduit with a free surface.

## Environmental En Dep.-Hydraulics ng.

SSY

Pipe

Free Surface

Open Channel

Natural flows the flow of water in creeks, streams, rivers, and floods, as well as the draining of rainwater off highways, parking lots, and roofs Human-made open-channel flow systems irrigation systems, sewer lines, drainage ditches, and gutters, and the design of such systems is an important application area of engineering.

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## Classification of Open Channel Flow

Environmental En Dep.-Hydraulics ng.

Based on Variation of flow parameters with time Variation of flow parameters with space Based on turbulence Based on concept of critical flow Based on conceptualizing the flow as 1D, 2D or 3D

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Open channel:

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## Froude No (Fr)= V/(gy)1/2

Environmental En Dep.-Hydraulics ng.
Where g=the gravitational acceleration V=average liquid velocity at a cross section y=flow depth

Fr = 1 for critical flow Fr < 1 for subcritical flow Fr > 1 for supercritical flow

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## Environmental En Dep.-Hydraulics ng.

EXAMPLE 1 Water at 20C is flowing uniformly in a wide rectangular g y g channel at an average velocity of 2 m/s. If the water depth is 0.2 m, determine (a) whether the flow is laminar or turbulent and (b) whether the flow is subcritical or supercritical 20C are = 998.0 kg/m3 and = 1.00210-3 kg/m s

## Environmental En Dep.-Hydraulics ng.

EXAMPLE 2 Water at 10C flows in a 3-m-diameter circular channel half-full at an average velocity of 2.5 m/s. Determine the hydraulic radius, the Reynolds number, and the flow regime (laminar or turbulent). 10C are = 999.7 kg/m3 and = 1.30710-3 kg/m s

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http://landscape.ced.berkeley.edu/~kondolf/courses/LA222/lecture%2010open%20channel%20flow.pdf

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