# AP® Statistics

2009 Free-Response Questions

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2009 AP® STATISTICS FREE-RESPONSE QUESTIONS Formulas begin on page 3. Questions begin on page 6. -2- . Tables begin on page 11.

1)s21 + (n2 .y ˆ ˜Á s ˜ ¯Ë y ¯ ( n-2 Â xi .x )2 )2 -3- .2009 AP® STATISTICS FREE-RESPONSE QUESTIONS Formulas (I) Descriptive Statistics Â xi n x = ( ) sx = 2 1 Â xi .x yi .1) + (n2 .1) yˆ = b0 + b1 x ( )( Â xi .1)s22 (n1 .b1 x r = Êx 1 ÂÁ i n .1 Ë sx b1 = r sy sx ( Â yi .yˆi sb = 1 x ˆ Ê yi .y b1 = ( Â xi .x )2 ) b0 = y .x n -1 sp = (n1 .

k Ë k¯ μ x = np s x = np(1 .p)n . then: μx = μ sx = s n -4- .μ x ) 2 pi If X has a binomial distribution with parameters n and p.P ( A « B ) P ( A B) = P ( A « B) P ( B) E ( X ) = μ x = Â xi pi ( Var( X ) = s 2x = Â xi . then: Ê nˆ P ( X = k ) = Á ˜ p k (1 .p) n s pˆ = If x is the mean of a random sample of size n from an infinite population with mean μ and standard deviation s .p) μ pˆ = p p(1 .2009 AP® STATISTICS FREE-RESPONSE QUESTIONS (II) Probability P ( A » B ) = P ( A) + P ( B ) .

p) n Statistic Two-Sample Standard Deviation of Statistic Statistic Difference of sample means s12 s 22 + n1 n2 Special case when s1 = s 2 s 1 1 + n1 n2 p1 (1 .expected )2 expected .2009 AP® STATISTICS FREE-RESPONSE QUESTIONS (III) Inferential Statistics Standardized test statistic: statistic .p2 ) + n1 n2 Difference of sample proportions Special case when p1 = p2 p (1 .p1 ) p2 (1 .p ) Chi-square test statistic = Â -5- 1 1 + n1 n2 (observed .parameter standard deviation of statistic Confidence interval: statistic ± (critical value ) ∑ (standard deviation of statistic ) Single-Sample Sample Mean Standard Deviation of Statistic s n Sample Proportion p(1 .

collegeboard. (a) What is the 70th percentile of the distribution of stopping distances? (b) What is the probability that at least 2 cars out of 5 randomly selected cars in the study will stop in a distance that is greater than the distance calculated in part (a) ? (c) What is the probability that a randomly selected sample of 5 cars in the study will have a mean stopping distance of at least 130 feet? 3. 2. The teacher will then analyze the changes in the test scores (score on posttest minus score on pretest).com. All rights reserved. GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE. Repeated tests were conducted on cars of approximately the same weight traveling at 60 miles per hour. (a) Describe a method for assigning the 24 students to two groups of equal size that allows for a statistically valid comparison of the two instructional programs. The tests showed that the new tread pattern enables the cars to stop completely in an average distance of 125 feet with a standard deviation of 6. Before beginning a unit on frog anatomy. A tire manufacturer designed a new tread pattern for its all-weather tires.5 feet and that the stopping distances are approximately normally distributed. -7- . Visit the College Board on the Web: www. students will be given a posttest to assess their knowledge of frog anatomy. After completing one of the two programs. (c) Which test of significance should be used to test if there is an association between gender and job experience for the population of high school seniors in the district? State the null and alternative hypotheses for the test.2009 AP® STATISTICS FREE-RESPONSE QUESTIONS (b) Write a few sentences summarizing what the display in part (a) reveals about the association between gender and job experience for the students in the sample. How might that self-selection process jeopardize a statistically valid comparison of the changes in the test scores (score on posttest minus score on pretest) for the two instructional programs? Provide a specific example to support your answer. The teacher wants to compare the effectiveness of an instructional program in which students physically dissect frogs with the effectiveness of a different program in which students use computer software that only simulates the dissection of a frog. and 11 students choose actual dissection and 13 students choose computer simulation. a seventh-grade biology teacher gives each of the 24 students in the class a pretest to assess their knowledge of frog anatomy. but do not perform the test. (b) Suppose the teacher decided to allow the students in the class to select which instructional program on frog anatomy (physical dissection or computer simulation) they prefer to take. © 2009 The College Board.

H 0 : The survival rates for the two treatments are equal.7 minutes. some researchers believed that CC alone would be a more effective approach. -8- .com. what conclusion should be drawn in the context of this study? Use a significance level of α = 0. and the other fire station responds to calls in the southern half of the town. Data were collected to investigate whether the council member’s belief is correct. GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE. All rights reserved. A random sample of 50 calls selected from the northern fire station had a mean response time of 4. One of the town council members believes that the two fire stations have different mean response times. However. and 35 in the group receiving CC alone. One of the two fire stations in a certain town responds to calls in the northern half of the town. A total of 64 patients survived the heart attack: 29 in the group receiving CC plus standard MMR.0761. (b) Based on this p-value and study design. which type of error.05. could have been made? What is one potential consequence of this error? © 2009 The College Board. (a) Construct and interpret a 95 percent confidence interval for the difference in mean response times between the two fire stations. Type I or Type II.2009 AP® STATISTICS FREE-RESPONSE QUESTIONS 4. Visit the College Board on the Web: www. the medically accepted practice of giving aid to a person experiencing a heart attack was to have the person who placed the emergency call administer chest compression (CC) plus standard mouth-to-mouth resuscitation (MMR) to the heart attack patient until the emergency response team arrived. For many years. (b) Does the confidence interval in part (a) support the council member’s belief that the two fire stations have different mean response times? Explain. Ha : The treatment that uses CC alone produces a higher survival rate. In the 1990s a study was conducted in Seattle in which 518 cases were randomly assigned to treatments: 278 to CC plus standard MMR and 240 to CC alone. A random sample of 50 calls selected from the southern fire station had a mean response time of 5. 5. (c) Based on your conclusion in part (b). A test of significance was conducted on the following hypotheses.3 minutes with a standard deviation of 3. (a) Interpret what this p-value measures in the context of this study. This test resulted in a p-value of 0.3 minutes with a standard deviation of 3. Response time is measured by the difference between the time an emergency call comes into the fire station and the time the first fire truck arrives at the scene of the fire.2 minutes.collegeboard.