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Proceedings of National Seminar

on
EMERGING TRENDS IN DISTRIBUTED
GENERATION
ETDG 2012
13
th
October 2012








Organized by:
Northern India Engineering College
(Babu Banarasi Das Group of Educational Institution)
Department of Electrical & Electronics Engineering
FC-26 Shastri Park, New Delhi 53
Ph: 011 22854321, 22854633

NBA Accredited & AICTE approved
Affiliated to GGSIP University, New Delhi.
ISO 9001:2008 & EN ISO 14001:2004 Certified Institute







Declaration



All data, views, opinion etc, being published
are the sole responsibility of the authors and neither
the publisher nor the organizer of the Seminar
is anyway responsible for them



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Organizing Committee


Chief Patron

Dr. Akhilesh Das Gupta (Chairman)

Mrs Alka Das Gupta, (Vice Chairperson)

Patron

Mr. S.N.Garg, CEO, NIEC

Seminar Chairperson

Prof. (Dr.) S.C. Gupta, Director, NIEC

Seminar Convener

Mrs. Anuradha Tomar,
Department Electrical & Electronics, NIEC

Seminar Co-convener
Mr. Deepak Thakur, EEE, NIEC

Technical Committee
Mr. Ajit Sharma, HOD (EEE), Member
Mrs. Trina Som, Member
Mr. Rahul Pathak, Member
Mrs. Monika Dubey, Member
Mr. Manas Taneja, Member
Mr. Vikasdeep, Member
Mrs. Shweta Singh, Member
Mr. Mohit Katiyar, Member
Ms. Vandana Arora, Member
Ms. Monika Gupta, Member


Editorial Board

Prof. (Dr.) S.C.Gupta
Mrs. Anuradha Tomar
Mr. Deepak Thakur


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Speakers



Prof. (Dr.) D. K. Jain
Electrical Engineering Department,
Deenbandhu Chhotu Ram University,
Murthal (Sonipat), India.



Dr. Yog Raj Sood
Professor (Electrical Engineering) &
Dean R & C (Research and Consultancy)
National Institute of Technology,
Hamirpur (H.P), India.



Prof. (Dr.) Narendra Kumar,
Head of Electrical Engineering Department,
Delhi Technical University,
New Delhi, India.



Prof. (Dr.) Tanmey Dev
Head of Electrical Engineering Department,
KIIT, Gurgaon, India.









Proceeding of National Seminar on Emerging Trends in Distributed Generation
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Proceeding of National Seminar on Emerging Trends in Distributed Generation
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Editorial Board


We are pleased to present proceeding of one days National Seminar on
Emerging Trends in Distributed Generation.

The objective of the seminar is to bring together leading researchers and
developers from electrical power system for discussion on distributed
generation. It also aims to promote the research and practice of new strategies,
tools, techniques and technologies for the design, development and
implementation of distributed generation. This seminar identifies issues that
must be addressed to design the controls for such inertial less sources and
suggests how these issues can be solved.

Distributed generation could have a large role to play in the future of
electricity systems in terms of both supply and use. The seminar covered the
basics of interconnected distributed generation technologies that provide the
exchange of ideas and its related research areas that all the participants are
involved is gained. The researchers may interact and create new ideas
concerning future work. Common research programmes can be created based
on the complement work of the participants.

The present volume is the compilation of some good papers selected by
technical committee.

We are of the view that this seminar would highlight many new frontiers of
knowledge and provide ideas of research.

We wish to thanks to the management to the management Authority and
various faculty members of Northern India Engineering College, New Delhi,
and to those who have directly or indirectly helped us to prepare case studies
in various new emerging technologies.

We look forward to suggestions from all sections of researchers, practioners,
student and delegates to make this endeavor fruitful for all.


Mrs. Anuradha Tomar Mr. Deepak Thakur Prof. (Dr.) S. C. Gupta

Convener Co-convener Chairperson

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Message form Hon'ble Chairman, BBDGEI Desk



The maturity of a technical college is reflected in the seminars, Seminars,
publications and other such academic events conducted by the institution. I am
happy to see the maturing of our institute's academic and research
environment, with the National Seminar ETDG - 2012 on 'Emerging
Trends on Distributed Generation, adding more rich colors to our
institute's vibrant academic canvas.

NIEC has a rich tradition of perusing academic excellence, value based
education and providing a conductive environment foe overall personality
development of the student.

I hope that this national seminar offers an excellent opportunity to the
participants to deliberate on this important theme, which would no doubt help
in extending the opportunities offered by Distributed Generation for the
benefit of mankind.


I congratulate the C.E.O, Director, Head of EEE department and their entire
team for making the event a resounding success.





Dr. Akhilesh Das Gupta
Chairman
BBDGEI










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Message from the Hon'ble Vice Chairperson Desk


The organization of such a high level National Seminar by Northern India
Engineering College, New Delhi, is a huge achievement and is taking place at
a very appropriate time. Moreover the subjects being taken up in the National
Seminar are of great current interest and relevance. It reflects the intense
commitment of NIEC to constantly update the intense environment and
engineering skills of its students and faculty.


Distributed generation (or DG) generally refers to small-scale (typically 1 kW
50 MW) electric power generators that produce electricity at a site close to
customers or that are tied to an electric distribution system. Distributed
generators include, but are not limited to synchronous generators, induction
generators, reciprocating engines, microturbines (combustion turbines that run
on high-energy fossil fuels such as oil, propane, natural gas, gasoline or
diesel), combustion gas turbines, fuel cells, solar photovoltaics, and wind
turbines.

The papers being presented reflect the interest of the scholars in Distributed
Generation and various technologies involved at all levels. Some of the
research topics that are being taken up in the seminar are the net metering,
wavelet technique, power delivering system and information &
communication technology in distributed generation.

I extend my heartiest congratulations to the organizers and wish the Seminar a
great success.




Mrs. Alka Das

Vice Chairperson
BBDGEI



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Message from Chief Executive Officer, NIEC Desk


Distributed Generation is the one of the latest research area in the
technological world today. The national Seminar on such an enticing topic,
organized by Northern India Engineering College, New Delhi is an
enlightening and revolutionary endeavor by the organization. The national
Seminar will serve a step in the progress and advancement of Power
Distribution and Generation.

Distributed energy resources (distributed power) refers to a variety of small
modular power generating technologies that can be combined with energy
management and storage systems and used to improve the operations of the
electricity delivery systems, whether or not these technologies are connected
to an electric grid. Distributed energy resources support and strengthen the
central-station model of electricity generation, transmission and distribution.
Distributed power can assume a variety of forms. It can be as simple as
installing a small electricity generator to provide back-up power at an
electricity consumer site. On the other hand it can be a more complex system
highly integrated with the electricity grid and comprising electricity
generation, energy storage and power management systems.

The national Seminar is rightly intended to provide opportunity to the
participants and delegates to upgrade their knowledge in Emerging Trends in
Distributed Generation. This ETDG 2012 bring into light all major issues of
latest technology.

We thank Babu Banarasi Das Educational Society for its immense support.
We appreciate co-operation of students and faculty for their efforts to make
this national Seminar a success.




Sh. S N Garg

CEO

Northern India Engineering College
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Message from Director, NIEC Desk


It gives me great pleasure to announce that Northern India Engineering
College, New Delhi is organizing a National Seminar on the topic of
Emerging Trends in Distributed Generation on October 13
th
, 2012 in NIEC
Campus. The Seminar is organized by the department of Electrical &
Electronics Engineering to boost the benefits of Distributed Generation.

The Seminar objectives is to bring eminent academicians, scholars, scientists,
researchers, industrialists and experts from different technical domains to
update their knowledge and explore new horizons in the field of information
and network technology.

It is heartening to note that Seminar is not only meeting the above objectives
successfully but also putting forward research papers of different topics of
Distributed Generation. I am sure the contributions in the form of research
papers will enrich knowledge of all, who are participating in the Seminar and
motivate every one of us to adapt to new challenges and applications areas for
the development of new technology so that society, industry and the nation as
a whole are benefitted.

I congratulate the Seminar organizing team for their hard work and wish this
National Seminar a great success and best of luck for their future endeavours.

I am grateful to the Chief Patrons of the College for the financial support and
cooperation extended to us for the successful conduction of the Seminar.




Prof. (Dr.) S. C. Gupta

Seminar Chair person and

Director, NIEC, New Delhi.



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Message from Convener


At a time when Distributed Generation is capturing enormous interest from
researchers and the industry itself, this national Seminar should be an essential
part of your educational & professional development plans.

The ETDG 2012 Seminar takes a highly applied and practical focus. Due to
increasing demand of Electricity and high transmission and distribution losses
and cost, Distributed power generation is getting importance. It is thereby
necessary to keep up with the latest trends, techniques and technologies for
the design, development and implementation of Distributed generation.

I would like to thank the patron, Honble Dr. Akhilesh Das, Chairman,
Honble Alka Das, Chairperson, Northern India Engineering College, All
India council of Technical Education for their support in organizing the
national Seminar.

I would also like to take this opportunity to congratulate the technical
committee for having taken all the trouble to edit and accumulate the
proceedings, along with their devoted team and brought out the same in such a
short time.

Delegates, themselves experts in their Power System fields, will contribute to
debate and discussion along with our impressive array of national speakers.

I shall also like to convey my deep appreciation to all the participants for their
applause worthy efforts and quality papers.

I wish the ETDG - 2012 team success in all future accomplishments.



Mrs. Anuradha Tomar

Convener

Northern India Engineering College


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Address by Chief Guest


In Conventional power system, the delivery of electricity to the customer is
becoming a very difficult task because of increased demand. For this the
power system has renewed interest in small scale electricity generation
namely Distributed Generation. Nowadays, there is a strong focus on
delivering power to the consumer in a reliable efficient and environment
friendly manner, which is predicted to lead to increasing attention towards
Distributed Generation Technologies, and gradual obsolescence of
conventional power system. The transition of electric power industry from a
regulated monopoly to a de- regulated industry is in full swing.

Properly plant and operated Distributed Generation can provide consumers
and society with a wide variety of benefits, including economic savings,
improved environmental performance and greater reliability. The upcoming
technologies deal with challenges in both efficient and clean power
generation and effective power delivery. Various renewable and non-
conventional energy resources are promising candidates for efficient and
clean power generation; while micro grid and smart grids are promising
potential solution to the challenges of effective consumer friendly delivering
of power. At last I want to say that Distributed Generation unlike traditional
generation aims to generate part of required electrical energy on small scale.
So, keeping the above issues in mind, let us make a small step in search of
better power generation & distribution options for future, through this
seminar.




Prof. H. C. Rai
Director (Academics)
GGSIP University


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Contents


LECTURES

S.No.
Lecture Title
Page
No.
1
Role of Green Energy as Distributed Generation in Deregulated Power
Sector
By - Dr. Y. R. Sood
1 - 9
TECHNICAL PAPERS
Paper Title
1 Damping Torsional Electromechanical oscillations in a Series
Compensated Power System
By - Narendra Kumar, S.K. Agarwal, Upma Singh

10 - 19
2 Biomass Based Distributed Power Generation Current Status and
Future Challenges.
By - Tanmoy Deb

20 26
3 Economic and Environmental Analysis of an Autonomous Power
Delivery System Utilizing Hybrid Solar - Diesel - Electrochemical
Generation
By - Trina Som, Shweta Singh, Akhil Sharma, Kushagar

27 33
4 A Topology Survey of Doubly-Fed Induction Generators for Wind
Turbines
By Rishu Goel, Amit Patel, Kamal Singh

34 40
5 Modelling and Simulation of Single Shaft Micro Turbine in Distributed
Generation System
By - Ajit Kumar Sharma, Deepak Kumar Thakur
41 53











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6 A Review on Modelling& Analysis of Hybrid Fuel Cell Stack Model for
Distributed Power Generation
By - Anjali Sharma, Nidhi Joshi, Yamini Vashishth, Amit Yadav

54 57



7 Applications of Wavelet Technique in Distributed Generation
By - Rahul Pathak, Mohit Kumar Katiyar, Priya Banga

58 66



8 A Review on Distributed Generation
By Sharique Asir, Schrutir Jain, Majid Hussain
67 74



9 Distributed Generation in Rural India
By - Devesh Singh
75 83



10 Review Paper on Basics of Net-Metering and Ideas to Promote
Renewable Resources
By - Gaurav Gupta, Apurva Rajput, Amit Kumar

84 88




11 A Survey on Smart Grid
By - Kritika Sharma, Swati Singh, Amit Kumar Yadav

89 93



12 Authentication Protocol for Distributed Sensor Network
By - Amit Kumar, Sunil Gupta, Rashmi Sharma
94 102
13 Effects of Net Metering On The Use Of Small Scale Renewable
Energy Sources Systems In Todays World
By -Yagdeep Sharma
103 -107




14 A Detailed Review on Energy and Economic Aspects in Developing
Smart GridTechnologies
By - Monika Dubey, Vandana Arora

108 115
15 Cost-effective Smart Metering for Home/Building using LDR Single-
Channel Narrow-Band Power Line Communication
By Ayush Sagar, Sumit Joshi

116 119
Proceedings of National Seminar on Emerging Trends in Distributed Generation
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16 Reactive Power Compensation Using Interline Power Flow Controller
(IPFC) with 48 Voltage Source Converter
By - Neeru Devi, Vinesh Agarwal, Chandra Prakash Jain, Vinod Yadav

120 128
17 Review Paper on Smart Grid: Introduction, Technology used Merits
and Demerits
By Chandan Jayaswal, Rajat Gupta

129 135



18

Distributed Generation: Issue and Approaches
By Anuradha Tomar, Sunil Gupta

136 140



19 Study of Distributed Generation Effectiveness in Power Grid Stability.
By - Balwinder Singh Surjan

141 145
20 Information and Communication Technology in Distributed
Generation Solutions
By - Sunil Gupta, Anuradha Tomar

146 149
21 Series and Shunt FACTS Controllers in Power System: A Review
By - Avinash, Sanjiv Kumar, Dushyant Gaur
150 155
22 Emerging Trends in Distributed Generation System
By - Renu Sharma
156 158
23 Study and Characterization of reactive power in wind farm operation
using MATLAB Simulink
By Tilak Thakur, Priya Sharma
159 - 162
24 Potential Benefits of Self-excited induction generator (SEIG) in
Distribution Generation
By - Ahmed Riyaz, S P Singh, S K Singh

163 - 172


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Role of Green Energy as Distributed Generation
in Deregulated Power Sector
Lecture by
Dr. Yog Raj Sood
Professor, Department of Electrical Engineering
National Institute of Technology (N.I.T.) Hamirpur (HP)-177005, India


Recent Power Trends

The energy is the prime mover of theeconomical and social growth as it is vital formaintaining
and developing a moderneconomy and society. Economical, social andenvironmental
sustainability are the mostimportant variables in the energy scenario ofthe 21
st
century. For socio-
economic developments, recentlymany large power plants are being installed inhilly/rural/remote
areas because of geographicalproblems.The deregulated powermarkets are bringing about the
uncertainevents and increasing the degree of uncertaintyin a power system. In addition to that,
theamount of loads such as heaters, airconditionersand industry load suddenly increase.The
challenge of supplying the nation with reliable, high quality electrical energy at a reasonable cost
is at the heart of a nation's economy. The electric power system is one of the oldest
infrastructures.

However, the demographics of power generation, transmission, and distribution are changing
dramatically in both the operating and business sector of the electric utility industry due to
deregulation of power industry.The Indian power sector is presently going through a processof
reform and restructuring as is the trend in many other partsof the world. Under reform,
independent regulatorycommissions are set up at center as well as state wise andvertically
integrated utilities are being unbundled intocorporate entities.The developments of the global
electricity industries are facing with many challenges. Thepower enterprises of the developed
and developing countries including India are alsofacing with massive challenges with the
increasing grid scale, grade and more complexstructure, along with the risk of safe and reliable
operation of power systems.In the India, the Distributed generation (DG) technologies are getting
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highly importance to solve the toughest energy crisis.At present India is fifth largest country
inthe world in electricity generation, having aggregate capacityof 203 GWs out of which 66% is
from thermal, 20% fromhydro, 2% from nuclear and the rest about 12% is fromrenewable energy
sources and one of the largest in the world.
Presently power industries are moving rapidly towards restructuring from fully regulated
conventional set up. In the modern restructured power industry, the role played by generation,
transmission and distribution in power sector are independent. In India, traditional integrated
power systems moving towards modern deregulated power system such as shown in figure 1.The
main objective of the deregulated power sector market is to decrease the cost of electricity
through competition. The market environment typically consists of a pool and privately
negotiated contracts. The performance of a market is measured by its social welfare, also called
social benefit. Social benefit is the difference of societys willingness to pay for energy and its
cost.

Figure 1 Traditional integrated power systems moving towards modern deregulated power system

The need for more efficiency in power production and delivery has led to a restructuring
of the power sectors in several countries traditionally under control of federal and state
governments. Developed countries like India as well as other developing countries are also
considering the restructuring of their electricity power sector so as to introduce more competition
among producers and to offer more choices for customers.There is still a larger population in the
rural communities in India without access to proper lighting, clean water, and health care. India,
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total grid-connected renewable/green power generationcapacity of 23,129.40 MW has been
achieved till 31 January2012, which is about 12% of the total installed powergenerating capacity
in the country. It includes wind power of16,179.0 MW, small hydropower of 3,300.1 MW,
biomasspower of around 1,142.6 MW, and around 481.4 MW SolarPower as shown in figure 2.
Among the several renewable energy technologies available have the potential to meet the
electricity needs of rural communities in developing countries in view of the dispersed nature of
solar resource which makes PV and other systems adaptable to distributed power generation.
Renewable as green generation reduces system CO
2
emissions, but the emissions of reserve
unitsrequired by lower renewable capacity factors must be included. The reductions in CO
2
emissions are a complex calculation that includes generation characteristics (ramp ratesand cost
functions), transmission congestion, and the number of fossil-fired generatorsonline as reserve
units. Conventional control of energy storage to minimize operatingcosts tends to increase CO
2
emission because storage is charged by high-carbon coal offpeakand offsets lower-carbon natural
gas as it discharges on-peak.In addition. CO
2
reductions are sensitive to a number of other
factors,including congestion, load level and fuel price. Depending on natural gas and coal
prices,it may require a very high CO
2
price to reduce CO
2
emissions in existing systems
byswitching from coal-fired generation to gas-fired generation
Figure 2 Green energy statuses in India
0 5000 10000 15000 20000
Wind Energy
Small hydro Power
Biomass Power
Bagasse Cogeneration
Waste to power (Urban &
Industrial)
Solar Power
Capacity (MW)
Cumulative achievement up to 31.01.2012
Total achievement during 2011-12
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Role of Distributed generation:

Distributed generation (DG) is an emerging concept in electricity market which
represents good alternative forelectricity supply instead of traditional central generation concept.
The electricity Market place is undergoingtremendous transformation as it moves towards a more
competitive environment. The growing impact of transformation-price instability, an ageing
infrastructure, changing regulatory environment are causing both energy users as well as electric
utilities to take another look at benefits of distributed generation. The growing pressure toreduce
emissions of carbondioxide has fueled global interestin new efficient and renewableenergy
technologies and createdsubstantial commitment to thedevelopment and deployment ofthese
systems. Investment inthese areas is leading to a growingnumber of installations ofdistributed
generation (e.g., windturbine generators, combinedheat and power plants, solarsystems, fuel
cells, and energystorage) and promoting increasedopportunities for effectivedemand
management schemesand energy efficiency initiatives.
The combination of utility restructuring, technology evolutions, recent environment
policies provide the basis for DG to progress as an important energy option in the near future.
The open energy market favors small modular technologies that can be installedquickly based on
the response of market signal. In liberalized competitive electricity markets, it is important to
adapt to the changing economic environment in a more flexible way and DG is expected to play
key role in future competitive markets due to their economic viability, small sizes, and the short
construction lead times.
Over the last century, be it developed nation or developing nation, on account of rapid
industrialization causing high rate of growth in the demand for electricity, everyone resorted to
establishment of large scale centralized generation facility. The plants concerned were based on
use of fossil-fuel (solid, liquid as well as gas), hydro, nuclear elements. Due to the economy of
scale with large unit size, it became possible to have big centralized power stations near the
sources to deliver power to load centers through the medium of high voltage transmission lines
over a long distance. From environment point of view as well due to limitation of natural
resources, it is in fact advantageous too to have the plants away from populated areas.
Increasing power system reliability expectations have evolved into the growth of
distributed generation. The main drivers of that growth can be divided into three categories,
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which are environmental concerns, commercial policies and energy policies. These factors have
been contributing to the high interest and penetration of distributed generation utilisation. Issues
related to the operation and interconnection of distributed generation into power system
networks, such as power quality, reliability, stability and protections have been the focus of
stakeholders, including power operators, designers, policy makers, engineers and consumers.
However, in spite of triggering these issues, distributed generation also offers several
advantages.
As mentioned above, basic tangible advantages that may bederived out of such sort of distributed
or dispersed ordecentralized generation are the following.
Easy and quicker installation on account of prefabricated standardized components.
Lowering of cost by avoiding long distance high voltage transmission.
Environment friendly where renewable sources are used.
Running cost more or less constant over the period of time with the use of renewable
sources.
Possibility of user-operator participation due to lesser complexity.
More dependability with simple construction, andconsequent easy operation and
maintenance.
Renewable energy sources (RES), including wind power plants, have high priority of
promotion in the energypolicy of the India as well as all over world. An increasing share of RES
and distributed generation, should, as has been assumed, provide improvement in reliability of
electricity delivery to the customers. Currently available DG technologies in the 5 kW to 5 MW
size range, including their history and current status, operation, emission control technologies,
potential applications, representative manufacturers, and important issues surrounding their
development. The indices and the new model can reflect the environmentalbenefits correctly and
will eventually accelerate thedevelopment of DG in India.The DG has been seen as one of the
enabling technologiesthat can facilitate more efficiently and rapidly the integrationof renewables
in distribution networks. The application of thistechnology has many potential benefits which
should beexplored and quantified to enable proper assessments andanalysis.These DG
technologies include:

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RECIPROCATING ENGINES- This DG technology was developed more than a century ago,
and is still widely utilized in a broad array of applications. The engines range in size from less
than 5 to over 5,000 kW, and use diesel, natural gas, or waste gas as their fuel source.
Development efforts remain focused on improving efficiency and on reducing emission levels.
Reciprocating engines are being used primarily for backup power, peaking power, and in
cogeneration applications.

MICRO TURBINES- Microturbine is a promising technology which has the unique ability to
produce electricity and heat simultaneously. These very small turbines contain essentially one
moving part and use either air or oil for lubrication.A new and emerging technology, micro
turbines are currently only available from a few manufacturers. Other manufacturers are looking
to enter this emerging market, with models ranging from 30 to 200 kW. Micro turbines promise
low emission levels, but the units are currently relatively expensive. Obtaining reasonable costs
and demonstrating reliability will be major hurdles for manufacturers. Micro turbines are just
entering the marketplace, and most installations are for the purpose of testing the technology.
Unit sales are expected to increase in 2001 and beyond.

INDUSTRIAL COMBUSTION TURBINES- A mature technology, combustion turbines range


from 1 MW to over 5 MW. They have low capital cost, low emission levels, but also usually low
electric efficiency ratings. Development efforts are focused on increasing efficiency levels for
this widely available technology. Industrial combustion turbines are being used primarily for
peaking power and in cogeneration applications.

PHOTOVOLTAICS- Commonly known as solar panels, photovoltaic (PV) panels are widely
available for both commercial and domestic use. Panels range from less than 5 kW and units can
be combined to form a system of any size. They produce no emissions, and require minimal
maintenance. However, they can be quite costly. Less expensive components and advancements
in the manufacturing process are required to eliminate the economic barriers now impeding
wide-spread use of PV systems. Photovoltaics are currently being used primarily in remote
locations without grid connections and also to generate green power.

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WIND TURBINE SYSTEMS - Wind turbines are currently available from many manufacturers
and range in size from less than 5 to over 1,000 kW. They provide a relatively inexpensive
(compared to other renewables) way to produce electricity, but as they rely upon the variable and
somewhat unpredictable wind, are unsuitable for continuous power needs. Development efforts
look to pair wind turbines with battery storage systems that can provide power in those times
when the turbine is not turning. Wind turbines are being used primarily in remote locations not
connected to the grid and by energy companies to provide green power. DG technologies are
currently being used for the niche applications described later in this report. Many reports and
studies predict that the market for DG technologies will continue to grow as their price and
performance improves and energy markets deregulate.

COMBINED HEAT AND POWER- Combined Heat and Power (CHP), or co-generation as
its sometimes called, is the process of capturing and then utilizing the heat produced by
generating electricity. Conventional electricity generation by power stations is only around 37%
efficient, which means a huge potential source of energy is simply released into the atmosphere
as a byproduct. CHP can harness this power. By recovering most of this otherwise wasted heat,
CHP can bring overall energy savings of up to 40 per cent. Additionally, CHP has been widely
recognized as a key measure in helping to reduce harmful emissions of CO2. Many DG
technologies, such as Reciprocating engines, Micro-turbines and Fuel Cells can be used as CHP
plants.

Role of DG in Indian power sector

At the time of independence in 1947 India was having a meager generation of above 1,360
MW, that too in a highly decentralized manner in and around urban areas to meet the load of
latter. It followed decades of development in powersector, aiming at optimum utilization of
geographically dispersed resources, economy of scale, harnessing of hydro-energy in far flung
areas as well as thermal energy at mine-mouth power stations. Technological innovations,
marketing through competitive unit pricing at different point of time through power and energy
trading are encouraging Distributed Generation to a large extent, requiring of course a good
amount of coordination of stake-holders side by side. Governments of India policies as well as
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initiatives in respect of Rural Electrification vis--vis Distributed Generation are quite
encouraging.
The concept of DG has been taken as decentralized generation and distribution of power
especially in the rural areas. In India, the deregulation of the power sector has not made much
headway but the problem of T & D (Transmission & Distribution) losses, the unreliability of the
grid and the problem of remote and inaccessible regions have provoked the debate on the subject.
The DG technologies in India relate to turbines,micro turbines, wind turbines, biomass,
andgasification of biomass, solar photovoltaic cells andhybrid systems. However, most of the
decentralizedplants are based on wind power, hydro power andbiomass, and biomass
gasification. The technologyof Solar Photo Voltaic (SPV) cells is costly and fuelcells are yet to
be commercialized.
Ministry of New and Renewable Energy, however, feels that there exist challenges for
Renewable Energy based Distributed Generation, some of which are universal and some local,
like,
Inherent intermittent nature of renewable energy sources leading to relatively lower
capacity utilization factors
Instances of inadequate load needing to couple rural industrial load
Relatively high capital costs when compared to conventional power systems which in
turn require incentives and financial arrangement
For capacity building, promotion and development of energy
Requirement of servicing companies for local program implementation
Need for adequate mobilization for payment of user charges involving perhaps Non-
Government Organizations and local bodies
Lack of O&M services providers is an issue that needs attention
Need for developing sustainable revenue / business models
Assistance for project preparation
Establishment of sustainable fuel linkages includingFuel Service Agreement
India is on right track to pursue development of Distributed Generation with the unbundling
of power sector utilizing captive and co-generation, besides putting all out effort in harnessing
various forms of new and renewable energy. Collective participation of industries, private
Proceeding of National Seminar on Emerging Trends in Distributed Generation

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entrepreneurs, giant Corporations hitherto engaged in conventional power development is the
essence of such venture. Liberalization of Government policy vis--vis support as well as
regulatory mechanism in place is helping to create conducive atmosphere to achieve target set in
this direction. However, there are challenges that are being attended to with utmost sincerity after
being identified during the course of journey in having electricity for all by 2020.
Proceeding of National Seminar on Emerging Trends in Distributed Generation

10

Damping Torsional Electromechanical Oscillations in aSeries
Compensated Power System

Narendra Kumar
1
, S.K. Agarwal
2
Upma Singh
3
Professor, DTU, Delhi YMCA, Faridabad M.Tech, DCRUST

Abstract This paper is concerned with the
application of SVS control technique to examine
the efficacy of auxiliary control signal for reactive
power modulation of a midpoint located static Var
System (SVS) in damping the electromechanical
oscillations in the turbine generator unit of the
power system and to enhance the power transfer
capability of long transmission line. A new
auxiliary signal designated combined voltage angle
and reactive power (CVARP) is proposed along
with induction machine damping unit (IMDU) that
is coupled with IP turbine to enhance the effect of
SVS in damping out the torsional
electromechanical oscillations. The proposed
control strategy has been validated using IEEE
first benchmark model. Dynamic study using
eigenvalue analysis has been performed and
optimal parameters of controller have been
obtained using extensive study of root locus. The
damping torque results are correlated with those
obtained from eigenvalue analysis.

Index Terms Static VAR system (SVS),
combined voltage angle and reactive power
(CVARP), Torsional electromechanical
oscillations, sub synchronous resonance (SSR),
Transient performance, IMDU.

I. INTRODUCTION

Power systems are among the largest and
most complex systems made by human beings.
Efforts are always done to enhance power
transfer capability of the existing transmission
system. Series compensation is used to enhance
power transfer capability but gives rise to
dynamic instability problem. Various modes of
oscillation occur due to interactions among
system components. One of the most significant
oscillations is caused by synchronous generator
rotors swinging against each other, giving
typical frequency ranges from 0.1 to 2 Hz [2]..
Power system stabilizers (PSSs) are used to add
damping to generator rotor oscillations by
controlling the excitation using auxiliary
stabilizing signals where the speed deviation is
usually used as an input signal. [3] In recent
years, due to the rapid progress of power
electronics i.e. flexible AC transmission system
(FACTS) Controllers, much research work has
been reported addressing oscillation damping
enhancement. Static var system is a FACTS
device, which is used primarily for the purpose
of reactive power support and voltage control.
In principle, a thyristor-controlled series
capacitor (TCSC) and a static-var system (SVS)
could provide rapid control of active power
through a transmission line. Static Var System
(SVS) is known to extend the stability limit and
improve system damping when connected at the
midpoint of a long transmission line [4,7].
While an SVS with pure voltage control may
not adequately contribute to system damping, a
significant enhancement in the same is achieved
when SVS reactive power is modulated in
response to auxiliary control signal
superimposed over its voltage control loop [11].
A new auxiliary control signal designated as
combined voltage angle and reactive power
(CVARP) is proposed which involves the
voltage angle and bus reactive power signals in
coordination with induction machine damping
unit (IMDU) for damping oscillations due to
SSR in a series compensated power system.
Eigenvalue analysis is employed for prediction
of system stability. The analytical prediction of
SVS performance with voltage control based on
linearized models is validated using IEEE first
benchmark model. A digital simulation study
using the non-linear system model and CVARP
auxiliary controller in coordination with IMDU
exhibits a commendable improvement in the
dynamic and transient performance of series
compensated power system. The controller is
Proceeding of National Seminar on Emerging Trends in Distributed Generation

11

able to stabilize all the torsional modes over
wide spread of power transfer and the torsional
electromechanical oscillations are damped out
considerably and the system transient
performance is greatly improved. Proposed
controller is robust and can easily be
implemented as auxiliary signals are derived
locally from the SVS bus.

II. MODELING

The study system consists of a steam turbine
driven synchronous generator (a six- mass
model) supplying bulk power to an infinite bus
over a long transmission line (IEEE first
benchmark model). An SVS of switched
capacitor and thyristor controlled reactor type is
considered located at the middle of the
transmission line that provides continuously
controllable reactive power at its terminals in
response to combined voltage angle and
reactive power (CVARP) auxiliary control
signal. The series compensation is applied at the
sending end.

Fig.1.Study system.
GENERATOR
In the detailed machine model [7] used here, the
stator is represented by a dependent current
source parallel with the inductance. The
generator model includes the field winding f
and a damper winding h along d-axis and two
damper windings g and k along q-axis. The
IEEE type-1 excitation system is used for the
generator. In the mechanical model detailed
shaft torque dynamics [7, 8] has been
considered for the analysis of torsional modes
due to SSR. The rotor flux linkages
associated with different windings result in
rotor equations:
q 6 h 8 g 7
.
k
q 5 k 6 g 5
.
g
d 3 h 4 f 3
.
h
d 2 f 1 h 2 f 1
.
f
I b a a
I b a a
I b a a
I b V b a a
+ + =
+ + =
+ + =
+ + + =

Where V
f
is field excitation voltage. The above
eqns. have been linearized and the state space
model is obtained as follows:
[ ] [ ] [ ] [ ]
R3 R3 R2 R2 R1 R1 R R
R
.
U B + U B + U B + X A = X (1)
[ ]
[ ]
t
Q D 3 R
f 2 R
t
1 R
i i = U
, V = U , = U

| |
t
k g h f R
X A A A A =
Prefix indicates incremental values and the
output equations are
| | | |
| | | | | | | |
| |
t
Q
.
D
.
2 R
t
Q D 1 R
3 R 4 R 2 R 3 R 1 R 2 R R 2 R 2 R
1 R 1 R R 1 R 1 R
I I Y , I I Y where
U D U D U D X C Y
U D X C Y
(

A A = A A =
+ + + =
+ =


MECHANICAL SYSTEM
The six spring mass model as used in the IEEE
first bench mark model [2] describes the
mechanical system as shown in Fig.3. The
governing equations and the state and output
equations are given as follows


HP

IP

LPA LPB GEN EXC
Tm1
Tm2 Tm3
Tm4 Te
o1
o2
o3
o4 o5
o6
D12
D23
D34 D45 D56
K12
K23
K34 K45 K56
D11
D22
D33
D44 D55 D66

Fig.3.6-Spring mass model of mechanical system

o
i
= e
i,
i=1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6
(

+ o o
e + e +
= e
1
M 2 1 12
2 12 1 12 11
1
1
.
T ) ( K
D ) D D (
M
1

(

+ o o
e + e + + e
= e
2 M 1 2 12
3 23 2 23 22 12 1 12
2
2
.
T ) ( K
D ) D D D ( D
M
1


Proceeding of National Seminar on Emerging Trends in Distributed Generation

12

(
(

+ o o o o
e + e + + e
= e
(
(

+ o o o o
e + e + + e
= e
4
3
M 5 4 45 3 4 34
5 45 4 45 44 34 3 34
4
4
.
M 4 3 34 2 3 23
4 34 3 34 33 23 2 23
3
3
.
T ) ( K ) ( K
D ) D D D ( D
M
1
T ) ( K ) ( K
D ) D D D ( D
M
1

(
(
(

o o
o o e +
e + + e
= e
e 6 5 56
4 5 45 6 56
5 56 55 45 4 45
5
5
.
T ) ( K
) ( K D
) D D D ( D
M
1

| | ) ( K ) D D ( D
M
1
5 6 56 6 66 56 5 56
6
6
.
o o e + e = e

) I i I i ( X T
D Q Q D
"
d e
=

Where o
1,
o
2,
o
3,
o
4,
o
5,
o
6,
are the angular
displacements and e
1,
e
2,
e
3,
e
4,
e
5,

e
6
are the
angular velocities of different shaft segments as
shown in fig. 3. Linearizing the above equations
the state space model is derived as follows:
| | | | | |
2 M 2 M 1 M 1 M M M
M
.
U B U B X A X + + = (3)
| |
M M M
X C Y = (4)
Where:
| | | |
| | | | e A o A = A A =
A A = e A o A =
M
t
Q D 2 M
t
Q D 1 M
t
M
Y , i i U
I I U , X

A
M,
B
M1,
B
M2,
and C
M,
are given in the appendix
2.

EXCITATION SYSTEM
The excitation system is represented by the
IEEE Type I model. The state and output
equation are
| | | |
| |
| |
f E g E
t
r S f E
E E E
E E E E
E
.
v Y , v U , v v v X
where
X C Y
U B X A X
A = A = A A A =
=
+ =

NETWORK
The transmission line (fig.3) is represented by
lumped parameter T- circuit. The network has
been represented by its oaxis equivalent
circuit, which is identical with the positive
sequence network. The governing equations of
the o-axis, T-network representation are
derived as follows

T
C
R
V
3o
V
4o
i
o
V
2o i
1o
V
1o
I
o
i
ao
R
a
LT
1
C
se
R L L R LT
2

"
d
L

I
x
i
2 i
CFC
C
n
Fig.3. axis representation of the network
( )
o o o
o
= + Ri V V
dt
di
L L
1 2 2 T

( ) ( )
o o o o
o
+ = +
4
'
d a 2 A
V I L i R R V
dt
di
L L

i - i - -i
dt
dV
Cn
1 2
2

-i
dV
Cse
4
=
dt

Where
FC n
"
d 1 T a
c c andc L L i + = + =

Similarly, the equations can be derived for the
|- network. The o-| network equations are then
transformed to D-Q frame of reference.

| | | | | | | |
| | | | | |
t
Q
.
D
.
1 N
t
Q D 2 N
t
Q 2 D 2 1 N
t
Q D N
3 N 3 N 2 N 2 N 1 N 1 N N N
N
.
I I U , I I U , i i U , X X X
where
U B U B U B X A X
(

A A = A A = A A = A A =
+ + + =
and output equations are
| | | | | | | |
| | | |
| | | |
t
Q 2 D 2 3 N
t
Q D 2 N G 1 N
N 3 N 3 N N 2 N 2 N
3 N 3 N 2 N 2 N 1 N 1 N N 1 N 1 N
v v Y , i i Y , v Y
where X C Y ; X C Y
U D U D U D X C Y
A A = A A = A =
= =
+ + + =

STATIC VAR SYSTEM
Fig. 4 shows a small signal model of a general
SVS. The terminal voltage perturbation V and
the SVS incremental current weighted by the
factor K
D
representing current droop are fed to
the reference junction. T
M
represents the
measurement time constant, which for
simplicity is assumed to be equal for both
Proceeding of National Seminar on Emerging Trends in Distributed Generation

13

voltage and current measurements. The voltage
regulator is assumed to be a proportional-
integral (PI) controller. Thyristor control action
is represented by an average dead time T
D
and a
firing delay time T
s
. B is the variation in TCR
susceptance. V
F
represents the incremental
auxiliary control signal. The , axes currents
entering TCR from the network are expressed
as:


E
|
|
.
|

\
|
+
S
K
K
i
p
s
ST + 1
1

Z
3
D
ST + 1
1 AB

TCR
G(S)
K
D E
M
ST + 1
1
+
AV
ref
+
Z
1
-
Z
2
AV
F
U
C
Ai
2
AV
2
+
-

Fig.4. SVS control system with auxiliary feedback
=
o o
o
2 s 2
2
s
i R - V
dt
di
L

=

2 2
2
s
dt
di
L i R V
s

(6)
Where R
S
,L
S
represent TCR resistance and
inductances respectively. The other equations
describing the SVS model are:
Z - V Z
2 ref
.
1 F
V A + =

( )
2 M 2 D 2
2
.
Z T / i K V Z A A =

s ref P 3 2 P 1 I
.
3
)/T V K - Z - Z K Z (-K Z A + =


(7)

( )
D 3
.
T / B Z B A = A

Where V
2
& i
2
are incremental magnitudes
of SVS voltage and current, respectively,
obtained by linearizing
( )
2
Q 2
2
D 2 2
2
Q 2
2
D 2 2
i i i , V V V + = + =
(8)
the state and output equations are summarized
as
| | | | | | | |
| | | | | |
| | | |
t
Q 2 D 2 S F 3 S ref 2 S
t
Q 2 D 2 1 S
t
3 2 1 Q 2 D 2 S 1 S S S S S
3 S 3 S 2 S 2 S 1 S 1 S S S
S
.
i i Y v U , v U , v v U
B Z Z Z i i X where U D X C Y
U B U B U B X A X
A A = A = A = A A =
A A A = + =
+ + + =




III. DEVELOPMENT OF SVS AUXILIARY
CONTROLLER

The auxiliary signal UC is implemented
through a first order auxiliary controller transfer
function G(s) as shown in fig.5 which is
assumed to be:
( ) ( ) ( )
2 1 B c F
sT 1 / sT 1 K U / v s G + + = A =

(9)

Fig.5. General first-order auxiliary controller

This can be equivalently written as
( ) ( ) ( )
2 2 1 B 2 1 B
sT + 1 / T / T 1 K + T / T K = s G (10)
The state and output equations are given by
| | | |
| | | |
C C C C C
C C C C
C
.
U D X C Y
U B X A X
+ =
+ =

(11)
Where
| |
F c c c
V Y , Z X A = =
,
| |
2 c
T / 1 A =
,
Proceeding of National Seminar on Emerging Trends in Distributed Generation

14

| | | | | |
2 1 B c c 2 1 B c
T / T K D , 1 C ), T / T 1 ( K B = = =
(12)
REACTIVE POWER AUXILIARY SIGNAL
The auxiliary control signal in this case is the
deviation in the line reactive power entering the
SVS bus. The reactive power entering the SVS
bus can be expressed as:
D Q 2 Q D 2 2
i V i V Q =
(13)
Where i
D
, i
Q
and V
2D
, V
2Q
are the D-Q axis
components of the line current i and the SVS
bus
voltage V
2
respectively. Linearizing eqn. (13)
gives the deviation in the reactive power Q
2

which is taken as the auxiliary control signal
U
C1
.
Q 2 0 D D 0 Q 2 D 2 0 Q Q 0 D 2 2 1 C
V i i V V i i V Q U A A A + A = A =
(14)
VOLTAGE ANGLE AUXILIARY SIGNAL
SVS Bus angle is given by

( )
( ) ( )
( )
( )
2
20 D 2 Q 2 Q 2 D 2 2 2 C
2
20 D 2 Q 2 Q 2 D 2 2
D 2 Q 2
1
2
D 2 Q 2
1
2
V / V V V V U
V / V V V V
dt
V / V tan d
V / V tan
A A = u A =
A A = u A
= u A
= u

(15)
Linearizing eqn.(15) gives the deviation in bus
voltage angle control signal:
( )
2
20 D 2 0 Q 2 Q 2 0 D 2 2 2 C
V / V V V V U A A = u A =
(16)
0 represents operating point or steady state
values. The state and output equations for the
VARP auxiliary controller are obtained as
follows:
(

+
(

=
(
(

2
1
2
1
2
1
2
1
2
.
1
.
0
0
0
0
U
U
B
B
X
X
A
A
X
X
C
C
C
C
C
C
C
C
C

| | | | | |
(

+
(

=
2
1
2 1
2
1
2 1
C
C
C C
C
C
C C C
U
U
D D
X
X
C C Y
(17)
Where the state X
C1
and matrices A
C1
, B
C1
, C
C1

and D
C1
correspond to reactive power auxiliary
controller and the state X
C2
and matrices
A
C2
,B
C2
,C
C2
and D
C2
correspond to the active
power / voltage angle auxiliary controller.

IV. INDUCTION MOTOR DAMPING
UNIT (IMDU)

The property of induction machine to act as
a generator or motor is utilized to absorb the
mechanical power when there is excess and to
release when there is a deficiency. Since
machine comes into operation during transients
only, it is designed for very high short term
rating and very small continuous rating.
Consequently the machine has low inertia, low
power, small size and low cost. Because of its
small mass and tight coupling with the
intermediate pressure turbine it has been
considered as a single mass unit with IP turbine.
Electrically it is connected to the generator bus.
The per unit torque (T
iml
) is given by :

INDUCTION MACHINE DAMPING UNIT
(IMDU)
The property of induction machine to act as a
generator or motor is utilized to absorb the
mechanical power when there is excess and to
release when there is a deficiency. Since
machine comes into operation during transients
only, it is designed for very high short-term
rating and very small continuous rating.
Consequently the machine has low inertia, low
power, small size and low cost. Because of its
small mass and tight coupling with the
intermediate pressure turbine it has been
considered as a single mass unit with IP turbine.
Electrically it is connected to the generator bus.
Proceeding of National Seminar on Emerging Trends in Distributed Generation

15

The per unit torque (T
iml
) developed by the
induction machine is given by:
T
iml
=
( ) ( ) ] r / sx 1 [ r .
s 3
2
'
2
'
2
'
2 0
+ e
(21)
And slip s = (e
0
-e
3
)/e
0,
where e
3
is the angular
velocity corresponding to mass 3. Now
linearizing eqn. (21)
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
2
2
'
2
'
2
'
2 0
2
'
2
'
2
2
2
'
2
'
2
iml
] r / sx 1 [ r .
s r / x s 2 r / sx 1 3
T
+ e
(

A
)
`

|
.
|

\
|
+
= A

(22)
At normal operating point s = 0, hence
'
2 0 iml
r . / s 3 T e A = A

Or
'
2
2
0 3 iml
r . / 3 T e e A = A
Hence by considering eqn. 23 mechanical
system model corresponding to mass 3 becomes
(
(

+ + o o o o
e + e e + + + e
= e
1 im M 4 3 34 2 3 23
4 34 3
'
2
2
0 34 33 23 2 23
3
3
.
T T ) ( K ) ( K
D ) r . / 3 D D D ( D
M
1
3

(23)
Similarly other mechanical equations can be
modified to account for the damping effect of
IMDU for its different locations on T-G shaft.
The state and output equations of the different
constituent subsystems along with the auxiliary
controller state and output equations are
combined to result in the linearized state
equations of overall system as:
| |
T
T
.
X A X =
,
where | |
t
C S N E M R T
X X X X X X X = (24)
The dimension of the system matrix is 35

V. A CASE STUDY
The study system consists of 1110 MVA
synchronous generator supplying power to an
infinite bus over a 400 kV, 600 km. long series
compensated single circuit transmission line.
The system data and torsional spring mass
system data are given in Appendix. The SVS
rating for the line has been chosen to be 100
MVAR inductive to 300 MVAR capacitive.
40% series compensation is used at the
sending end of the transmission line.

VI. DYNAMIC PERFORMANCE

The eigenvalues have been computed for the
system with and without CVARP auxiliary
controller incorporated in SVS control system
for wide range of power transfer. Table1
presents the eigenvalues for the system at
generator power P
G
=200, 500, 800 MW without
any auxiliary controller. When no auxiliary
controller is incorporated, four unstable modes
5 , 4 , 1 and 0 are investigated in the system at
PG= 800 MW. At PG= 500 and 200 MW, three
torsional modes 5, 4 and 3 are unstable.
Table 2. shows the system eigenvalues at P
G
=
200, 500 and 800 MW using CVARP auxiliary
controller. The CVARP auxiliary controller
stabilizes all the torsional modes at PG=200
MW, 500 MW and 800 MW. The auxiliary
controller parameters are selected based on an
extensive root locus study and are listed in table
2. Optimized controller parameters K
B1
, T
!
, T
2

and K
B2
,T
3
,T
4
are adjusted for wide spread of
power transfer using root locus technique. Fig.
6 depicts root loci of subsystem with combined
voltage angle and reactive power signal. All the
electrical modes and electromechanical modes
are found to be stable. The torsional
electromechanical modes (05) corresponding
to mechanical subsystem are highlighted.











Proceeding of National Seminar on Emerging Trends in Distributed Generation

16



P
g
=200 MW P
g
= 500 MW P
g
= 800MW
Mode 5
Mode 4
Mode 3
Mode 2
Mode 1
Mode 0













-.0000j298.1006
-.0593j202.7368
-.0111j160.5519
.0008j126.9794
.0167j98.8784
-.3969j4.7451
-38.063
-2.4258
-.7529+j0.7922
-28.4922
-25.7111j24.1491
-.7529-j0.7922
-13.1481j1477.135
-14.9725j846.9496
-12.7503 j444.7002
-9.564j189.3292
-54.6373j74.2791
-548.0913 j90.600
-5.8025j311.4741
. 0.0000j298.1006
-.0681j202.7265
.0050j160.5464
.0017 j126.9764
.0090 j98.8318
.1985j5.0264
-.38.4461
-2.8524
-.6020+j0.7966
-32.0219
-.25.6813j24.2982
-.6020-j.7966
-12.8610j1148.229
-18.2145 j520.6694
-12.4440j445.3199
-9.5753j188.8829
-51.8765j75.8508
-545.4075j74.89 53
-6.8082j311.6204
.0001j298.1006
-.1118202.7264
.0089j160.5241
.0032j126.9691
.0100j98.7327
.0153+j4.9871
-39.1137
-3.0092
-.6219+j.8583
-33.3539
-25.7639j24.3904
-.6219-j.8583
-13.454j1069.1750
-11.9887j441.7564
-22.2118j441.5703
-10.4269j192.6654
-47.8021j81.2018
-545.4495j72.3131
-4.9340j311.2883

TABLE 1 SYSTEM EIGENVALUES WITHOUT AUXILIARY CONTROLLER

TABLE 3
EIGENVALUES WITH IMDU AND CVARP AUXILIARY CONTROLLER
(K
B1
=-.01, K
B2
=-.54,T
1
=.046, T
2
=.05 ,T
3
=.39, T4=.2 )

Pg = 200 MW Pg = 500 MW Pg = 800MW
Mode 5
Mode 4
Mode 3
Mode 2
Mode 1
Mode 0
-0.002 j 298.10
-0.015 j 202.89
-0.015j160.52
-0.0002j126.98
-0.018j98.981
-0.49j6.66
-13.38 j1964.70
-11.11 j692.95
-576.88
-466.33
-12.82 j 449.35
-7.42 j 313.85
-154.26
-9.09 j166.60
-25.95j24.63
-36.564
-33.286
-21.34j4.28
-5.083
-2.391
-0.389j0.539
-0.002j 298.10
-0.001 j 202.89
-0.012 j160.52
-0.0001j126.98
-0.0188 j98.98
-0.327j6.81
-13.39 j 1964.70
-11.10 j692.94
-574.64
-467.93
-12.72 j 449.25
-7.29 j 316.62
-168.55
-8.066 j 166.55
-25.96 j24.65
-36.84
-33.308
-25.77
-5.41 j1.84
-0.433 j 0.60
-2.32
-0.0021j298.100
-0.015j202.89
-0.012 j160.525
-0.00013j126.98
-0.019j98.984
-0.326 j 6.82
-13.39j1964.71
-11.10j692.945
-574.643
-467.934
-12.728j449.253
-7.295j 316.62
-168.56
-8.073j166.562
-25.962j24.653
-36.840
-25.771
-33.308
-5.41j1.85
-0.433j0.605
-2.326



Root locus plot for 200MW
Proceeding of National Seminar on Emerging Trends in Distributed Generation

17


1.048
1.05
1.052
1.054
1.056
1.058
1.06
0 5 10 15 20 25
Time,s
T
e
r
m
i
n
a
l

V
o
l
t
a
g
e
,
p
.
u
.
1.045
1.05
1.055
1.06
1.065
0 5 10 15 20 25
Time,s
T
e
r
m
i
n
a
l

V
o
l
t
a
g
e
,
p
.
u
.

1.02
1.03
1.04
1.05
1.06
1.07
1.08
0 5 10 15 20 25
Time,s
S
V
S

B
u
s

V
o
l
t
a
g
e
,
p
,
u
,
1.04
1.045
1.05
1.055
1.06
1.065
1.07
0 5 10 15 20 25
Time,s
S
V
S

B
u
s

V
o
l
t
a
g
e
,
p
.
u
.

-0.8
-0.78
-0.76
-0.74
-0.72
-0.7
-0.68
0 5 10 15 20 25
Time,s
P
o
w
e
r

A
n
g
l
e
.
r
a
d
.
-0.75
-0.74
-0.73
-0.72
-0.71
-0.7
0 5 10 15 20 25
Time,s
P
o
w
e
r

A
n
g
l
e
,
r
a
d

0
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
0.6
0 5 10 15 20 25
Time,s
S
V
S

s
u
s
c
e
p
t
a
n
c
e
,
p
.
u
.
0
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
0 5 10 15 20 25
Time,s
S
V
S

S
u
s
c
e
p
t
a
n
c
e
,
p
.
u
.

0
2
4
6
8
10
0 5 10 15 20 25
Time,s
T

(
B
-
G
)
,
p
.
u
.
7.6
7.8
8
8.2
8.4
8.6
0 5 10 15 20 25
Time,s
T
(
B
-
G
)
,
p
.
u
.


0
0.5
1
1.5
2
2.5
3
0 5 10 15 20 25
Time,s
T

(
H
-
I
)
,
p
.
u
.
2.3
2.35
2.4
2.45
2.5
0 5 10 15 20 25
Time,s
T
(
H
-
I
)
,
p
.
u
.

-0.3
-0.2
-0.1
0
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
0 5 10 15 20 25
Time,s
W
-
W
o
-0.2
-0.1
0
0.1
0.2
0 5 10 15 20 25
Time,s
W
-
W
o

(a) (b)
SIMULATION RESULTS
Root locus plot for 500MW
Root locus plot for 800MW
Proceeding of National Seminar on Emerging Trends in Distributed Generation

18

VII. TIME DOMAIN SIMULATIONS
A digital computer simulation study, using a
nonlinear system model, has been carried out to
demonstrate the effectiveness of the CVARP
auxiliary controller under large disturbance
conditions. Applying a pulsed torque of 30%
for 0.1 s simulates a disturbance. The
simulation study has been carried out at
P
G
=800MW. All the self and mutual damping
constants are assumed to be zero. Fig. 7 shows
the response curves of the terminal voltage,
SVS bus voltage, SVS susceptance, power
angle, variation in Torsional torques without
and with the CVARP auxiliary controller after
the disturbance. It can be seen that there is
tendency towards instability when no auxiliary
controller is used in the SVS control system.
The torsional oscillations are stabilized and the
CVARP auxiliary controller attains a significant
improvement in the transient performance of
the series compensated power system. The
control strategy is easily implemental as it
utilizes the locally derived signals from the
SVS bus.

CONCLUSION

In this paper the effectiveness of combined
voltage angle and reactive power (CVARP)
SVS auxiliary controller has been evaluated for
damping the electromechanical torsional
oscillations in a given series compensated
power system. The following conclusions can
be drawn from the eigenvalues study
performed.
a. CVARP auxiliary controller is able to
stabilize all the system torsional modes, for
all power levels. Damping of torsional mode
0 is good which is responsible for the
dynamic interaction of the generator and
transmission line.
b. The time domain simulation study
demonstrates that the CVARP auxiliary
controller improves the damping of the
torsional electromechanical oscillations due
to sub synchronous resonance (SSR) in the
series compensated power system. The
control strategy is easily implemental as it
utilizes the locally derived signals from the
SVS bus.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
The work presented in this paper has been
performed under the AICTE R&D Project,
Enhancing the power system performance
using FACTS devices in the Flexible AC
Transmission Research Laboratory at Delhi
College of Engineering, Delhi (India).

APPENDIX
Generator data:
1110MVA, 22kV, R
a
= 0.0036,X
L
= 0.21
T
wo

=6.66, T
wo


=0.44, T
wo


=0.032,
T
wo

=0.057s
A
d
= 1.933, A
x
= 1.743, A
d

=0.467,
A
x

= 1.144,
A
d

= 0.312, A
x

= 0.312 put
IEEE type 1 excitation system:
T
R
=0, T
A
=0.02, T
E
=1.0, T
F
=1.0s,
K
A
=400, K
E
=1.0; K
F
=0.06 put.
V
Fmax
=3.9, F
in
=0, I
rma
=7.3, V
R min
=-7.3
Transformer data:
R
T
=0, X
T
=0.15 put. (Generator base)
Transmission line data:
Voltage 400kV, Length 600km, Resistance
R=0.034 / km, Reactance X=0.325 / km
Susceptance B
e
=3.7 mho / km
SVS data (Six-pulse operation)
T
M
=2.4, T
S
=5, T
D
= 1.667ms, K
1
= 950,
K
P
= 0.5, K
D
= 0.01
Torsional spring-mass system data

----------------------------------------------------------
Mass shaft Inertia H (s) Spring
constant
----------------------------------------------------------
HP 0.1033586
HP-IP 25.772
IP 0.1731106
IP-LPA 46.635
LPA 0.9553691
LPA-LPB 69.478
LPB 0.9837909
LPB-GEN 94.605
GEN 0.9663006
GEN-EXC 3.768
Proceeding of National Seminar on Emerging Trends in Distributed Generation

19

EXC 0.0380697
----------------------------------------------------------
IMDU Data:
'
2
r =3.64x10
-4
pu.
REFERENCES
[1] K.R.Padiyar and R.K.Varma,'Concepts of
Static VAR system Control for Enhancing
Power Transfer in Long Transmission
Lines' To appear in Journal of Electric
machines and Power Systems', vol. 18,
No.4.
[2] Narendra Kumar, M.P. Dave, Application
of Static VAR System auxiliary System
Auxiliary Controllers to Improve the
Transient Performance of Series
Compensated Long Transmission lines,
Electric Power Systems Research 34
(1995) 75-83.
[3] E.Larsen and J. H. Chow, Application of
static var systems for system dynamic
performance, IEEE Tutorial Course 87
THO187-5 PWR, 1987.
[4] Narendra Kumar, M.P. Dave, Application
of Auxiliary Controlled Static Var System
for Damping Subsynchronous Resonance
in Power Systems. Electric Power System
Research 37 (1996) 189 201.
[5] S.K. Gupta, Narendra Kumar et.al.,
Controlled Series Compensation in
Coordination with Double Order SVS
Auxiliary Controller and Induction
Machine for repressing the Torsional
Oscillations in Power system. Electric
Power System Research 62 (2002) 93-103.
[6] R.S.Ramsaw, K.R.Padiyar, Generalized
System Model for Slip Ring Machines,
IEEE Proc. 120 (6) 1973.
[7] K. R. Padiyar, R.K. Varma, Damping
Torque Analysis of Static Var System
Controllers, IEEE Trans. on Power
Systems, 6(2) (1991)458-465.
[8] E. Lerch, D. Povh, and L. Xu, Advanced
SVC control for damping power system
oscillation, IEEE Trans. Power Systems,
vol. 6, no. 2, pp. 524535, May 1991.

[9] A. E. Hammad, Analysis of power system
stability enhancement by static var
compensators, IEEE Trans. Power Systems,
vol. PWRS-1, no. 4, pp. 222227, Nov. 1986.
[10]G. D. Galanos et al., Advanced static
compensator for flexible AC transmission,
IEEE Trans. Power Systems, vol. 8, no. 1,
pp. 113121, Feb. 1993.
[11] J. F. Gronquist et al., Power oscillation
damping control strategies for FACTS
devices using locally measurable
quantities, in IEEE 1995 Winter Meeting,
Paper no. 95 WM 185-9 PWRS.




Proceeding of National Seminar on Emerging Trends in Distributed Generation
20

Biomass Based Distributed Power Generation
Current Status and Future Challenges
Tanmoy Deb
KIIT College of Engineering, Gurgaon
tdeb1969@gmail.com

Abstract- This paper presents an overview of
biomass based distributed power generation in
India. The paper discusses opportunities
available for power generation for rural and
off grid application. It explores current
technologies and their relative merits and
demerits. It discussed the incentives provided
by govt. of India for its promotion. It further
explores issues, challenges and solutions to
make it technically and commercially viable
source of power for rural areas.

Keywords: Off-grid applications, distributed
generation, incentives.

I.INTRODUCTION
70% of countrys population depends on
biomass resources in India. About 32% of
the total primary energy used in obtained
from biomass resources. India generates
about 500 million tons of biomass material
in agricultural, agro-industrial and forestry
operations. Majority of it is used as fuel and
fodder. A significant portion of this bio-
mass goes waste due to lack of any avenues
for productive use. For a power deficient
country like India, it spells an excellent
opportunity. It can provide a sustainable
means of power generation in distributed
mode. This will work as a great equalizer for
economic upliftment of rural masses.

The current biomass potential in India is for
power generation is 34,961 MW (2010). The
biomass power generation sector attracts Rs.
600 crores of investment every year and
generates about 5000 million units of
electricity. The installed capacity of biomass
based power generation as of 30
th
June 2012
is 1182 MW (grid connected) and another
648 MW in off grid mode. About 2.4 billion
people rely on biomass mainly for heating
and cooking needs.
The subsequent sections discusses
threadbare the technology of biomass for
sustainable power generation especially for
villages.

II. BIOMASS MATERIALS
Biomass is a natural substance that stores
solar energy by way of photosynthesis. It
contains cellulose, hemicelluloses and
lignin. The average composition of biomass
is C6H10O5. Biomass material is classified
as (a) Dry biomass (b) West biomass (c)
Municipal solid waste (d) industrial waste
(e) Forest Waste and (f) agricultural waste.
Dry biomass consists of tree chips, paper,
corn, soybean, sorghum, sunflower, Oats,
barley, wheat etc. Wet biomass includes
animal waste, water plants, bio-diesel etc.
Methane is used as gaseous biomass.

III. BIOMASS BASED DISTRIBUTED
POWER GENERATION.

Distributed Power generation is a small
scale generation of power near load centre.
It is also known as on-site power generation
or dispersed generation or decentralized
generation. The capacity may range from 3
KW to 10 MW. Such systems have
Proceeding of National Seminar on Emerging Trends in Distributed Generation
21

numerous advantages and are suited for off-
grid and rural areas.
A variety of power sources can be used for
distributed generation. Some are listed
below:
(i) Biomass based generation.
(ii) Natural gas fired micro-turbine.
(iii) Liquid fuel based IC engines.
(iv) Wind Power based generation.
(v) Solar PV based generation
(vi) Micro & mini -hydel based generation.
(vii) Fuel cell based generation.

S.NO. Technology Typical sizes
1. Combined cycle gas
turbine
35-400 MW
2. IC engine 5KW-10MW
3. Micro-turbine 35KW-1MW
4. Small hydro 1-25 MW
5. Micro-hydro 25KW-1MW
6. Wind turbine 200W-
100KW
7. Solar PV 1 MW-10
MW
8. Biomass(Gasification) 100KW-20
MW
9. Fuel Cell (Phos acid) 200 KW-
2MW
10 Fuel Cell (Proton
Exchange)
1 KW-250
KW

Table 3.1 -- Capacity range of distributed
generation.

Distributed generation can integrate both
renewable as well as non-renewable sources.
Biomass based distributed power generation
possesses following advantages:
(i) Suitable for off grid and stand alone
application such as rural area.
(ii) Low cost of power projects due to small
size.
(iii) It is carbon neutral
(iv) Raw material is cheap and abundantly
available.
(v) It results in efficient utilization of
renewable biological resource.
(vi) It results in rural economic upliftment.
(vii) System has low financial risk.
(viii) Reduction in migration of labour to urban
areas.
(ix) Boosts rural entrepreneurship.

For biomass based power generation, three
methods viz combustion, gasification and
anaerobic digestion is used. In recent times,
pyrolysis method is gaining acceptance.

Compared to other renewable energy
generation methods, investment in biomass
based power generation is cost competitive.
For a 10-100 KW capacity range, the capital
investment cost is given in table 3.

S.NO. Type of
Energy
Capital Investment
(Million Rs/MW)
1 Solar PV 300-400
2. Micro-hydel 40-60
3. Wind 40-50
4. Biomass 20-40

Table 3.2 Comparison of biomass power
generation with other renewable energy sources.

Table 3.2 shows comparison amongst Solar
PV, micro-hydel, wind and biomass. As can
be seen , the capital investment required is
highest in case of solar PV (300-400 million
Proceeding of National Seminar on Emerging Trends in Distributed Generation
22

Rs/MW) followed by Micro-hydel, wind and
biomass. So, biomass has lowest investment
cost (20-40 million Rs/MW for setting up
power generation unit.

IV.BIOMASS ENERGY CONVERSION
PROCESS

Biomass can be used directly or can be
converted into other energy form. There are
three processes used for the extraction of
bio-energy as described below.

(i) Thermal conversion process:
The process uses thermal energy to convert
biomass into another form. The processes
used are combustion, torrefaction, pyrolysis
and gasification.

(a) Combustion process: The biomass
material is ignited (200-1400 C) and its
results in production of heat, gas or oil.
This in turn is used to generate steam for
power generation.
(b) Torrefaction: In this process, biomass is
heated to a temperature of 200-320 C at
atmospheric pressure and in the absence
of air. The final product is solid black
material called bio-coal.
(c) Pyrolysis: In this method, the biomass is
rapidly heated to 450 600C in the
absence of air . It results in the
production of bio-oil. This oil is fired in a
boiler to raise steam. The steam thus
obtained is used to drive steam turbine.
(d) Gasification: In this method, biomass in
a gassifier is used to produce synthesis
gas at a temperature of 500-1300 C.

(ii) Chemical Conversion:
This technique uses chemical process to
convert biomass into a fuel. The fuel so
produced is easy to store, transport and use.
Examples are production of methanol,
olefins, conversion of waste vegetable oil
into bio-fuel.

(iii) Bio-Chemical conversion:
This process uses micro-organisms to
breakdown biomass. The result is generation
of bio-gas or liquid fuel. The processes used
are following:-
(a) Anaerobic digestion: In this, the biomass
is put in a digester and micro-organisms
are used to decompose the biomass in the
absence of air. It results in production of
methane gas.
(b) Fermentation: It is the process of
converting carbohydrates to alcohol and
carbon dioxide using yeast or bacteria or
both under anaerobic condition.
Essentially, the process converts sugar
into alcohol using microorganism.
(c) Composting: It is the process of
generating biogas through anaerobic
digestion in the presence of micro-
organisms. A variety of bio-fuels are
available for power generation. These are
listed in Table 4.1

S.No. Ist Generation IInd Generation
1. Methanol Cellulose ethanol
2. Ethanol Algae fuel
3. Propanol/Butanol Bio-hydrogen
4. Bio-diesel Bio-Methanol
5. Vegetable oils Fischer Tropsch
Diesel
6. Bio-ether Bio-hydrogen diesel
7. Bio-gas Mixed alchol
8. Syn.gas

Table 4.1 Bio-fuels
Proceeding of National Seminar on Emerging Trends in Distributed Generation
23

All above mentioned conversion process
converts bio-mass into useful form (with
higher energy content) which is then used
for power generation. The table 4.2
illustrates comparison of different biomass
technologies
From Table 4.2 it is seen that except
pyrolysis all other processes are
commercialized. Anaerobic digestion
process is specially suited for high moisture
content organic waste. Biomass material
needs to be dried in case of gasification and
pyrolysis

S.NO Parameter Combustion Anaerobic digestion Gassification Pyrolysis
1. Raw Material Solid biomass Wet biomass Solid
biomass
Solid biomass
2. Technology status Commercial Commercial Commercial Demonstation
3 Temperature ( c) 700-1400 N/A 500-1300 380-530
4. Pressure (MPa) >0.1 - >0.1 0.1-05
5. Drying Not essential but
may help
Not essential Necessary Necessary
6. Advantages - Suitable for high
moisture content
organic matter
High
efficiency 25-
50%
Main product
liquid Easy to
store and
transport

Table 4.2 comparison of different biomass technologies

V. BIOMASSPOWER GENERATION
TECHNOLOGIES

Biomass can be used as direct firing or
can be used as co-firing i.e. in combination
with Coal etc. In direct firing, following
technologies are used

(i) Direct biomass combustion:
The biomass is used to generate either
power or heat or bot. It is economically
viable for 6-15MW. The payback period is
6-7 years. This technology is especially
suited for plantations / mills for e.g. sugar
cane (Bagasse), rice husk), wood/ paper
(wood waste), corn (corn waste), palm oil
(shells, empty fruit bunches). The method
can also use urban waste to generate power

(ii) Biomass liquification via pyrolysis:
The method uses pyrolysis of biomass
material. The output of pyrolysis is oil. This
oil is fired in a boiler to generate power.

(iii) Gasification of Biomass:
The biomass is converted into gaseous form
called synthesis gas (or syn gas). This gas
can be used in a boiler or in a gas engine to
Proceeding of National Seminar on Emerging Trends in Distributed Generation
24

generate power. Syn. Gas composition is
H2-20%, CO2-12%, CH4-3%, CO-20% rest
N2. The process is suitable for 500 kw
2MW range.

(iv) Bio Gas from an aerobic digestion:
The biomass in a digester is decomposed by
microorganism in the absence of air. The
biogas so produced is either used in a boiler
or in a gas engine. The biogas (mainly
methane) so produced is cleaned through
scrubber before being fed to gas engine.

VI. CURRENT STATUS FOR
BIOMASS POWER GENERATION
IN INDIA

The current availability of biomass is
500 million metric tons per year. According
to one estimate by ministry of new and
renewable energy, the estimated surplus
biomass availability is 120-150 million
metric tonnes per year covering agricultural
& forestry residue. This corresponds to a
power potential of 18,000MW. Apart from
this, additional 500MW of power can be
generated to bagasse based Co-generation.
The power generation potential from
biomass (2010) is given in table 6.1

S.N. Biomass Type Potential
(MW)
1. Agro residue 18728
2. Live stock 9332
3. Fruits 660
4. Vegetables 1220
5. Industrial waste 1470
6. Municipal solid
waste
3190
7. Municipal liquid 361
waste
Total 34961

TABLE 6.1 BIOMASS POTENTIAL IN INDIA
(2010)
The power generation potential from
biomass is 34961 MW. Table 6.2 gives
breakup of biomass consumption by
different fuels.

Animal Dung Crop residue Fuel wood
14% 23% 63%
TABLE 6.2 BIOMASS CONSUMPTION BY
DIFFERENT FUELS

The majority of biomass consumption is in
fuel wood category & it includes power
generation, cooking and heating purposes.
The total installed capacity of grid
interactive biomass power generation is
1182 MW (as on 30
th
June 2012). The off
grid includes 648 MW (waste to energy
urban 105 MW, biomass non-bagasse
cogen-391MW, biomass gassifier rural
16 MW and biomass gassifier Industrial
136 MW. During 2011 alone, 25 rice hursk
based gassifier system for industrial
generation were installed in 70 remote
villages of Bihar. The largest biomass gas
plant is at Sirohi, Rajasthan of 20 MW
capacity. In 2011, biomass gassifier of 1.2
MW was installed in Gujarat & 0.5 MW in
Tamil Nadu.
In Kakadpara, Nasik district of Maharashtra,
a test project of 10 KW gassifier was
commissioned in 16
th
April 2011 to feed
power to 85 households in the village. The
power supplied meets the need of domestic
lighting, street lighting and other
entertainment activities. Power is supplied
from 7 PM to 2AM at night. The project was
commissioned with financial assistance from
ministry of new & renewable energy forces
and is running successfully since then. Such
role models can be replicated in rural areas
Proceeding of National Seminar on Emerging Trends in Distributed Generation
25

which can meet power as well as cooking
gas need.

VI.ISSUES AND CHALLENGES ION
BIOMASS BASED DISTRIBUTED
POWER GENERATION

No technology is free from drawbacks.
Idea is to remove process bottlenecks,
provide financial incentive, raise awareness
& provide training to make it a sustainable
model to meet power needs of rural folks.
Then, this model can be replicated across
various states to act as role model, provide
rural upliftment both socially & financially.
This is important as 70% of total population
lives in rural area. Some areas are located
from electricity grid & there are no ways of
providing electricity due to high cost of
laying transmission lines, inaccessibility or
are insurgency affected or due to several
other reasons.
Some of the major issues are listed below:-
(i) Difficulty in ensuring continues supply of
feed stock.
(ii) High cost of generated energy. It ranges
from 3.43 5.46 Rs. / KWH
(iii) Rising cost of feed stock.
(iv) Capital cost of large size unit is high (4.5
to 5 Rs. Crore / MW).
(v) The unit cost depends upon cost of feed
stock, plant food factor & conversion
efficiency.
(vi) Due to low energy density in biomass, the
conversion efficiency is poor. For
example, the energy content in sugar cane
is 2%, corn 1%, forest residue 0.8%
food plants less than 0.8%. The
maximum theoretical efficiency is 10%.
(vii) Handling of residue is cumbersome. For
example, gasification method produces
residue such as ash and tarry condensate.
(viii) Power plants below 6 MW are not
economically sustainable and above 10
MW face raw material logistic problems.

The life of plant on an average is 20 years
which can be extended further by 10 years
by major rehabilitation. The average plant
load factor varies from 45-55%. The average
time required for commissioning is 18
months provided there are no issues related
to funding & feed stock collection. Even
after due to these reasons, it is still an
attractive option.
Govt. of India provides financial incentives,
these include following:-
(i) 80% deprecation can be claimed in first
year for co-generation unit such as back
pressure turbine, extraction cum condensing,
low inlet pressure small turbine etc.
(ii) There is income tax holiday for 10 years
(iii) Concessional customs and excise duty
exemption is granted for machinery and
components.
(iv) General sales tax exemption is available
in certain states.
Apart from financial incentives extended by
central government following needs tobe
done by state government
(i) Subsidy need to be given for plant &
machinery to the extent of 80% the rest
20% to be shared by gram panchayat.
(ii) A sustainable means of feedstock
generation is required to feed the plant.
It can be decided based on availability
at site. The restriction s on use of forest
produce need to be removed (under
forest Act).
(iii) The small scale entrepreneurs need to
be encouraged to produces/ fabricate
machinery locally.
(iv) Interest free financial assistance need to
be provided for overhauling of the
system after a prefix period.
(v) State energy development agency can
provide help in development of train
pool of manpower at site.
(vi) A business model can be develop in the
form of energy service companies who
Proceeding of National Seminar on Emerging Trends in Distributed Generation
26

would operate on build, operate &
maintain bases at a tariff structure
decided by state energy regulatory
body.


CONCLUSION

From foregoing discussion, it emerges
that biomass based distributed power
generation holds promise of being a vehicle
for rural electrification in India. However,
due to some technical and commercial
issues, it can be made economically viable
by providing thrust in problems area by the
state energy agency. With active support of
ministry of new & renewable energy
sources.
REFERENCES

[1]Nadejda M.Victor,, David G. Victor,
Macro patterns in the use of traditional
bio mass fuels Stanford / TERI
workshop on rural energy transition, 5-7
Nov, 2002.
[2] www.bea.doc.gov/bea/dn1.htm.
[3] www.bp.com/centres/energy 2002/
[4]IEA (1998), Biomass Energy; Data,
Analysis and Trends, IEA, Sept, 1988.




































Proceeding of National Seminar on Emerging Trends in Distributed Generation

27

Economic and Environmental Analysis of an Autonomous
Power Delivery System Utilizing Hybrid Solar - Diesel -
Electrochemical Generation

Trina Som
1
Shweta Singh
2
Akhil Sharma
3
Kushagar
4

NIEC, Delhi NIEC, Delhi NIEC, Delhi NIEC, Delhi
trinasom@gmail.com shwetasingh_18@rediffmail.comkushagr1105@yahoo.com

Abstract - The growing awareness of power
shortage and high demand for reliable power
supply the centralized power system is
shifting towards decentralized power
generating systems or distributed
generations. Moreover, the concerns towards
global warming and depleting oil/gas reserves
have made it inevitable to seek energy from
renewable energy resources. Many nations
are embarking on introduction of clean/
renewable solar energy for displacement of
oil-produced energy. Photovoltaic power
generating modules (PV) with diesel
generators (DG) and battery energy storage
systems (BESS) is an emerging hybrid energy
generation technology. It promises great deal
of challenges and opportunities for developed
and developing countries. The present work
depicts the economic analysis and
environmental impacts of a decentralized or
distributed power delivery system integrated
with a hybrid distributed energy resources
(DERs). The model for decentralized power
delivery system has been developed using
MATLAB Simulink considering load demand
scenario for a small village in India. Optimal
power generation has been made using
different sets of distributed energy resources,
pertaining to cost estimation and respective
environmental impact. The results show a
cost effective power delivering network for
hybrid DG and BESS, but PV-BESS
distributed energy resources represents a
beneficial power delivering network from
environmental aspect.

Keywords: DERs, Economy, Environmental
Impact.

I. INTRODUCTION

The need for energy-efficient electric
power sources in remote locations is a
driving force for research in hybrid energy
systems.Power utilities in many countries
round the world are diverting their
attention toward more effective and
renewable electric power sources [1,2].
Reasons for this interest include the
possibilities of taxes or other penalties for
emissions of greenhouse gases as well as
other pollutants with nite supply of fossil
fuels. The use of renewable energy sources
in remote locations could help reduce the
operating cost through the reduction in
fuel consumption, increase system
efficiency, and reduce noise and
emissions.
The electricity sector in India though
installed capacity of 199.6 Gigawatt (GW)
as of March 2012 among which thermal
power plants constitute 65% and
hydroelectric about 21% and rest being a
combination of wind, small hydro,
biomass, waste-to-electricity, and nuclear,
but still over one third of India's rural
population lacked electricity, as did 6% of
the urban population and the rest access
the electricity with intermittent and
unreliable supply [3-6]. Due to this huge
gap of shortage between power supply and
demand, an Indian load demand scenario
has been considered for modeling an
autonomous power delivery framework
integrated with DERs and consumers.
The economic part of the model calculates
the fuel consumed per kilowatt-hours for
DG and battery energy storage system
along with the total initial cost for different
DERs, and constructional cost for power
delivery network.
The environmental part of the model
calculates the CO2, particulate matter
Proceeding of National Seminar on Emerging Trends in Distributed Generation

28

(PM), and the NOx emitted to the
atmosphere [1]. Simulations based on an
actual system in the remote village of India
were performed for three cases as follows;
Case I: Autonomous power delivery
system consist of hybrid photovoltaic
power generating modules (PV) - diesel
generators (DG) - battery energy storage
system (BESS) as DERs.
Case II: Autonomous power delivery
system consists of hybrid diesel generators
(DG) - battery energy storage system
(BESS) as DERs.
Case III: Autonomous power delivery
system consisting of hybrid photovoltaic
power generating modules (PV) - diesel
generators (DG) as DERs.

II. PROBLEM FORMULATION

Economic estimation for distributed
power system has been analyzed by
optimal power generation from different
sets of DERs. The power optimization is
based on the logic of meeting the required
load demands in apportion to the electrical
production between the PV [7], DG [8]
and battery system.

PHYSICAL DESCRIPTION

The stimulant model for case I, as shown
in figure.1, contain all 3 power generating
resources, namely photovoltaic module,
diesel generator and battery bank.
Initially the load power required is
compared with the power supplied by the
pv module. If the generated power is more
than the required power then the excess
power is used for the charging of battery
bank, while if the power generated by the
pv module is not enough to feed the load
entirely then the pv module supplies as
much power during the day time, and the
remaining demand is supplied by DG or
BESS. This is done by comparing the
power delivering capacities of diesel
generator and BESS, i.e. if the battery
energy storage system is not able to supply
the required load then it provides upto its
installed capacity and finally the remaining
load requirement is met by the diesel
generator.
Diesel generators for our experiment
purposes have been taken for such a
capacity that it fulfills the remaining load
requirement, and has been used as a last
power generating option in consideration
to environmental aspect.

The stimulant model for case II, as shown
in figure.2, consists of hybrid DG-BESS
power generating resources. The optimal
power operation is performed by the same
logic as used for case I. Here the load
power required is compared with the
power supplied by DG. If the generated
power is less than the required demand
then the remaining power is delivered by
BESS, or it will charge the BESS.

Figure.3 represents the stimulant model for
case III. This consists of hybrid PV-DG as
distributed energy resources. The optimal
power operation is performed by the same
logic as used for case I and case II. Here
the load power required is compared with
the power supplied by PV during day time.
If the generated power is less than the
required demand then the remaining power
is delivered by BESS, or if the power
generated is more than demand the excess
power is fed to BESS for charging, which
further helps in delivery power during
peak and night time.

INPUT PARAMETERS

The input parameters considered for the
simulation are load demand data for a real-
time Indian scenario, initial costs for
different DERs and annual solar irradiance
for India [9]. These three input parameters
are shown in figure 4, table 1 and figure 6
respectively.





Proceeding of National Seminar on Emerging Trends in Distributed Generation

29



Figure 1. Optimal power generation through hybrid PV-DG-BESS


Figure 2. Optimal power generation through hybrid DG-BESS


Figure 3. Optimal power generation through hybrid PV-DG
Proceeding of National Seminar on Emerging Trends in Distributed Generation

30


Figure 4. Load data for an Indian Village

Table 1. Initial Costs for DERs



Figure 5. Annual Solar Irradiance in India



CODES DEVELOPED:

Coding used for optimal generation for
case I
function P = fcn(Ir)
DF=0.8; %derating factor%
RC=12; %rated capacity%
Sr=1; %standard irradiance%
P=(DF*(RC*(Ir/Sr)))'; %solar irradiance
varying with month and place%
function [Pln,Plp] = fcn(u,j)
%u=pv power
%v=load power required
%Plp=charging power
%Pln=remaining requirement
if j>u
Pln = (j-u);
Plp = 0;
else
Plp = (u-j);
Pln = 0;
end

Coding used for Case II and CaseIII
function y = fcn(c,d)
r=10;
y=r+c-d;
for discharge of BESS a feedback loop is
made with the help of another comparison
block which compares the available
battery power to the required demand.

function [y,z] = fcn(u,v)
%u=power requirement
%v=Available battery power
r=0;
if u>r
if v>u
y = v-u;
z=0;
else
y=v;
z=u-v;
end
else
y=0;
z=0;
end
Elements Ratings Initial Cost
(Rs)
Running Cost
(Rs.)
PV, DG
and BESS
PV=12
KW
DG=50
KW
BESS=1
0 KW


10016099

40.67/gallon

40.67/gallon
PV and
DG
PV=12
KW
DG=100
KW
8442068
40.67/gallon
DG and
BESS
DG=100
KW
BESS=1
0 KW


7011264

40.67/gallon
Proceeding of National Seminar on Emerging Trends in Distributed Generation

31
Coding for Output functions:

function [fc,cost,NOx,PM,Co2] = fcn(u)
fc=u; % in pounds
cost=u*40.3*3.67; %in rupees
NOx=u*0.017*7.1; %in pounds
Co2=u*1.7*7.1; %in pounds
PM=u*1.91/8; %in grams

III. RESULTS

The simulated results for case I in terms
of running cost, i.e. fuel consumption cost,
NO
x
emission, carbon-dioxide, and
particulate matters emission are presented
in figure 6.



Figure 6. Results for case I

The first two panes of fig. 6 denote the
cost results, while the last 3 panes give us
the results for emission of pollutants.
The results for case II and case III are
portrayed in figure 7 and figure 8
respectively.


Figure 7. Results for case II



Figure 8. Results for case III

The comparative results between case I,
case II and case III has been presented in
table 2 as shown below.



Proceeding of National Seminar on Emerging Trends in Distributed Generation

32


CONCLUSION

The present work concludes that a
decentralized power delivery system using
different hybrid - non-conventional energy
resources are very encouraging and
effective for future power supply in an
Indian scenario. The comparative studies
for different power delivery models
utilizing different sets of hybrid DERs
depict different costs and environmental
impacts. It has been observed that though
case III provides a cost effective power
delivery system, but from environment
perspective, it has been obtained as an
inferior system in comparison with case I.
The power optimization using all the three
types of DERs focuses on both economical
and environmental aspects. Hence, the
simulation models give us various power
delivery options leading to more
economical, eco-friendly and reliable
future power.

REFERENCES

[1]. Ron. A. Jhonson, Ashish N. Agrawal,
Tyler J. Chubb, Simulink Model for
Economic Analysis and
Environmental Impacts of a PV With
Diesel-Battery System for Remote
Villages, IEEE Transactions on
power system, Vol. 20, No. 2, May
2005.
[2]W. S. Fyfe, M. A. Powell, B. R. Hart,
and B. Ratanasthien, A globalcrisis:
Energy in the future, Nonrenewable
Resources, pp. 187195,1993.

[3]A report on Power sector at a glance:
All India data. Ministry of
Power,Government of India. October
2011.
[4]A report on World Energy Outlook
2011: Energy for All. International
Energy Agency. October 2011.
[5] Winds of change come to country
plagued by power blackouts Guardian.
30 december 2008. Retrieved on 2012-
01-13.
[6]Nuclear Power Corporation of India
Limited (NPCIL) Annual Report,
20102011. [7]Stand-Alone
Photovoltaic Systems: A Handbook of
Recommended Design Practices
(Revised), Sandia National Labs,
Albuquerque, 1995
[8]F. P. Dawson and S. B. Dewan,
Remote diesel generator with
photovoltaic cogeneration, in Proc.
Solar Conf., Denver, CO, Sep. 1989,
pp.269274.
[9]National solar radiance database
http://rredc.nrel.gov/solar/old_data/nsrd
DERs
outputs
PV-DG-BESS PV-DG DG-BESS
Total installation cost
(Rs)
10016099 8442068 7011264
Fuel Consumption
(Gallons)
101.2842 140.5393 352.5071
Total Fuel cost (Rs) 14969.77 20785.903 52136.1525
TotalAnnual Cost(Rs) 10031068.77 8462853 7063400
NO
X
Emitted (Pounds) 12.2167 16.9630 42.5476
CO
2
Emitted (Pounds) 1221.663 1696.30935 4254.7607
PM Emitted (Grams) 24.165 33.905 84.1610
Proceeding of National Seminar on Emerging Trends in Distributed Generation

33

[10]G. Kats, The Costs and Financial
Benets of Green Buildings,
Californias Sustainable Building Task
Force, 2003.

Proceeding of National Seminar on Emerging Trends in Distributed Generation

34

A Topology Survey of Doubly-Fed
Induction Generators for Wind Turbines

Rishu Goel
1
Amit Patel
2
Kamal Singh
3

RGGI,Meerut RGGI,Meerut RGGI,Meerut
rishugoel24@gmail.com amitpatel1287@gmail.com kamalsingh32@gmail.com


Abstract- By the use of doubly fed induction
generator we can efficiently use variable speed wind
turbine with proper pitch control. In this paper, we
have studied how to minimize the magnetizing losses
using power electronics equipment based doubly fed
induction generator, on account of which it
consumes only a fraction of total power and thereby
increases the electrical energy as well. For this we
have studied two methods, first- short circuiting
stator and transmit all the wind power to the
convertor and the second is maintaining connections
of stator as -connected at high wind speeds and Y-
connected at low wind speed. The dissect of this
approach is that we get fairly low rotational speed
which can be compensated by using gear box or by
pole pair of the generator. This paper deals with the
review of the progress made in the area of doubly-fed
induction generator (DFIG) for wind turbines till
date.


I. INTRODUCTION

Wind turbines (WTs) can either operate at fixed
speed or variable speed. For a fixed speed wind
turbine the generator is directly connected to the
electrical grid. For a variable speed wind turbine
the generator is controlled by power electronic
equipment. There are several reasons for using
variable-speed operation of wind turbines; among
those are possibilities to reduce stresses of the
mechanical structure, acoustic noise reduction and
the Possibility to control active and reactive
power [1]. Most of the major wind turbine
manufactures are developing new larger wind
turbines in the 3-to-5-MW range [2]. These large
wind turbines are all based on variable-speed
operation with pitch control using a direct driven
synchronous generator without gearbox or a
doubly-fed induction generator (DFIG). Fixed-
speed induction generators with stall control are
regarded as unfeasible [2] for these large wind
turbines. Today, doubly-fed induction generators
are commonly used by the wind turbine industry
for larger wind turbines. The major advantage of
the doubly-fed induction generator, which has
made it popular, is that the power electronic
equipment only has to handle a fraction (2030%)
of the total system power [3]. This means that the
losses in the power electronic equipment can be
reduced in comparison to power electronic
equipment that has to handle the total system
power as for a direct-driven synchronous
generator, apart from the cost saving of using a
smaller converter.
According to the energy production can be
increased by 26% for a variable-speed wind
turbine in comparison to a fixed-speed wind
turbine, while in [4] it is stated that the increase in
energy can be 39%. In [5] it is shown that the gain
in energy generation of the Variable-speed wind
turbine compared to the most simple fixed-speed
wind turbine can vary between 328% depending
on the site conditions and design parameters.
Factors such as speed control of variable-speed
WTs, blade design, what kind of power that
should be used as a common basis for
comparison, selection of maximum speed of the
WT, selected blade profile, missing facts
regarding the base assumptions etc, affect the
outcome of the investigations. There is thus a
need to clarify what kind of energy capture gain
there could be when using a DFIG WT, both
compared to another variable-speed WT and
towards a traditional fixed-speed WT.
Proceeding of National Seminar on Emerging Trends in Distributed Generation

35

Today, the DFIG WT will be disconnected from
the grid when large voltage sags appear in the
grid. After the DFIG WT has been disconnected,
it takes some time before the turbine is
reconnected to the grid. This means that new WTs
have to ride through these voltage sags. The DFIG
system, of today, has a crowbar in the rotor
circuit, which at large grid disturbances has to
short circuit the rotor circuit in order to protect the
converter. This leads to that the turbine must be
disconnected from the grid, after large voltage
sag.

II. THEORY

The main theoretical aspect is the analysis of the
DFIG for a WT application both during steady-
state operation and transient operation. The main
contribution is dynamic and steady-state analysis
of the DFIG, with details being as follows:

WIND TURBINE SYSTEMS
Wind turbines can operate with either fixed speed
(actually within a speed range about 1 %) or
variable speed. For fixed-speed wind turbines, the
generator (induction generator) is di- rectly
connected to the grid. Since the speed is almost
fixed to the grid frequency, and most certainly not
controllable, it is not possible to store the
turbulence of the wind in form of rotational
energy.

Fig.1. Typical characteristic for a variable-speed wind
turbine.
a) Rotor speed as a function of wind speed.
b) Mechanical power as a function of wind speed.

Therefore, for a fixed-speed system the turbulence
of the wind will result in power variations, and
thus affect the power quality of the grid [6]. For a
variable-speed wind turbine the generator is
controlled by power electronic equipment, which
makes it possible to control the rotor speed. In this
way the power fluctuations caused by wind
variations can be more or less absorbed by
changing the rotor speed [7] and thus power
variations originating from the wind conversion
and the drive train can be reduced. Hence, the
power quality impact caused by the wind turbine
can be improved compared to a fixed-speed
turbine [8].The rotational speed of a wind turbine
is fairly low and must therefore be adjusted to the
electrical frequency. This can be done in two
ways: with a gearbox or with the number of pole
pairs of the generator. The number of pole pairs
sets the mechanical speed of the generator with
respect to the electrical frequency and the gearbox
adjusts the rotor speed of the turbine to the
mechanical speed of the generator.

There are four types of wind turbine systems as:
1. Fixed-speed wind turbine with an induction
generator.
2. Variable-speed wind turbine equipped with a
cage-bar induction generator or synchronous
Generator.
3. Variable-speed wind turbine equipped with
multiple-pole synchronous generator or Multiple-
pole permanent-magnet synchronous generator.
4. Variable-speed wind turbine equipped with a
doubly-fed induction generator.
There are also other existing wind turbine
concepts; a description of some of these
systems can be found in [9].

FIXED-SPEED WIND TURBINE
For the fixed-speed wind turbine the induction
generator is directly connected to the electrical
grid according to Fig. 2.4. The rotor speed of the
fixed-speed wind turbine is in principle
Proceeding of National Seminar on Emerging Trends in Distributed Generation

36

Fig. 2. Fixed-speed wind turbine with an induction
generator.

determined by a gearbox and the pole-pair number
of the generator. The fixed-speed wind turbine
system has often two fixed speeds. This is
accomplished by using two generators with
different ratings and pole pairs, or it can be a
generator with two windings having different
ratings and pole pairs. This leads to increased
aerodynamic capture as well as reduced
magnetizing losses at low wind speeds. This
system (one or two-speed) was the conventional
concept used by many Danish manufacturers in
the 1980s and 1990s [9].

VARIABLE-SPEED WIND TURBINE
The system presented in Fig.3. consists of a wind
turbine equipped with a converter connected to
the stator of the generator. The generator could
either be a cage-bar induction
Fig.3. Variable-speed wind turbine with a
synchronous/induction generator.

generator or a synchronous generator. The
gearbox is designed so that maximum rotor speed
corresponds to rated speed of the generator.
Synchronous generators or permanent- magnet
synchronous generators can be designed with
multiple poles which imply that there is no need
for a gearbox, see Fig.4. Since this full-power
converter/generator system is commonly used for
other applications, one advantage with this system
is its well-developed and robust control [7].
Fig.4. Variable-speed direct-driven (gear-less) wind
turbine with a synchronous generator

Fig.5. means that the stator is directly connected
to the grid while the rotor winding is connected
via slip rings to a converter. This system have
recently become very popular as

Fig.5. Variable-speed wind turbine with a doubly-fed
induction generator (DFIG).

generators for variable-speed wind turbines. This
is mainly due to the fact that the power electronic
converter only has to handle a fraction (2030%)
of the total power [9]. Therefore, the losses in the
power electronic converter can be reduced,
compared to a system where the converter has to
handle the total power. In addition, the cost of the
converter becomes lower. There exists a variant of
the DFIG method that uses controllable external
rotor resistances (compare to slip power
recovery). Some of the drawbacks of this method
are that energy is unnecessary dissipated in the
external rotor resistances and that it is not possible
to control the reactive power.

DOUBLY-FED INDUCTION GENERATOR
SYSTEMS FORWIND TURBINES

For variable-speed systems with limited variable-
speed range, e.g. 30% of synchronous speed, the
Proceeding of National Seminar on Emerging Trends in Distributed Generation

37

DFIG can be an interesting solution. As
mentioned earlier the reason for this is that power
electronic converter only has to handle a fraction
(2030%) of the total power [9]. This means that
the losses in the power electronic converter can be
reduced compared to a system where the
converter has to handle the total power. In
addition, the cost of the converter becomes lower.
The stator circuit of the DFIG is connected to the
grid while the rotor circuit is connected to a
converter via slip rings, see Fig.5. Amore detailed
picture

Fig.6. Principle of the doubly-fed induction generator

of the DFIG system with a back-to-back converter
can be seen in Fig.5. The back-to-back converter
consists of two converters, i.e., machine-side
converter and grid-side converter, which are
connected back-to-back. Between the two
converters a dc-link capacitor is placed, as energy
storage, in order to keep the voltage variations (or
ripple) in the dc-link voltage small.

EQUIVALENT CIRCUIT OF THE DOUBLY-
FED INDUCTION GENERATOR

The equivalent circuit of the doubly-fed induction
generator, with inclusion of the magnetizing
losses, can be seen in Fig.7. This equivalent
circuit is valid for one equivalent Y phase and for
steady-state calculations. In the case that the
DFIG is -connected the machine can still be
represented by this equivalent Y representation. In
this section the j-method is adopted for
calculations. Note, that if the rotor voltage, Vr, in
Fig.7. is short circuited
Fig.7. Equivalent circuit of the DFIG.

the equivalent circuit for the DFIG becomes the
ordinary equivalent circuit for a cage-bar
induction machine. Applying Kirchhoffs voltage
law to the circuit in Fig.7., yields.





TABLE I
Typical parameter of the induction machine in
P.U

Small
Machine
4KW
Medium
Machine
100KW
Large
Machine
800KW
Stator and
Rotor resistance
Rs &
Rr
0.04 0.01 0.01
Leakage
inductance
Ls+Lr
=Lo
0.2 0.3 0.3
Magnetizing
inductance
Lm=
L
2.0 3.5 4.0


POWER FLOW
In order to investigate the power flow of the DFIG
system the apparent power that is fed to the DFIG
via the stator and rotor circuit has to be
determined. The stator apparent power Ss
and rotor apparent power Sr can be found as

Proceeding of National Seminar on Emerging Trends in Distributed Generation

38

which can be rewritten, using the expressions in
the previous section, as

Now the stator and rotor power can be determined
as

where the approximations are because the
resistive losses and the magnetizing losses have
been neglected. From the above equations the
mechanical power produced by the DFIG can be
determined as the sum of the stator and rotor
power. Then, by dividing Pmech with mechanical
rotor speed, m=r/np, the produced
electromechanical torque can be found. Moreover,
this means that Ps Pmech / (1 s) and Pr
sPmech / (1 s). In Fig.8, the power flow of a
lossless DFIG system can be seen.

Fig.8. Power flow of a lossless DFIG system.

The mechanical power divides between the stator
and rotor circuits and that it is dependent on the
slip. Moreover, the rotor power is approximately
minus the stator power times the slip: Pr sPs.
Therefore, as mentioned earlier, the rotor
converter can be rated as a fraction of the rated
power of the DFIG if the maximum slip is low.

METHODS TO REDUCE THE MAGNETIZING
LOSSES FOR THE DFIG
There are two methods to lower the magnetizing
losses of the DFIG.

1. Short-circuiting the stator of the induction
generator at low
wind speeds, and transmitting all the turbine
power through the converter. This set-up is
referred to as the short-circuited DFIG.
2. Having the stator -connected at high wind
speeds and Y-connected at low wind speeds;
referred to as the Y--connected DFIG.

SHORT-CIRCUITED DFIG
Fig.8. shows a diagram of the short-circuited
DFIG. In the figure two switches can be seen.
Switch S2 is used to disconnect the turbine from
the grid and switch S1 is then used to short-circuit
the stator of the DFIG. Now the turbine is
operated as a cage-bar induction machine, except
that the converter is connected to the rotor circuit
instead of the stator circuit. This means, that in
this operating condition, the DFIG can be
controlled in a similar way as an ordinary cage-
bar induction generator. For instance, at low wind
speeds the flux level in the generator can be
lowered.


Fig.9. Principle of the short-circuited DFIG.

Fig.11. presents a set-up of the Y--connected
DFIG. As shown in the figure, a device for
changing between Y and connection has been
inserted in the stator circuit. Before a change from
Y to connection (or vice versa) the power of the
turbine is reduced to zero and the switch S1
disconnects the stator circuit from the grid. Then
the stator circuit is connected in (or vice versa)
and the turbine is synchronized to the grid.
Proceeding of National Seminar on Emerging Trends in Distributed Generation

39

Fig.10. Principle of the Y--connected DFIG.





CONCLUSION

In this paper, it has been found that there is a
possibility to gain a few percentage units in
energy efficiency for a doubly-fed induction
generator system compared to a cage-bar
induction generator, controlled by a full-power
converter. It was found that the method utilizing a
Y- switch in the stator circuit had the largest
gain in energy of the two investigated methods.
Finally, it was found that the converter losses of
the DFIG can be reduced if the available rotor-
speed range is made smaller. However, the
aerodynamic capture of the wind turbine is
reduced with a smaller rotor-speed range. This
means that the increased aerodynamic capture that
can be achieved by a larger converter has, thus, a
greater impact than the increased converter losses.
Worth stressing is that the main reason for using a
variable-speed turbine instead of a fixed-speed
turbine is not the energy efficiency, instead it is
the possibility of lowering the mechanical stresses
and also improving the power quality. It has been
shown that by using grid-flux orientation the
stability and the damping of the system is
independent of the rotor current, in contrast to
stator-flux orientation. This implies that for a
grid-flux-oriented system, it is possible to
magnetize the DFIG entirely from the rotor circuit
without reducing the damping of the system.
Moreover, for the grid-flux-oriented system, it is
possible to produce as much reactive power as
possible and still have a stable system with the
same damping from a stability point of view.

FUTURE WORK
The following topics are proposed for future:

Development of a unified estimator for both
stator-flux and grid-flux field orientation. Since
the flux dynamics are poorly damped, a desired
property would be a relatively good damping of
the flux dynamics.
More thorough dynamic, steady-state, and
experimental analysis of the voltage sag ride-
through systems for the DFIG wind turbine. In
addition, it is essential to study the hardware
configuration of the voltage sag ride-through
systems.
Development of mathematical models of wind
turbines with voltage sag ride-through properties.
Experimental evaluation of the developed models
with commercial wind turbines with voltage sag
ride-through properties.
Derivation of analytical expressions for the
response of the DFIG to unsymmetrical voltage
sags.

REFERENCES

[1] T. Burton, D. Sharpe, N. Jenkins, and E.
Bossanyi, Wind Energy Handbook. John
Wiley & Sons, Ltd, 2001.

[2] T. Ackermann and L. Soder, An overview of
wind energy-status 2002, Renew. Sustain.
Energy Rev., vol. 6, no. 12, pp. 67128,
Feb./Apr. 2002.

[3] L. H. Hansen, L. Helle, F. Blaabjerg, E.
Ritchie, S. Munk-Nielsen, H. Bindner, P.
Srensen, and B. Bak-Jensen, Conceptual
survey of generators and power electronics for
wind turbines, Ris National Laboratory,
Roskilde, Denmark, Tech. Rep. Ris-R-
1205(EN), ISBN 87- 550-2743-8, Dec. 2001.
Proceeding of National Seminar on Emerging Trends in Distributed Generation

40


[4] D. S. Zinger and E. Muljadi, Annualized
wind energy improvement using Variable
speeds, IEEE Trans. Ind. Applicat., vol. 33,
no. 6, pp. 1444 1447, Nov./Dec. 1997.

[5] P. Mutschler and R. Hoffmann, Comparison
of wind turbines regarding their energy
generation, in Proc. 2002 IEEE 33rd Annual
IEEE Power Electronics Specialists
Conference, vol. 1, Cairns, Qld., Australia,
June, 2327, 2002, pp. 611.

[6] M. P. Papadopoulos, S. A. Papathanassiou, N.
G. Boulaxis, and S. T.Tentzerakis,Voltage
quality change by grid-connected wind
turbines, in European Wind Energy
Conference, Nice, France, 1999, pp. 783785.

[7] T. Petru and T. Thiringer, Active flicker
reduction from a sea-based 2.5
MW wind park connected to a weak grid, in
Proc. Nordic Workshop on Power and
Industrial Electronics, Aalborg, Denmark,
June, 1316, 2002.

[8] A. Larsson, P. Srensen, and F. Santjer, Grid
impact of variable speed wind turbines,in
Proc. of European Wind Energy Conference
and Exhibition (EWEC99), Nice, France,
Mar., 15, 1999.

[9] L. H. Hansen, L. Helle, F. Blaabjerg, E.
Ritchie, S. Munk-Nielsen, H. Bindner, P.
Srensen, and B. Bak-Jensen, Conceptual
survey of generators and power electronics for
wind turbines, Ris National
Laboratory, Roskilde, Denmark, Tech. Rep.
Ris-R-1205(EN), ISBN 87
550-2743-8, Dec. 2001.
Proceeding of National Seminar on Emerging Trends in Distributed Generation

41

Modelling and Simulation of Single Shaft Micro
Turbine in Distributed Generation System
Ajit Kumar Sharma
1
Deepak Kumar Thakur
2

NIEC, New Delhi NIEC, New Delhi
sharmaajit01@gmail.com deepak.thakur33@gmail.com

Abstract - Distributed generation (DG) is
going to become more important in the future
generating system. Utility restructuring
technology evolution, public environmental
policy, and expending power demand are
providing the opportunity for micoturbine and
fuel cells to become important energy
resources. This paper deals with the
performance of a microturbine connected to a
LV grid during different transient events in the
network. The study is based on the dynamic
modeling of a microturbine and the simulation
of different events in the Matlab/Simulink
environment.
I.INTRODUCTION

A study by the Electric Power Research
Institute (EPRI) indicates that by 2010, 25%
of the new generationwill be distributed; a
study by the Natural Gas Foundation
concluded that this figure could be as highas
30% [1]. The European Renewable Energy
Study (TERES), commissioned by the
European Union (EU)to examine the
feasibility of EU CO2-reduction goalsand
the EU renewable energy targets, found
thataround 60% of the renewable energy
potential that can be utilized until 2010 can
be categorized as decentralized power
sources [2].
Traditional nonutility-generated power
sources, such as emergency and standby
power systems, have minimal interaction
with the electric power system (EPS). As
distributed generation (DG) hardware
becomes more reliable and economically
feasible, there is an increasing trend to
interconnect those DG units with existing
utilities to meet various energy needs and
offer more service possibilities to customers
and the host EPS. Among these possibilities
are:
1. Standby/backup power to improve the
availability and reliability of electric
power.
2. Peak load shaving.
3. Combined heat and power.
4. Sales of power back to utilities or other
users.
5. Renewable energy
6. Power quality, such as reactive power
compensation and voltage support
7. Dynamic stability support.

Distributed generation is a new approach in
the electricity industry and as the analysis of
the relevant literature has shown there is no
generally accepted definition of distributed
generation[3]
For example, Anglo-American countries
often use the term embedded generation,
North American countries the term
dispersed generation, and in Europe and
parts of Asia, the term decentralized
generation is applied for the same type of
generation.And because of different
government regulations, the definition of the
rating of each distributed power station also
varies between countries;several country-
specific strict definitions are available for
DG all over the world, depending upon plant
rating, generation voltage level, etc.
However, the impact of DG on the power
system is normally the same irrespective of
these different definitions. According to
several research studies,
Proceeding of National Seminar on Emerging Trends in Distributed Generation

42

Some universally accepted common
attributes of DG are as follows:
It is not centrally planned by the power
utility, nor centrally dispatched.
It is normally smaller than 50 MW.
The power sources or distributed
generators are usually connected to the
distribution system, which are typically
of voltages 230/415 V up to 145 kV.

II.DISTRIBUTED ENERGY
RESOURCES

Renewable or non-conventional
electricity generators employed in DG
systems or Microgrids are known as
distributed energy resources (DERs) or
micro sources. The main advantage of
Microgrids is to combine all benefits of non-
conventional/ renewable low-carbon
generation technologies and high-efficiency
combined heat and power (CHP) systems
the CHP-based DERs facilitate energy
efficientpower generation by capturing
waste heat while low-carbon DERs help to
reduce environmental pollution by
generating clean powerProspective DERs
range from micro-CHP systems based on
Stirling engines, fuel cells and microturbines
to renewables like solar photovoltaic (PV)
systems, wind energy conversion systems
(WECS) and small-scale hydroelectric
generation CHP generation systems are most
promising as DERs for Micro grid
applications.
Their main advantage is energy-efficient
power generation by judicious utilization of
waste heat. One of the main energy
producers in CHP system is micro turbine.

III.MICROTURBINE

Microturbines are small single staged
combustion turbines that generate between
25 kw to 500 kw of power although their
size varies.
Microturbine is based on technology as a jet
engine but integrates patented air bearing
and innovative recuperator technology with
state of art electronics. The result is a
versatile, reliable, environmentally
beneficial solution for generations that is
virtually maintenance free.
The designs for micro turbine are composed
in five parts:

1. TURBINE
There is two kinds of turbines, high speed
single shaft turbine (fig 1) and split- shaft
turbine (fig 2). Single shaft unit is high
speed synchronous machine with
compressor and turbine mounted on the
same shaft. For these machine, the turbine
speed range from 50,000 rpm to 120,000
rpm. On the contrary, the split shaft design
uses a power turbine rotating at 3,000 rpm
and a conventional generator connected via
a gearbox for speed multiplication. The
single shaft turbine uses permanent magnet
synchronous generator (PMSG) or
asynchronous generator for power
generation.

2. ALTERNATOR OR
CONVENTIONAL MACHINE
In the single shaft design, an alternator is
directly coupled to single shaft turbine. The
rotor is either a two or four pole permanent
magnet design, and the stator is a
conventional copper wound design. In split
shaft design a conventional induction or
synchronous machine is mounted on power
turbine via a gear box.



Fig 1: Single shaft microturbine
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43



Fig 2: Split shaft microturbine
3. POWER ELECTRONICS
In single shaft design of alternator to
generate a very high frequency. Three phase
signal ranging from 1500 to 4000 Hz. The
high frequency voltage is first rectified and
then inverted to a normal 50 Hz voltage. In
split phase turbine design power inverters
are not needed.

4. RECUPERATOR
The recuperator is a heat exchanger which
transfers heat from the exhaust gas to the
discharge air before it enters the combustor.
This reduces the amount of fuel required to
raise the discharge air temperature to that
required by turbine.

5. CONTROL SYSTEM
Control system is included full control of
turbine.

TURBINE MODEL DESCRIPTION
Microturbinegenerator (MTG) system
consisting of a microturbine (MT) coupled
with a synchronous generator. The model is
then used to perform the load-following
analysis of the MTG system in both stand-
alone and grid-connected modes.
The MTG is analysed for slow dynamic
performance of the system and not for
transient behaviors. Therefore modeling is
based on the following assumptions:
(1) System operation is under normal
operating conditions. Start-up, shutdown and
fast dynamics (faults, loss of power, etc.) are
not included.



Fig3 : Power works microturbine


(2) The MTs electromechanical behavior is
of main interest. The recuperatoris not
included in the model as it is only a heat
exchanger to raise engine efficiency. Also,
due to the recuperators very slow response
time, it has little influence on the timescale
of dynamic simulations.
(3)The temperature and acceleration controls
have been omitted in the turbine model as
they have no impact on the normal operating
conditions. Temperature control acts as an
upper output power limit. At normal
operating conditions, the turbine
temperature remains steady, and hence, it
can be omitted from the model. Acceleration
control is used primarily during turbine
start-up to limit the rate of the rotor
acceleration prior to reaching operating
speed. If the operating speed of the system is
closer to its rated speed, the acceleration
control could be eliminated in the modeling.
(4) Governor model has been omitted as the
MT does not use any governor.

IV. MODELING OF MICROTUBINE
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44


Single shaft micro turbine [8] operates in
the thermodynamics cycle known as a
Brayten cycle. The produce rotating
mechanical power in the turbine turns both
the compressor and generator. This
generator requires high frequency (about 1.6
kHz). Micro turbine is generally equipped
with controls that allow the unit to be
operated either in parallel with, or
independent of grid. The block diagram of
the single shaft gas turbine isshown in Fig.
The model includes the temperaturecontrol,
fuel system, turbine dynamic, speed
governorand acceleration control blocks.
The output of the speedcontrol, temperature
control, and acceleration control areall
inputs of a low value select (LVS) block,
whoseoutput is the input of fuel system.



TURBINE MODEL DESCRIPTION
Microturbinegenerator (MTG) system
consisting of a microturbine (MT) coupled
with a synchronous generator. The model is
then used to perform the load-following
analysis of the MTG system in both stand-
alone and grid-connected modes.
The MTG is analysed for slow dynamic
performance of the system and not for
transient behaviors. Therefore modeling is
based on the following assumptions:
(1) System operation is under normal
operating conditions. Start-up, shutdown and
fast dynamics (faults, loss of power, etc.) are
not include


Fig 5 : Block diagram of speed and acceleration
control


As shownabove in Fig, the speed governor
controller has been modeled by using the
lead-lag transfer function, where W is the
controller gain, X (Y) is the governor lead
(lag) time constant, and Z is a constant
representing the governor droop or
isochronous modes. Acceleration control is
used during turbine startup to limit the rate
of the rotor acceleration. If the operating
speed of the system is close to its rated
speed, the acceleration control system could
be eliminated [5]

FUEL CONTROL
The fuel control system scheme is shown in
Fig 6. It consists of series blocks of the
valve positioner and flow dynamic.

E1 =
o
bs + c
d
And for the flow dynamic transfer function,

W1 =
1
Is + 1
E
Proceeding of National Seminar on Emerging Trends in Distributed Generation

45




Fig 6: Block diagram of fuel system

Where, ais the valve positioner gain, band
T
f
are thevalve positioner and fuel system
time constant. cis a constant. f
d
and E
1
are the
input and output of the valve positioner and
W
f
is the fuel demand signal in per unit.

COMPRESSOR-TURBINE
The gas turbine block diagram is shown in
figure 7. The signals to the gas turbine are
the fuel flow, W
f
(signal from the fuel
control) and the speed deviation, N. The
output signals are the turbine torque. The
gas turbine dynamic transfer function is
expressed by

Wf 2 =
1
ICs + 1
w

Where, T
CD
is the gas turbine dynamic time
constant.
The torque characteristic of the single shaft
microturbine is the function of the following
equation

f
2
= a
f2
+ b
f2
.W
f2
+ c
f2
.N

Where, f
2
is a function whose inputs are fuel
flow and turbine speed.




Fig 7: Block diagram of compressor-turbine


TEMPERATURE CONTROL
The temperature controller block diagram is
shown in fig 8. The input temperature
controller is the fuel flow and turbine speed
and the output is temperature control signal
to the LVS. The fuel burned in combustor
results in turbine torque and in exhaust gas
temperature.
The exhaust temperature characteristic of the
single shaft microturbine equation,

f
1
= T
R
a f
1
. (1W
f 1
)+ bf
2
.N

Where,f
1
is a function whose inputs are fuel
flow and turbine speed. the exhaust
temperature is measured using a set of
thermocouples incorporating radiation
shields.
The output of the thermocouple is compared
with a reference value. In below fig,K
4
and
K
5
are constant in radiation shield transfer
function. T3 and T4 are the timeconstant of
the radiation shield and thermocouple
transfer function respectively. T
5
and T
t
are
the time constant of the temperature control
transfer function.When the temperature
control output signal becomes lower than the
speed controller output, the former value
will pass through the LVS to limit the
turbines output and the turbine operates on
temperature control mode.


Proceeding of National Seminar on Emerging Trends in Distributed Generation

46



Fig 8: Block diagram of temperature control

V.PERMANENT MAGNET
SYNCHRONOUSGENERATOR
MODEL

The electrical generator is a high speed
permanent magnet synchronous generator
(PMSG) and it has been modelled using a
5th order model in the d-q reference frame
[6]. The three equations of the electrical part
assume sinusoidal flux:

The other two equations of the model are the
mechanical equations of a rotating single
shaft with the damping (friction factor)
neglected:


The parameters of the model are shown in
Table 1. They have been obtained from the
manufacturer data [7] and from the
experimental tests.

Table 1 - PMSG main parameters



VI. POWER ELECTRONIC
INTERFACE

Power Interface unit consist of a
rectifier-inverter system with DC link. It is a
general configuration of power electronic
interface in the MTU. The high frequency
electric power of PSMG must be converted
to DC, inverted back to 60 or 50 Hz AC and
filtered to reduce harmonic distortion. An
IGBT based PWM inverter is used with a 2
kHz carrier frequency. The inverter injects
AC power from DC link of the MTU to the
AC distribution system [9-10]. The MT
units are connected in parallel to achieve the
required total system capacity and provide a
level of redundancy. Grid connected mode
(on-grid mode) allows the MTU to operate
parallel to the grid, providing base loading
and peak shaving and grid support. Stand
alone mode (offgrid mode) allows the MTU
to operate completely isolated from the grid.
In dual mode, the MTU can switch between
these two modes automatically. Two
different control strategies have been
considered [11-12]
Proceeding of National Seminar on Emerging Trends in Distributed Generation

47

1. P-Q control strategy for on-grid operation
mode
2. V-f control strategy for off-grid operation
mode.



Fig 9: Power Electronics Interface

P-Q CONTROL
In this controlling mode, the inverter must
regulate the DClink voltage at 0.75 kV, and
control the active and reactive powers
injected into the AC grid, considering theset
points, P
ref
and Q
ref
. These set points can be
chosen by the customer or remote power
management units. The P-Q control strategy
is shown in Fig. phase lock loop (PLL) is
used to synchronize the PWM inverter with
the grid.



Fig 10. P-Q control

The reference currents are as follows:

The zero-sequence current in the zero
coordinatereference is i
o
.
The three-phase current references to be fed
into the Hysteresis Current Control (HCC)
scheme by the following equation:
Proceeding of National Seminar on Emerging Trends in Distributed Generation

48




V F CONTROL
In this control mode, MTU should supply
AC loads, such as nonlinear and unbalanced
loads. Below fig shows the control scheme,
which regulates the voltage and frequency of
the islanded operation mode. In the design
of the V-f controller, the frequency is
obtained by a Phase Lock Loop (PLL),
which measures the AC voltage of the AC
distribution network. In this case, theload
voltage is regulated at desired voltage
amplitude and phase by a PI controller using
a b c to d q 0 and via
laplacetransformations. LC filter is used to
eliminate switching harmonics.
As shown in Fig. the reference voltage
calculation box calculates the reference
voltages. The load voltages are detected and
then transformed into synchronous d q 0
references.




Fig 11: V-f Control



The load voltage should be sinusoidal with
constantamplitude and frequency. So, the
expected load voltages in d q 0 reference
frame have only one value, The reference
voltage is calculated, as follows,


Proceeding of National Seminar on Emerging Trends in Distributed Generation

49


V
ldqo
voltages afterpassing through a PI block
are transformed into a b c synchronous
reference frame, in order to obtain the
reference voltage for the PWM voltage
control system.

VII. CASE STUDIES

Following cases have been simulated in
MATLAB Simulink. Total simulation time
for each case is 300 seconds for off-
gridmode and 500 seconds for grid-
connected mode. The output powers and
loads are expressed as per unit (p.u.) with
150 kVA base. The speed responses are also
expressed in per unit with reference to a
base speed of 3,600 rpm.

OFF GRID MODE
Case 1:
In this case, the MT unit is initially running
with a load of 30 kW (0.2 p.u.) applied to
the generator bus up to t = 150 seconds.
Another step load of 90 kW (0.6 p.u.) is
applied at t = 150 seconds. The load on the
MTU is shown in Figure 12.


Figure 12: Load on MTU



Figure13 (a&b) shows the mechanical
power output of MT. It is observed that MT
power output takes about 90 seconds to
match the load demand. MTG speed plotted
in Figure shows that MTG system takes
almost the same time to reach the new
steady-state speed at the new load.




Figure 13(a) MT mechanical power;
(b) MTG speed

The electrical power output of the generator
is shown in Figure 14.It is seen to closely
follow the step change in load demand.
Proceeding of National Seminar on Emerging Trends in Distributed Generation

50


Figure 14: Generator electrical power

Case 2
In this case, a speed control has been
incorporated in the stand-alone MTG system
to maintain the speed constant at 1 p.u. The
MTG is running initially at no load. At time
t = 50 seconds a load of 0.2 p.u. is applied
and at t = 200 seconds another load of 0.6
p.u. is applied. The mechanical power
output of the MT shown in Figure 15
indicates that the MT follows the load
demand with a time lag of approximately 50
seconds.


Figure 15: MT mechanical power




The generator power output shown in Figure
16. indicates that it closely follows the load
as in Case 1. The plot of MTG speed shown
in Figure17indicates that speed reaches 1
p.u. and is maintained at that level at the
new load.


Figure 16: Generator electrical power


Figure 17: MTG speed

GRID-CONNECTED MODE
Case 1
In this mode, the MTG system is connected
to the utility grid. Initially, both MTGsystem
and grid are running separately at no load.
At t = 5 seconds, loads of 0.2 p.u. and 160
kW (1.07 p.u.) are applied separately to the
MTG and the grid, respectively. At t = 125
seconds another load of 0.6 p.u. is applied to
MTG. At t = 250 seconds, the MTG is
interconnected with the grid and at
Proceeding of National Seminar on Emerging Trends in Distributed Generation

51

t = 375 seconds it is again disconnected
from the grid. The MT mechanical power
output and the generator electrical power
output are shown in Figures 18 &
19,respectively.


Figure 18: MT mechanical power



Figure 19: Generator electrical power

The responses show that load on MTG
reduces to some extent due to grid support
when it is grid-connected from t = 250 to
375 seconds. When standalone, theMTGis
taking up its entire load of 0.8 p.u

Figure 20: Generator voltage

Figure20, shows that thegenerator voltage
dips from 1 p.u. at t = 250 seconds during
grid-connection but again settles down to 1
p.u. Again, during grid-disconnection
generator voltage momentarily shoots up
above 1 p.u. but again settles down to 1 p.u.
The variation of MTG speed shown in
Figure indicates that speed settles down to 1
p.u. after application of load and after
connection and disconnection events.
generator voltage dips from 1 p.u. at t = 250
seconds during grid-connection but again
settles down to 1 p.u. Again, during grid-
disconnection generator voltage
momentarily shoots up above 1 p.u. but
again settles down to 1 p.u. The variation of
MTG speed shown in Figure indicates that
speed settles down to 1 p.u. after application
of load and after connection and
disconnection events.
The plot of grid power in Figure 21, shows
that when MTG is connected to the grid at t
= 250 seconds, it shares a load of about 12
kW (0.08 p.u.) from the MTG. This is also
evident from Figures 21 & 22,that show a
similar 0.08 p.u. reduction in MT
mechanical power and generator electrical
power, respectively. The shared load is
again transferred to MTG as it is
disconnected at t = 375 seconds.

Proceeding of National Seminar on Emerging Trends in Distributed Generation

52


Figure 21: MTG speed



Figure 22: Grid power


CONCLUSION

The modeling of a single-shaft MTU
suitable for off-grid (isolated) and on-grid
operation modes is presented in this paper.
The simulation of on-grid and off-grid
operation modes shows that the presented
model is suitable for dynamic studies.

REFERENCES

[1]R.H. Lasseter, Control of distributed
resources, in: L H. Fink, C.D. Vournas
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[2]M. Grubb, Renewable Energy Strategies
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[3]CIRED, Dispersed Generation;
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[4]Hydro-Qubec, SimPowerSystems 5
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See also:
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[5]S. Guda, C. Wang, M. Nehrir, "Modeling
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[8]R.H. Lasseter, Control of distributed
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Greece,August 1998, pp. 323_/330.
[9]R. Lasseter, "Dynamic Models for
Microturbines and Fuel Cells," IEEE
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[10] Al-Hinai, A. Feliachi,"Dynamic Model
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Massucco, S. Spelta, F. Tivegna, "A
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[13]Al-Hinai, A.; Schoder, K.; Feliachi, A.,
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[16]T. E. Hoff, National Renewable Energy
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Proceeding of National Seminar on Emerging Trends in Distributed Generation

54

A Review on Modeling & Analysis of Hybrid Fuel
Cell Stack Model for Distributed Power
Generation

Anjali Sharma
1
Nidhi Joshi
2
Yamini Vashishth
3
Amit Yadav
4

RKGITW, Ghaziabad RKGITW, Ghaziabad RKGITW, Ghaziabad RKGITW, Ghaziabad
liferockxxx@gmail.com sweetnj15@gmail.com yamini.vashishth@yahoo.co.in ideal.amit@gmail.com


Abstract - As the worlds energy use continues to
grow; the development of clean distributed
generation becomes increasingly important. Fuel
cells which run on hydrogen, the most abundant
element on Earth are an environmentally friendly
renewable energy source that can be used in a wide
range of applications and are ideal for distributed
power applications [5].This paper explains the Role
of Fuel Cell in Power system in which stress has
been given on the most promising applications such
as distributed power generation. In this paper a
Hybrid stack model proposed by Xin Kong [2] which
is a combination of empirical & an electrical model
of fuel cell has been studied simulated by using
MATLAB/SIMULINK. The empirical cell model has
been used in past to represent the steady-state
behavior, whereas, the circuit equivalent of the cell
was used for dynamic behavior & Hybrid model
gives a very good combination of both the
characteristics. Due to low operating temperature
(801000C), high power density, smaller size & rapid
start up, PEM fuel cells are best suited for
Residential applications [5], so it is a chosen FC for
this paper.

Keywords - PEM Fuel Cell, Steady State & Dynamic
behavior of Fuel cell.

I. INTRODUCTION

The history of fuel cells dates back to 1839
when Sir William Grove, a British Scientist,
discovered the technology. However, it was not
until the mid 1900s when fuel cells began to
make a name for themselves in the space industry
Shortly after that, several private companies
became interested in fuel cell technology, but the
economic and technological barriers were
difficult to overcome. A fuel cell is a device for
directly converting the chemical energy of a fuel
into electrical energy in a constant temperature
process. In a typical fuel cell, gaseous fuels are
fed continuously to the anode (negative
electrode) and an oxidant (i.e., oxygen from air)
is fed continuously to the cathode (positive
electrode); the electrochemical reactions take
place at the electrodes to produce an electric
current In many ways the fuel cell is analogous to
a battery, but a battery which is constantly being
recharged with fresh reactants. As well as
offering a high theoretical efficiency, especially
at low temperatures, fuel cells emit low or zero
levels of pollutants. They can run on a wide range
of fuels, ranging from gaseous fuels such as
hydrogen and natural gas to liquid fuels such as
methanol and gasoline [5].
As per the electrolyte used FCs are classified as,
Proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC)-
800C, Alkaline fuel cell (AFC)-1000C,
Phosphoric acid fuel cell (PAFC)-2000C, Molten
carbonate fuel cell (MCFC)- 6500C, Intermediate
temperature solid oxide fuel cell (ITSOFC)-
8000C, Tubular solid oxide fuel cell (TSOFC)-
10000C. Due to low operating temperature (80
1000C), high power density, smaller size & rapid
start up, PEM fuel cells are best suited for
Residential applications so, FC is chosen for this
paper.

II. MODELLING OF PEMFC

Proceeding of National Seminar on Emerging Trends in Distributed Generation

55

PEMFC mainly consists of three components
Fuel processing unit or the reformer, Fuel cell
stack, Power conditioning unit [5].
The purpose of this section is to describe the
chemical and thermodynamic relations governing
fuel cells and how operating conditions affect
their performance. Understanding the impacts of
variables such as temperature, pressure, and gas
constituents on performance allows fuel cell
developers to optimize their design of the
modular units and it allows process engineers to
maximize the performance of systems
applications. A logical first step in understanding
the operation of a fuel cell is to define its ideal
performance. Once the ideal performance is
determined, losses arising from non-ideal
behavior can be calculated and then deducted
from the ideal performance to describe the actual
operation. The actual cell potential is decreased
from its equilibrium potential because of
irreversible losses, as shown in Figure 1. Multiple
phenomena contribute to irreversible losses in an
actual fuel cell. The losses, which are called
polarization, over-potential, or over-voltage,
originate primarily from three sources: 1)
activation polarization, 2) ohmic polarization, and
3) concentration polarization . These losses result
in a cell voltage (V) that is less than its ideal
potential

Figure 1 Polarization Curve

An empirical fuel cell model [3] proposed by
Junbom Kim was shown to fit the experimental V
-i data for PEMFC. The empirical equation is:
Vcell= Vo - R I - b *log(i) - m exp(n * i).
Where Vcell, Vo, R, b , m ,n are empirical
parameters estimated using nonlinear estimation,
while j is fuel cell current density. The excellent
fit of the experiment data to this empirical
equation is demonstrated in [2].
Vcell = Vo - Ri - b * log i - mexp(n * i)
Where Vo, b, R, m and n are still empirical
parameters and can be represented as:
Vo Vo +b *log(i);
R R /Amea (Amea is the active area
of the membrane-electrodes assemblies);
b b
n n
m m*exp(1/Amea)
So for N number of stacks the total stack voltage
is given by,
Vstack = N*(Vo - Ri - b * log i - mexp(n * i))

J.C. Amphlett proposed an equivalent electrical
circuit in [4] which shares the same topology
with the one proposed earlier by Larminie and
Dicks [6]. The circuit is shown in Figure 2, the
open circuit voltage of the fuel cell, Rh models
the immediate ohmic voltage drops. Rcl and Ccl
represent the charge double layer phenomenon.


Figure 2] Electrical circuit model of single fuel cell

III. MODEL WITH COMBINED STEADY STATE
AND DYNAMIC CHARACTERSTICS

Thus it is clear that a fuel cell stack can be
expressed using an empirical model and also as a
circuit model. Both the stack model has a
structure similar to the cell model. However, the
empirical model simulates only the steady state
behavior whereas the circuit model simulates
only the dynamic. So in [2] both the models are
combined to get a hybrid model. Subsequently
we will simulate proposed hybrid fuel cell stack
model and compare the results actual results
given in [2]


Proceeding of National Seminar on Emerging Trends in Distributed Generation

56

IV. SIMULATION OF HYBRID FC STACK
MODEL BY USING MATLAB/SIMULINK

In [2] a 1.2kW fuel cell stack from Ballard
Company is used to verify the steady state &
dynamic performance of proposed stack model
and in this paper this model is verified by using
MATLAB/SIMULINK as shown in figure [2].

V. STEADY-STATE PERFORMANCE OF THE
PROPOSED FUEL CELL STACK MODEL

Figure [3] gives the steady state response of
hybrid stack model given in SIMULINK



X-axis = Stack Current (A)
Y-axis = Stack voltage (V)
Figure 3 Steady-state Response of Simulink model

VI. DYNAMIC PERFORMANCE OF THE
PROPOSED FUEL CELL STACK MODEL

The rest waveforms with different step
changes are used to verify the model dynamic
characteristics. Good correlation between the
experimental results obtained in reference paper
[2] & results of SIMULINK model of Hybrid
stack model can be seen from the fig. 4 to fig. 6


Figure 4 - 8.1A-17.4A-8.1A


Figure 5 - 16.7A-34A-16.7A


Figure 6 - 18.8A-38A-19.2A


CONCLUSION

The proposed model is a good simulation tool
to analyze the fuel cell performance during the
system design stage. A good correlation between
the experimental data and the simulation results
proves the validation of the hybrid model
proposed by Xin Kong. Without complicated
mathematics, the proposed model is simple in

Stack-current



Stack-voltage

0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20
18
20
22
24
26
28
30
32
34
36
38
Stack-current




Stack-voltage
0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20
16
18
20
22
24
26
28
30
32
34
Stack-voltage




Stack-current

0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20
5
10
15
20
25
30
35
Proceeding of National Seminar on Emerging Trends in Distributed Generation

57

evaluating the fuel cell stack steady-state and
dynamic performance.

REFERENCES:

[1] M.Y. El-Sharkh, A.Rehman, M.S. Alam ,
Analysis of Active & Reactive Power
Control of a Stand Alone PEM Fuel Cell
Power Plant, IEEE Transaction on Power
Systems, Vol. 19, No.4,November 2004.
[2] Xin Kong, Ashwin Khambadkone, A
HYBRID Model With Combined Steady
State & Dynamic Characteristics of PEMFC
Fuel Cell Stack, IEEE transaction,2005.
[3] Junbom Kim, Seong Min Lee, Supramaniam
Shrinivasan, Modeling of proton exchange
memberane fuel cell performance with an
emp-irical equation, Journal of the
Electrochemical Society, vol 142,pp. 2670-
2674,1995.
[4] J C Amphlett, R M Baumert, R F Mann, B A
Peppley, A model predicting transient
responses of proton exchange membrane fuel
cells, Journal of Power Sources, vol. 142,
pp.9-15,1995.
[5] Fuel Cell Handbook (Fifth Edition),EG&G
Services, Parsons Inc., DEO of Fossil
Energy, National Energy Technology Lab,
Oct.2000.
[6] J E Larminie & DICKS, Fuel Cell Systems
Explained, John Wiley & Sons Chichester
England,2002




Figure 2 Simulink Model of Hybrid FC Stack


Proceeding of National Seminar on Emerging Trends in Distributed Generation

58

Applications of Wavelet Technique in Distributed
Generation

Rahul Pathak
1
Mohit Kumar Katiyar
2
Priya Banga
3

NIEC, New Delhi M.Tech (C&I), DTU, New Delhi M.Tech (C&I), DTU, New Delhi
mailrahulpathak@gmail.com mohitkumar.k@gmail.com priyabanga15@gmail.com

Abstract - Distributed generation is presently attracting
increasing interest in all electrical stakeholders.
Economical reasons, environmental concerns,
technological advancements and market deregulation
have brought distributed generation to forefront.
Wavelet Transform is being used to develop new
methods to sort out various issues related to
economical, efficient and secure operation of
distributed generation system. In this article, an
attempt has been made to review application of wavelet
transform in fault location, island detection and power
quality issues in distributed generation.
KeywordsDistributed generation; wavelet transform;
fault location; islanding detection; power quality.
I. INTRODUCTION
Distributed generation is recent innovation in
power generation sector. Traditional power system
characterized by centralized bulk power production
is increasingly supported also by energy resources
connected to distribution grid [1-3]. Distributed
generation (DG) refers to any electric power
production technology that is integrated within
distribution system close to point of use. Distributed
generators are connected to medium or low voltage
grid [67]. DG has gain strong interest because of its
capability of operating on broad range of renewable
energy sources, along with cost effective, efficient,
reliable and flexible on-site power alternative [4]. In
era of DG integrated power system wavelet
technique is proving effective way to address
problems like fault location [7], islanding detection
[5], power quality issues [6]. Wavelet technique was
introduced to power system in 1994 by Robertson &
Ribeiro. Since then, wavelet technique has found its
way in almost all areas of power system like power
quality improvement, transient analysis, load
forecasting, power system measurement, fault
detection etc.
Wavelet transform has been the evident signal
processing development in recent year, as it has
numerous applications. There are various types of
transforms available; but the attention is
subsequently focused on introducing wavelets in any
application using the Fourier transform, has been
more accurately localized sensual and frequency
information (overview of wavelet analysis by HP
Laboratories Japan, Daniel T. L. Lec and Akio
Yamamoto). Because when a graph of captured
signal is plotted in spite of amplitude versus time,
information of frequency and phase also required for
signal processing, now more significant is to know
which type of processing to apply to solve the data-
analysis problem. Here the wavelet analysis comes
in focus. Wavelet analysis is performed using a
prototype function called a wavelet.
The history of wavelet analysis is research of several
decades, idea of approximation determined as
Fourier analysis is not new, and it has existed since
1807 given by Joseph Fourier. However, in wavelet
analysis, the fundamental idea is to analyze
according to scale i.e. wavelet algorithms process
data to different scales and resolutions [8], [9]. The
elementary wavelet basis is the Haar basis. The first
mention of wavelets appeared in an appendix to the
thesis of Alfred Haar (1909) [10]. One property of
the Haar wavelet is that it has compact support,
which means that it vanishes outside a finite
interval. Unfortunately, Haar wavelets are not
continuously differentiable which somewhat limits
their applications. In 1930 physicist Paul Levy
investigated Haar basis function superior to the
Fourier basis functions for studying small
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59

complicated details in the Brownian motion. In
1980, Grossman and Morlet, a physicist and an
engineer, broadly defined wavelets in the context of
quantum physics. They also proved that with nearly
any wave shape they could recover the signal
exactly from its transform [8]. In 1985, Stephane
Mallat gave wavelets an additional jump-start
through his work in digital signal processing. Then
Y. Meyer constructed the first non-trivial wavelets.
Unlike to Haar wavelets, the Meyer wavelets are
continuously differentiable, but not have compact
support. After sometime Daubechies construct a set
of wavelet orthonormal basis functions, which is
used in wavelet applications today [11]. In this
article an attempt to review various applications of
wavelet technique in DG system is done.
II. WAVELET TECHNIQUE
Wavelet multi-resolution analysis has drawn
much consideration for its ability to analyze swiftly
changing transient signals in both time and
frequency domains. The term wavelet means a small
wave. The smallness refers to the condition that this
window function is of finite length. The wave
refers to the condition that this function is oscillatory
[12]. There are several types of Wavelet transforms,
mainly:
Continuous Wavelet transform
Discrete Wavelet transform

Depending on the application one of these types of
Wavelet transform may be selected. The Continuous
Wavelet transform (CWT) [13] was developed as an
alternative to Short Time Fourier Transform, to
overcome the resolution problem and most suitable
for signal analysis. The CWT is defined as:

CWT
x

(, s) =
x

(, s) = 1/s x (t) *(t- /s) dt (1)



Where s>0 and -< <
The transformed signal is function of translational
() and scale (s) parameters [14]. The factor 1/s are
used to ensure that each scaled wavelet function has
the same energy as the wavelet basis function. It
should also satisfy following admissible condition:
-

(t) dt = 0 (2)
(t) is the mother wavelet, in equation (2) the
necessary and sufficient condition for wavelets is
that it must be oscillatory, must decay quickly to
zero and must have an average value to zero. The
mother wavelet is a band-pass filter and * is the
complex conjugate form. The term translational
refers to the location of window so is scale
parameter is inversely proportional to frequency. In
the definition of the wavelet transform, the scaling
term is used in the denominator. So scales s<1
dilates the signals whereas scales s>1 compresses
the signal as scale is inversely proportional to
frequency. In practical applications [19], low scales
(high frequencies) do not last for long, but they
usually appear from time to time as short bursts.
High scales (low frequencies) usually last for the
entire duration of the signal. CWT is also
continuous in terms of time shifting. During
computation, the scaled mother wavelet is shifted
smoothly over the full domain of the signal.
Accordingly, a one-dimensional signal is translated
into a two-dimensional time-frequency
representation by the coefficient of CWT.

Figure 1: Daubechies wavelet basis function
[8]


Multi-resolution and scaling laws can more be
studied through [15], [16]. The smooth transition of
the scaled mother wavelet implies that there are
many overlaps in the transform making the CWT
representation highly redundant [14].
Instead of the highly redundant CWT, DWT is often
used as it is more efficient computationally and
requires less memory storage. DWT is a digitally
implementable counterpart of wavelet. Wavelet
transform of sampled waveforms can be obtained
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60

by implementing the DWT; this digital transform
can be studied in detail in [17]. In DWT equation
(1) s and are replaced by a
m
and nba
m
respectively
n and m being integer variables, n as the total
number of samples and m as discrete levels, k
denotes translation in time.

(3)

The generated waveforms are analyzed with
wavelet multi-resolution analysis [15] to extract
sub-band information from the simulated transients.
Daubechies wavelets are commonly used in the
analysis of traveling waves [18]. Daubechies
wavelets are more localized i.e., compactly
supported in time and hence are good for short and
fast transient analysis and provide almost perfect
reconstruction. Actual implementation of the DWT
involves successive pairs of high-pass and low-pass
filters at each scaling stage of the DWT. DWT
follows a certain discrete expansion pattern
determined by the selection of a factor a. The most
widely used pattern is called dyadic expansion with
a = 2 and the expansion is implemented for scales a
= a
m
, where m = 1, 2, 3 etc. The information in the
high frequency bands as carried by the details Dj,
scale j denotes different frequency bands. Similarly,
the information in the low frequency band as carried
by the approximations Aj are coefficients of DWT
with the scaling function.



Figure 2: Fast DWT decomposition
[20]

The effectiveness of CWT and DWT is influenced
by the choice of mother wavelet and its scaling
function. Different types of mother wavelets have
different properties [20]. They can be divided into
three types according to their orthogonal nature,
namely, redundant wavelets, orthogonal wavelets,
and bi-orthogonal wavelets. Here the consideration
of orthogonal wavelets in taken into account.
III. FAULT LOCATION
Fault location estimation in distribution power
system, has been an area of increasing research
interest. Several research works has been done in
this field [21-30]. Various methods for fault
detection can be broadly grouped in three categories:
[assessment of fault location]
Impedance measurement based methods [21-30]
Methods based on analysis of travelling waves
[24-27]
Expert systems methods based on Neural
network[28-30]
Impedance measurement based methods is mainly
concerned with analysis at power-frequency of
voltage, current fault signals [21]. These techniques
are widely used in fault location in transmission lines.
However their applications to distribution networks
having multi branch radial topologies may show lack
in location accuracy of faults [31]. Presence of
distribution generators poses huge challenges of
relays and other protective devices becomes
unmanageable due to in-feed current from distributed
generators [32-34].
Complex signal analysis technique as well as
measurement of high frequency components is
hallmarks of travelling wave techniques [35, 36].
They rely on analysis of high component of fault
originated transients which are rather uninfluenced
by fault type and impedance [37].
An aspect of great interest for distribution network is
related to number of measurement terminals required
by applied methods. Researcher are giving
importance to single ended methods, which need
measurement from only one terminals, typically
installed in primary station .
Wavelet technique for fault location detection is an
extension of algorithm presented by A. Borghetti
[38]. Current or voltage transients have both constant
low frequency component of large duration and time
varying high frequency components for short
duration. A traditional operator like Fast Fourier
Transform (FFT) analyzes the signal with constant
Proceeding of National Seminar on Emerging Trends in Distributed Generation

61

frequency resolution that depends on width of chosen
observation time window [39]. Hence it is not
appropriate. Wavelet technique however allows good
frequency resolution at low frequency [8]. Moreover,
WT allows for analysis of high frequency component
very close to each other in time and frequency and
low frequency component very close to each other in
frequency [40]. These properties make WT a suitable
candidate to be used as tool for studying transient
waveforms produced by these faults [40, 41].
Several researches have demonstrated the accuracy of
WT in fault location studies [42, 43]. However
choice of mother wavelet has proved to be a
determining factor in accuracy of WT for fault
location studies [44]. These methods are insensitive
to naturally occurring in-feed from distribution
generator during a fault.
Hybrid methods with expert system like neural
networks and fuzzy cluster along with wavelets
techniques are being explored to use as fault location
methods [45-48]. These methods are proving to be
economical and efficient.
IV. ISLANDING OPERATION & DETECTION
It is being reported that with installation of DGs
in parallel with utility network, the efficiency and
stability of supplying power would be improved.
However, many technical obstacles are present to
achieve more secure and economic operation.
Islanding problem becomes an urgent issue since
power output of DG system is not under direct
control of utility engineer [49-51]. Islanding
problem occurs when load of interest is severed off
from centralized power unit but the system
continues to receive power from connected DGs.
This forms so called island giving unexpected
outcomes like increased complexity of orderly
restoration, poor voltage stability, and worst of all, a
raised risk to related maintenance personnel.

Figure 3: Islanding Operation
[62]


Several methods have been suggested to detect
islanding effect [49], [52-61]. Most of these
techniques are based on measurement of system
parameters like phase displacement, system
impedance, and the rate of change of output power
[52-54]. However, there is need to formulate
islanding detection technique which can work in
power distribution network interfaced with multiple
DGs. Wavelet technique is proving to be an
effective method to meet this requirement [60].
Wavelet transform-based approach can monitor the
parameter variations of interests, where Daubechies
wavelet serves as basis [61]. Enhanced by such an
approach, it is anticipated that any abrupt change
occurred in the acquired signal would be effectively
caught, hence increasing the reliability of islanding-
detection.


Islanding Detection method
[62]


Some useful features of this new method are listed
below [62]:
It helps improve the islanding-detection
capability of protective relays. The safety of
utility engineers is, meanwhile, better ensured.
Because the time and frequency information
can be simultaneously observed, the robustness
of the method can be better realized for the
application considered.
With the increased number of installed
distributed generators, the proposed method
would serve as a potential alternative in
addition to existent approaches.
The method is easy to program, facilitating the
firmware realization of integrated circuit design
for the portable detector applications.

The basic functions in wavelet analysis are
localized in frequency making mathematical tools
Proceeding of National Seminar on Emerging Trends in Distributed Generation

62

such as power spectra (power in a frequency
interval) useful at picking out frequencies and
calculating power distributions [63, 64]. The most
important feature of this transforms is that
individual wavelet functions are localized in space
.This localization feature, along with wavelets
localization of frequency, makes many functions
and operators using wavelets sparse, when
transformed into the wavelet domain. This
sparseness, in turn results in a number of useful
applications along with islanding detection.

V. POWER QUALITY
IEEE defines power quality as a concept of
powering and grounding sensitive equipment in a
manner that is suitable to operation of that
equipment [65]. From electric point of view the
term power quality is supply of electric power as
per specified standards, whereas from in user side, it
is smooth functioning of electrical equipments
without any destruction [66]. Highly sensitive and
electronics equipment have brought power quality
in limelight [68-70]. Equipments are becoming
more and more sensitive to even minor change in
supply [67]. Large number of nonlinear loads like
power electric based system, like adjustable speed
drives, inverters in systems generating electricity
from renewable energy sources is source of voltage
fluctuation in system.
Installation and connection of DG unit might have
negative impact on system frequency, since any
imbalance between demand and supply of
electricity causes system frequency to deviate from
rated value of 50 Hz. Introduction of DG units
might also change voltage level in system [66].
High voltage due to DG unit, DG unit interfacing
with utility system and there interaction with
regulating equipment are the major issue of concern
affecting power quality of distribution generation.
Traditional methods to analyze power quality are
based on visual waveform analysis [68]. Power
quality engineers have to take daunting task of
inspection of huge amount of data. Automatic
methods for detecting, identifying, analyzing
various power quality disturbances are need of hour
[68-70].
DFT is known method to analyze power quality
disturbances like voltage fluctuation, voltage swell,
voltage sag, voltage variation, frequency variation,
waveform distortion [68]. However leakage effect
which comes into effect due to variation in flicker
level puts accuracy of this method in question [69].
Apart from that short time duration disturbances
require Short Time Fourier Transformation. In order
to improve this limitation waveform technique is
being used [70, 71]. WT can be used for voltage
flicker signal extraction [69]. To speed up
extraction processing, S-transform [70], which is an
extension of ideas of WT is also being taken into
consideration. WT along with multiple layer
perceptron has better processing time for detection
of power quality disturbances [72, 73]. However
multiple layer perceptron suffers from drawback of
longer training time for hidden layers and nodes
[74]. Support vector machine which are known to
have strong classification property [73, 75, 76] can
also be used along with WT for disturbance
classification [x9].

CONCLUSION
Distributed generation is known as power
generation paradigm of new era. Distributed
generation is expected to be more secure, efficient,
environmental friendly approach that will meet our
ever increasing demand of electricity. While
researchers are trying to develop new methods to
address power quality, islanding and fault
determination problem wavelet transform has
gained wide acceptance and appreciation among
research community. Several new methods based on
wavelet transform are in developing phase. In future
wavelet transform is expected to play key role in
distributed generation sector.

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67

A Review on Distributed Generation

Sharique Asir
1
Schrutir Jain
2
Majid Hussain
3

B.Tech (EEE), NIEC B.Tech (EEE), NIEC B.Tech (EEE), NIEC
shariqueasir@gmail.com schrutir.jain@gmail.com majideeee@gmail.com

Abstract - This paper is review of the
different concepts of distributed generation
and smart grid. Distributed energy (DG) is
believed to be future of the power generation.
This paper concerns with the exploitation of
various renewable sources of energy and
energy storage technique in smart grid.
Keywords:Distributed generation, distributed
resources, Distributed energy resources, and
embedded generation.
I.INTRODUCTION

The electricity supply came to existence
initially by installing generators located
according to distribution need.So this way
concept of distribution was there from
very beginning. [1]Later high electricity
demand forced the generation plant to
move to primary energy sources (e.g.
rivers, coal mines etc) which is then fed to
the consumers through complex system of
transmission lines. This conception, that
has been in existence for more than fifty
years, and has been characterized for: big
generation plants, generally placed far
from where the power demands is, and
great transmission networks that carry the
generated power to the demand sites.
[2]These economies of scale for central
plants began to fail in the late 1960s and,
by the start of the 21st century, Central
Plants could arguably no longer deliver
competitively cheap and reliable electricity
to more remote customers through the
grid, because the plants had come to cost
less than the grid and had become so
reliable that nearly all power failures
originated in the grid. Thus, the grid had
become the main driver of remote
customers power costs and power quality
problems, which became more acute as
digital equipment required extremely
reliable electricity.[34]Efficiency gains no
longer come from increasing generating
capacity, but from smaller units located
closer to sites of demand.
Capital markets have come to realize that
right-sized resources, for individual
customers, distribution substations, or
microgrids, are able to offer important but
little-known economic advantages over
Central Plants. Smaller units offered
greater economies from mass-production
than big ones could gain through unit size.
These increased valuedue to
improvements in financial risk,
engineering flexibility, security, and
environmental qualityof these resources
can often more than offset their apparent
cost disadvantages [5]
In this context, distributed energy
resources (DER) -small power generators
typically located at users sites where the
energy they generate is used - have
emerged as a promising option to meet
growing customer needs for electric power
with an emphasis on reliability and power
quality.

II. DEFINITIONS AND RATINGS
FOR DISTRIBUTED GENERATION
FROM DIFFERENT INSTITUITIONS:

IEEE
The Standard for Interconnecting
Distributed Resources with Electric Power
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68

System of IEEE, define distributed
generation like electric generation facilities
connected to an area EPS (electrical power
system) through a point of common
coupling; a subset of distributed resources.
Some others definitions are implicit in this.
EPS area are facilities that deliver electric
power to a load (this can include
generation units) that serves Local EPSs.
Each Local EPS is contained entirely
within a single premises or group of
premises. The point where a Local EPS is
connected to the Area EPS, receive the
name of point of common coupling.
Finally IEEE, define distributed resources
as sources of electric power that are no
directly connected to a bulk power
transmission system. And the DR includes
generator and energy storage technologies
[7]

CALIFORNIA ENERGY COMMISSION:
Distributed energy resources are small-
scale power generation technologies
(typically in the range of 3 to 10,000 kW)
located close to where electricity is used
(e.g., a home or business) to provide an
alternative to or an enhancement of the
traditional electric power system [8]

In addition, in regards to the rating of
distributedgeneration power units, the
following different denitions are
currently used:
1. The Electric Power Research Institute
denes distributed generation as
generation from a few kilowatts up to 50
MW [10]
2. According to the Gas Research Institute,
distributedgeneration is typically
[between] 25 kw and 25 MW[11].
3. Preston and Rastler dene the size as
ranging froma few kilowatts to over 100
MW[12]
4. Cardell denes distributed generation as
generationbetween 500 kW and 1MW[13]

And because of different government
regulations, thedenition of the rating of
each distributed power station also varies
between countries, for example:

1. In the English and Welsh market, DG
plantswith a capacity of less than 100 MW
are notcentrally dispatched and if the
capacity is less than50 MW, the power
output does not have to betraded via the
wholesale market [14]. The term
distributed generation is, therefore,
predominantlyused for power units with
less than 100 MW capacity. [14]

2. Swedish legislation gives special
treatmentto small generation with a
maximum generationcapacity of up to
1500 kW . Hence,DG in Sweden is often
dened as generation with up to 1500 kW.
But under Swedish law, a wind farmwith
one hundred 1500 kW wind turbinesis still
considered DG, as the rating of each wind
energy unit, and not the total wind farm
rating, isrelevant for the Swedish law. For
hydro units, incomparison, it is the total
rating of the powerstation that is relevant.
Some of the proposed offshore wind farms
for Sweden have a maximumcapacity of
up to 1000 MW. This would still
beconsidered DG as they plan to use 1500
kW windturbines [15].

III. TYPES OF DISTRIBUTION
ENERGY RESOURCES

There are several renewable and non-
renewable sources in nature which can be
effectively used as distribution energy
resources.

DER technologies include wind turbines,
photovoltaic(PV),fuel cells, microturbines,
reciprocating engines,combustion turbines,
cogeneration, and energy storage systems.
MICROTURBINES are small combustion
turbines that produce between 25 kW and
500 kW of power. Micro turbines were
derived from turbocharger technologies
found in large trucks or the turbines in
aircraft auxiliary power units (APUs).

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69

CONVENTIONAL COMBUSTION TURBINE
(CT) generators typically range in size
from about 500 kW up to 25 MW for DER
and up to approximately 250 MW for
central power generation. They are fueled
by natural gas, oil, or a combination of
fuels ("dual fuel").
INTERNAL COMBUTION ENGINESA
reciprocating, or internal combustion (IC),
engine converts the energy contained in a
fuel into mechanical power. This
mechanical power is used to turn a shaft in
the engine. A generator is attached to the
IC engine to convert the rotational motion
into power.
STIRLING ENGINES are classed as external
combustion engines. They are sealed
systems with an inert working fluid,
usually either helium or hydrogen. They
are generally found in small sizes (1-25
kW) and are currently being produced in
small quantities for specialized
applications in the space and marine
industries.
FUEL CELL power systems are quiet,
clean, highly efficient on-site electrical
generators that use an electrochemical
processnot combustionto convert fuel
into electricity. In addition to providing
power, they can supply a thermal energy
source for water and space heating, or
absorption cooling. In demonstration
projects, fuel cells have been shown to
reduce facility energy service costs by
20% to 40% over conventional energy
service.
ENERGY STORAGE technologies produce
no net energy but can provide electric
power over short periods of time. They are
used to correct voltage sags, flicker, and
surges that occur when utilities or
customers switch suppliers or loads. They
may also be used as an uninterruptible
power supply (UPS). As such, energy
storage technologies are considered to be a
distributed energy resource.
PHOTOVOLTAIC (PV) CELLS, or solar
cells, convert sunlight directly into
electricity. PV cells are assembled into flat
plate systems that can be mounted on
rooftops or other sunny areas. They
generate electricity with no moving parts,
operate quietly with no emissions, and
require little maintenance.
WIND TURBINES use the wind to produce
electrical power. A turbine with fan blades
is placed at the top of a tall tower. The
tower is tall in order to harness the wind at
a greater velocity, free of turbulence
caused by interference from obstacles such
as trees, hills, and buildings. As the turbine
rotates in the wind, a generator produces
electrical power. A single wind turbine can
range in size from a few kW for residential
applications to more than 5 MW.
CO-GENERATION (combined heat and
power, CHP) All thermal power plants and
devices emit a certain amount of heat
during electricity generation. This can be
released into the natural
environment through cooling towers, flue
gas, or by other means. By contrast, CHP
captures some or all of the by-product heat
for heating purposes, either very close to
the plant.
HYBRID SYSTEMS: Developers and
manufacturers of DER are looking for
ways to combine technologies to improve
performance and efficiency of distributed
generation equipment. Several examples of
hybrid systems include:

1. Solid oxide fuel cell combined with a
gas turbine or micro turbine
2. Stirling engine combined with a solar
dish (see the photograph)
3. Wind turbines with battery storage and
diesel backup generators
4. Engines (and other prime movers)
combined with energy storage devices
such as flywheels
All the above resources can be used
effectively using a system of advanced
electric network called smart grid which
uses information and communication
technology to simplify complex networks.




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70

IV. SMART GRID

Alternating current power grid evolved
in 1896 where the grid was conceived as a
centralized unidirectional system of
electric power transmission, electricity
distribution, and demand-driven control.
Eventually power grids transformed into
local grids as they grew over time, and
were eventually interconnected for
economic and reliability reasons. By the
1960s, the electric grids had become very
large, mature and highly interconnected,
with thousands of 'central' generation
power stations delivering power to major
load centres via high capacity power lines
By the late 1960s and 1970, the demand
for electric power increased and this
growing demand led to increasing numbers
of power stations. These growing demands
also led to the problems resulting in poor
power quality including blackouts, power
cuts, and brownouts.
The largest ever blackout on 30-31 july in
India in which about 10% of world
population went through the power crisis
has raised the alarm an sound steps are
required to be taken.Some technology
sources and USAIDproposed that another
widespread outage could be prevented by
integrated network ofmicro
gridsand distributed generation connected
seamlessly with the main grid via a
superior smart grid technology which
includes
automated faultdetection,islanding and self
-healingof the network.[16, 17, 18, 19]
Smart grid a modernized electric grid is
the use of advanced technology to increase
the reliability and efficiency of the grid,
from transmission to distribution. Its
implementation dramatically increases the
quantity, quality, connectivity, automation
and Coordination between the suppliers,
consumers and networks, and use of data
available from advanced sensing,
computing, and communications hardware
and software.

How a smart Grid can help in improving
and dealing with the problems faced by the
world at present
Increasing reliability, efficiency and
safety of the power grid.
Enabling decentralized power
generation so homes can be both an
energy client and supplier (provide
consumers with interactive tool to
manage energy usage).
Flexibility of power consumption at the
clients side to allow supplier selection
(enables distributed generation, solar,
wind, and biomass).
Increase GDP by creating more new,
green collar energy jobs related to
renewable energy industry
manufacturing, plug-in electric
vehicles, solar panel, and wind turbine
generation, energy conservation and
construction.

V. GRID ENERGY STORAGE

Grid energy storage refers to the storage
of electricity at large scale in a grid when
the production increases the consumption
level. This way production is maintained at
a more constant level lowering the effort
put in production.
This method is very useful when it comes
to completely harness the discontinuous
sources of energy like wind energy and
solar energy.
Thus, grid energy storage is one method
that the operator of an electrical power
grid can use to adapt energy production to
energy consumption, both of which can
vary over time. This is done to increase
efficiency and lower the cost of energy
production, or to facilitate the use of
intermittent energy sources.
As of March 2012, pumped-storage
hydroelectricity(PSH) is the largest-
capacity form of grid energy storage
available; the Electric Power Research
Institute(EPRI) reports that PSH accounts
for more than 99% of bulk storage
capacity worldwide, around 127,000 MW
[20] PSH energy efficiency varies in
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71

practice between 70% to 75%. 2011-03-
03. Retrieved 2012-03-11.
Several techniques have been devised to
store energy at large scale. Some of them
are Electric vehicles, Compressed air,
Hydrogen, Pumped water, super
conducting magnetic energy, Thermal and
Batteries
ELECTRIC VEHICLES
Companies are researching the possible
use of electric vehicles to meet peak
demand. A parked and plugged-in electric
vehicle could sell the electricity from the
battery during peak loads and charge either
during night (at home) or during off-
peak.[21]Plug-in hybrid or electric
carscould be used[22, 23,24] for their
energy storage capabilities. Vehicle
togrid technology can be employed,
turning each vehicle with its 20 to 50 Kw-
h battery packinto a distributed load-
balancing device or emergency power
source. This represents 2 to 5 days per
vehicle of average household requirements
of 10 kW-h per day, assuming annual
consumption of 3650 kW-h. This quantity
of energy is equivalent to between 40 and
300 miles (64 and 480 km) of range in
such vehicles consuming 0.5 to 0.16 kW-h
per mile. These figures can be achieved
even in home-made electric vehicle
conversions. Some electric utilities plan to
use old plug in vehicle to store
electricity[25,26].
COMPRESSED AIR:
Another grid energy storage method is to
use off-peak or renewably generated
electricity to compress air, which is
usually stored in an old mine or some
other kind of geological feature. When
electricity demand is high, the compressed
air is heated with a small amount
of natural gas and then goes
through turboexpanders to generate
electricity.

PUMPED WATER:
In 2008 world pumped storage generating
capacity was 104 GW,while other sources
claim 127 GW, which comprises the vast
majority of all types of grid electric
storage - all other types combined are
some hundreds of MW.In many places,
pumped storage hydroelectricity is used to
even out the daily generating load, by
pumping water to a high storage reservoir
during off-peak hours and weekends, using
the excess base-load capacity from coal or
nuclear sources. During peak hours, this
water can be used
for hydroelectric generation, often as a
high value rapid-response reserve to cover
transient peaks in demand. Pumped
storage recovers about 75% of the energy
consumed, and is currently the most cost
effective form of mass power storage. The
chief problem with pumped storage is that
it usually requires two nearby reservoirs at
considerably different heights, and often
requires considerable capital
expenditure.[27]Pumped water systems
have high dispatchability, meaning they
can come on-line very quickly, typically
within 15 seconds,[28] which makes these
systems very efficient at soaking up
variability in electrical demand from
consumers. There is over 90 GW of
pumped storage in operation around the
world, which is about 3%
of instantaneous global generation
capacity. Pumped water storage systems,
such as the Dinorwig storage system, hold
five or six hours of generating capacity
[28] and are used to smooth out demand
variations.
HYDRODEN
Hydrogen can be produced either
by reforming natural gas with steam or by
the electrolysis of water into hydrogen
and oxygen (see hydrogen production).
Reforming natural gas produces carbon
dioxide as a by-product. High temperature
electrolysis and high pressure
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72

electrolysis are two techniques by which
the efficiency of hydrogen production may
able to be increased. Hydrogen is then be
converted back to electricity in an internal
combustion engine, or a fuel cell which
convert chemical energy into electricity
without combustion, similar to the way the
human body burns fuel.
SUPERCONDUCTING MAGNETIC
ENERGY
Superconducting magnetic energy storage
(SMES) systems store energy in
the magnetic field created by the flow
of direct current in a superconducting coil
which has been cryogenically cooled to a
temperature below its superconducting
critical temperature. A typical SMES
system includes three parts:
superconducting coil, power conditioning
system and cryogenically cooled
refrigerator. Once the superconducting coil
is charged, the current will not decay and
the magnetic energy can be stored
indefinitely. The stored energy can be
released back to the network by
discharging the coil. The power
conditioning system uses
an inverter/rectifier totransform alternating
current (AC) power to direct current or
converts DC back to AC power. The
inverter/rectifier accounts for about 23%
energy loss in each direction. SMES loses
the least amount of electricity in the
energy storage process compared to other
methods of storing energy. SMES systems
are highly efficient; the round-trip
efficiency is greater than 95%. The high
cost of superconductors is the primary
limitation for commercial use of this
energy storage method.
Due to the energy requirements
of refrigeration, and the limits in the total
energy able to be stored, SMES is
currently used for short duration energy
storage. Therefore, SMES is most
commonly devoted to improving power
quality. If SMES were to be used
for utilities it would be a diurnal storage
device, charged from base load power at
night and meeting peak loads during the
day.
BATTERIES
The battery enables large amounts of
energy from wind or solar power to be
stored, managed, controlled and sent into
the electricity grid when it is needed. It
doesnt matter whether the wind is
blowing or not; the battery makes the
electricity output predictable and reliable.
Battery systems connected to large solid-
state converters have been used to stabilize
power distribution networks. For example
in Puerto Rico a system with a capacity of
20 megawatts for 15 minutes (5 megawatt
hour) is used to stabilize the frequency of
electric power produced on the island. A
27 megawatt 15 minute (6.75 megawatt
hour) nickel-cadmium battery bank was
installed at Fairbanks Alaska in 2003 to
stabilize voltage at the end of a long
transmission line.[29] Many "off-the-grid"
domestic systems rely on battery storage

CONCLUSION
Various definitions from different
instituition was briefly described and was
found to be to be quite inconsistent in
terms of rating as they were from different
governing bodies. So the author inclines
for a wide open definition which includes
the contextual validity of all the other in
concepts.Different distribution energy
sources were studied of which wind
energy, photovoltaic system and fuel cells
were found to be very promising in near
future.
To use the concepts of distributed
generation efficiently smart grid is going
to play very crucial role by providing
communication technique to simplify and
run the grids as stand-alone grids.
Grid energy storage technique using
pumped water, batteries and electric
vehicles will further boost the distributed
Proceeding of National Seminar on Emerging Trends in Distributed Generation

73

generation and make the electrical energy
even more economical.

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[ 3] DOE;The Potential Benefits of
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Expansion; 2007.
[ 4] Lovins; Small Is Profitable: The Hidden
Economic Benefits of Making
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[ 5] Takahashi, et al; Policy Options to
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[ 6] Hirsch; 1989; cited in DOE, 2007.7
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[ 7] American Gas Association. What is
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[ 8] California Energy Commission.
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[ 9] See Electric Power Research Institute
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[ 10] Gas Research Institute, Distributed
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[ 11] D. Sharma, R. Bartels, Distributed
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Clevland, Ohio, USA, 1998, pp. 17
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[ 12] J. Cardell, R. Tabors, Operation and
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Association for Energy Economics,
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[ 13] J. Watson, Perspective of
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[ 16] "How Power Outages in India May
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[ 17] "The smart grid vision for India's
power sector". USAID India. March
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(2010-05-14). "Sustainable
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[ 27] "First Hydro Dinorwig Power Station"
[ 28] Gyuk I, Kulkarni P, Sayer JH, 'et al.'
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storage". IEEE Power and Energy
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[ 30] Appalacian Power
[ 31] Eric Wesoff, "Sadoways MIT Liquid
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www.zdnet.com/blog/emergingtech/b
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Proceeding of National Seminar on Emerging Trends in Distributed Generation

75

Distributed Generation in Rural India
Devesh Singh
Prabha Electronic & Automation,
prabhaautomation@gmail.com

Abstract - In this paper, firstly a brief
background of India power sector is
presented. Thereafter we have discussed
various distributed power generation
possibilities in rural area along with a
description of present scenario. Different
possible options to improve power in rural
areas are discussed.
I. INTRODUCTION
Distributed generation, for the moment
looselydefined as small-scale electricity
generation, is a fairlynew concept in the
economics literature about
electricitymarkets, but the idea behind it is
not new at all. In theearly days of
electricity generation, distributed
generationwas the rule, not the exception.
The first powerplants only supplied
electricity to customers in the
closeneighborhood of the generation plant.
The first gridswere DC based, and
therefore, the supply voltage waslimited, as
was the distance that could be used
betweengenerator and consumer. Balancing
demand and supplywas partially done using
local storage, i.e. batteries,which could be
directly coupled to the DC grid. Alongwith
small-scale generation, local storage is also
returningto the scene.
Later, technological evolutions, such as the
emergenceof AC grids, allowed for
electricity to be transportedover longer
distances, and economies of scale
inelectricity generation lead to an increase
in the poweroutput of the generation units.
All this resulted inincreased convenience
and lower per unit costs. Massiveelectricity
systems were constructed, consisting of
hugetransmission and distribution grids and
large generationplants. Balancing demand
and supply was done by theaveraging effect
of the combination of large amounts
ofinstantaneously varying loads. Security
of supply wasincreased as the failure of one
power plant wascompensated by the other
power plants in the interconnectedsystem.
In fact this interconnected highvoltage
system made the economy of high-scale in
generationpossible.
In the last decade, technological
innovations and achanging economic and
regulatory environment haveresulted in a
renewed interest for distributed
generation.This is confirmed by the IEA
(2002), who lists five majorfactors that
contribute to this evolution, i.e.
developmentsin distributed generation
technologies, constraintson the construction
of new transmission lines,
increasedcustomer demand for highly
reliable electricity, theelectricity market
liberalization and concerns aboutclimate
change.

II.INDIAN POWER SECTOR

India had an installed capacity of
105,000MW(Ministry of Power, 2003a, b)
in the centralized powerutilities as on 31st
March2003. Of this 74,400MW
isaccounted for by thermal power plants,
26,300MW oflarge hydro plants and
2700MW of nuclear power plants. The
focusof power planning has been to extend
the centralizedgrid throughout the country.
However the capacityaddition has not been
able to keep pace with theincreasing
Proceeding of National Seminar on Emerging Trends in Distributed Generation

76

demand for electricity. This is reflected by
thepersistent energy and peak shortages in
the country. Thetransmission and
distribution losses are extremely
high(estimated to be more than 25%, this
includes theft).
India has a plan to add 100 000MW of
additionalpower generation capacity by
2012 (MOP, 2001). Thisrequires an
average capacity addition of more
than10,000MW per year. Centralized
generation alone isunlikely to meet this
target. In this context DG is likelyto be
important. DG also has the advantage
ofimproving tail-end voltages, reducing
distribution lossesand improving system
reliability.The present installed capacity of
DG is about13,000MW (10,000MW diesel,
3000MW renewable).The majority of this
is accounted for by diesel enginesthat are
used for back-up power (in the event of
gridfailure) and operate at very low load
factors. The shareof the energy generation
from DG is marginal (about23% of the
total generation). Apart from the
dieselengines, the DG options that have
been promoted inIndia are modern
renewable.
India is probably the only country with a
separateMinistry of Non-conventional
Energy Sources (MNES).The renewable
energy installed capacity was 205.5MWin
1993 (104.6MW small hydro, 39.9MW
Wind). Thisincreased to 2978 MW in 2001
(as on 31st March2001)and accounted for
almost 3% of Indias installed
powercapacity (MNES, 2001; Annual
Reports MNES, 2000,2001, 2002). The
growth rate of installed renewablepower
capacity during the period 19932001 was
39%per year. During the period January
2000April 2001the installed capacity
increased from 1600MW to2978MW (an
annual growthrate of 49%).The major
contributors are small hydroo25MW
which accounts for 1341MW (45%)
andwind which accounts for 1267MW
(42%). The installedcapacity in Biomass
based power generation is 308MW(10.3%),
with most of it coming from biogas
basedcogeneration. Most of the installed
capacity availablefrom renewable is
accounted for by grid connectedsystems
(wind, small hydro and biomass
cogeneration).
This accounts for about 3% of Indias
installed capacitycontribute to about 12%
of the total generation (due tolow capacity
factors on renewable). The growth ratehas
been significant (above 30% per year). This
has beenfacilitated by an enabling policy
environment and asupportive
government.Despite the emphasis on
extending the centralizedgrid to the rural
areas, 78 million rural households(Ministry
of Power, 2003b) or 56.5% of rural
householdsare still unelectrified. The
recently passed ElectricityAct (2003) has
made it a statutory obligation tosupply
electricity to all areas including villages
andhamlets. The act suggests a two
pronged approachencompassing grid
extension and through standalonesystems.
The act provides for enabling mechanisms
forservice providers in rural areas and
exempts them fromlicensing obligations.
MNES has been given theresponsibility of
electrification of 18,000 remote
villagesthrough renewable. The ministry
has set up anambitious target of meeting
10% of the power requirementsof India
from renewable by 2012 . In most cases,the
areas to be electrified do not have sufficient
payingcapacity. Most systems are
subsidized by the Governmentor the utility.
The power sector has significantlosses and
needs to ensure that the DG systems
selectedare likely to be cost-effective. This
paper examines thecost effectiveness of the
different DG options selected.

Proceeding of National Seminar on Emerging Trends in Distributed Generation

77

III. BRIEF OVERVIEW OF OPTIONS
TO ENHANCE RURAL POWER
SUPPLY

The existing options to increase electricity
access focus either on enhancing
centralized generation or improving
efficiency in the distribution business. This
is done through stand-alone distributed
generation projects feeding into the grid or
establishing an input-based distribution
franchisee. But neither of these addresses
the basic issue of the unavailability of
electricity in rural households.

The current mechanisms are based on two
fundamental choices:
Centralized generation (status-quo) or
localized distributed generation.
Utility managed distribution (status-quo)
or private distribution franchises.
The feed-in-tariff (FIT) distributed
generation model (localized generation that
feeds into the grid combined with utility
managed distribution), already prevalent in
India, could address the rural supply
situation provided that locally generated
distributed power is earmarked for serving
rural areas. But this never happens in
practice as the power from distributed
sources is diverted to urban markets along
with other common pools of resources.
Also, the FIT often is more expensive than
the current utility power procurement costs,
hence, it has substantial impact on its
overall power purchase costs and tariffs.
In areas where the power situation
adequately serves rural areas, rural
distribution franchises, which combine
centralized generation with private
distribution franchisees, could very well
improve service and reduce technical and
commercial losses. India has already
experimented with this model successfully,
particularly in the city of Bhiwandi and in
the rural areas of Assam, as discussed in
chapter 3. Results from both these markets
show great potential for success if the
distribution utility can guarantee an
adequate power supply.
But these individual models do not address
all issues facing rural markets, such as high
distribution and commercial losses, very
low supply hours, deteriorating quality, and
unreliable service. A combination of
existing models would not only facilitate a
strong role for the private sector; it would
also increase the supply of electricity to
underserved areas. In this case, power from
a distributed generation plant is ring-fenced
to supply the local rural area first. The
improved underlying commercial aspects of
the market reduce the subsidy for
supporting distributed generation. This
would allow private developers to generate
and distribute electricity locally by acting
as the utilitys franchisees. Such a model
would augment generation using local
resources and supply power to areas that
otherwise may remain power-starved
despite having access to the grid.
There are three options to enhance
electricity supply in rural areas:
1) FIT model: Distributed generation
plants sell power to the grid at FIT
determined by the regulator, and this power
is added to the utilitys centralized pool.
2) Rural distribution franchisee (RDF):
An input-based distribution franchisee is
appointed by the utility for metering,
billing, and collection activities, but is not
permitted to source power beyond its
contract with the utility.
3)Distributed generation and supply
(DG&S): Combined generation and
distribution, i.e., in addition to distributing
power and collecting revenues, the
franchisee also generates power locally and
supplies to the franchised area.
In the DG&S model, the franchisee also
generates power locally and supplies most
of the plants output (more than 70 percent)
Proceeding of National Seminar on Emerging Trends in Distributed Generation

78

to rural franchise areas. The surplus power,
if any, is fed back into the grid and is paid
for by the utility at the appropriate FIT (in
case of renewable energy as per power
purchase agreement [PPA]). Operational
subsidies or additional income is provided
to incentivize DG&S operator to first meet
local demand before routing power to the
grid. The utility significantly reduces its
aggregate technical and commercial
(AT&C) losses for serving the area. In
addition, if the local plant is renewable-
based, the capacity is credited against its
renewable portfolio obligation (RPO) quota
as determined by the State Electricity
Regulatory Commission (SERC). This
model has the advantages of distribution
franchises (reduced AT&C losses and
improved customer service) and the
following additional benefits to the
stakeholders:
CUSTOMERS
Increasing reliability and service levels.
Increasing electricity availability (as
local generation is captive, the rural
areas are guaranteed supply).
Accelerating community development.
(While not sufficient by itself, the
availability of guaranteed, long-term,
reliable electricity from a local source
can spur economic growth through
energy intensive value-added service
industries.)

UTILITY
Contributing to the RPO of the utility if
the local plant uses a renewable energy
resource. Avoiding transmission charges
and losses associated with centralized
power sources by using local generation
utilities.
Meeting its service obligations.



REGULATORS
Meeting the goals of improving
availability, reliability, and quality to
rural areas.
Increasing generation capacity by
encouraging private distribution
franchises to invest in distributed
generation.

As part of this study, TERI undertook a
field survey across selected rural districts in
2009. Domestic, commercial, and
agricultural consumers reported that an
improved power supply could have a
significant impact on their socioeconomic
status. The possibility of establishing new
commercial establishments was also
emphasized. These could include shops that
sell electronic goods and home appliances;
flour mills and bakeries; motor service
shops; general stores and clothing stores;
spice-floor mills; pharmacies; cyber cafs;
welding and repair shops, furniture shops;
and agricultural industries, including
poultry farms and dairies. While such
development is a key feature of off-grid
plants, this will be significant in the DG&S
model also. The pilot program can be
implemented in areas where programs to
support rural development already exist or
can be designed to stimulate economic
activities and boost demand.
IV. Distributed Generation in Rural
India

The Government of India set up a
Commission for Additional Sources of
Energy in the Department of Science and
Technology on the lines of the Space
Commission and the Atomic Energy
Commission to promote R & D activities in
the area. In 1982, a separate department of
Non-Conventional Energy Sources was
created in the Small scale industry of
Energy. After a decade, the department was
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79

elevated and converted into a full-fledged
Smallscale industry. The mounting burden
of subsidy has also lead to the introduction
of the new legislation referred to above.

There are a number of technologies for
distributed generation, the details of which
are given below:
a. The Internal Combustion Engine.
b. Biomass
c. Turbines
d. Micro-turbines
e. Wind Turbines
f. Concentrating Solar Power (CSP)
g. Photovoltaics
h. Fuel Cells
i. Small-Hydel.

a. The Internal Combustion Engine
The most important instrument of the D. G
systems around the world has been the
Internal Combustion Engine. Hotels, tall
buildings, hospitals, all over the world use
diesels as a backup. Though the diesel
engine is efficient, starts up relatively
quickly, it is not environment friendly and
has high O & M costs. Consequently its use
in the developed world is limited. In India,
the diesel engine is used very widely on
account of the immediate need for power,
especially in rural areas, without much
concern either for long-term economics or
for environment.

b. Biomass
Biomass refers to renewable energy
resources derived from organic matter, such
as forest residues, agricultural crops and
wastes, wood, wood wastes that are capable
of being converted to energy. This was the
only form of energy that was usefully
exploited till recently. The extraction of
energy from biomass is split into three
distinct categories, solid biomass, biogas,
and liquid bio-fuels. Solid biomass includes
the use of trees, crop residues, household or
industrial residues for direct combustion to
provide heat. Animal and human waste is
also included in the definition for the sakes
of convenience. It undergoes physical
processing such as cutting and chipping,
but retains its solid form. Biogas is
obtained by an aerobically digesting
organic material to produce the
combustible gas methane There are two
common technologies, one of fermentation
of human and animal waste in specially
designed digesters, the other of capturing
methane from municipal waste landfill
sites. Liquid bio-fuels, which are used in
place of petroleum derived liquid fuels, are
obtained by processing plants seeds or
fruits of different types like sugarcane,
oilseeds or nuts using various chemical or
physical processes to produce a
combustible liquid fuel. Pressing or
fermentation is used to produce oils or
ethanol from industrial or commercial
residues such as bagasse or from energy
crops grown specifically for this purpose.

c. Turbines
Turbines are a commercialized power
technology with sizes ranging between
hundreds of kilowatts to several hundred
megawatts. These are designed to burn a
wide range of liquid and gaseous fuels and
are capable of duel fuel operation. Turbines
used in distributed generation vary in size
between 1-30 MW and their operating
efficiency is in the range of 24-35%. Their
ability to adjust output to demand and
produce high quality waste heat makes
them a popular choice in combined heat
and power applications.

d. Micro-turbines
Micro turbines are installed commercially
in many applications, especially in landfills
where the quality of natural gas is
low.These are rugged and long lasting and
Proceeding of National Seminar on Emerging Trends in Distributed Generation

80

hold promise for Distributed Generation in
India.

e. Wind-turbines
Wind turbines extract energy from moving
air and enable an electric generator to
produce electricity. These comprise the
rotor (blade), the electrical generator, a
speed control system and a tower.These can
be used in a distributed generation in a
hybrid mode with solar or other
technologies. Research on adaptation of
wind turbines for remote and stand-alone
applications is receiving increasingly
greater attention and hybrid power systems
using 1-50-kilowatt (kW) wind turbines are
being developed for generating electricity
off the grid system. Wind turbines are also
being used as grid connected distributed
resources. Wind turbines are commercially
available in a variety of sizes and power
ratings ranging from one kW to over one
MW. These typically require a Small mum
9-mph average wind speed sites.


f. Concentrating Solar Power
Various mirror configurations are used to
concentrate the heat of the sun to generate
electricity for a variety of market
applications that range from remote power
applications of up to 1- 2kW to grid
connected applications of 200MW or more.
R & D efforts in the area of distributed
generation applications are focused on
small, modular, and dish/ design systems.

g. Photovoltaic
Photovoltaic power cells are solid state
semi conductor devices that convert
sunlight into direct current electrical power
and the amount of power generated is
directly related to the intensity of the light
PV systems are most commonly used for
standalone applications andare
commercially available with capacities
ranging between one kW to one MW. The
systems are commonly used in India and
can contribute a great deal for rural areas,
especially remote and inaccessible areas. It
can be of great help in grid connected
applications where the quality of power
provided by the grid is low. This is yet to
be proved. High initial cost is a major
constraint to large-scale application of SPV
systems. R&D work has been undertaken
for cost reduction in SPV cells, modules,
and systems besides improvements in
operational efficiency.

h. Fuel Cells
Fuel cells produce direct current electricity
using an electromechanical process similar
to battery as a result of which combustion
and the associated environmental side
effects are avoided. Natural gas or coal gas
is cleaned in a fuel cell and converted to a
hydrogen rich fuel by a processor or
internal catalyst. The gas and the air then
flow over an anode and a cathode separated
by an electrolyte and thereby produces a
constant supply of DC electricity, which is
converted to high quality AC power by a
power conditioner. Fuel cells are combined
into stacks whose sizes can be varied (from
one kW for mobile applications to 100MW
plants to add to base load capacity to utility
plants) to meet customer needs. However,
the technology is not yet ripe for being
considered for DG application in India, as it
is very expensive, and has not yet been
commercially tried on a large scale even in
the U. S. A. 4. The technologies referred to
above are applied under various schemes
for generation of electricity from renewable
sources of energy in the country. A birds
eye view of the schemes would give a good
insight into the status of Distributed
Generation based on renewable sources of
energy.


Proceeding of National Seminar on Emerging Trends in Distributed Generation

81

BIOMASS BASED SCHEMES
This can be considered under three distinct
heads, National Project on Biogas
Development, National Program me on
Bio-Mass Power/Cogeneration and Bio-
Mass GasifiedProgram me.

Biogas
The gas is piped for use as cooking and
lighting fuel in especially designed stoves
and lamps respectively and can also be
used for replacing diesel oil in fuel engines
for generation of motive power and
electricity. The Floating Gas Holder Type,
that is India or KVIC model andFixed
Dome Type which is made of brick
masonry structure i.e. Deenabandhu model
are among the indigenous designs of biogas
plants. A Bag Type Portable Digester made
of rubberized nylon fabric, suitable for
remote and hilly areas, is being promoted.
The recently developed methodology of on
sight construction of Deenabandhu model
with Ferro cement, which costs about 10 to
15% less as compared to the model
constructed with bricks and cement, is
getting popular in the Southern States.

The National Project on Biogas
Development was started in 1981-82.
About 33.68 lac families have been
benefited up to March 2002. The
Community and Institutional Biogas Plants
Program me was initiated in 1992-93. In
order to achieve recycling the cattle dung
available in the villages and institutions for
the benefit of the weaker sections as well.
Biogas is generally used for motive power
and generation of electricity under the
programme in addition to meet the cooking
fuel requirement. A total of 3,901 plants,
including 600 night soil based Biogas
plants had been installed up to March 2002.

R & D in Biogas :The thrust of the R&D
efforts is on increasing the yield of biogas,
especially at low and high temperatures,
development of cost effective design of bio
gas plants, development of designs and
methodologies forutilization of biomass,
other than cattle dung for biogas
production,reduction in the cost of biogas
plants by using alternative building
materialand construction methodology and
diversified use of digested slurry forvalue
added products.

Wind Energy
The programme was initiated in the year
1983-84. Amarket-oriented strategy has
been adopted right from the beginning
andhence commercial development of the
technology has been successfullyachieved.
Scientific assessment of wind resources
throughout the countryand a series of other
systematic steps have facilitated the
emergence of acost effective
technology.8.1 The wind power potential of
the country was initially assessed at 20000
MWand reassessed at 45000 MW
subsequently assuming 1% of
landavailability for wind power generation
in potential areas. The technicalpotential
has been assessed at 13000MW assuming
20% grid penetration,which will go up with
the augmentation of grid capacity in
potential States.The installed capacity in
the country is 1628 MW, 63 MW
underdemonstration projects and 1565 MW
under private sector projects,
whichrepresents just 13% of the technical
potential. Tamil Nadu alone accountsfor
nearly 50% of the installed capacity (857.5
MW) and the States ofTamil Nadu
Maharashtra and Gujarat account for
1423.6 MW of the totalinstalled capacity.

The Centre for wind energy technology (C-
WET) is coordinating the WindResource
Assessment Program me with the States
and Nodal Agencies.8.3 Wind diesel
projects are being taken up in Island
Proceeding of National Seminar on Emerging Trends in Distributed Generation

82

regions and remoteareas which are
dependent on costly diesel for power
generation .Twomachines of 50 kW
capacity each have been installed in the
first phase ofthe project at Sagar Islands in
West Bengal. Similar projects are
beingconsidered for Lakshadweep and
Andaman and Nicobar Islands.

Solar Power Program
The solar power program me comprises
SolarPhotovoltaic Power Programmes and
Solar Thermal Power Programmes.27 grid
interactive SPVprojects have been
installed, with an aggregate capacity of 2.0
MW inAndhra Pradesh, Chandigarh,
Karnataka, Punjab, Kerala,
Lakshadweep,Madhya Pradesh,
Maharashtra, Rajasthan,Tamil Nadu, and
UttarPradesh. These are meant for voltage
support applications in remotesections of
weak grids, peak shaving applications in
public buildings inurban centers and for
saving diesel use in islands. These are
expected togenerate and feed over 2.6
million units of electricity annually to
therespective grids. In addition, ten projects
of 900 kW capacity, are underdifferent
stages of implementation,9.2 The solar
photovoltaic systems can be used for a
variety of applications,such as rural
telecommunications, battery charging, road
and railwaysignalling which are non-
subsidized. Only 3 MW out of the total
aggregatecapacity of 96 MW (9,80,000
systems) is used by the power plants. In so
far as rural areas are concerned, the SPV
systems can beuseful for the following:

i. Village electrification through SPVs: A
five KW PV plant can servea village of 50
to 80 households for street lighting, lighting
homes/radioTV, and community
requirements like post office school
primary healthcenter and drinking water
supply. More than 2500 villages, mainly in
U.P, Rajasthan, West Bengal and Islands
and also in Nyoma town inLadakh. Ninety
villages in Bastar district of Madhya
Pradesh andfourteen villages in Meghalaya
have also been electrified throughSPVs.
ii. SPV seem to be one of the best solutions
on for the 18000 remoteand inaccessible
villages. Solar electrification is more
economical intribal areas and the North
Eastern Region compared to grid
extensionbeyond three kilometers.
iii. In Gujarat, SPV systems have been
applied at ten rural milkcollection centers
of Panchamahal District Dairy Cooperative
during2000-2001, ten more were
sanctioned in 2001-02. The deployment
ofsolar PV systems for this application has
a large potential forreplication.
iv. SPV water pumping systems for
agriculture and related are alsobeing used
by farmers. A cumulative total of 4500
SPV water systemshave been installed by
March 31, 2002.

CONCLUSION
Our country is having a huge geographical
variance and one approach or solution is
never an optimized one. For remote regions
like Thar in Rajasthan and Saurashtra in
Gujarat are most fit for solar zone. Most
coastal areas like Okhajaisalmer regions are
fit for Wind power grid Likewise Hills
areas are known for Hydro-power projects.
All metro and capital cities must have
Biomass projects. Nuclear power stations
may be stationed in low population zones
but having waters resources nearby to
them. Other rural areas may have mixed
/hybrid approaches depending upon
resources. It is firmly suggested that
transportation cost either in form of
transmission lines or inform of fuel must be
curtailed and centralized grid must be
limited independently region wise in ring
topology
Proceeding of National Seminar on Emerging Trends in Distributed Generation

83

REFERENCES
[1] Ackerman, T., Andersson, G.,
Sodder, L., 2001. Distributed
generation: a definition. Electric
Power Systems Research57, 195
204.
[2] Ganesh, A., Banerjee, R., 2001.
Biomass pyrolysis for power
generationa potential technology.
Renewable Energy 22, 914.




































[3] Resource Dynamics Corporation,
2001. Assessment of Distributed
Generation Technology
Applications, Prepared for Maine
Public Utilities Commission by
Resource Dynamics Corporation,
Vienna, VA, USA; available on the
web at //www.distributed-
generation.-com.
[4] Annual Report. 1999-2000,
Ministry of Non-Conventional
Energy Sources, Government of
India: New Delhi.
Proceeding of National Seminar on Emerging Trends in Distributed Generation

84

Review Paper on Basics of Net-Metering and
Ideas to Promote Renewable Resources

Gaurav Gupta
1
Apurva Rajput
2
Amit Kumar
3

B.Tech (EEE), NIEC, Delhi B.Tech (EEE), NIEC,Delhi B.Tech (EEE), NIEC, Delhi



Abstract-The paper summarizes various methods
for compensation to customers by the utility for
using renewable resources.It also explains briefly
about net-metering and its Indian context. Some
ideas to use renewable resources at individual level
have also been discussed.

I. INTRODUCTION

There are basically three methods to give
compensation for the use of renewable energy by
the customers:-
(a)Feed in-tariff (FIT)
(b)Power PurchaseAgreement (PPA)
(c)Net Metering

FIT is one of the solutions to compensate the
electric bill by selling the produced electricity by
any individual. consumer can produce electricity
in his/her houses using renewable source of
energy like solar source of energy, wind power
energy, micro-hydroelectricity (home based
hydro generation),biogas and after his/her use
some amount of electrical energy can be sold
back to grid.
FIT is implemented in different countries in
USA and Europe. The first form of feed-in tariff
was implemented in the US in 1978 under
President Jimmy Carter, who signed the
National Energy Act (NEA). This Act included
five separate Acts, one of which was the Public
Utility Regulatory Policies Act (PURPA). The
purpose of the National Energy Act was to
encourage energy conservation and the
development of new energy resources, including
renewables such as wind, solar and geothermal
power. In 1990, Germany adopted its
"StromeinspEisungsGesetz" (StrEG), or its "Law
on Feeding Electricity into the Grid" The StrEG
required utilities to purchase electricity
generated from renewable energy sources at
prices that were determined as a percentage of
the prevailing retail price of electricity.
Germany's Feed-in Law underwent a major
restructuring in the year 2000, being re-framed
as the Act on Granting Priority to Renewable
Energy Sources, German Renewable Energy
Act.
India inaugurated its most ambitious solar power
program to date on 9 January 2010. The
Jawaharlal Nehru National Solar Mission
(JNNSM) was officially announced by Prime
Minister of India on 12 January 2010.This
program aims to install 20,000 MW of solar
power by 2022. The first phase of this program
aims to install 1000 MW by paying a tariff fixed
by the Central Electricity Regulatory
Commission (CERC) of India. While in spirit
this is a feed in tariff, there are several
conditions on project size and commissioning
date. Tariff for solar PV projects is fixed at Rs.
17.90 (USD 0.397/kWh). Tariff for solar thermal
projects is fixed Rs. 15.40 (USD 0.342/kWh).
Tariff will be reviewed periodically by the
CERC.
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85

PPAis another option to compensate the
problem related to electrical use. There is an
entity which is responsible for compensation of
electricity production, they use renewable source
of energy to produce electrical energy and sell to
nearest individuals.A Power Purchase
Agreement (PPA) is a legal contract between an
electricity generator (provider) and a power
purchaser (buyer, typically a utility or large
power buyer/trader). Contractual terms may last
anywhere between 5 and 20 years, during which
time the power purchaser buys energy, and
sometimes also capacity and/or auxiliary
services from the electricity generator. Key
advantage of power purchase agreements is the
predictable cost of electricity over the life of a
15 to 25 year contract. This avoids unpredictable
price fluctuation from utility rates, which are
typically dependent on fossil fuel prices.
Net Metering is a concept based on net
consumption of energy. Customer will produce
some amount of energy in his/her house and
according to this he/she can contribute in
generation of electrical energy.

It can be practiced by using some renewable
energy sources like solar source of energy, wind
energy source, micro-hydroelectricity using
water harvesting. In a day there is some period
of time when customer needs negligible energy
and he/she is generating more energy than he/she
consumes, in this case customer can send his/her
produced energy back to the grid. A meter is
installed which reads net consumption of energy
by moving its indicator in forward and reverse
direction .When customer consumes energy
from grid then meter moves in forward direction
and if customer sends produced energy back to
the grid then meter moves in reverse direction.
The Produced electricity back to the grid and
meter moves in reverse direction. Net metering
allows for the production of electricity that
reduces demand on a strained grid. This practice
helps the utility to make the system efficient,
reliable and stable. To know the difference that
the customer sited DG (such as a PV system)
makes to the system the utility installs a costly
additional meter at customers house and
undertake the burden and expense of reading
both meters and billing consumer for the result
of this process.
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86

II. NET METERING

Net metering originated in the United States,
where small wind turbines and solar panels were
connected to the electrical grid, and consumers
wanted to be able to use the electricity generated
at a different time or date than when it was
generated. However, Minnesota passed the first
net metering law, in 1983. In 2000 this was
amended to compensation "at the average retail
utility energy rate". This is the simplest and most
general interpretation of net metering, and in
addition allows small producers to sell electricity
at the retail rate. Utilities in Idaho adopted net
metering in 1980 and in Arizona in 1981.
Massachusetts adopted net metering in 1982.[3]
Two California utilities initially adopted a
monthly "net metering" charge, which included a
"standby charge" but these charges were banned
later. In 2005, all U.S. utilities were required to
offer net metering "upon request". As of 2012 43
U.S. states have adopted net metering, as well as
utilities in 3 of the remaining states, leaving only
4 states without any established procedures for
implementing net metering.[4]Net metering was
slow to be adopted in Europe, especially in the
United Kingdom, because of confusion over
how to address the value added tax (VAT). Only
one utility in Great Britain offers net metering.
[5]

Implementation of Net-Metering
Implementation of net-metering basically
requires two steps.
Interconnection - An interconnection standard
includes the technical requirements and the legal
procedures whereby a customer-sited generator
interfaces with the electricity grid. Individual
states regulate the process whereby renewable
energy systems are connected to the electric
distribution grid. These policies, commonly
known as interconnection procedures, seek to
maintain the stability of the grid and the safety
of those who use and maintain it. A complete
interconnection procedure must address fees,
timelines, insurance requirements and
indemnification, forms and certain other issues
to provide a comprehensive procedure that
supports investment in customer-sited
Distributed Generation either by individuals
or by project development investors.

Net-Metering - Net metering allows customers
to offset their electricity consumption with
small-scale renewable generation over an entire
billing period (or in some instances over an
entire year) without considering when the power
is consumed or generated. Net metering uses a
single bi-directional meter that registers the flow
of electricity in both directions.
With net metering, either the customer pays for
the net electricity consumed over the billing
period at the retail rate, or the utility purchases
the net electricity generated over the billing
period at the lower cost rate.
One of the examples of policy (interconnection
procedure):-
The Four Pillars of effective state policy.


Proceeding of National Seminar on Emerging Trends in Distributed Generation

87

The Four Pillars take into consideration the best
practices of net metering and interconnection.
Incentives (Pillar 1) and utility rates and revenue
policies (Pillar 4) are also crucial components in
developing a world-class solar market. While
financial incentives are the engine of market
development, interconnection and net metering
policies are the road.

Pitfalls in the Interconnection Procedures
After analysing some of the policies, the pitfalls
have been identified in the regulatory rule
making process.
Common pitfalls include:
Restricting eligibility to certain classes of
electric customers.
Limiting program eligibility based on the
size of individual renewable energy systems.
Preventing customers from receiving credit
for excess electricity.
Charging discriminatory or unclear fees and
standby charges.
Failing to promote the program to eligible
customers.[6]

Trends in net meteringNet-metering is
presently utilized in many countries as
follows[7]:
Generally small scale electric customers
have simple bidirectional meters-capable of
spinning backwards to record energy flowing
from their system to the utility grid.
These basic meters are often referred to as
"non-time-of-use meters" because they are
not capable of recording when electricity
was used. They can only record how much
energy was used.
Some utilities want two meters for net
energy metering, one to measure electricity
going from the grid to your home or
business, and one to measure surplus energy
going from your system to the grid.
Time-of-use (TOU) meters are more
complex and they record when electricity is
used and allowing the utility to charge
different rates at different times of the day or
week.
A small number of states (including
California) allow virtual meter
aggregation, where certain customers can net
meter multiple systems at different facilities
on different properties owned by the same
customer.
In addition, community net metering or
neighbourhood net metering, which allows
for the joint ownership of a solar energy
system by different customers, is in effect or
under development in a some places,
including Massachusetts.

Virtual Net Metering
A newer approach to for
CommunitySolarprojects to
leverage net metering is to establish a
"Virtual Net Metering" system. In this model
the owner/manager of the solar array would
track the energy production per individual share
of the system. If the utility is managing the
system, they could credit participants' energy
bills for their portion of solar production just as
they would for individually-metered systems. [8]

Benefits of Net-Metering
An easily recognizable benefit of net-metering is
reduction in the amount of money spent each
year on energy.
One can even make money from the electric
utility if the production is greater than the
consumption.
Here are a few other benefits of net metering:
The most immediate and substantial benefit
of renewable energy based net-metering
process is that it provides jobs. The solar
industry is generating jobs at a rate 680%
faster than the overall economy. For instance,
as of August 2011, the American solar
industry employed over 100,000 solar
workers. And the future for the solar industry
is just as bright: almost 50% of the countrys
solar companies expect to add jobs,
The system is easy and inexpensive. It
enables people to get real value for the energy
they produce, without having to install a
second meter or an expensive battery storage
system.
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88

It allows homeowners and businesses to
produce energy, which takes some of the
pressure off the grid, especially during
periods of peak consumption.
For instance in Australia, the Solar Bonus
Scheme pays 44 cents for every excess
kilowatt hour of energy fed back into the state
electricity grid. This is around three times the
current retail price for electricity.
Each home can potentially power two or three
other homes. If enough homes in a
neighborhood use renewable energy and net
metering, the neighborhood could potentially
become self-reliant.
By facilitating distributed renewable energy
development on-site, net metering accesses
the greatest benefits of renewable energy
without one of its most significant
environmental costs.

NET METERING IN INDIAN CONTEXT
Electricity demand in India is expected to rise 5
times over the next four decades. The challenge
is to reduce the demand supply gap. As a result
the government of India has announced plans to
add 100giga watts of new generation capacity of
2017 through an investment of over $102 billion
in the generation, transmission and distribution
sectors.
In early 2011, India announced a $132 million
smart grid pilot project.
India does have feed-in tariffs plans in various
states for wind power but they are for wind
farms. At the home-owner level, there are no
feed-in tariffs that exist. Grid characteristics and
distribution sector are not fully ready for
implementation of Net Metering. Much attention
has not been paid to generate and bank
electricity locally using solar power. But there
are some renewable sources of energy to
implement net-metering in India on a large scale.
With an average of 300 sunny days per year,
India has vast potential for tapping solar energy.
Though Photovoltaic systems are expensive but
they are easier to use and to install than wind
farms. They are motionless, noiseless and
pollution free. They can be a part of the
building's roof or facade and thus occupy less
space.

CONCLUSION
Net metering promises development of a
clean and green environment. It offers to use
renewable resources effectively and creation of
jobs in solar, wind and otherindustries. It helps
the transmission and distribution system to
become stable and reliable and at the same time
helps customers to reduce their electricity costs.

REFERENCES
[1]http://sgstage.nrel.gov/the_smart_grid#smart_
grid
[2] Wikipedia.com
[3] Current Experience with Net Metering
Programs (1998)
[4] Net Metering Map
[5] SolarNet and Net Metering
[6] FreeingTheGrid2009.pdf
[7]http://www.gosolarcalifornia.org/solar_basics
/net_metering.php
[8]http://nwcommunityenergy.org/solar/intercon
nection

[9]http://science.howstuffworks.com/environme
ntal/green-science/net-metering1.htm
[10]The_Statewide_Benefits_of_Net-
Metering_In_CA_Weissman_and_Johnson.p
df(http://www.law.berkeley.edu/files/The_Sta
tewide_Benefits_of_NetMetering_in_CA_We
issman_and_Johnson.pdf)

Proceeding of National Seminar on Emerging Trends in Distributed Generation

89

A Survey on Smart Grid

Kritika Sharma
1
Swati Singh
2
Amit Kumar Yadav
3

B.Tech(EEE), RKGITW, Ghaziabad B.Tech(EEE), RKGITW, Ghaziabad RKGITW, Ghaziabad
kritikasharma599@gmail.com swati.singh3210@gmail.com ideal.amit@gmail.com


Abstract This paper deals with Smart Grid
technology and its implementations to improve the
efficiency of power grid. Todays grid needs to be
upgraded because it is aging, inadequate, outdated.
Smart grid comprises of digital system capable of
identifying surges downed lines. These include
advanced meters, sensors, monitors and motors. The
paper highlights on various problems and challenges
related to electricity grids that are faced everywhere.
It is much more practical to consider smart grids in
terms of opportunities to improve the operation of the
power system that are being exploited. Smart grid
can be described as modernization of nations
electricity transmission and distribution system to
achieve a reliable and secure electricity
infrastructure that can meet future demand. One of
the key features of a smart grid is the ability to utilize
information to make better operational decisions.
The implementation and operation of the Smart Grid
will affect every type of organization across the
electricity supply chain, from regulators to
consumers.

Keywords- Smart Grid , Two way flow

I. INTRODUCTION
Power system consists of generation,
transmission, distribution and utilization of
electrical power. The distribution and utilization
need to embrace active network management
technologies with an interface to the transmission
system. A smart grid embrace new technologies
i.e. telecommunication, control, self-healing,
efficiency, reliability and security of power
systems [6]. The need to meet increasing
electricity demand, integrate more distributed
sustainable resources including renewable energy
sources and advanced storage devices (batteries,
compressed air system, fuel cell etc.). The role of
the electric grids is becoming very important to
balance the energy demand variations with the
fluctuating power generation from the irregular
sun and wind [8]. Smart grids must provide the
electric energy to all consumers with a highly
reliable, cost effective power supply, fully
utilizing the large centralized generators and
smaller distributed power sources. To switch from
modern grid to smart grid all the relevant must be
involved: government, regulators, consumers,
generators, traders, power exchangers,
transmission companies, distribution companies,
power equipment manufacturers, etc.[3]

II. SMART GRID
About hundred years ago, the power engineers
crafted an excellent reliable power delivery
system from generation to the consumer end
through transmission and distribution. At that time
power system supported a regulated monopolistic
business model, large remote generation sites, less
restrictive environmental constraints and system
overbuild to account for load growth. In the
present scenario, higher reliability is expected,
with dramatically different and challenging design
criteria. Consumers are more sensitive to outages,
low voltage and harmonic issues. Environmental
constraints are more restrictive. Efforts to control
CO2 emissions is leading to expanded adoption of
central station and distributed renewable power
and electric energy storage, as well as expanded
electric transportation and demand response
technologies. The power delivery infrastructure in
its current state will not be able to effectively
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90

accommodate the extent and types of these carbon
reduction technologies [1]. There is need for
upgrading and evolving the networks design to
accommodate all low carbon generation
technologies as well as to encourage the demand
side to play an active part in supply, efficiently
and economically.[1][4] The smart grid is a
network of computers and power infrastructures
that observe power system parameters and control
energy usage. The intelligent electronic devices
communicate energy usage to the utility using a
modern communication technology. The
intelligent electronic device at each consumer
premises is called a smart meter. Its a
computerized replacement of the electrical meter
attached to the outer walls of many of our homes
today. Each smart meter contains a processor, non
volatile storage, and communication facilities.
Smart meters can track usage as a function of time
of day, disconnect a customer via software, or
send out alarms in case of problems [2]. The
smart meter can also interface directly with
consumers, in following way:
i. Consumers receive a high cost period
pricing signal.
ii. Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles stop
charging and pump power onto the grid.
iii. The set points on air conditioning
thermostats are raised by two degrees or
turn down the air conditioner during peak
periods.
iv. The heating coils in cloth dryers turn off.
v. One of two heating coils in each storage
electric water heater turns off.
vi. The lights at large retail stores are
gradually reduced by 20%.
vii. Refrigerator and freezer compressors are
cycled off.
viii. Back-up generation at commercial and
industrial facilities comes on-line.


Fig: 1 Future Power System

SMART INFRASTRUCTURE SYSTEM
The smart infrastructure System is the energy,
information, and communication infrastructure
underlying the SG. It supports two-way flow of
electricity and information. Note that it is straight
forward to understand the concept of two-way
flow of information. Two-way flow of
electricity implies that the electric energy
delivery is not unidirectional anymore. For
example, in the traditional power grid, the
electricity is generated by the generation plant,
then moved by the transmission grid, the
distribution grid, and finally delivered to users. In
an SG, electricity can also be put back into the
grid by users. For example, users may be able to
generate electricity using solar panels at homes
and put it back into the grid, or electric vehicles
may provide power to help balance loads by
peak shaving (sending power back to the grid
when demand is high). This backward flow is
important.

SMART MANAGEMENT SYSTEM
The smart management system is the subsystem in
SG that provides advanced management and
control services and functionalities. With the
development of new management applications
and services that can leverage the technology and
capability upgrades enabled by this advanced in-
frastructure, the grid will keep becoming
smarter. The smart management system takes
advantage of the smart infrastructure to pursue
various advanced management objectives. Thus
far, most of such objectives are related to energy
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91

efficiency improvement, supply and demand
balance, emission control, operation cost
reduction, and utility maximization.

SMART PROTECTION SYSTEM
The smart protection system is the subsystem
in SG that provides advanced grid reliability
analysis, failure protection, and security and
privacy protection services. By taking
advantage of the smart infrastructure, the SG
must not only realize a smarter management
system, but also provide a smarter protection
system which can more effectively and
efficiently support failure protection
mechanisms, address cyber security issues,
and preserve privacy.




Fig: 2 Smart Grids

III. ENABLING TECHNOLOGY

SMART METERING
Smart metering is the most important mechanism
used in the SG for obtaining information from end
users devices and appliances, while also
controlling the behavior of the devices. Automatic
metering infrastructure (AMI) systems, which are
themselves built upon automatic meter reading
(AMR) systems , are widely regarded as a logical
strategy to realize SG. Smart meters, which
support two-way communications between the
meter and the central system. Smart metering
offers a number of potential benefits to
consumers. It enables end user to estimate bills
and thus manage their energy consumptions to
reduce bills.

SMART MONITORING AND
MEASUREMENT
An important function in the vision of SG is
monitoring and measurement of grid status.
a) Sensors- Sensors or sensor networks are used
as a monitoring and measurement approach for
different purposes and used to detect mechanical
failures in power grids such as conductor failures,
tower collapses, hot spots, and extreme
mechanical conditions.
b) Phasor Measurement Unit- Recent
developments in the SG have spawned interest in
the use of phasor measurement units (PMUs) to
help create a reliable power transmission and
distribution infrastructure. A PMU measures the
electrical waves on an electrical grid to determine
the health of the system.

SMART MATERIALS
Smart materials are necessary in the future power
grid to give it the ability to self-recover with fast
response in milliseconds under outage events or
terrorist attacks. To accomplish this level of self-
recovery, it is necessary to make each component
intelligent. Such local, autonomous control will
make the system much more resilient to multiple
contingencies. One class of materials known as
smart materials and structures (SMSs) has the
unique capability to sense and physically respond
to changes in the environmentchanges in
temperature, pH, or magnetic field.
For the wires used in the electric power industry,
smart materials could be utilized to monitor the
condition of conductors, breakers, and
transformers to avoid outages.
The growing list of smart materials encompasses a
number of different physical forms that respond to
a wide variety of stimuli. Examples include the
following:
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92

i. Piezoelectric ceramics and polymers are
materials, such as lead zirconate titanate
ceramics and polyvinylidene fluoride
polymers that react to physical pressure.
They can be used as either sensors or
actuators, depending on their polarity.
ii. Conductive polymers are polymers that
undergo dimensional changes upon
exposure to an electric field. These
versatile materials can be used not only as
sensors and actuators, but also as
conductors, insulators, and shields against
electromagnetic interference.
iii. Electrorheological fluids are materials
containing polarized particles in a
nonconducting fluid that stiffens when
exposed to an electric field. As such, they
can be used in advanced actuators.
iv. Fiber optics are fine glass fibers that signal
environmental change through analysis of
light transmitted through them. Perhaps
the most versatile sensor material, optical
fibers can indicate changes in force,
pressure, density, temperature, radiation,
magnetic field, and electric current.

NANOTECHNOLOGY
The theme of the development of nanotechnology
in energy application technology is geared toward
two main directions: nonmaterials for energy
storage and nanotechnology for energy saving.
Because of the small dimensions (520 nm), high
specific surface areas, and special optical
properties of nonmaterials, nanotechnology for
energy saving is expected to increase with the
contact area of the medium. Nanotechnology is
being used to better the performance of
rechargeable batteries through the study of
molecular electrochemical behavior. Owing to the
advantages of high reactivity, large surface area
(2002000 m2/g), self-assembly (~13-nm active
catalyst), super crystal characteristics (~1030-nm
nanostructures), and special opto-electronic
effects of nanomaterials for energy saving, several
countries are heavily engaged in the development
of energy-related nanomaterials.
IV. SMART GRID Vs TRADITIONAL GRID

In this producer-controlled model, power flows
in one direction only. There is no two-way
communication that allows interactivity between
end users and the grid. The smart grid delivers
electricity to consumers using two-way digital
technology to enable the more efficient
management of consumers end uses of electricity
as well as the more efficient use of the grid to
identify and correct supply demand-imbalances
instantaneously and detect faults in a self-
healing process that improves service quality,
enhances reliability, and reduces costs.

Table 1 Smart grid Vs Traditional Grid

Smart Grid Existing Grid
Digital Electromechanical
Distributed generation Centralized generation
Tow-way communication One-way communication
Self-monitoring Manual monitoring
Sensors throughout Few sensors
Self-healing Manual restoration
Pervasive control Minimum control
Adaptive and islanding Failures and blackouts
Many customer choices Few customer choices

V. BENEFITS OF SMART GRID

Benefits and requirements of SG are the
following:
i. Improving power reliability and quality.
ii. Optimizing facility utilization and averting
construction of back-up (peak load) power
plants.
iii. Enhancing capacity and efficiency of
existing electric power networks.
iv. Improving resilience to disruption.
v. Enabling predictive maintenance and self-
healing responses of system disturbances.
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93

vi. Facilitating expanded deployment of
renewable energy sources.
vii. Accommodating distributed power
sources.
viii. Automating maintenance and operation.
ix. Reducing greenhouse gas emissions by
enabling electric vehicles and new power
sources.
x. Reducing oil consumption by reducing the
need for inefficient generation during peak
usage periods.
xi. Presenting opportunities to improve grid
security.
xii. Enabling transition to plug-in electric
vehicles and new energy storage options.
xiii. Increasing consumer choice.


CONCLUSION

In near future, electricity demand is expected to
continue to grow further, to provide the power
quality and to meet the ever rising demand
economically, more power generation is needed at
centralized level or at distribution level. Due to
environmental constraints, more stress has to be
given to generate the power from green and clean
energy sources. The power generation through
green energy sources varies with time, to integrate
with these sources; network configuration has to
be changed. The plug in hybrid electric vehicles
may also play an important role to meet the
energy demand during peak demand period and
during off peak hours they may be connected for
charging.
With the help of advanced communication
technologies the utility will be able for effective
decisions to be made and timely actions
propagated to the points at which intelligent
electronic devices installed, resulting in the smart
grid benefits that the utility and its consumers
expects. Modern communication technology has
ability to introduce a new era in electricity
generation, distribution,
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Proceeding of National Seminar on Emerging Trends in Distributed Generation

94

Authentication Protocol for Distributed Sensor
Network

Amit Kumar
1
Sunil Gupta
2
Rashmi Sharma
2

ABES EC, GZB NIEC, New Delhi ABES EC, GZB
amit1sharma1@gmail.com research.sunil@gmail.com rs_trivedi@yahoo.com


Abstract - With the emergence of ubiquitous
computing the role of sensor network is
becoming more important which demands
highest level security and energy efficiency. In
this paper we have analysis authentication
protocols that resolve the weakness of security &
suitable for the application with higher security
requirement. We present a survey based on
computation & communication cost with their
performances. The authentication is a crucial
service in distributed WSN because of limitation
in computing power, data storage &
communication capabilities.

Keyword:- Authentication, Wireless Sensor
Network, Security.

I. INTRODUCTION

Security allows WSNs to be used with
assurance. Without security, the use of WSN
is any application area would cause in
undesirable consequences. Wireless sensor
networks are rapidly gaining regard due to low
cost solutions to a variety of real world
challenges. The basic idea of sensor network
is to disperse tiny sensing devices, which are
able for sensing some changes of
incidents/parameters and communicating with
other devices, over a specific geographic area
for some particular purposes like surveillance,
environmental monitoring and target tracking.
Now a days sensors can monitor pressure,
temperature, humidity, soil makeup, noise
levels, vehicular movement, and lighting



conditions, the presence or absence of certain
kinds of objects or substances, mechanical
stress levels on attached objects, and other
properties [17]. In case of wireless sensor
network, the communication among the
sensors is done using wireless transceivers.
Basically the major challenge for employing
any efficient security scheme in wireless
sensor networks is created by the size of
sensors, as a result the memory, processing
power and type of tasks affected from the
sensors. To deal with the important security
issues in Wireless sensor networks we talk
about cryptography, steganography and other
basics of network security and their
applicability. We investigate various types of
threats and attacks against wireless sensor
network to save manufacturing cost. A sensor
node is usually built as a small device, which
has limited memory, a low-end processor, and
is powered by a battery. So during the design
of any security solution we need to take care
of resource constraints like limited energy,
limited memory, limited computing power,
limited communication bandwidth, limited
communication range.

The type of security mechanism that can be
hosted on a sensor node platform is dependent
on the capabilities and constraints of sensor
node hardware. After months of operation or a
several weeks, some of the nodes in the
network may weaken their power because of
the irregular distribution of traffic load. so
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95

new node deployment is needed in this case.
Besides the natural loss of sensor nodes, a
sensor network is also vulnerable to malicious
attacks in unattended and hostile
environments. Some of the sensor nodes may
be destroyed by opponent, so that the entire
network may become useless. So, new sensor
nodes have to be deployed. On the other hand,
an opponent can also position a malicious
node into the network. These malicious nodes
may insert false reports and eaves drop
messages. Recently many schemes were
proposed to defend the sensor networks. It
may prevent external attackers from inserting
false reports or eavesdropping messages. But,
they can hardly protect against internal attacks
.In this paper; we evaluate the internal attacks
in WSN. We observe that these attacks
manipulate existing nodes to introduce
malicious new nodes, which are
indistinguishable from legitimate new nodes
under current sensor network security
technology. Those introduced new nodes
could be accepted by other normal nodes as
legitimate ones. Based on this observation, we
design a protocol for sensor networks to
prevent malicious nodes. However, most
of previously proposed key pre distribution
schemes cannot be easily implemented as a
dynamic access control because all the old
secret keys and broadcasting messages of
existing nodes should be updated once a new
node is added [17,18,19,20]. We introduce the
node Security time stamp, which is the time
when the new node joins the sensor network,
into the authentication procedure to
differentiate malicious new nodes, which
are actually old nodes, from legitimate new
nodes. Moreover, key establishment is also
included in our authentication protocol to help
the new node establish shared keys with its
neighbors so that it can perform secure
communications with them. Com-pared to
RSA, ECC can achieve the same level of
security with smaller key size. It has been
known that 160-bit ECC provides comparable
security to 1024-bit RSA and 224-bit ECC
provides comparable security to 2048-bit RSA
[21] Hence, under the same security level,
smaller key sizes of ECC offer merits of
computational efficiency, as well as memory,
and bandwidth saving. It is better suited for
the resource constrained devices. Owing to the
merits of ECC, this Protocol is based on
elliptic curve cryptography (ECC).

II. WHY NEED SECURITY

The goal of security services in WSNs is to
protect the information and resources from
attacks and misbehavior. The security
requirements in WSNs include:
Node authentication: Ideally, the key
management technique should guarantee that
the communicating nodes are able to verify
each others identity in a secure way. This
feature helps the network to pinpoint
misbehaving nodes, resulting in a higher
resistance against the capture of valid nodes
and attempts of impersonating them.
Resilience: Refers to the resistance of the
scheme against node capture, where an
adversary physically attacks a sensor and
recovers secret information from its memory.
The schemes resilience is given by the
fraction of the network communications that
are exposed to the adversary,[22] excluding
the communications in which the
compromised node is directly involved.
Node revocation: Upon the discovery of
compromised nodes, the key management
solution should provide efficient ways to
dynamically revoke them from the network.
Such mechanisms are useful to prevent an
adversary from inserting malicious nodes into
the network, even if this adversary obtained
access to some secret information (e.g.,
through node capture).
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96

Scalability: During the sensor network
lifetime, its size may vary dynamically; thus,
the key distribution
Scheme must support large networks and, at
the same time, allow the introduction of new
nodes without loss of security.

III. REVIEW ATTACKS IN WSN

Security Requirements in Wireless Sensor
Networks There are several problems with
regard to the security of user authentication
provided by IEEE 802.15.4 [17]. They cited
key management problems.

Secure user authentication in WSNs should
include, to the extent possible, methods for
addressing application layer issues such as
masquerade, replay, and forgery attacks.

Secure user authentication in WSNs should be
based on mutual authentication.

A large-scale sensor network consists of
thousands of sensor nodes and may be
dispersed over a wide area. Typical sensor
nodes are small with limited communication
and computing capabilities, and are powered
by batteries. These small sensor nodes are
susceptible to many kinds of attacks. Attacks
against wireless sensor networks could be
broadly considered from two different levels
of views. One is the attack against the security
mechanisms and another is against the basic
mechanisms.
A. Passive Information Gathering: An
opponent with powerful assets can collect
information from the sensor networks if it is
not encrypted [23].
B. Node Subversion: Capture of a node may
tell its information including disclosure of
cryptographic keys and thus compromise the
whole sensor network [23].
C. False Node: A false node involves the
addition of a node by an opponent to inject
malicious data, whereby the false node is
computationally robust enough to lure other
nodes to send data to it [23].
D. Node Malfunction: A malfunctioning node
will generate inaccurate data which could put
at risk to the integrity of sensor network
especially if it is a data aggregating node such
as a cluster head [23].
E. Node Outage: Node outage is when a node
stops its function. In the case where a cluster
head stops functioning, the sensor network
protocols should be robust enough to
moderate the effects of node outages by
providing an alternate route. [23].
F. Message Corruption: Any modification of
the content of a message by an attacker
compromises its integrity [23].
G. Traffic Analysis: Even when the messages
transferred are encrypted, it still leaves a high
possibility analysis of the communication
patterns and sensor activities can potentially
reveal enough information to enable an
adversary to cause malicious harm to the
sensor network [23].
H. The Sybil attack: In a Sybil attack, a single
node presents several identities to other nodes
in the network. They pose a significant risk to
geographic routing protocols, where location
aware routing requires nodes to exchange
coordinate information with their neighbors to
efficiently route geographically addressed
packets. Authentication and encryption
techniques can prevent an outsider to launch a
Sybil attack on the sensor network. However,
an insider cannot be prevented from
participating in the network, but it should only
be able to do so using the identities of the
nodes has compromised. Using globally
shared keys allows an insider to masquerade
as any node [24, 25].
I. Sinkhole attacks: In a sinkhole attack, the
goal of opponent is to tempt nearly all the
traffic from a particular area through a
compromised node, creating a metaphorical
sinkhole with the opponent at the center.
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97

Sinkhole attacks typically work by making a
compromised node look especially attractive
to surrounding nodes with respect to the
routing algorithm [26].
J. Wormholes: In the wormhole attack, an
opponent messages received in one part of the
network over a low latency link and replays
them in a different part. The simplest instance
of this attack is a single node situated between
two other nodes forwarding messages between
the two of them. on the other hand, wormhole
attacks more commonly involve two distant
malicious nodes colluding to understate their
distance from each other by relaying packets
along an out-of-bound channel available only
to the Attacker [27].

K. No Protection against Insider Attacks:
Nowadays users use a single common
password for accessing different applications
or servers. The situation is common practice
and this is done for their convenience. It
relieves the user from having to remember
multiple passwords. Nevertheless, if the
system manager or a privileged user of the
GW-node obtains the common password of
Ui, he/she may try to impersonate Ui by
accessing other servers where Ui could be a
registered user.

L. No Provision for Changing/Updating
Passwords:
The fixed password is definitely suffered from
threats than an updating password. It is a
widely recommended security policy, for
highly secure applications, that users should
update or change their passwords frequently.
In the scheme [14,15], there is no provision
for a user to easily change his/her password.

IV. LITERATURE SURVEY ON WSN
SECURITY

The following section provides a brief on
related work on total access control protocol
include authentication and key management.
Zhou et al. [1] proposed an access control
protocol based on elliptic curve cryptography
(ECC) for sensor networks. Their scheme can
provide new nodes to join the sensor network
dynamically, and key establishment is also
included in their access control protocol to
help the new node establish shared keys with
its neighbors so that it can carry out secure
communications among sensor nodes. They
included a bootstrap in their access control
protocol to provide authentication procedure.
And two sensor nodes should have the same
bootstrapping time if deployed
simultaneously. Their scheme also assumes
that each sensor node can sustain a tolerance
time interval before it is compromised. Then,
it will be not convenient for some practical
implementations. ACP is consisted of four
phases, Redeployment phase, Node
Deployment, node authentication and key
establishment.
Huang [2] proposed a novel access control
protocol (NACP) based on ECC and
authentication hash chain to support the
practical implementations for sensor networks.
NACP is quite adequate for power and
resource constrained sensor nodes and could
be easily implemented as a dynamic access
control because all the old secrets and
broadcasting information in existing nodes
should not be updated once a new node is
added. Huang claimed that her NACP can
resist against various known attacks including
the replay attack and the forgery attack.
NACP is consisted of three phases, i.e. an
initialization phase, an authentication and key
establishment phase, and a new node addition
phase. Compared with Zhou et al.'s [1]
scheme, this scheme could reduce large
amounts of computations and communications
between two nodes. Moreover, this scheme
can be easily implemented as a dynamic
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98

access control because the old secret keys and
broadcasting information of existing nodes
should not be updated once a new node is
added.
Kim and Lee [3] proposed an enhanced novel
access control protocol (ENACP) by adding a
hash chain renewal phase and supporting the
mutual authentication, and claimed that
ENACP can resist against replay attack, new
node masquerading attack and lack of hash
chain renewability. Kim and Lees enhanced
novel access control protocol (ENACP)
consists of four phases: initialization phase,
authentication and key establishment phase,
new node injection phase, and hash chain
renewal phase.

J. Shen et al [4] find that there are still some
fatal weaknesses in enhanced novel access
control protocol ENACP [3] even though it
improves the security and flexibility of NACP.
In the authentication and key establishment
phase, an adversary can easily intercept a
random number of base station and hash
operation from initialization phase. When
node i communicates with node j to do the
authentication via the wireless channel. In this
case, the adversary can block the correct
random number of base station and hash
operation), and resubmit the distorted random
number and hash function to node j after
modifying the value of random number and
hash function . Therefore, node i is not able to
pass the authentication in node j, and node j
considers node i as a illegitimate node because
all the verification equations cannot hold. On
the other hand, when node j communicates
with node i, the adversary is also able to
intercept and modify the values of random
number and hash function in order to make the
authentication of node j fail.
Rabia Riaz and Ayesha Naureen [5] have
introduced SACK (Storage and
Communication optimized keying) framework
for wireless sensor networks. In this
framework each sensor node is programmed
according to the application requirements
before network deployment. At the same time,
one unique Key (KNB) of size m bit and one
master key (KM) of size M bits is stored in
FLASH ROM of each node. The reason for
storing KM in FLASH ROM instead of hard
coding in ROM is to exploit this information
for later purging the keys in
corrupted/compromised nodes. Base station
(BS) stores the [SNIDj, KNB] pair for each
node and uses it to authenticate and establish a
pairwise symmetric key for each sensor node
at the time of node joining in
the network. BS also stores routing keys
(KCL) and cluster keys (KCi) in a database
for specified period of time
T = Tmax + Smax.

This information is used when a sleep node
has to re-join the network on becoming active.
Base Station Node Pairwise Key (KNB) is a
unique pairwise key of each node with the BS.
BS can use this key to propagate any interest
directly to that sensor node. Routing Key
(KCL) is used by CLs to communicate with
BS and other CLs. If any CL cannot directly
reach BS, then it establishes a route through
other CL using this key and hence we call it
the routing key. Cluster Key (KCi) is used by
CN of ith cluster to communicate with their
CL and other members of their cluster.
Tanveer Ahmad Zia[ 6] have introduced a
secure triple key scheme that covers the
aspects of key pre-distribution, key
deployment and key establishment. The STKS
consists of three keys: a network key, a sensor
key and a cluster key. These keys ensure
authentication and encryption in
communication from the base station to the
nodes, from the nodes to cluster leaders, and
back to the base station. The STKS achieves
confidentiality using RC5 block cipher
algorithm and authentication using MAC.
Experimental results prove the performance of
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99

the STKS with negligible security overheads.
The STKS also forms the basis of encryption
and authentication which has been applied in
the other three components of WSNS.
Park and Shin [7] propose a dynamic group
key management protocol called LiSP. LiSP
addresses the vulnerability of key stream
ciphers caused by key reuse. It addresses the
problem by frequently and synchronously
updating the group key. LiSP utilizes
broadcast transmission to distribute the group
keys and uses one-way key chains to recover
lost keys. This scheme is very efficient; LiSP
requires the use of static administration keys
to perform periodic administrative functions.
This leaves those keys vulnerable to
disclosure.
Carman et al. [8] conducted a comprehensive
analysis of various group key schemes. The
authors conclude that the group size is the
primarily factor that should be considered
when choosing a scheme for generating and
distributing group keys in a WSN.
Wong et al. [9] propose a scalable group key
management protocol using key graphs. They
utilize keys of multiple granularities to reduce
the re-keying overhead associated with
membership management. They also
investigate multiple approaches for
constructing re-keying messages. While
efficient, this approach requires a centralized
key distribution center.
Zhu et al. [10] propose a comprehensive
dynamic key management scheme called
LEAP that establishes multiple keys for
supporting neighborhood as well as global
information sharing. Although LEAP includes
several promising ideas, it does not adequately
address scalability issues concerning the
distribution and re-keying of group keys.
Perrig et al. [11] introduce SPINS (Security
Protocols for Sensor Networks) which is a
collection of security protocols (SNEP) and
micro-TESLA. SNEP (Secure Network
Encryption Protocol) provides data
confidentiality and two-way data
authentication with minimal overheads.
Micro-TESLA, a micro version of TESLA
(Time Efficient Streamed Loss-tolerant
Authentication) provides authenticated
streaming broadcast. SPINS leaves some
questions like security of compromised nodes,
DoS issues and network traffic analysis issues
unaddressed. Furthermore, this protocol
assumes a static network topology ignoring
the ad hoc and mobile nature of sensor nodes.

J. Leavy et al. [12] proposes a light-weight
security protocol that operates in the base
station of sensor communication whereby the
base station can detect and remove an aberrant
node if it is compromised. This protocol does
not specify any security measures in case of a
passive attack on a node where an adversary is
intercepting the communication

Zhu et al [13] present a LEAP which stands
for Localized Encryption and Authentication
Protocol is a key management protocol for
sensor networks designed for in-network
processing. Every node is only engaged with a
limited number of its neighboring nodes to
build its required keys out of its neighboring
nodes; in other words, it does not involve all
nodes of the network. The design of the
protocol is motivated by the observation that
different types of messages exchanged
between sensor nodes have different security
requirements, and that a single keying
mechanism is not suitable for meeting these
different security requirements. Hence, LEAP
supports the establishment of four types of
keys for each sensor node: an individual key
shared with the base station, a pair-wise key
shared with another sensor node, a cluster key
shared with multiple neighboring nodes, and a
group key that is shared by all the nodes in the
network. The protocol used for establishing
and updating these keys is communication and
energy efficient, and minimizes the
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100

involvement of the base station. LEAP also
includes an efficient protocol for inter-node
traffic authentication based on the use of one-
way key chains. A salient feature of the
authentication protocol is that it supports
source authentication without precluding in
network processing and passive participation.
M. Sharifi et al [14] present a SKEW is a
lightweight protocol for key management in
WSNs. It tries to manage keys with minimum
communication, key transmission and storage
usage. It is a base key management protocol
that preserves network security before start up.
It approaches in two cases: hierarchical WSNs
and distributed WSNs. In the first case, our
network is a hierarchical WSN and each
sensor node has: A unique ID, A pseudo-
random function (F) for generating the next
key in sequence, A unique cluster number for
each cluster member, and A group key as
shared key between all nodes. Author divide
node memory to three logical parts: 1) RAM
memory section, 2) executive code memory
section, and 3) non volatile memory section.

Edmond Holohan & Michael [15] have
introduced AVCA, Authentication using
Virtual Certificate Authorities, which is such
PKI architecture. It is based on commonly
used and well established PKI concepts and
designed specifically for resource constrained
devices on distributed ad-hoc networks. It
provides a mechanism to overcome the
difficulties in securing many distributed
networks with non tamper-proof devices.
AVCA has many benefits including that the
basis for initial trust is not stored on any of the
sensor devices and that these devices do not
require significant memory
AVCA supports node authentication and a
private key distribution mechanism. It also
enhances many WSN design goals including
simplicity, scalability, interoperability and
control for individual manufacturers.

Manik Lal Das [16] have proposed two-factor
user authentication protocol for WSN,
provides strong authentication, session key
establishment, and achieves efficiency. The
protocol is divided into two phases:
Registration phase and Authentication phase.
The protocol avoids many logged in users
with the same login-id and stolen-verifier
attacks, which are prominent threats for a
password-based system if it maintains verifier
table at the GW-node or sensor node. In
addition, the protocol resists other attacks in
WSN except the denial-of-service and node
compromise attacks.

CONCLUSION

In this research we will design a
authentication protocol to prevent malicious
nodes, which may be directly deployed or just
old nodes manipulated by adversaries, from
participating in sensor networks. Besides the
node identity, we want to introduce the new
node novel authentication protocol to
differentiate malicious nodes from legitimate
new nodes. Unlike the conventional
approaches that try to detect malicious nodes
after they join sensor networks, our
mechanism can prevent malicious nodes from
joining sensor networks at the very beginning.
In addition, key establishment is also realized
in our protocol to help the new node establish
shared keys with its neighbors so that it can
perform secure communications with them.
Compared with the conventional sensor
network security solutions, our framework can
defend against most of the notorious attacks in
sensor networks, and achieve better
computation and communication performance
due to the usage of the more efficient
algorithms based on Elliptic Curve
Cryptography than those based on RSA.
Hence, it is very suitable for the sensor nodes
that are limited in power, computational
capacities, and bandwidth.

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101

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2005, pp. 494499, LNAI. 3801, Part I,
Dec.
[21] S. Vanstone, Responses to NIST's
proposal, Communica-tions of the ACM
35 (July1992) 5052.
[22] A. Gupta, J. Kuri (2008): Deterministic
schemes for key distribution in wireless
sensor networks, in: Proceedings of the
Third International Conference on
Communication Systems Software and
Middleware and Workshops
(COMSWARE08), IEEE Computer
Society, Washington, DC, USA, pp. 452
459.
[23] Tanveer Zia and Albert Zomaya,A
security Framework for Wireless Sensor
Networks, IEEE Applications Sym-
posium, Houston, Texas USA, February
2006.
[24] J. Newsome, E. Shi, D. Song, A. Perrig,
The sybil attack in sensor networks:
analysis & defenses, in: The 3rd
International Symposium on Information
Processing in Sen-sor Networks
(IPSN04), Berkeley, California, USA,
26April 2004.
[25] J.R. Douceur, The Sybil attack, First
International Workshop on Peer-to-Peer
Systems (IPTPS02), March 2002.
[26] L. Eschenauer, V. Gligor, A key
management scheme for distributed
sensor networks, in: The Proceedings of
the 9th ACM Conference on Computer
and Communications Se-curity (CCS02),
Washington DC, 2002.
[27] Y. Hu, A. Perrig, D.B. Johnson, Pachet
leashes: a defense against wormhole
attacks in wireless networks, in: IEEE,.
417 426.INFOCOM03, 2003.


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103

Effects of Net Metering On The Use Of Small
Scale Renewable Energy Sources Systems In
Todays World

Yagdeep Sharma
B.Tech(EEE), NIEC, New Delhi
yagdeep8391@gmail.com


Abstract-Factors such as technological
advancements, steadily decreasing costs,
consumer demand, and state and government
policies are combining to make renewable
sources of energy, a new potent field for
exploration. Net metering, also referred to as
net billing, is one particular policy that states
are implementing to encourage the use of small
renewable energy systems. This paper is an
attempt to analyze implementation of
netmetering and its effect on use of renewable
energy resources in 10 USA states.
I. INTRODUCTION
Net metering is an electricity policy
for consumers (generally small renewable
energies (such as wind, solar power and
home fuel cells)V2G electric vehicles.
"Net", in this context, is used in the sense of
meaning "what remains after deductions"
in this case, the deduction of any energy
outflows frommetered energy inflows.
Under net metering, a system owner
receives retail credits for at least a portion of
the electricity they generate.
Most electricity meters accurately record in
both directions, allowing a no-cost method
of effectively banking excess electricity
production for future credit. However, the
rules vary significantly by country and
possibly state/province: if net metering is
available, if and how long you can keep
your banked credits, and how much the
credit are worth (retail/wholesale). Most net
metering laws involve monthly roll over
of kWh credits, a small monthly connection
fee, require monthly payment of deficits (i.e.
normal electric bill), and annual settlement
of any residual credit.
In the U.S.A., as part of the Energy Policy
Act of 2005, under Sec. 1251, all public
electric utilities are now required to make
available upon request net metering to their
customers.
Thirty-six states of US as shown (figure 1)
have adopted some form of net metering law
for renewable energy sources facilities (such
as wind, solar power or a home fuel cells)
or V2G electric vehicles.. The 10 states
analyzed here include California, Idaho,
Illinois, Iowa, Maine, Minnesota, Nevada,
Oregon, Vermont and Washington (figure 2)


Figure 1. Current U.S. Residential Small Wind
Incentives
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104


Figure 2. States Surveyed for Net Metering
Programs

II. METHODS OF NETMETERING

TIME OF USE METERING (TOU) NET
METERING

TOU Employs a specialized
reversible smart(electric) meter that is
programmed to determine electricity usage
any time during the day. Time-of-use allows
utility rates and charges to be assessed based
on when the electricity was used (i.e.,
day/night andseasonal rates). Typically the
production cost of electricity is highest
during the daytime peak usage period and
low during the night, when usage is low.
Italy has installed so much photovoltaics
that peak prices no longer are during the
day, but are instead in the evening, reversing
the result - less electricity can be consumed
than produced using time of use net
metering.
MARKET RATE NET METERING
SYSTEMS
Here,the user's energy used and it is priced
dynamically according to some function of
wholesale electric prices. The users' meters
are programmed remotely to calculate the
value and are read remotely. Market rate
metering systems will be implemented in
California starting in 2006 and under the
terms of California's net metering rules will
be applicable to qualifying photovoltaic and
wind systems. Under California law the
payback for surplus electricity sent to the
grid must be equal to the (variable, in this
case) price charged at that time. It can never
be negative, meaning you cannot make
money from selling the electricity back. If
you generate more electricity than you use
then over a period of a month you will be
billed zero and in effect you give away your
extra energy if you do not use.
III. NET METERING IN MAJOR USA
STATES.
CALIFORNIA has the largest number of
net-metered customers. They have had the
earliest adoption of state incentives, of
which the buy-down program started in
1998. A total of 1,416 net metered systems
have been approved and 994 net metered
systems are pending approval in the
territories of Southern California Edison
(SCE), San Diego Gas & Electric (SDG&E),
and Pacific Gas & Electric (PG&E), which
account for all net metered customers, most
of these installations are solar.
The CEC reported the total number of small
turbines installed under its buy-down
program (California financial incentive
where the states pays 50 percent of the
installed small turbine costs), as shown in
figure 3. All these turbines installed under
the buy-down also have net metering so we
can determine that, at the minimum, 704 kW
of wind net metering exists in California.
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105


Figure 3. California Small Wind Turbine
Installations
MINNESOTA

Minnesotas program began in 1983 with the
net excess generation being purchased by
the utility company at the average retail
electricity rate. Currently, 232 kW of
installed capacity is tied to wind net
metering programs.In this state Net
metering program began so early because of
environmentally conscious citizens and
because the state is short on domestic energy
sources such as coal and natural gas.
Currently, the number of small wind
installations in Minnesota is decreasing,
while the number of small solar installations
is increasing.
MAINE

The Public Utility Commission (PUC) in
Maine administers the states net billing
program. According to Mitch Tannenbaum
of the PUC, Central Maine Power and
Bangor Hydro-Electric have customers
participating in the program. Tannenbaum
provided a general list of current net billing
customers. Gary Cole, with Central Maine
Power (CMP), provided a list of current and
previous net billing customers, the date the
customer started net billing, the type of
technology in use, and the rated capacity of
each project. These data are shown in figure
5, which illustrates changes in the number of
net metering customers from 1981 to 2001.


Figure 4. Minnesota Net Metering

Figure 5. Maine Net Metering
OREGON

Although no small wind systems are
currently net-metered in Oregon, the state is
included here to further illustrate how
customers concerns about the reliability of
the electric system can influence their
participation in net metering programs.
Figure 6 shows Oregon net metering, which
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106

has 20 solar installations and one micro
hydropower installation. Interestingly, the
data shows a dramatic upward trend in the
number of solar installations growing from
just three installations in 1999 to 20 in 2001.
One possible explanation for this is that
customers in Oregon who were affected by
the power shortage in California wish to
generate their own power to protect
themselves from future power shortages.

Figure 6. Oregon Net Metering
WASHINGTON

About 10 percent of the land in Washington
is suitable for small wind systems and the
lack of qualified turbine installers may be
the reason for the low number of small wind
net metered projects. Compared to small
wind systems, photovoltaic systems are
comparatively easy to install.

Figure 7. Washington Net Metering
VERMONT

Although the number of solar and wind
system installations are increasing in
Vermont (figure 8), interest in net metering
remains comparatively low. There are two
possible explanations for this. First, because
the program is fairly new, many customers
may not yet know of its existence. Second,
the permitting process for small wind
turbines can be cumbersome and expensive.


Figure 8. Vermont Net Metering

CONCLUSION
For eight of the states surveyed, a total of
1,363 kW of installed small grid-connected
wind existed at the end of 2001as shown in
figure 9.


Figure 9. Total Installed Capacity of Net Metered,
Small Wind Systems for 8 States (in kW)

Although it is difficult to show specific
cause and effect for the data presented, some
conclusions can be drawn. The first is that
net metering programs alone seem to offer
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107

minimal incentive for consumers,
particularly in light of difficulties with
county zoning officials and cumbersome
interconnection agreements. Another
conclusion is that when consumers are
concerned about utility service reliability
issues due to storms (like the New England
ice storm in 1998), brown outs (like those
experienced in California in the summer of
2001), or higher electricity rates, there is an
increase in net metering customers. This is
particularly true for states and counties
where helpful financial incentives exist for
home-based renewable energy projects.
It also appears that when there are multiple
incentives for net-metered systems in
addition to education and outreach programs
(such as the Million Solar Roofs Program),
the number of net-metered installations
increases. This suggests that education and
outreach programs can influence the number
of net-metered customers.To seek out and
utilize home-based renewable energy It also
appears that when there are multiple
incentives for net-metered systems in
addition to education and outreach programs
(such as the Million Solar Roofs Program),
the number of net-metered installations
increases. This suggests that education and
outreach programs can influence the number
of net-metered customers.

REFERENCES

[1]Cory, K., T. Couture, and C. Kreycik.
2009. Feed-in Tariff Policy: Design,
Implementation, and RPS Policy
Interactions. NREL
[2]Couture, T. and K. Cory. 2009. State
Clean Energy Policies Analysis (SCEPA)
Project: An Analysis of Renewable
Energy Feed-in Tariffs in the United
States. NREL: Golden, Co.
[3]Doris, E., J. Mclaren, V. Healey, and S.
Hockett. 2009. State of the States 2009:
Renewable Energy Generation and the
Role of Policy. NREL: Golden, Co.
[4][DSIRE] Database of Incentives for
Renewable Energy and Energy
Efficiency. 2009
[5].California: Incentives/Policies for
Renewable Energy Net Metering.
[6] Connecting to the Grid July 29, 2009.
[7]Kroposki, B, R. Margolis, G. Kuswa, J.
Torres, W. Bower, T., Key, and D. Ton.
2008. Renewable Systems
Interconnection
[8]Network for New Energy Choices. 2008.
Freeing the Grid 2008: Best and Worst
[9]National Renewable Energy Laboratory.
2009. OpenPV database
Proceeding of National Seminar on Emerging Trends in Distributed Generation

108

A Detailed Review on Energy and
Economic Aspects in Developing Smart Grid
Technologies

Monika Dubey
1
VandanaArora
2

NIEC, New Delhi NIEC, New Delhi
er.monikadubey85@gmail.com vandy1990@gmail.com


Abstract:In recent years, the energy
deficiency has been faced in many
countries which not only makes adverse
impact on economics, society and
development of the country, but also results
inthe global warming. Energy demand is
exponentially increasing worldwide and
energysaving has become a dire need of the
times. Nowadays, large scale development
of RES, e.g., wind and PV power
generation are highly demanded due to
need for clean and green power. However,
integration of RES into existingpower
network along with load or consumers in
future may bring many technical
challenges. In attention towards the above
issues smart grid are fast emerging
technologies to meet the challenges.

I. INTRODUCTION

In most of the countries, the electrical
and distribution systems were constructed
whenenergy production was relatively
cheap. The important aspect of the grid
reliability wasbased on having excess
capacity in the system, with unidirectional
electricity flow toconsumers from centrally
dispatched power plants. Investments in the
electric systemwere made to meet increasing
demand and not to change fundamentally the
way thesystem works.
While innovation and technology have
dramatically transformed other industrial
sectors,the electric system has continued to
operate in the same way for decades. The
lackof investment, combined with an asset
life of 40 years or more, has resulted in an
inefficientand increasingly unstable electric
system [1]. Taking into account above
mentioned challenges, the energy
community starting to integrate information
and communications technology (ICT) with
electricity infrastructure. Technology
enables the electric system to become
smart. The real-time information allows
utilities to manage the entire electricity
system as an integrated framework, actively
sensing and responding to changes in power
demand, supply, costs, qualityand emissions
across various locations and devices. The
real-time monitoring of grid performance
will improve grid reliability and utilization,
reduce blackouts and increase financial
returns on investments in the grid. These
changes on the demand and supply side may
require a new, more intelligent smart grid
system that can manage the increasingly
complex electric grid efficiently.

ECONOMIC STATUS OF
CONVENTIONAL POWER DELIVERY
SYSTEM
High demands for reliable power set of
recent developments are about to change and
put the electricity networks under pressure
to change. The conventional power delivery
systems, i.e. grid generally consist of large
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109

unit and equipments for power transmission
and distribution.This requires an expensive
maintenance and control systems.
Transmission losses related to conventional
grids are large and compensation for these
losses requires additional control systems
which are also cost ineffective. Moreover,
the conventional power systems generally
utilize energy resources like hydro and
thermal power plant which results in high
installation and maintenance cost. In spite of
more expensive power delivery system
conventional grids fail to deliver reliable
power to the consumers.

ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT IN
CURRENT POWER DEMAND
SCENARIO
It has been revealed that electric power
causes approximately25% of global
greenhouse gas emissions and utilities are
rethinking what the electricitysystem of the
future should look like. It is hoped that
renewable and distributed powergeneration
will play a significant role in reducing
greenhouse gas emissions.Generation of
electrical energy, however, iscurrently the
largest single source of carbon dioxide
emissions, making a significantcontribution
to climate change.

DEMAND FOR SMART GRID
The systematic development of electric
power networks includes improved
communicationsand utilizing modern
computer technology providing more
intelligent automation devices and
improvedoptimized systems. It will enable
utilities to meetregulatory requirements and
customer demands for reliable power flow
from both conventionaland renewable
energy sources (RES) [2]. If efficiently
developed and managed smart grids are used
then it is considered as an important
research topic for the inboth academia and
industry. Variouskinds of information
technology (IT), such as sensors, digital
meters and a communicationsnetworks to
the internet or to the dumb wires create
smart grid. A smart grid would be able to
avoidoutages, save energy and help other
green undertakings, such as electric cars and
distributedgeneration (DG).

SMART GRID VISION
Smart grid gathers the latest technologies to
ensure success, while keeping the high
chances to get flexible with further
developments. This will improves efficiency
of supply by increasing power transfers and
reducing energy losses,while power
electronic technologies will improve the
quality of electric supply. Advancesand
developments in simulation tools will
greatly assist the transfer of
innovativetechnologies to practical
application for the benefit of both customers
and utilities.Developments in
communications, metering and business
systems will open up new opportunities at
every level on the system to enable market
signals to drive technical and commercial
efficiency. Key elements of the smart grid
vision include:
- Creating a toolbox of proven technical
solutions that can be deployed rapidlyand
cost effectively, enabling existing grids to
accept power injections from allenergy
resources.
- Harmonizing regulatory and commercial
frameworks to facilitate cross-bordertrading
of both power and grid services, ensuring
that they will accommodate awide range of
operating situations.
- Establishing shared technical standards and
protocols that will ensure open
access,enabling the deployment of
equipment from any chosen manufacturer.
- Developing information, computing and
telecommunication systems that
enablebusinesses to utilize innovative
service arrangements to improve their
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110

efficiencyand enhance their services to
customers.
- Ensuring the successful interfacing of new
and old designs of grid equipment toensure
interoperability of automation and control
arrangements.

II. STUDY ON NEWLY
DECENTRALIZED POWER SYSTEMS
IN DIFFERENT COUNTRIES

SMART GRID DEVELOPMENTS IN
INDIA
The growth rate in India has been raised
recently as its government implements
reformsto encourage foreign investments
and improve infrastructure and basic living
conditionsfor its 1.1 billion citizens.
However, India is losing money in the form
of electric gridlosses. As India keeps one of
the weakest electric grids in the world, the
opportunitiesfor building the smart grid are
high. Building a modern and intelligent grid
is the keyrequirement to keep economic
growth continuously. It is only with a
reliable, financiallysecure smart grid that
India can provide a stable environment for
investments in electricinfrastructure, a
prerequisite to fixing the fundamental
problems with the grid. Withouthaving it,
India will not be able to keep pace with the
growing electricity needs of itscornerstone
industries and will fail to create an
environment for growth of its high-techand
telecom sectors.According to statistics given
by ministry of power, the T&D losses are
among thehighest in the world, averaging
26% of total electricity production, with
some states ashigh as 62%. When non-
technical losses such as energy theft are
included in the total,average losses are as
high as 50%. The financial loss has been
estimated at 1.5% of thenational GDP and is
growing steadily.Indias power sector is still
largely dominated by state utilities. Despite
several attemptedpartnerships with foreign
investors, few projects have actually been
implemented.This lack of foreign
investment limits utilities ability to raise
needed capitalfor basic infrastructure.
Indias grid is in need of major
improvements. This neglect hasaccumulated
in a variety of system failures:
- Poorly planned distribution networks
- Overloading of system components
- Lack of reactive power support and
regulation services
- Low metering efficiency and bill collection
- Power theft.
While the governments ambitious Power
for All plan calls for the addition of over
1TW of additional capacity by the year
2012, it faces the challenge of overcoming a
history poor PQ, capacity shortfalls and
frequent blackouts.
The Government of India in cooperation
with the state energy board had put forwarda
road to improvement when the new
Electricity Act of 2003 was announced,
aimed atreforming electricity laws and
bringing back foreign investment. The act
had consideredseveral important measures:
- Unbundling the State Electricity Boards
assets into separate entities for
generation,T&D, with the intention of
eventual privatization
- Adding capacity in support of a projected
energy use growth rate of 12%,
coincidingwith a GDP growth rate of
roughly 8%
- Improving metering efficiency
-Auditing to create transparency and
accountability at the state level
- Improved billing and collection
-Mandating minimum amounts of electricity
from renewable
-Requiring preferential tariff rates for
renewable
-End use efficiency to reduce the cost of
electricity.
India has started to put labels on the
appliances with energy use to help
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consumers determineoperating costs.
Significant efforts have been made to
improve energy efficiency,e.g., to increase
the average energy efficiency of power
plants up from 3040%, and pushing major
industries to reduce energy consumption.
Without addressing the problemsof
investment and financial stability, India is
not able to solve its inadequate
gridinfrastructure. Financial stability and
concurrent investment only arises from
loweringthe enormous problems with power
theft in India.Recently, discussion has been
raised that using DSM to selectively curtail
electricityuse for delinquent customers or
neighborhoods, while improving PQ for
consistentlypaying customers. It might not
sound like a desirable program to most
American utilities,however, it may make
sense in Indias constrained power grid
where high levels ofdelinquency have
increased system load without revenue
returns. Another motivation tobuild smart
grid in India is its trend towards energy
efficiency and increased use of
renewable.India would greatly benefit from
intelligent energy efficiency in the form of
DR and grid responsive appliances. [3]

SMART GRID DEVELOPMENTS IN
UNITES STATES
The steps toward a fully realized smart grid
are being taken now and the potential
investmenthas been considered substantial.
EPRI estimates the market for smart
gridrelatedprojects in the US will be around
$13 billion per year over the next 20
years.That comes in addition to an estimated
$20 billion per year spent on T&D projects
generally.More recently, a Morgan Stanley
report analyzing the smart grid market put
currentinvestment at $20 billion per year,
increasing to over $100 billion per year by
2030.Despite these remarkable forecasts,
however, smart grid deployments still
represent amajor departure from current
utility practices. For an industry with a time
honored focus on reliability and certainty in
the application of new technologies, the shift
tosmart grid presents a daunting challenge.
However, some exciting projects are
alreadyunderway.The US is home to several
consortia working on smart grid issues.
EPRIs IntelliGridprogram and department
of energy (DoEs) GridWise Alliance are
just two examples.Likewise, the nations
utilities are actively involved with
approximately 80% of investor-owned
utilities developing some form of smart grid,
e.g. by participating in pilotstudies of wide
area monitoring systems (WAMS).The
energy policy act of 2005 (EPAct) in US
introduced mandatory reliability
standardsand required state regulators to
investigate advanced metering, time-based
pricingand DR programs, all of which will
rely on smart grid advances. The energy
independenceand security act of 2007
(EISA) included an entire title devoted to
smart grid thatprovided funding for research
and development (R&D) efforts, created a
smart grid advisorycommittee and requires
state regulators to consider smart grid
alternatives beforeapproving investments in
traditional technologies. Standards are vital
to accelerate theadoption of smart grid
technologies across the utility industry. The
national institute ofstandards and technology
(NIST) is leading the standards effort and, in
May 2009, publishedan initial list of
standards that will be used in smart grid
development. The governmentwill also play
a major role in the development of the smart
grid through itsmany regulatory agencies,
both state and federal. EPAct. e.g.,
established a mechanismfor creating so
called National Interest Electric
Transmission Corridors to speed up
theapproval process for new transmission
lines in heavily congested areas.Recently,
the federal energy regulatory commission
(FERC) has issued an interim ratepolicy, by
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which investments in smart grid area would
be included as recoverable costsin a utilitys
regulated rates. To create a smart grid
collaborative of regulators at thestate and
federal level, FERC has also joined with the
national association of regulatoryutility
commissioners. These are few examples in
the role of advisor, regulator, policymakeror
even banker, the government holds
tremendous influence over the course
ofsmart grid development [4].
The potential economic and environmental
advantages of a smart grid cannot
beoverlooked. A recent PNNL study
provided homeowners with smart grid
technologiesto monitor and adjust the
energy consumption at their homes. The
average householdreduced its annual electric
bill by 10%. By deploying this approach
widely, the peakloads could be reduced on
utility grids up to 15% annually, which
equals more than 100GW, or the need to
build 100 large coal-fired power plants over
the next 20 years in theUS alone. This could
save up to $200 billion in capital
expenditures on new plant andgrid
investments and take the equivalent of 30
million autos off the road [1].

SMART GRID DEVELOPMENTS IN
CHINA
Electricity consumption in China has been
growing at an unprecedented rate since
theyear 2004 due to the rapid growth of
industrial sectors. Serious electric supply
shortage during year 2005 had affected the
operation of many Chinese companies
badly. Since then, China has very
aggressively invested in electricity supply
business in order to fulfill the demand from
industries and hence securing continuous
economic growth. In additionto increase
generation capacity, it is equally important
to improve distributionnetworks and
utilization. In the last few years, the country
has focused to expand T&Dcapacity and
reduce line losses by uplifting transmission
voltage and installing highefficiency
distribution transformers. In addition to
physics-based technological
improvements,smart grid offers the
possibility to very effectively manage
utilization andlead to very substantial energy
saving. After US and Europe, China has also
announcedan aggressive framework for
smart grid deployment.Owing to energy-
based nature of the present gross domestic
product (GDP) growth,Chinas energy
demand in the recent years has increased
substantially. As a result, Chinaselectricity
industry has been growing at the fastest rate
in human history. Installedgeneration
capacity has run from 443 GW at end of
year 2004 to 793 GW at the end ofyear
2008. Increment in these merely four years
is equivalent to approximately onethirdof
the total capacity of US, or 1.4 times of the
total capacity of Japan. During thesame
period of time, power consumption has also
raised from 2,197 TWh to 3,426
TWh. Being the medium for delivering
electricity to users, this rapidly increasing
demandpresents a serious challenge to the
capacity, reliability and efficiency of the
gridsystem.
In parallel to the economic growth aspect,
the environmental problems associatedwith
heavy industries are well known. Chinas
heavy industrial sector is one of the
biggestsources of CO2 and SO2 in the world
[5]. The problem is further aggravated by
thefact that generation resources and load
centers in the country are located far apart;
majorityof hydropower resources are located
in west, coal in northwest, but huge
loadingsare prevailing in east and south. It
has been estimated that 100-200 GW
transmissioncapacity will be required to
deliver electricity over long distance from
west to east andfrom north to south in
coming 15 years. The existing grid structure
in China (primarilybased on 500 kV AC and
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113

500 kV DC backbones) is not sufficient to
meet the existingdemand [6]. Furthermore,
overall T&D loss consideration is also
critical because thenet growth of electricity
consumption will be at the magnitude of
2,000-3,000 TWh inthis period of time [7].
To satisfy the needs, it is therefore necessary
to establish reliabletransmission circuits that
can deliver electric energy across extremely
long distanceat low losses and developing an
extra efficient distribution system for end
customers.After carrying out investigations,
it has been revealed that developing and
deployingultra high voltage (UHV)
technologies are mandatory for the country
[7], [8]. Consequently, the government has
approved a number of transmission line
construction projectsusing UHVAC (refers
to 1,000 kV) and UHVDC (refers to 800
kV) technologies.On the other hand, to
improve the overall efficiency of the grid,
distribution network isanother critical area
that needs to be addressed. Distribution
transformer core losses orno-load losses are
a major component of the total T&D loss.

At present in China, the smart grid is
focusing more on the transmission networks
rather than the distribution networks. Based
on the fact that coal is the main energy
source and coal mines are far away from the
main load centers, it is the right choice that
the power grid development should be
focused on the transmission networks. The
project is known as the "West-East
Electricity Transfer Project," which includes
three major westeast transmission corridors
construction. The transmission capacity of
each corridor will be 20 GW by the year
2020. Through these transmission grids,
electricity distributors in China will bond
regional power grids in different areas of the
country and improve cross-region electricity
transmission ability. This will balance the
power generation disparities in different
regions of the country.
The state grid corporation of China (SGCC)
has considered power grid construction as its
core business operation at the moment. In
developing power grid for transmission
network, SGCC has been deploying several
technologies such as WAMS and
information system integration project etc.
WAMS uses the phasor measurement unit
(PMU) based on the global positioning
system (GPS) to develop the stability of
power grids.
SGCC is building a WAMS and by year
2012 plans to have PMU sensors at all
generators of 300 MW and above and all
substations of 500 kV and above. SGCC has
been deploying extensive fiber-optic
networking throughout China HV
substations. This network amounts to over
one million kilometres of fiber-optic
channels. The main features of smart grid
technology implemented so far in China are
[9]:
-Policy and strategy for smart grid
development
- Latest T&D upgrades and developments to
improve grid connectivity, capacity and
efficiency
- Developing interoperability and standards
to improve the connectivity of the grid
components
- Preparing the engineering workforce for
the emergence of the smart grid
technologies
- Developing smart metering and AMI
- Management platforms, integration and
security of smart grid technologies
-Renewable energy integration and
environmental issues related to it
- Large scale EV grid requirements.

According to SGCC, Chinas smart grid
plan can be divided into three stages [10]:
(1) Planning and testing (20092010)
Major tasks at this initial stage are
establishing developmental plan, setting up
technical and operational standards,
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114

developing technologies and equipment,
performing trial tests.
(2) Construction and development (2011
2015)
This second stage focuses on accelerating
UHV, urban and rural grids construction,
establishing the basic framework for smart
grid operation control and interaction,
achieving the projected advancements in
technology and equipment production, mass
deployment.
(3) Upgrading (20162020)
This would be the final period of the
completion of the whole Strengthened Smart
Grid with most advanced technology and
equipment. As further details are yet to be
announced, however, it is interesting to note
that the Chinese smart grid framework could
be different from the rest of the world. This
is because of the relatively primitive
structure at the distribution ends, the
extensive development of UHV transmission
in recent years and also the unique asset
ownership and management structure in
China.

III. COMPARISON BASED ON
TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS

The definition of smart grid is global;
however, from the operation and control
perspective,smart grid technologies are
varying from country to country. The actual
smart grid deployment plan, however, would
likely vary significantly based on the
country or the regions own particular
circumstances.
It can be explained on the basis thatUS
system is more mature and the design
orientation focuses more heavily on users
andservices integration (metering,
renewable, electric transportation, etc.). It
could also beaffected by the fact that the US
grids are operated by many individual
players so it is difficult to enforce unified
changes throughout.
In China, both the focal problems andthe
asset structure and management are different
from US. The smart grid plan design could
be different from several perspectives as
discussed earlier. The huge geographical
mismatch between energy supplies and load
centers inChina has led to the decision to
deploy a reliable interconnected UHV grid
system.While interaction and services
integration at user level are desirable, it is at
least equallyimportant to have a smart grid
plan that can fully realize the potential of
UHV transmission.Furthermore, the end-
users and distribution networks in China are
not as mature asmost developed countries,
and the penetration rate of small-scale
renewable are relativelylow at the moment.
In fact, growth of renewable energy in the
country is primarilydriven by large-scale
projects that do not directly connected to
end-users. Given theseconditions, it is
expected that initial stages of the Chinese
smart grid plan will focus onthe ability of
controlling bulk electricity transfer
efficiently, and then moves towardsend-
users and services integration in the next
stages when the users are becoming more
ready. In other words, it will likely start with
transmission-centric control that
effectivelymanage connectivity and
gradually enhance itself by adding discrete
control and servicescapabilities at
distribution and end-user levels. Hence, the
deployment plan andtechnology roadmap for
the Chinese Strengthened Smart Grid will
likely show considerabledissimilarities in
relation to the US Unified Smart Grid.
Let us compare Indian grid with ones in
US. The Indian national grid was not
designedfor high capacity, long-distance
power transfer as is the case in the rest of the
world. India needs to interconnect regional
grids as has already been practiced in
US.Although coal and hydro-electric
potential has peaked in many parts of India,
there arestill several regions with excess
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115

capacity. Having large wind potential and
increasingwind power capacity in the
southern and western parts, the need to
improve transmissioninfrastructure has been
realized. Unfortunately, the regions are
generally sectionalizedwith some
asynchronous or high voltage direct current
(HVDC) links allowing forminimal power
transfer as is the case in US The major
difference is that Indias transmissiongrid
only reaches 80% of its population, while
the transmission grid in the USreaches over
99% of its population.

CONCLUSION

The report presented the vision to
develop smart grids in India, US and China.
The comparison was carried out on the
technological aspects which also include
energy and economical aspects. The key
points areto reduceenergy deficiency and
global warming, to save energy more
effectively and economically ,reducing
transmission losses, updating ageing grid
infrastructures and improving power quality.


REFERENCES

[1]Feisst, C., Schlesinger, D. & Frye, W.
Smart Grid, The Role of Electricity
Infrastructure inReducing Greenhouse
Gas Emissions. Cisco internet business
solution group, whitepaper, October
2008.
[2] A Transition from Traditional to Smart
Grid. ABB report DEABB 1465 09 E,
Germany 2009
[3] Zheng, A. A Smarter Grid for India,
October 2007
[www.SmartGridNews.com].
[4] ABB Review 1/10, Smart Grids. ISSN:
1013-3119, 2010



[5] Zhang, Y. & Liu, D. "Study on city
heavy modality problems caused by
heavy industry. Journal of Qingdao
Technological University, Vol. 28, No. 3,
P.118121, 2007 (In Chinese).
[6] Du, Z. Study on Strategic Planning of
Ultra High Voltage Grid Development in
China, Ph.D Thesis, Shangdong
University, 2008 (In Chinese).
[7] The Necessity and Feasibility of
Developing UVH Technologies in China.
SGCC Journal, Issue 2009-3, P.3234,
2009.
[8]Shu, Y. Development and execution of
UHV power transmission in China.
China Power,Vol. 38, No. 3, P.1216,
2005 (In Chinese).
[9] Li, J. From Strong to Smart: The
Chinese Smart Grid and its relation with
the Globe. AsiaEnergy Platform Article
00018602, September 2009.

[10] Completing Strengthened Smart Grid
by 2020. China Business News June
13, 2009 (InChinese).



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116

Cost-effective Smart Metering for Home/Building
using LDR Single-Channel Narrow-Band Power
Line Communication

Ayush Sagar
1
Sumit Joshi
2

B.Tech (EEE), NIEC, New Delhi B.Tech (EEE), NIEC, New Delhi
ayush@ieee.org sumitj312@gmail.com


Abstract - Smart Metering in the distribution side of
Smart Grid enables advanced management of energy
flow for utility companies and consumers, and
currently, various smart metering communication
technologies are being considered for standardisation,
most of which are not economically viable to the
domestic consumers. This paper describes a qualitative
model of smart metering approach for home/building
using Power Line Communications (PLC). Among the
various available PLC methods the proposed model
uses Half-Duplex Low Data Rate (LDR) single-
channel narrow-band (NB) PLC method which is
expected to minimize financial burden on domestic
consumers for meeting the new policies of utility
companies for adoption of Smart Grid technology on
distribution side without compromising on the core
benefits of Smart Metering for both consumers and
utility companies.

I. INTRODUCTION

At present, the main requirement for adoption of
Smart Grid is the ability to monitor the flow of
energy in real time. Smart metering uses Advanced
Metering Infrastructure (AMI) for allowing the
utility companies and the consumers to monitor and
control the electrical energy flow. Apart from
measuring consumption smart metering measures
energy flow in both directions, thus allowing net-
metering for distributed generation. The proposed
model of smart metering has the following core
benefits: (1) Real-time analysis of energy flow and
supply quality within consumer premise, (2)
Possibility of reading measurements both locally
and remotely, (3) Allowing remote control of
electrical appliances. In addition to this, the Smart
Meters can also read water, gas and heat
consumption (in cogeneration), allowing Automatic
Meter Reading (AMR) by water supply and gas
supply companies. Also, the communication
method is chosen such that the implementation cost
for domestic consumers is minimized.
II. MOTIVATION

Even though Smart Grid technology has benefits
for utility companies as well as energy consumers
the cost of implementation is restrictive to the
domestic consumers especially in developing
countries. Unfortunately, the cost of modifications
in the electrical system inside a home/building has
to be beared by the consumer. So we propose a
Smart Metering model to minimize the
modifications required in the existing electrical
system within the consumer premise to enable them
to comply with the new requirements for Smart
Grid adoption more comfortably.
III. PLCS IN SMART GRIDS

PLCs work by adding a high frequency carrier
wave into the AC mains and uses digital modulation
techniques to transmit data. Currently two types of
PLCs are being considered for use in Smart Grid:
NARROW-BAND PLCS
Narrow-band PLCs operate in 3 kHz to 500 kHz
region [6]. There are two types on the basis of data
rate:
High Data Rate (HDR): This is a multi-carrier
based technology with data rate ranging
between tens of kbps and nearly 500kbps [6].
These can carry low latency control signals
and are more suitable where response times
are more critical, such as fault detection.
Low Data Rate (LDR): This is a single-carrier
based technology capable of few kbps [6].
Even though the data rates are low, it can
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117

provide the core benefits of our proposed
smart metering model. Since this is the slowest
communication mode it uses lowest frequency.
BROAD-BAND (BB) PLCS
BB PLC technology operates in 1.8-250 MHz
region having data rate ranging from few Mbps to
few hundreds of Mbps [6]. This can also allow
transmission of broadband internet at consumer
premise without additional wiring. However,
because of higher frequency BB PLC signals
attenuate faster with cable distance hence special
power cables have to be used. There is no such
requirement in case of NB PLC.
It is possible for NB and BB PLCs to coexist on
same power line as described in [3] and it will be
possible for a domestic consumer to implement BB
PLC for broadband internet at any later stage.
However, NB PLC should be mandatory for the
smart metering to work. A similar application is
described in [4] which is a metering system where
one master polls many slave units using half-duplex
burst mode transmission and achieves a data rate of
few hundred bits per second. Unlike wireless
solutions like ZigBee and Wi-fi, PLCs have a
proven track record of being able to avoid network
congestion. Narrow band PLCs have been in use for
home automation since 1970s using the popular
X10 technology [5]. Each receiver in the system has
an address and can be individually commanded by
the signals transmitted over the household wiring
and decoded at the receiver.

IV. PROPOSED MODEL
Different parts of the model are explained as
follows:
SMART METER
The Smart Meter has the following functions in
our model:
1) It will establish bidirectional communication
between electricity provider through a
distribution network and the home/building
area network.
2) For PLC to work it will act as a master
device and should provide all necessary
timing and control signals to enable
bidirectional communication with other slave
devices.
3) The Smart Meter should measure energy
flow in both directions in real time to allow
net-metering.
4) The Smart Meter should be able to allot a
power quota for loads which do not
communicate (reason explained later in the
heading: Non-smart Appliances)
5) In case the smart meter is not able to
communicate with the electricity provider for
some time, it should have the ability to store
measurements and event history.
6) For security purposes, the smart meter should
incorporate a filter such that HAN PLC
signals do not propagate towards the
distribution side.


Figure 1: Proposed smart metering model

HOME/BUILDING AREA NETWORK (HAN)
The HAN comprises of the smart meter, electrical
wiring inside the consumer premise and all the
loads connected to it. All loads in a house/building
can communicate to the Smart Meter using NB PLC
on conventional copper wiring. However, some
loads that are a potential source of harmonics will
be required to conform to certain specifications so
that they do not interfere with the PLC signals. All
the loads connected in the home/building maybe
broadly categorized into 4 categories:
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118

1) Smart Appliances: These are the appliances
that will incorporate built-in PLC modem and
logic circuits for communication with the
Smart Meter. Heavy consumption appliances
such as air conditioners, heaters, geysers and
ovens will be required to come into this
category. These appliances will be able to
send power parameters and an appliance
identification code and operation state to the
smart meter, and should be able to respond to
command signals sent by smart meter. The
expected response to command signals may
be sending out the power parameters, or
changing the operating mode of the appliance.
In event of power shortage, utility companies
may choose to remotely shut down certain
non-necessary appliances to avoid complete
blackout. The command signals for smart
appliances will be standardized.
2) Electric Vehicle Charging Station: Electric
vehicles are going to increase in the future
due to limited availability of fossil fuels and it
is expected that their charging is going to
contribute significantly to the peak demand.
In this model, the charging station is simply a
wall socket and the plugged in vehicle will
communicate to the smart meter similarly to
smart appliances using a built in PLC modem.
3) Power Generation Sources: Consumers may
use solar panels and other alternative energy
sources to supply energy to other home
equipment or to the distribution grid. Such
power generation sources will also
incorporate battery to store energy for later
use. The energy supplied to the grid will help
the consumer to earn credits by the net-
metering feature of the smart meter.
4) Non-smart Appliances: In certain low power
loads such as fans and lights it may not be
practical to incorporate a PLC modem into
them and these may be classified as non-
smart appliances.
It is possible for certain people to tamper with
smart appliances such as air conditioners so
that they appear as non-smart appliance to the
smart meter in order to restrict the utility
companies from shutting it down. To avoid
such a possibility the non-smart appliances
category should have a small and reasonable
power quota set by the company since this
category is intended for low power loads.

HOME/BUILDING ENERGY
MANAGEMENT & AUTOMATION
MODULE
This is an optional indoor module that can
enable the home/building owner to visualize the
energy consumption (and generation) data, see
the consumption history of each smart appliance,
enforce restrictions on the ability of users to turn
on certain smart appliances and to fix monthly
target energy bill so that the module can
automatically manage loads in a way that the
monthly bill does not exceed the prescribed bill
amount. Moreover, this module can also allow
home automation using PLC signals to switch on
or off various smart appliances by a wireless
remote and GSM.
V.SECURITY CONCERNS
The following are the foreseen security concerns
in the given model:
A. Tampering of PLC signals: For the remote shut-
off feature to work properly some encryption
techniques will have to be used to avoid
interception and modification of the signals.
B. Detection of any tampering of the smart
metering system should call for heavy penalty,
and/or legal action against the consumer.
C. Since PLC signals can propagate to nearby
homes (or buildings) on same distribution
system, it is desirable to isolate the PLC signals
from outside. In traditional home automation
system mentioned in [5] this is done by using an
owner code for each device. In our model this
isolation can be achieved by incorporating a
filter inside the smart meter which is a simpler
approach.
D. Since the Smart Meter can be monitored
remotely by the utility companies, any
suspicious tampering activity can be detected by
automated algorithms and special staff should be
employed by the utility companies to inspect the
consumer premise in such case.
E. Privacy of the smart metering data should be
ensured at the utility companys end.
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119

CONCLUSION

A model for cost-effective Smart Metering
model has been proposed to make the Smart Grid
adoption attractive for the domestic consumers. The
proposed model uses LDR NB PLCs which require
little to no modification in existing wiring system.
PLCs do not require external wiring or a wireless
spectrum to operate thus they are the cheapest
available mode of communication. Half-duplex
LDR NB PLC modems tend to be cheaper and can
be easily implemented into various appliances.
Appliances can communicate to the Smart Meter
just by plugging them into the wall socket. The
Smart Meter will also establish bidirectional
communication between the consumer appliances
and the utility end. Moreover, an optional
Home/Building Energy Management & Automation
Module has been described which will help the
consumer to maximize the benefits of smart
metering.
REFERENCES

[1] R. van Gerwen, S. Jaarsma, and R. Wilhite,
Smart metering, July 2006. [Online].
Available:http://www.leonardo-
energy.org/webfm send/435
[2] Cooper, D.; , "Low-data-rate narrow-band
power-line communications on the European
Domestic Mains: symbol timing estimation,"
Power Delivery, IEEE Transactions on , vol.20,
no.2, pp. 664- 667, April 2005
[3] Muller, C.; Lewandowski, C.; Wietfeld, C.;
Kellerbauer, H.; Hirsch, H.; , "Coexistence
analysis of access and indoor powerline
communication systems for Smart Grid ICT
networks," Power Line Communications and
Its Applications (ISPLC), 2012 16th IEEE
International Symposium on , vol., no., pp.77-
82, 27-30 March 2012
[4] Sheppard, T.J.; , "Mains communication-a
practical metering system," Metering
Apparatus and Tariffs for Electricity Supply,
1992., Seventh International Conference on ,
vol., no., pp.223-227, 17-19 Nov 1992
[5] Edward B.Driscoll, Jr.. "The history of X10".
[Online] Retrieved 22. July 2011 Available:
http://home.planet.nl/~lhendrix/x10_history.ht
m
[6] Galli, S.; Scaglione, A.; Zhifang Wang; ,
"Power Line Communications and the Smart
Grid," Smart Grid Communications
(SmartGridComm), 2010 First IEEE
International Conference on , vol., no., pp.303-
308, 4-6 Oct. 2010

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120



Reactive Power Compensation Using Interline Power Flow
Controller (IPFC) with 48 Voltage Source Converter

Neeru Devi
1
Vinesh Agarwal
2
Chandra Prakash Jain
3
Vinodyadav
4
1,2,3,4
ITM, Bhilwara


AbstractThe paper describes the simulation
of IPFC for two transmission lines is also done
using MATLAB,Simulink where real power
flow between the lines is equalized by
transferring power demand from overloaded to
under loaded line. It also compensate against
resistive line voltage drops and the
corresponding reactive power demand. In
Interline power flow controller is VSC based
FACTS controller for series compensation with
unique capability of power flow management
among multi lines .In this paper 48-Pulse GTO
Based Voltage-Sourced Converter is used. The
paper designs and models the complete IPFC is
able to carry out an overall real and reactive
power compensation of the total transmission
system. This capability makes it possible to
equalize both real and reactive power flow
between the lines, transfer power from
overloaded line to under-loaded line,
compensate against reactive voltage drops and
the corresponding reactive line power, and to
increase the effectiveness of the compensating
system against dynamic disturbances.

Key words - flexible ac transmission, static
synchronous series compensator Interline
Power Flow Controller (IPFC), Power
Flow Control,Voltage Source Converter
(VSC).

I. INTRODUCTION
The concept of Flexible AC Transmission
Systems (FACTS) was first defined by N.G.
Hingorani, in 1988 [2]. A Flexible
Alternating Current Transmission System
(FACTS) is a system comprised of static
equipment used for the AC transmission of
the electrical energy. It is generally a power
electronic-based device. FACTS are defined
by the IEEE as a power electronic based
system and other static equipment that
provide control of one or more AC
transmission system parameters to enhance
controllability and increase power transfer
capability [3]. The brief review on the
placement ofFACTS devices is presented
here. The concept of FACTS and FACTS
controllers was first defined by Hingorani,
1988 in [2-3]. FACTS usually refer to the
application of high-power semiconductor
devices to control different parameters and
electrical variables such as voltage,
impedance, phase angles, currents, reactive
and active power [11-12]. The power
controllability of the network can be
enhanced and the power transfer capability
can be improved by systems used for AC
transmission of electrical energy composed
of static equipments called Flexible
Alternating Current Transmission System
(FACTS) [4]. FACTS is described as a
power electronic based system and other
static equipment that enhances the
controllability and increases the power
transfer capability by providing control of
one or more AC transmission system
parameters [2].Some of the several kinds of
FACTS devices existing for this use are
Static Var Compensator (SVC),Thyristor
controlled series Capacitor (TCSC), Static
Synchronous series compensator (SSSC),
StaticSynchronous Compensator
(STATCOM), Unified Power Flow
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121

Controller (UPFC) and Interline Power Flow
Controller (IPFC). Gyugyietal have firstly
proposed and discussed The Interline Power
Flow Controller, in 1998, targets the
problem of compensating a number of
transmission lines at a given substation The
transmission line parameter of the
interconnected systems can be efficiently
controlled by the IPFC which is an
extension of the UPFC . IPFC employs a
number of VSCs linked at the same DC
terminal, each of which can provide series
compensation for its own line. It can also be
regarded as several SSSCs sharing a
common DC link. In this way, the power
optimization of the overall system can be
realized in the form of appropriate power
transfer through the common DC link from
over-loaded lines to under-loaded lines. In
[1,11], the basic principles of the Interline
Power Flow Controller were discussed in
detail and simulation results were shown to
demonstrate the capability of the IPFC to
realize power balance between a
transmission system with two identical
parallel lines..According to analysis, a basic
control system for the two-identical-line
transmission system with IPFC controller to
realize power flow control of real and
reactive as reference inputs is presented ..in
practice, it is very difficult to find angle, if
not impossible. Moreover, different lines
with different transmission voltages,
impedances and power angles are in
operation in practical power system. Thus it
is desirable to design a more applicable
control system for the IPFC.
Xuan Wei et al. have proposed a system
with a UPFC, maximum power transfer
capability is often achieved when the UPFC
is operated at its rated capacity and
conventional voltage and line-flow set point
regulation is no longer possible. In this
injected voltage sources to directly model a
UPFC and imposethe rating limits in a
NRFL algorithm. A dispatch strategy is
proposed for a UPFC operating at rated
capacity in which the power circulation
between the shunt and series converters is
used as the parameter to optimize the power
transfer[5]
S.Sankar et al.have proposed an approach,.
By injecting active and reactive voltage
component series with the transmission
line, IPFC a type of FACTS device controls
the power flow in transmission line It is
proposed to use IPFC for regulation of the
receiving end voltage in series compensation
and shunt compensation modes. IPFC to
perform the voltage regulation at the
receiving end of the line which is terminated
at a sub-station to feed a distribution
network simulated. Simulation results for
both types of compensators series and shunt
obtained. The author has proposed that
IPFC is modeled and simulated to perform
the receiving end voltage regulation for lines
which terminate at the given sub-station to
feed the distribution network. Two options
considered are series compensation and
shunt compensation modes. [6].
B. Karthik et al.have proposed an idea of
identification of a proper place for fixing the
IPFC in the transmission system.hybrid
technique for identifying the proper place
for fixing the IPFC. The proposed hybrid
technique utilizes genetic algorithm and
neural network to identify the proper place
for fixing the IPFC.[9]
Two or more SSSC with a common dc-link
are present in the IPFC, and a voltage - with
controllable magnitude and phase angle - is
injected into the line .Juan Dixon, et al. has
discussed about Reactive Power
Compensation Technologies. The author
dicudded an overview of the state of the art
in reactive power compensation
technologies. The principlesof operation,
design characteristics and application
examples of VAR compensators
implemented with thyristors and
selfcommutated converters are presented.
Examples obtained from relevant
applications describing the use of reactive
power compensators implemented with new
static VAR technologies are also
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122

described.[3] Soubhik et al. has discussed
the versatile benefits of FACTS in to
transmission utilities such as control of
power flow, increasing capabilities of lines
to their thermal limits ,steady state reducing
loopflows, providing greater flexibility [9-
10].
D. Gotham et al discussed how to control
power flow and minimize power loss with
FACTS devices. The reactive power
compensation of AC system can be done
using fixed series or shunt capacitor
however the slow nature of control and
limits on frequency are the drawback and
can be overcome byusing FACTS
controllers [6-8]
L. Gyugyi, et al gave a new New Approach
to Power Flow Management in
Transmission Systems using IPFC.
The main objective of this paper is To
optimize the utilization of the overall
transmission system. The increasing
Industrialization, urbanization of life style
has lead to increasing dependency on the
electrical energy. This has resulted into
rapid growth of power systems. This rapid
growth has resulted into few uncertainties.
Power disruptions and individual power
outages are one of the major problems and
affect the economy of any country. In
contrast to the rapid changes in technologies
and the power required by these
technologies, transmission systems are being
pushed to operate closer to their stability
limits and at the same time reaching their
thermal limits due to the fact that the
delivery of power have been increasing. The
major problems faced by power industries in
establishing the match between supply and
demand are: Transmission & Distribution
supply theelectric demand without
exceeding the thermal limit. In large power
system, stability problems causing power
disruptions and blackouts leading to huge
losses.
FACTS devices can be utilized to control
power flow and enhance system stability.
Reactive power compensation is provided to
minimize power transmission losses, to
maintain power transmission capability and
to maintain the supply voltage.

II. CONCEPT OF INTERLINE POWER
FLOW CONTROLLER
The interline power flow controller
(IPFC) Concept compensates the problem of
compensating a number of transmission
lines at sub station .the IPFC consists of two
or more SSSC with a common dc link
,so,each SSSC contains a VSC that is in
series with the transmission line through a
coupling transformer and injects a voltage
with controllable magnitude and phase
angle. IPFC provide independent control of
reactive power of each individual line ,
while active power could be transferred via
dc link between compensated lines. An
IPFC used to equalize active/reactive power
between transmission lines and transfer
power from overloaded lines to under loaded
lines.[10]

BASIC CHARACTERISTICS OF IPFC
The interline power flow controller employs
a number of dc to ac inverters each
providing series compensation for a
different line. and the compensating
inverters is shown infig 1.



Fig2.1 .interline power flow controller (ipfc)
comprising n converters

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123


Fig.2.Schematic diagram of two-converter IPFC.

Consider an IPFC scheme consisting of two
back to back dc to ac inverters, each
compensating a transmission line
transmission systems employ self
commutated inverters as synchronous
voltage sources .the power electronic based
voltage sources can internally generate and
absorb reactive power without the use of
capacitors and inductors .they can facilitate
both real and reactive power compensation
and can independently control real and
reactive power flow.



Fig.2.2 Fig 3.basic two inverter interline power
flow controller

Consider an IPFC scheme consisting of two
back to back inverters each compensating a
transmission line by series voltage injection.
The arrangement is shown in Fig 2.2.where
two synchronous voltage sources V1pq
&V2pq,in series with transmission lines 1
and 2represent to back to back inverters. The
common dc link is represented by
directional link for real power exchange
between voltage sources. The sending and
receiving voltages are assumed to be
equal.V1s=V2s=V1r=V2r=1.0p.u. withfixed
angles resulting in identical transmission
lines with fixed angles 1= 2=30.for two
systems.[2]

OPERATION OF INTERLINE POWER
FLOW CONTROLLER [14] [15] [17] [18]
An Interline Power Flow Controller
(IPFC), shown in figure 2.2.1, consists of
two series VSCs, whose DC capacitors are
coupled, allowing active power to circulate
between different power lines. When
operating below its rated capacity, the IPFC
is in regulation mode, allowing the
regulation of the P and Q flows on one line,
and the P flow on the other line. In addition,
the net active power generation by the two
coupled VSCs is zero, neglecting power
losses.


Fig. 2.2.1 IPFC Power Circuit Topology

Consider an elementary IPFC scheme
consisting of two back to back dc to ac
inverters, each compensating a transmission
line by series voltage injection. This
arrangement is shown functionally in figure
2.2.1, where two synchronous voltage
sources, with phasorsV
1pq
and V
2pq
in series
with transmission Lines 1 and 2, represent
the two back-to-back dc to ac inverters. (The
common dc link is represented by a
bidirectional link (P12 = P1pq = -P2pq) for
real power exchange between the two
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124

voltage sources.) Transmission Line 1,
represented by reactance X1, has a sending-
end bus with voltage phasor V1S and a
receiving-end bus with voltage phasor V1r.
The sending-end voltage phasor of Line 2,
represented by reactance X2, is V2S and the
receiving-end voltage phasor is V2R. For
clarity, all the sending-end and receiving-
end voltages are assumed to be constant
with fixed amplitudes, V1S = V1R = V2S =
V2R, and with fixed angles resulting in
identical transmission angles, 1 = 2, for
the two systems. The two line impedances,
and the rating of the two compensating
voltage sources, are also assumed to be
identical, i.e., V1pqmax = V2pqmax and X1
= X2, respectively. Although Systems 1 and
2 could be different (i.e., different
transmission line voltage, impedance and
angle), to make the relationships governing
IPFC perspicuous, the above stipulated
identity of the two systems is maintained
throughout this section.
In order to establish the transmission
relationships between the two systems,
System 1 is arbitrarily selected to be the
prime system for which free controllability
of both real and reactive line power flow is
stipulated. The reason for this stipulation is
to derive the constraints the free
controllability of System 1 imposes upon the
power flow control of System 2.




Fig. 2.2.2 Variation of P & Q with Phase Angle

The rotation of phasor V1pq with angle 1
modulates both the magnitude and the angle
of phasor VX1 and, therefore, both the
transmitted real power, P1R, and the
reactive power, Q1R vary with 1 in a
sinusoidal manner, as illustrated at right in
figure 2.5. This process, of course, requires
the voltage source representing Inverter 1
(V1pq) to supply and absorb both reactive
and real power, Q
1pq
, and P
1pq
, which are
also sinusoidal functions of angle
1
.


III. SIMULATION USING SIMULINK

SIMULATION OF INTERLINE POWER
FLOW CONTROLLER USING MATLAB
7.5.0 (R2007B)
IPFC is a combination of two SSSCs.
Coupled with common DC link for two
identical transmission lines. So here a VSC
based FACTS controller SSSC which is
apart of IPFC with a transmission line is
modeled. The power control and Receiving
end voltage varies with the variation of
firing angle is analyzed. A transmission line
is modeled as series R,L and it is terminated
with a load .the VSC based FACTS
controller is modeled and connected to
transmission line. the voltage variations are
clearly analyzed.


Fig 3.1Model of IPFC in Simulink

Interline Power Flow Controller (IPFC) is
used to control the power flow between two
transmission systems of voltage rating 500
kV and 230 kV. The IPFC consist of two
SSSC one is located at the right end of the
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500 kV, 75-km transmission line 1 between
bus B_S_1 and B12, other is located at the
right end of the 230 kV, 50-km transmission
line 2 between B_S_2 and B22. It is used to
control the active and reactive powers
flowing through bus B12 and B22. It
consists of two 50-MVA, three-level, 48-
pulse GTO-based converters, one connected
in series between buses B_S_1 and B12 and
other connected in series between buses
B_S_2 and B22. Both series converters can
exchange power through a DC bus. The
series converter can inject a maximum of
10% of nominal line-to-ground voltage (i.e.
28.87 kV) in series with transmission line 1
and (13.27 kV) in series with transmission
line 2.

OPERATION OF SIMULATION MODEL
[20] [21]
3.2 Modes of Operation of IPFC Model

IPFC model is operating in two different
modes (when the disconnect switches
between the DC buses of the series
converters are opened or closed respectively
the pair of converters is operating in two
different modes) which are:

1. Series converter operating as a Static
Synchronous Series Capacitor (SSSC)
controlling injected voltage, while
keeping injected voltage in quadrature
with current of respective transmission
line.

2. Interline Power Flow Controller (IPFC)
mode, where series converters are
interconnected through the DC bus.
Real power can be transferred from
transmission line one to transmission
line two.

The natural power flow for mode IPFC_SE
through bus B12, when zero voltage is
injected by the series converter (zero voltage
on converter side of the four converter
transformers) is P
1
= +200 MW and Q
1
= -
200 MVAR and through bus B22 is P
2
=
+550 MW and Q
2
= -100 MVAR.
In IPFC_SE mode, both the magnitude and
phase angle and the series injected voltage
can be varied, thus allowing control of P and
Q. The IPFC controllable region is obtained
by keeping the injected voltage to its
maximum value (0.1 pu.) and varying its
phase angle from 0 to 360.
The mode of operation as well as the
reference voltage and reference power
values can be changed by means of the
IPFC GUI block

IV. RESULTS OF SIMULATION

1. Series voltage injection in SSSC mode
SSSC 1


Fig 4.1 Waveform for Series voltageinjection in
SSSC modeSSSC
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126


Fig 4.2 Waveform for Series voltage injection in
SSSC mode SSSC 2
I. Power control in IPFC mode (i.e.
IPFC_SE)SSSC 1


Fig 4.3 Waveform for Power control in IPFC
mode (i.e. IPFC_SE)SSSC 1


Fig 4.4 Waveform for Power control in IPFC
mode (i.e. IPFC_SE)SSSC 2


CONCLUSION

As the consequence of fast growing
demands on active and reactive power
control and the rapid development of power
electronic technology FACTS devices are
being developed in the field of modern
power systems. Of all the FACTS devices,
the combined compensators such as the
unified power flow controller (UPFC) and
the interline power flow controller (IPFC)
are regarded as the most powerful and
versatile ones. Both the UPFC and IPFC are
based on the self-commutated, voltage-
sourced switching converters (VSCs)
coupled via a common DC voltage link.
Unlike the UPFC, the IPFC employs at least
two VSCs respectively connected in series
with different lines, which can address the
problem of compensating multiple
transmission lines at a given substation.
In the IPFC structure a number of inverters
are linked together at their dc terminals.
Each inverter can provide series reactive
compensation, as an SSSC, for its own line.
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127

However, the inverters can transfer real
power between them via their common dc
terminal. This capability allows the IPFC to
provide both reactive and real compensation
for some of the line and thereby optimize the
utilization of the overall transmission
system. In particular, the IPFC can equalize
both real and reactive power flow in the
lines, relieve the overloaded lines from the
burden of reactive power flow, compensate
against resistive as well as reactive voltage
drops, and provide a concerted multi-line
counter measure during dynamic
disturbances.
The IPFC has all the advantages established
for the inverter based FACTS controllers:
Modular construction from similar building
blocks which can be fully decoupled (i.e.,
operated as independent series
compensators) or reconfigured into shunt
compensators or UPFC. Also, by the
combination of the individual building
blocks, the rating of selected individual
compensators can be increased. The fact that
the IPFC configuration provides an
extremely flexible utilization of needed
compensation assets, without any significant
cost addition, is hoped to make this
approach an attractive for utilities (or other
transmission system operators) to solve
some of difficult transmission problems they
face today.

V. FUTURE WORK

There can be compensation requirements for
particular multi-line transmission systems
which would not be compatible with the
basic constraint of the IPFC, because active
power transfer function requires the
difference of voltage magnitude between
both terminal voltages of IPFC but the
maximum difference of voltage magnitude
in a transmission line seems to be under 10 -
15 % of rated voltage under a normal
operation. Hence maximum active power
possibly transferred by the IPFC seems to be
less than 10 -15 % of power transmission
capacity of the transmission line. This
constraint can be circumvented in future
work with the maximum power transfer
capacity can be increased to any value.


REFERENCES

1. L. Gyugyi, K. K. Sen, C. D. Schauder,
The Interline Power Flow Controller
Concept: A New Approach to Power
Flow Management in Transmission
Systems, IEEE Transactions on Power
Delivery, Vol. 14, No. 3, pp.1115~1123,
July 1999.
2. N.G. Hingorani and L.Gyugi ,
Understanding FACTS Concepts and
Technology ofFlexible Ac Transmission
Systems, Standard Publishers
Distributors, IEEE Press, New York,
2001.
3. Juan Dixon, Luis Morn, Jos Rodrguez,
Ricardo Domke Reactive Power
Compensation Technologies, State-of-
the-Art Review.
4. John J. Paserba, How FACTS
Controllers Benefit AC Transmission
Systems, Mitsubishi Electric Power
Products, Inc., Warrendale, Pennsylvania,
USA.
5. Xuan Wei, Joe H. Chow, B. Fardanesh,
and Abdel-AtyEdris, A dispatch strategy
for ainterline power flow controller
operating at rated capacity, the
Electrical, Computer, and Systems
Engineering Department, Rensselaer
Polytechnic Institute, Troy, NY 12180-
3590.
6. S. Sankar, Dr. S. Ramareddy Simulation
of Closed Loop Controller IPFC
System, IJCSNS International journal of
computer science and networking
security, Vol. 7, No. 6, June 2007.
7. V. Diez-Valencia, U.D. Annakkage, D.
Jacobson Interline power flow
controller(IPFC) steady state operation,
Proceedings of the 2002 IEEE Canadian
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Conference on Electrical & Computer
Engineering, 0-7803-7514-9/02.
8. Gyugyi L., A Unified Power Flow
Control Concept for Flexible AC
Transmission Systems, IEE
Proceedings-C, Vol. 139, No. 4, July
1992
9. B. Karthik, S. Chandrasekar A Hybrid
Technique for Controlling Multi Line
Transmission System Using Interline
Power Flow Controller European
Journal of Scientific Research ISSN
1450-216X Vol.58 No.1 (2011), pp.59-76
10. M. Noorzian and G. Anderson,
Power flow control by use of
controllable series components, IEEE
Transactions on Power Systems, vol. 8,
no. 3, pp. 1420-1429, 1993.
11. L.Gyugyi, K.K.Sen, C.D.Schauder,
The Interline Power Flow Controller
Concept: A New Approach to Power
Flow Management in Transmission
Systems, IEEE/PES Summer Meeting,
Paper No. PE- 316-PWRD-0-07-1998,
San Diego, July 1998
12. Y. Xia, Y. H. Song, C. C. Lier and Y.
X. Sun, Available Transfer Capability
Enhancement using FACTS Devices,
IEEE Transactions on Power Systems,
vol. 18, no. 4,pp.305-312, 2003.
13. Gyugyi L., A Unified Power Flow
Control Concept for Flexible AC
Transmission Systems, IEE
Proceedings-C, Vol. 139, No. 4, July
1992
14. Juan Dixon, Luis Morn, Jos
Rodrguez, Ricardo Domke Reactive
Power Compensation Technologies,
State-of-the-Art Review.
15. L. Gyugyi, K. K. Sen, C. D. Schauder,
The Interline Power Flow Controller
Concept: A New Approach to Power
Flow Management in Transmission
Systems, IEEE Transactions on Power
Delivery, Vol. 14, No. 3, pp.1115~1123,
July 1999.
16. Xuan Wei, Joe H. Chow, B. Fardanesh,
and Abdel-AtyEdris, A dispatch strategy
for an interline power flow controller
operating at rated capacity, the
Electrical, Computer, and Systems
Engineering Department, Rensselaer
Polytechnic Institute, Troy, NY 12180-
3590.
17. S. Sankar, Dr. S. Ramareddy
Simulation of Closed Loop Controller
IPFC System, IJCSNS International
journal of computer science and
networking security, Vol. 7, No. 6, June
2007.
18. V. Diez-Valencia, U.D. Annakkage, D.
Jacobson Interline power flow controller
(IPFC) steady state operation,
Proceedings of the 2002 IEEE Canadian
Conference on Electrical & Computer
Engineering, 0-7803-7514-9/02.
19. MATLAB 7.5.0 (R2007b) help.

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129

Review Paper on Smart Grid: Introduction,
Technology used, Merits and Demerits

ChandanJayaswal
1
Rajat Gupta
2

NIEC, New Delhi NIEC, New Delhi


Abstract - Smart grid is an approach towards smarter
and intelligent power grids. Proper and optimum
application of smart grid technology is projected to
throw great opportunities and significant financial
applications. It has the potential to revolutionize the
way we see the energy sector today be its generation or
distribution or its end cost. This paper is an attempt to
introduce smart grid, its requirement/need, merits and
demerits and various smart grid initiatives and
implications.
I. INTRODUCTION
The power grid of India is considered one of the
weakest in the world as its transmission and
distribution losses are highest, averaging around
24% and in some states this figure shoots up to
62% of total electricity production, for
improvement from present scenario and also to
make its pace with economic growth India needs a
modern, intelligent grid.
The smart grid ensures uninterrupted power supply
to consumers; it also eliminates various losses at
plants. This technology is quickly evolving and is
becoming nerve centre across globe.
Three main factors are driving utility deployments
of the smart grid:

Unrelenting increases in electricity demand
Global warming
An upturn trend in unit costs of electricity

And the six factors will drive the adoption of the
smart grid in India:
Supply shortfalls
Reduction in energy generation and
transmissionloss
Managing the human element in system
operations to lower the errors
Peak load management by demand response
system
Desire to use renewable energy efficiently[7]
Technological leapfrogging[2]

The smart grid in itself is an collection of visions.
Due to its vast nature, complex technology
involved a number of definitions and explanations
have been given to explain it.Here is one example:
A smart grid is a modern electricity system .It
uses sensors, monitoring,
communications,automation and computers to
improve the "flexibility, security, reliability,
efficiency, and safety of the electricity system.[3-
5] By understanding the above definitions the key
themes like communication, integration, economic,
security and adaptable, suitable automations are
identified. Combining these themes; a shorter
definition of smart grid is: A smart grid is a group
of information based application electric grid, it
uses information and communication technology to
gather and act on information in an automated
fashion, this technology integration improve the
efficiency, reliability, economics, and
sustainability of the production and distribution of
electricity.


(Reference http://thewmeacblog.org/2012/01/31/a-
watershed-moment-living-with-a-smart-grid/ )
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130

Smart grid workincreases transparency in
electricity prices. Transparency will help customers
to understand the cost of electricity according to
time of day. It also helps in reduction of emissions
by 31-114 million metric tons of CO
2
equivalent in
2030 as the usage is adjusted by consumers in
response of pricing. [6]
II. TECHNOLOGY USED
Hard infrastructure
Smart net meters
Storage devices
Distributed generation system
Renewable energy
Energy efficiency equipments
Home area networks configuration
Demand response systems
Superconductive transmission lines

Soft infrastructure
IT and back office computing
Security
Integrated communications systems
protocols
Communication spectrum

HARD INFRASTRUCTURE
Advanced Metering Infrastructure (AMI)
It is architecture for automated, two-way
communication between a utilitys smart meter
with a special address and a utilitys head end
systems. The goal of an AMI is to provide utility
companies with real-time data about power
consumption and allow customers to make
informed choices about energy usage based on the
price at the time of use.


(Reference-http://southriversource.com/wp-
content/uploads/2012/04/smart_meter.jpg)
Phasor Measurement Units
Popularly referred to as the power systems health
meter, Phasor Measurement Units (PMU) sample
voltage and current many times a second at a given
location, providing just like a MRI scan of power
system rather than X-Ray scan which is available
from earlier Supervisory Control and Data
Acquisition (SCADA) technology. The
measurements of SCADA are taken once every 2-4
seconds giving a view toward power system
behaviour. With the smart grid technology
measurements are time synchronized and taken
many times a second (i.e.30 samples/second). This
information helps out in wide area situation
awareness, work needed to ease out congestions
and bottlenecks or even prevent blackouts.
Adoption of the Smart Grid will enhance every
facet of the electric delivery system, including
generation, transmission, distribution and
consumption. It will possibly bring the generation
closer to its servers which will empower
consumers to become active participants in their
energy choice to a degree never possible before.

ISLANDING
At the transmission level, large sections of a utility,
state, or region may be cut off from other sections
in order to preserve the electrical system during
major system disturbances and block cascading
outages. Such systems have been used for many
decades, having been perfected and extensively
implemented in Russia before 1990. These
protection systems operate veryfast, and keep
generation and load in balance; when a generating
unit trips, a corresponding block of load is
immediately tripped. Within minutes other
generators increase their output and when spinning
reserve and frequency are strong, the load that was
shed is reconnected, usually within minutes. The
philosophy behind this is to keep most of the
electric system operating so that power can be
restored quickly and efficiently.
The smart grid can do the same thing at the
distribution level, rapidly isolating failed portions
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131

of the network and restoring service automatically
and rapidly.


ADVANCED CAPACITOR CONTROL
Capacitor control in the distribution network has a
direct and significant effect on customer
satisfaction. It also improves utilities financial
performance by reducing a component of technical
losses. If capacitor control is implemented poorly,
there will be insufficient capacitor support during
periods of high demand and low voltage (peak
times), and over-compensation during periods of
light load and high voltage (midnight to dawn, and
weekends).
When integrated into a smart grid, advanced
capacitor control by the utility (not the customer)
allows the utility to provide the right amount of
capacitor injection at the right time. This approach
also removes a requirement on customers to install,
operate, control, and maintain their own capacitors.

DISTRIBUTED ENERGY STORAGE
Optimizing the power supply to reduce losses,
power outrage and improved power quality can be
done through distributed energy storage
system.Local storage will also allow the increased
usage of renewable sources and at the same time
will increase the stability and reliably of energy
supply. The main obstacle for employing
additional "exile storage solutions such as batteries,
or pumped storage, is their relatively high cost.
Electric vehicles provide a fractional solution to
this distribution storage problem, but significant
result is still many years from now as yet no option
for clean storage from plug in vehicles have been
proved.

HIGH-TEMPERATURE
SUPERCONDUCTIVITY
Ithas the potential for achieving a more
fundamental change to electric power technologies
than has occurred since the use of electricity
became widespread nearly a century ago. Just as
fibre optics enabled the information
superhighway by supplanting lower-capacity
copper, superconductivity is enabling an energy
superhighway by supplanting copper electrical
conductors with a ceramic superconducting
alternative that has higher capacity while
eliminating resistive losses.
It will increase grid reliability and security by
providing efficient power interconnections with
high capacity. Minimal environmental impact also
occurs as HTS cables can be readily permitted and
installed in dense urban areas and low-impedance
design enables dynamic control of alternating
current power flow, alleviating grid congestion.
This can be used for developing HTS-based
electric power equipment such as transmission and
distribution cables and fault current limiters and
also to develop high-performance, low-cost,
second-generation HTS wire at long lengths [8]



(Reference Supercon_Overview_Fact_Sheet_7_14_09)

RENEWABLE ENERGY
A very important element of smart grid initiatives
is to integrate as much renewable and greener
sources of power generation into the grid as
possible, these measures leads to less carbon
footprint per unit power generation and thus has
both societal and environmental benefits. it also
helps in bringing the per unit cost of production
down, over a longer period of time due to some
intrinsic difficulties and discontinuities of power
generation from such resources its not an easy task
to integrate these generation units with the
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132

conventional grid system but the smart grid system
is better equipped for the purpose as it is
extensively automated and monitored.Thus to
realize the projected benefits of a smart grid project
it becomes important to generate and integrate as
much green power as possible.
Two important and high on potential, sources in
India are wind power and solar power.
Wind power-
The wind power potential on a national level, base
data collected from 10 states considering only 1%
of land availability, is around 46,092 MW.
Solar power-
If tropical India were to convert just 1% of the
5,000 trillion kilowatt-hour of solar radiation (or,
simply, sunlight) it receives a year into energy, the
country will have enough to meet its energy needs.
In most parts of India, clear sunny weather is
experienced 250 to 300 days a year. The annual
global radiation varies from 1600 to 2200 kWh/sq.
m. The equivalent energy potential is about 6,000
million GW of energy per year.The highest annual
global radiation is received in Rajasthan and
northern Gujarat.[9][10].

SOFT INFRASTRUCTURE:
Interoperable Communication Standards and
protocols
One of the lessons of the USA, 2003 blackout,
according to ArshadMansoor, a smart grid expert at
the Electric Power Research Institute in California,
is that you cant just look at your system. You
have got to look at how your system affects your
neighbors and vice versa.[11].
The risks associated with it are:
First, without standards, there is a risk that the
various smart grid technologies that are the objects
of these growing investments will become too
early outdated;
Second, and worse, they could be implemented
without adequate security measures. To elaborate
on the security point, if the technology is
proprietary and only well understood by its
proponents, it could contain vulnerabilities to
hackers or even terrorists.
Third, a lack of standards may also hamper future
innovation and the realization of promising
applications
Fourth, on a related note, standards enable
economies of scale and scope that help tocreate
competitive markets. A lack of standards may
encourage monopolistic and rent-seeking behavior.
There is also a fifth argument: protection of
customer privacy.

CYBER SECURITY STANDARDS
With the addition of communication capabilities to
the grid network various problems regarding its
security is also rising. Due to communication grid
there are now million of new hack-able points
which might be used to sabotage the data or for
personal unethical use. Many important services
like banking, wireless communications,
government networks, etc could be severely
affected by these attacks. Therefore a new cyber
security standards need to be developed to counter
these problems to ensure that hacking attempts can
be isolated and dealt with. Even with this realistic
approach, utilities will have to determine what
actions are appropriate for customers who have
attempted to breach security protocols.

GHZ SPECTRUM
The critical infrastructure of industry need to be
protected and enhance the spectrum resources to
ensure that the bandwidth needed in smart grid
does not affect any non commercial or commercial
services and that too at a reasonable price.

CUSTOMER ENGAGEMENT
Lack of awareness of smart grid along with lot of
confusion is there in public. A better understanding
of the benefits of smart grid is important for
customer to make smart grid effective and
sustainable. Since the high cost of smart grid
implementation will, directly or indirectly, be
shared by customers, if they are not convinced by
claims regarding current and future benefits, they
are likely to resist and challenge those costs over
time.Customs must be made aware that the present
grid technology and infrastructure is aging, have
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133

great losses thus need to be replaced for a better
upgraded technology for optimization. [12]

II. BENEFITS ANALYSIS OF SMART GRID
The step towards a smarter grid will change the
entire business model in the energy sector and the
way its related with all stakeholders, involving
and affecting utilities, regulators, energy service
providers, technology and automation vendors, and
all consumers of electric power.
The smart grid brings upon choice at the doorstep
of customer and enables them to control the timing
and amount of power they consume based upon the
price of the power at a particular moment of time.

Some basic benefits of a smart grid are:

Peak load reduction. Smart grids can use time-
of-day price signals as communicated from
consumer end to reduce peak load this benefit
has particular importance in Indian urban load
management.
Self-healing. A smart grid system is completely
automatic in detection and response to routine
problems and quickly recovers if they occur,
minimizing downtime and financial loss.
Consumer motivation. A smart grid gives all
consumers industrial, commercial, and
residential visibility into real-time pricing, and
gives them the ability to choose their consumption
and price that best suits their needs.
Attack resistance. The Smart Grid will be more
resistant to attack and natural disasters. it also
brings in energy independence as the power
sources outside our control are vulnerable to
attacks.
Improved power quality. A smart grid
provides power free of sags, spikes, harmonics
disturbances and interruptions. This makes the
power suitable for all sort of industries, improves
efficiency of production and thus power economy
blooms.
Accommodation of all generation and storage
options. A smart grid enables integration of
different kinds of distributed sources of power and
storage (e.g., wind, solar, battery storage).
Enabled markets Greatly improved reliability
and efficiency that encourage both investment and
innovation.
Optimized assets and operating efficiently. A
smart grid needs less infrastructure construction
per unit production and transmittal of power
.Also existing systems are optimised, thereby
requiring less cost of operation and maintenance
of the grid.
These benefits can be combined under three
broad categories:
Economic benefits
Followingfive types of economic benefits can be
derived from the smart grid.

Cost savings from peak load reduction.
Reductions in capacity costs.
Deferred capital spending for generation,
transmission, and distribution investments
Reduced operations and maintenance costs.
Reduced industrial consumer costs.
Service benefits
Improved reliability
Increased efficiency of power delivery
Consumption management.
Improved system security.

Enhanced business and residential
consumer service.

Environmental benefits
According to recent studies, the smart grid
can reduce emissions at a lower cost than
many of the newest clean energy
technologies. The smart grid will reduce
emissions in four ways:

Enabling the integration of clean,
renewable generation sources.

Reducing electrical losses.

Increasing the penetration of distributed
energy resources.
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134


Increasing energy conservation through
feedback to consumers.

III.RISKS ASSOCIATED WITH SMART GRID
Lack of experience in full scale deployment of
AMI and dynamic pricing, uncertainties associated
with smart grid and costs.

Assessing the Impact of a Projects Scale and
Complexity, and the Impact of Resources
Constraints
Uncertainties brings in financial risks, that the
projected benefits might not be achieved by a smart
meter plan.
A number of AMI projects were not approved in
US and Europe as their projections were unclear
and there was no suitable plan for the case, which
the utility get cash strapped.
A large part of the increased price tag is associated
with the unanticipated difficulty of the scale and
resources required in constructing the systems
fibre network.
Hence, it is important to plan in advance for
unanticipated resource constraints while budgeting
for a smart grid project [1].
The Effect of Fast Tracking on Project
Schedules and Cost
The system planner has a tough job to do as they
have to consider the rapid development of both
technologies and rate designs and related AMI
functionalities. When evaluating project costs, they
must determine exactly what the information will
do, and who needs it for what purpose, at what
time.
Systems Integration Effect The largest cost
component in a smart grid project is the integration
of information technology, and the softwares. The
utility recovers this cost partly through smart
pricing techniques, which help in peak load
management, thus reducing the utilitys cost of
generation and service.
Accelerated depreciation of technology So far, a
utility plant constructed or installed equipment,
could be reliably expected to remain in service for
its estimated useful life, which ranged from 10 to
40 years, Meters, for example, had useful lives of
10 to 15 years. However, advanced meters and
metering systems employ computing technology.
Equipments used in the electric utility industry
may show different technological and cost curves
than computers. If advanced metering systems
exhibit technological and cost behaviours that are
similar to those of computers, then their useful
lives may turn out to be shorter than estimated.
Risk of stranded assets
It involves equipment that was at the time of
installation was according to modern and best
technology, but before it completes its life cycle
becomes obsolete and outdated. A newer better
technology that has lesser cost and losses
overshadows it. Utility managers and regulators
may have to deal with the unique challenge of cost
recovery as some electric utilities take best of high
tech industrys technologies.
Deployment of smart grid technology will be
slowly and utilities that do not install smart meters
will still need to install conventional meters. This
clearly establishes the risk of creating stranded
assets, as the smart roll-out could make them
outmoded before the end of their asset life.
Security
Involvement of communications technologies also
brings in concern of cyber crime. Concerns chiefly
centre around the communications technology at
the heart of the smart grid. Designed to allow real-
time contact between utilities and meters in
customers' homes and businesses, there is a very
real risk that these capabilities could be exploited
for criminal or even terrorist actions. Aside from
computer infiltration, there are also concerns that
computer malware like Stuxnet, which targeted
SCADA systems which are widely used in
industry, could be used to attack a smart grid
network. [13]

IV.CHALLENGES FOR THE SMART GRID
Several challenges present themselves for smart
grid development, and may affect the results of a
cost-benefit analysis.
Financial resources.
Government support.
Compatible equipment.
Speed of technology development.
Proceeding of National Seminar on Emerging Trends in Distributed Generation

135

Lack of policy and regulation.
Capacity to absorb advanced technology.
Consumer education.
Cost assessment.
Rate design.
Consumer protection.
Cooperation.
Lack of empirical evidence.

CONCLUSION

Since 2008 the power market in India has
started their operation. Many utilities are coming
with a proposed idea to build distribution and
renewable energy sources according to Smart Grid.
Power markets are generally characterized by the
poor demand side response for the lack of proper
infra structure. Smart Grid can gracefully address
this issue. Few initiatives in India are reported
briefly with some details of the future plans also.
Proper communication protocols are needed for
integration of retail market with consumers.
Effective database management, data mining
techniques and architecture which provide
seamless flow of data from both ends is also
required. Few quality aware customers may be able
to specify their power quality requirement through
Smart Grids. The smart grid model will open new
potential towards cleaner, efficient, effective
technology. [16]

REFERENCES
[1] The smart grid vision for Indias power
sector"- prepared by PA Government
Services, Inc for USAID
[2] Y. Pradeep, S. A. Khaparde, R. Kumar,
Intelligent Grid Initiatives inIndia, IEEE
Intl. Conf. on Intelligent Systems
Applications to PowerSystems, pp. 1-6,
Nov. 2007.
[3]Paul Murphy et. al., Enabling tomorrows
Electricity System: Report of the Ontario
Smart Grid Forum,
http://www.ieso.ca/imoweb/pubs/smart_grid/
Smart_Grid_Forum-Report.pdf (September,
2010)
[4]Miles Keogh, the Smart Grid: Frequently
Asked Questions for State Commissions, The
National Association of Regulatory Utility
Commissioners,May 2009, p. 2,
http://www.naruc.org/Publications/NARUC
%20Smart%20Grid%20Factsheet%205_09.p
df, (June, 2010)
[5]The Smart Grid: An Introduction, U.S.
Department of Energy,
http://www.oe.energy.gov/DocumentsandMe
dia/DOE_SG_Book_Single_Pages (1).pdf
(September, 2010)
[6][Online]. Available: The Climate Group,
http://www.theclimategroup.org,Nov. 2009
[7]http://my.epri.com/portal/server.pt?space=Co
mmunityPage&cached=true&parentname=O
bjMgr&parentid=2&control=SetCommunity
&CommunityID=405
[8]supercon_overview fact sheet 7-14-09
www.oe.energy.gov
[9][Online]. Available: Indian Energy Exchange
Website,www.iexindia.com/, Nov. 2009.
[10][Online]. Available: Ministry of Power,
Government of India
Website,http://powermin.nic.in, Nov. 2009.
[11]NARUC Briefing on SGIG Consumer
Behaviour Study Effort
http://www.naruc.org/Policy/FERC/?c=3
[12]http://www.cea.nic.in/reports/regulation/gri
d_standards_reg.pdf
[13] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Smart_grid
[14]www.apdrp.gov.in/
[15][Online]. Available: Bangalore Electricity
Supply Company (BESCOM)
Website. http://www.bescom.org/, Nov. 2009.
[16] V. S. K. Murthy Balijepalli, R. P. Gupta,
and S. A. Khaparde, Towards
Indian Smart Grids, in IEEE TENCON
Conference, Singapore, Nov.2009.

Proceeding of National Seminar on Emerging Trends in Distributed Generation
136

Distributed Generation: Issue and Approaches
Anuradha Tomar
1
Sunil Gupta
2

NIEC, New Delhi NIEC, New Delhi
eranu28@gmail.com research.sunil@gmail.com


Abstract - Distributed generation (DG) is
expected to become more important in the
future generation system. The current
literature, however, does not use a consistent
definition of DG. This paper discusses the
relevant issues and aims at providing a
general definition for distributed power
generation in competitive electricity markets.
In general, DG can be defined as electric
power generation within distribution
networks or on the customer side of the
network. In addition, the terms distributed
resources; distributed capacity and
distributed utility are discussed.

I. INTRODUCTION
Distributed generation (DG) refers to
power generation at the point of
consumption. Generating power on-site,
rather than centrally, eliminates the cost,
complexity, interdependencies, and
inefficiencies associated with transmission
and distribution. Like distributed
computing (i.e. the PC) and distributed
telephony (i.e. the mobile phone),
distributed generation shifts control to the
consumer [1].
For a large and dispersed rural country,
decentralized power generation systems,
where in electricity is generated at
consumer end and thereby avoiding
transmission and distribution costs, offers
a better solution. Gokak Committee had
gone into details about the concept of
decentralized generation to meet the needs
of rural masses. The main
recommendations of the Committee are as
under:-
1.The concept of Distributed Generation
(D.G.) has been taken as decentralized
generation and distribution of power
especially in the rural areas. In India, the
deregulation of the power sector has not
made much headway but the problem of
T&D losses, the unreliability of the grid
and the problem of remote and
inaccessible regions have provoked the
debate on the subject.
2.The D.G. technologies in India relate to
turbines, micro turbines, wind turbines,
biomass, and gasification of biomass, solar
photovoltaics and hybrid systems.
However, most of the decentralized plants
are based on wind power, hydel power and
biomass and biomass gasification. The
technology of solar photovoltaics is costly
and fuel cells are yet to be
commercialized.
3.In so far as the 18,000 villages in remote
and inaccessible areas are concerned, the
extension of grid power is not going to be
economical. Decentralized plants based on
biomass, gasification of biomass, hydel
power and solar thermal power and solar
photovoltaics are the appropriate solution
for these areas. A decision with regard to
the available options will have to be taken
depending on the feature of each
site/village.
4.As regards the remaining unelectrified
villages, the responsibility should rest
primarily with the State Governments. The
Govt. of India would, however, act as the
facilitator to them.
5.As people in many of the electrified
villages are very much dissatisfied with the
Proceeding of National Seminar on Emerging Trends in Distributed Generation
137

quality of grid power, such villages also
encouraged to go ahead with the
Distributed Generation Schemes. These
should also be the responsibility of the
State Governments.
6.Though India has made considerable
progress in adopting technologies based on
renewable sources of energy these are not
yet capable of commercial application on a
large scale.
7.Association of Village Panchayat with
Village Level Committees is important for
the success of the programme. The fact that
the Rural Electric Cooperatives which were
established in the 80.s for distribution of
power supplied by the SEBs incurred losses
need not deter us from trying them out
again as these did have some positive
features[2].
Distributed generation takes place on two-
levels: the local level and the end-point
level. Local level power generation plants
often include renewable energy
technologies that are site specific, such as
wind turbines, geothermal energy
production, solar systems (photovoltaic
and combustion), and some hydro-thermal
plants shown in fig 1 and fig

Fig 1: Distributed Generation
These plants tend to be smaller and less
centralized than the traditional model
plants [3]. They also are frequently more
energy and cost efficient and more
reliable. Since these local level DG
producers often take into account the local
context, the usually produce less
environmentally damaging or disrupting
energy than the larger central model
plants.


Fig 2: Wind Turbines
II. APPLICATIONS OF
DISTRIBUTED GENERATING
SYSTEMS

There are many reasons a customer may
choose to install a distributed generator.
DG can be used to generate a customers
entire electricity supply; for peak shaving
(generating a portion of a customers
electricity onsite to reduce the amount of
electricity purchased during peak price
periods); for standby or emergency
generation (as a backup to Wires Owner's
power supply); as a green power source
(using renewable technology); or for
increased reliability. In some remote
locations, DG can be less costly as it
eliminates the need for expensive
construction of distribution and/or
transmission lines [4].
Proceeding of National Seminar on Emerging Trends in Distributed Generation
138


III. BENEFITS OF DISTRIBUTED
GENERATING SYSTEMS
Distributed Generation:
1. Has a lower capital cost because of the
small size of the DG (although the
investment cost per kVA of a DG can be
much higher than that of a large power
plant).
2. May reduce the need for large
infrastructure construction or upgrades
because the DG can be constructed at the
load location.
3. If the DG provides power for local use,
it may reduce pressure on distribution and
transmission lines.
4. With some technologies, produces zero
or near-zero pollutant emissions over its
useful life (not taking into consideration
pollutant emissions over the entire product
lifecycle ie. pollution produced during the
manufacturing or after decommissioning
of the DG system).
5.With some technologies such as solar or
wind, it is a form of renewable energy. can
increase power reliability as back-up or
stand-by power to customers.Offers
customers a choice in meeting their energy
needs.

IV. CHALLENGES ASSOCIATED
WITH DISTRIBUTED
GENERATING SYSTEMS

1. There are no uniform national
interconnection standards addressing
safety, power quality and reliability for
small distributed generation systems.
2. The current process for interconnection
is not standardized among provinces.
Interconnection may involve
communication with several different
organizations
3. The environmental regulations and
permit process that have been developed
for larger distributed generation projects
make some DG projects uneconomical.
4. Contractual barriers exist such as
liability insurance requirements, fees and
charges, and extensive paperwork.

V. CHARACTERISTICS OF THE
NEW GENERATION

This multiple, diverse and dispersed
generation can provide a number of
services to customers and utilities. From
the utility side: grid support and avoidance
of expensive upgrades. From the customer
side: standby generation, peak shaving,
stand-alone generation Prime movers for
these generation systems include internal
combustion engines, combustion or gas
turbines, steam turbines, microturbines,
wind turbines, solar (photovoltaic and
thermal), fuel cells, hydro and ocean (tidal
and marine current) [5]. The engine and
turbine based prime movers (except wind)
are capable of burning a variety of fuels,
including natural gas, coal and oil, and
alternative fuels such as wood, biomass,
black liquor and process gas. All types of
fuels (non-renewable and renewable) are
used allowing for wind, hydro, ocean. The
generation technologies can be classified
into renewable and non-renewable. This
classification means that DG is not a
synonym for Renewable Energy Source.
The DG technologies based on renewable
are:
wind,
photovoltaic and solar thermal,
ocean (tidal and marine current),
hydro (small).
The non-renewable DG technologies are:
micro turbine, combustion turbine,
steam turbine,
combined cycle,
Internal combustion engine.
Fuel cells can be classified as renewable
(using hydrogen) or non-renewable (using
natural gas or petrol). A consensus about
large hydro should not be part of DG
exists but this limit is not clear. When
convenient, instead of DG, we must tell
renewable (or not renewable) energy. The
Proceeding of National Seminar on Emerging Trends in Distributed Generation
139

ranges of electrical rating of DG
technologies are:
Wind A few W to few MW
Photovoltaic and solar thermal A few
W to few MW
Fuel cell A few tens of kW to few tens
of MW
Ocean A few hundred kW to few MW
Micro turbine A few tens of kW to few
hundred of kW
Combustion turbine A few MW to
hundreds of MW
Gas turbine A few hundred kW to few
hundred of MW
Steam turbine A few tens of kW to
several hundreds of MW
Combined cycle A few tens of MW to
several hundreds of MW
Internal combustion engine A few kW
to tens of MW

Electrical power rating is not used
consistently to distinguish DG from central
generation. If the power output is used
only within the local distribution network,
Ackermann suggested the term embedded
(distributed) generation. For most of the
analysed countries there is a wide range of
connection voltage, from BT to 132kV.
Therefore voltage range cannot be used to
characterise a DG. Three types of interface
arrangements are used to connect DG to
the grid: dc/ac converter, synchronous and
asynchronous generator. Transformers are
used to connect DG to higher voltage
grids.

VI. DISTRIBUTED-GRID(MINI-
GRID) SYSTEMS
Distributed-grid or mini-grid systems
are decentralized power plants, effectively
larger standalone systems, which supply
power to isolated groups of householders,
communities or even larger groupings.
They involve a local grid-network for the
supply of power. Connecting the utility
grid to remote regions usually requires
electricity transportation over long
distances to a dispersed population. For
this reason mini-grid systems can provide
more cost-effective electrification than
grid-extension for such areas. Mini-grid
systems can not only provide access to
household electric-ity in rural areas, but
also contribute to income generation, i.e.
small-scale industry, and social needs, i.e.
clinics. They can be used for the
generation of motive power, heat, and
other energy requirements. They may also
contribute to changes that benefit the local
economics and the environment [6].
A typical village mini-grid system
would provide a village with energy for
various applications:
Electricity for lighting and
appliances(radio,TV computer,etc), in
homes and public buildings such as
schools and clinics;
Electrical power (or mechanical power
common from hydro-powered systems)
for local industries;
Electrical power (or mechanical power
common from hydro-powered systems)
for agricultural value-adding industries
and labour saving activities;
Electricity for lighting and general uses
in public spaces, i.e. health centres, and
for collective events [7].

CONCLUSION
This paper discusses the relevant issues
and aims at providing a general definition
for distributed power generation in
competitive electricity markets. In general,
DG can be defined as electric power
generation within distribution networks or
on the customer side of the network. In
addition, the terms distributed resources;
distributed capacity and distributed utility
are discussed. Network and connection
issues of distributed generation are
presented, too.



Proceeding of National Seminar on Emerging Trends in Distributed Generation
140

REFERENCES
[1] Distributed generation in liberalised
electricity market, IEA Publications,
2002
[2] Impact of increasing contribution
of dispersed generation on the
Power System, CIGRE SC #37,
1998.
[3] R.H. Lasseter, Control of
distributed resources, in: L H. Fink.
[4] C.D. Vournas (Eds.), Proceedings:
Bulk Power Systems Dynamics
and Control IV, Restructuring,
organised by IREP and National
Technical University of Athens,
Santorini, Greece, August 2328,
1998, pp. 323329.
[5] M. Grubb, Renewable Energy
Strategies for Europe-Volume I,
Foundations and Context, The
Royal Institute of International
Affairs, London, UK, 1995.
[6] D. Sharma, R. Bartels, Distributed
electricity generation in
competitive energy markets: a case
study in Australia, in: The Energy
Journal Special issue: Distributed
Resources: Toward a New
Paradigm of the Electricity
Business, The International
Association for Energy Economics,
Clevland, Ohio, USA, 1998, pp.
1740.
Proceeding of National Seminar on Emerging Trends in Distributed Generation

141

Study of Distributed Generation Effectiveness in
Power Grid Stability

Balwinder Singh Surjan
Associate Professor, Electrical Engineering Department
PEC University of Technology, Chandigarh
balwindersingh658@yahoo.com


Abstract- In the present paper load frequency control
of interconnected power systems has been investigated
from the small signal stability point of view. The
interconnected areas are coupled through tie-lines. The
frequencies of respective areas are indicative of the
power-load imbalance and the tie-line power indicates
the power flow from one area to the other. The load
frequency control diagram has been augmented by
including the distributed generation, and distributed
area demands shared by each area. The results
obtained are the indicatives of the effect of load
sharing upon the grid stability in maintaining the
frequency constant.

I. INTRODUCTION
The global electric power industry is evolving
from a financial and engineering model that relies
on large centralized power plants owned by the
utilities to one that is more diverse both in sources
of generation and ownership of the generation
assets. Renewable distributed energy generation
(RDEG) technologies represent a growing part of
the new model for the electric power industry. Like
any emerging industry, new policies and standards
must be developed and practiced before the market
can mature. Worldwide, utility companies and
policy makers are testing programs and business
models to support this industry. RDEG stands in
contrast to the traditional one-way power supply, as
well as the traditional relationship utilities have
with their customers. The transition to a more
distributed system of power generation will require
the evolution of both technologies and business
practices.The shift to a distributed generation model
will challenge the business model of existing
traditional utilities and generators as the demand for
centrally generated power falls. These companies
will need to adapt if they are to survive. It will also
have social implications that extend beyond the
electricity system itself as consumers take control of
where and how they generate their electricity.
Business Insights appreciate the importance of
accurate, up-to-date incisive market and company
analysis and their aim therefore is to provide a
single, off-the-shelf, objective source of data,
analysis and market insight. Business Insights work
in association with leading industry experts to
produce a range of reports across a wide range of
industry sectors. In the
influence of market dynamics on the stability of
interconnected power systems is analyzed and it
is concluded that these dynamics significantly
affect the design of control in
power systems. With these findings in addition, pro
per frequency control becomes again very important
in todays power systems. Distributed generation
refers to relatively small-scale generators that
produce several kilowatts (kW) to tens of
megawatts (MW) of power and are generally
connected to the grid at the distribution or
substation levels. Distributed generation units use a
wide range of generation technologies, including
gas turbines, diesel engines, solar photovoltaic
(PV), wind turbines, fuel cells, biomass, and small
hydroelectric generators. Distributed generation can
be owned and operated by utilities or their
customers and can provide a variety of theoretical
benets to their owners and the broader power
system. Renewable DG from wind and solar power
also typically is not dispatchable or easily
controllable. Improved system reliability results
from the ability of DG units to maintain supply to
local loads in the event of a broader system outage.
This could be done by creating islands in which a
Proceeding of National Seminar on Emerging Trends in Distributed Generation

142

section of a distribution feeder is disconnected from
a faulted area. Such an action is called islanding.
Successful islanded operation requires sufcient
generation to serve local loads and also the
necessary distributed system control capabilities. 9
Distributed generation capable of providing
constant, uninterrupted power can improve power
quality by mitigating icker and other voltage
regulation problems. On the other hand, distributed
generation connected to the grid via power
electronic inverters (e.g., solar PV, fuel cells, and
most wind turbines) are widely understood to be
sources of voltage waveform distortion. However, if
designed and implemented properly, the power
electronics could theoretically cancel grid
distortions and help regulate voltage. The
frequency in power systems represents the
balance between generated power and
demanded power. In normal operation small load
variations occur spontaneously. In addition, more
severe power imbalances might occur from
power plant outages or line tripping and
result in larger frequency deviations. In order to
avoid these large deviations and secure a stable
electrical grid, a frequency control mechanism
must be implemented in power systems. Besides
these classical disturbances affecting frequency
stability, in more and more deregulated power syste
ms, conditions imposed by market mechanisms
affect the system additionally.
In the present paper load frequency control of
interconnected power systems has been investigated
from the small signal stability point of view. The
results obtained are the indicatives of the effect of
load sharing upon the grid stability in maintaining
the frequency constant.

II. SYSTEM SIMULATION

The load frequency control of power system can
help in mitigating the problem of grid failure; also
the distributed generation in system can be triggered
to supply additional demand with a area, without
loading the grid tie-lines. The distributed generation
plants can also avoid the total system collapse in the
case of system islanding. Therefore, the effect of
disturbance in one of the interconnected areas can
travel through tie lines to the other area, resulting in
inter-area oscillations to develop. The power
system dynamics can be studied through the load
frequency control assisted by the distributed
generation. The block diagram of the two areas
coupled through tie-line is given in the Fig. 1 to Fig.
4 below:



Fig. 1 Block Diagram of Two-Area Interconnected Power
System



Fig. 2 Internal Block Diagram of Subsystem for Area 1



Fig. 3 Internal Block Diagram of Subsystem for Area2.
Proceeding of National Seminar on Emerging Trends in Distributed Generation

143



Fig. 4 Internal Block Diagram of Subsystem for Load
Sharing between Two-Areas.

III. SYSTEM DATA
The value of various system parameters are
tabulated below in Table I.

Table I System Data
Parameters of
Area 1
Parameters of
Area 2
K
P
100 K
P
100
T
P
20 T
P
20
K
sg
1 K
sg
1
T
sg
0.4 T
sg
0.4
K
t
1 K
t
1
T
t
0.5 T
t
0.5
R 3 R 3
b 0.425 b 0.425
K
i
0.09 K
i
0.09
a
12
1 a
12
1
2T
12
0.05 2T
12
0.05

The values of cpf
ij
have been varied to observe the
effect of load sharing between areas for disturbance
in one of the areas, also its effect transmitted to area
Further the effect of distributed generation has been
simulated through the tie-line power schedule. The
effect of load shared by other power system has also
been observed.

IV. SYSTEM RESPONSE AND ANALYSIS

The system simulated using Matlab simulink as
well as script programming has been tested for load
sharing and the response in terms of frequencies and
tie-line power has been presented and analyzed.
The response of the system has been obtained
for the step load change in area 1 and various
graphs has been shown in Fig. 5-10. The graphs of
frequency versus time show that there is
improvement of the system response as the load
sharing between the two areas is considered. The
tie-line power as a function of time also represents
significant improvement.


Fig. 5. Frequency as a function time

Fig. 6 Tie-Line Power as a function time
Proceeding of National Seminar on Emerging Trends in Distributed Generation

144


Fig. 7. Frequency as a function time


Fig. 8 Tie-Line Power as a function time

Fig. 9 Frequency as a function time for varing Generation
sharing.

Fig. 10 Tie-Line Power as a function time for increasing
Generation sharing


REFERENCES

[1] P. Chiradeja and R. Ramakumar, An
Approach to Quantify the Technical Benets
of Distributed Generation, IEEE
Transactions on Energy Conversion 19
(2004): 764773.
[2] R.H. Lasseter, Smart Distribution: Coupled
Microgrids, Proceedings of IEEE 99, no. 6
(2011): 10741082.
[3] W. P. Poore et al., Connecting Distributed
Energy Resources to the Grid: Their
Benets to the DER Owner/Customer, Other
Customers, the Utility, and Society (Oak
Ridge, TN: Oak Ridge National Laboratory,
2002),http://www.ornl.gov/~webworks/cppr
/y2002/rpt/112701.pdf.
[4] P. P. Barker and R. W. De Mello,
Determining the Impact of Distributed
Generation on Power Systems, presented at
IEEE Power Engineering Society Summer
Meeting, Seattle, WA, July 1620, 2000.
[5] U. N. Khan, Distributed Generation and
Power Quality presented at the
International Conference on Environment
and Electrical Engineering, Karpacz,
Poland, May 1013, 2009.
Proceeding of National Seminar on Emerging Trends in Distributed Generation

145

[6] P. Kundur, Power System Stability and
Control. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1994.
[7] Parameter Uncertainties in Power Systems,
Proceedings of IEEE conference on Power
Symposium, pp. 630635, Sep. 2007.
[8] A. Morinec, and F. Villaseca, Continuous-
Mode Automatic Generation Control of a
Three-Area Power System, The 33
rd
North
American Control Symposium, pp. 6370,
2001.
[9] M. Kothari, N. Sinha and M. Rafi,
Automatic Generation Control of an
Interconnected Power System under
Deregulated Environment, Power Quality,
vol. 18, pp. 95102, Jun. 1998.
[10] V. Donde, M. A. Pai, and I. A. Hiskens,
Simulation and Optimization in an AGC
System after Deregulation, IEEE
Transactions on Power Systems, vol. 16, pp.
481489, Aug. 2001.


Proceeding of National Seminar on Emerging Trends in Distributed Generation
146

Information and Communication Technology
in Distributed Generation Solutions

Sunil Gupta
1
Anuradha Tomar
2
NIEC, New delhi NIEC, New Delhi
research.sunil@gmail.com eranu@gmail.com

Abstract: This paper investigates the
potentially enable sustainable telephone and
Internet connectivity to majority of
households in remote locations. We emphasis
on affordable telecommunications
infrastructure and its locally available
distributed generation solution. Several
telecommunication technologies are reviewed
and one that is affordable and has the lowest
power consumption for remote equipment is
discussed in detail.

I. INTRODUCTION

Information and Communication
Technology (ICT) has long been
recognized as a crucial constituent in the
social infrastructures to constitute a
modern nation. In many developing
countries, ICT plays a key role in social
development. The evidence has indicated
that ICT has potential to empower the
quality of lives for people living in
poverty. It provides the community with
the power to access virtually all kinds of
information, knowledge, as well as
communications services. In Africa [1] for
instance, ICT is being used as a tool to
achieve better learning outcomes and
enable access to material and resources
from international, national and local
sources in remote communities. It has also
become common understanding that
telecom and Internet infrastructure is
indispensable for the development of
economy. In addition, ICT benefits
community businesses in numerous ways,
essentially by facilitating access to global
markets, and boosting both domestic and
international trade. For example, in Sri
Lanka farmers used newly installed
telephones to find out the prices of
coconut, fruit and other produce in
Colombo. Instead of selling them at fifty to
sixty percent of the Colombo price,
farmers were able to get between eighty
and ninety percent [2]. Although the
benefits of ICT have long been established,
and several attempts have been initiated to
integrate ICT into the economy of the
developed world, least developed countries
are being left behind in their number of
telephone and Internet subscribers.

II. USAGE OF DISTRIBUTED
GENERATION

Despite the immense environmental,
technical, and financial promise of
renewable energy systems, such generators
still constitute a very small percentage of
electricity generation capacity in the
United States. Throughout the 1970s, some
policy experts expected renewable energy
systems to be used for much more
generation capacity than they have. Dr.
Arthur Rosenfeld, one of the five CEC
commissioners serving from 2002 until the
present, noted that President Carter had
told him (during his presidency in the late
1970s) that he expected renewable energy
systems to reach 10 percent of national
electricity capacity by 1985. However,
Carters expectation went unfulfilled:
excluding large hydroelectric generators,
Proceeding of National Seminar on Emerging Trends in Distributed Generation
147

renewable energy technologies in 2003
comprised only about 2 percent of the U.S.
electricity generation mix.
The relatively minor use of renewable
energy systems has created a general
attitude among energy analysts, scholars,
and laboratory directors that the
technologies are not viable sources of
electricity supply. For example, Rodey
Sobin, former Innovative Technology
Manager for the Virginia Department of
Environmental Quality, argues that in
many ways, renewable energy systems
were the technology of the future, and
today they still are. Ralph D. Badinelli, a
professor of Business Information
Technology at Virginia Tech, explains that
renewable energy technologies do not
contribute significantly to U.S. generation
capacity because such sources have not
yet proven themselves Until they do,
they will be considered scientific
experiments as opposed to new
technologies. Similarly, Mark Levine,
the Environmental Energy Technologies
Division Director at the Lawrence
Berkeley National Laboratory, comments
that despite all of the hype surrounding
renewable energy, such systems are still
only excellent for niche applications, but
the niches arent large.

DG/CHP technologies have an only
slightly better record. In 2004, the Energy
Information Administration characterized
only 3.1 percent of electricity generation
capacity as commercial or industrial
combined heat and power (33,217 MW out
of 1.49 Terrawatts [TW]). The EIA also
estimated that in 2002 only 0.9 Gigawatts
(GW) of distributed generation capacity
existed in the United States. Similarly, the
EIAs 2005 Annual Energy Outlook
projected that CHP systems are not widely
used in the electric power sector,
amounting to 0.053% of utility generation
(197 billion kWh out of 3,700 billion
kWh). Tom Casten, the Chair and Chief
Executive Officer of Primary Energy, a
manufacturer of fuel processing
cogeneration steam plants, notes that even
though CHP plants can reduce energy
costs for industrial firms by over 40
percent, such plants remain the exception
instead of the rule.

III. DISTRIBUTED GENERATION
SOLUTIONS

According to the assessment of four
energy sources, it is found that solar
energy, biomass (especially rice husks)
and natural gas are the potential resources
for electricity production in the country.
However, since the peak power demand
for the proposed telecenters is less than 2
kW, the paper recommends four promising
small-distributed power schemes in far-
flung remote areas of the country [3].
These include:
Solar photovoltaics (PV) with battery
storage
Diesel engines with battery storage
Gas engines with battery storage
Fuel cells fueled by natural gas.

IV. THE APPLICABLE
TELECOMMUNICATIONS SYSTEMS

This section investigates various last-
mile solutions that are applicable to
provide ICT connection in rural areas.
These are plain old telephone service,
optical fiber system, TDMA point-to-
multi-point systems and wireless local loop
systems, and lastly satellite communication
system.

Plain Old Telephone Service (POTS) is the
most common telecommunications system
that presently provides telecom and
Internet access to majority of the worlds
population. POTS connect end users to
public switched telephone network (PSTN)
through copper wires. Its popularity stems
from the very simple connection and its
low cost of entry if copper wire is
available in the area. Usually, its distance
Proceeding of National Seminar on Emerging Trends in Distributed Generation
148

limitation is in order of 2 to 5 km from the
PSTN. To connect to the Internet, a user
uses a telephone line, with a moderately
equipped personal computer and a modem,
and dials an Internet service provider
(ISP). Then, the ISP connects the user to a
router, which in turn is connected to other
routers on the Internet

V.SYSTEM PLANNING AND
OPERATIONS REQUIREMENTS

The increasing penetration of DG
resources heightens the significance of
scheduling, dispatching, availability,
capacity factor, spinning reserve, and
voltage and frequency support. Renewable,
solar or wind DG has an additional
complexity in that most systems have a
higher degree of variability in generation
output, requiring more insight into real-
time status and generation output.
Performing long-term generation planning,
substation and distribution system upgrade
design and routine load flow analysis
requires insight into all available DG
resources. This in turn requires that these
sources provide real-time information to
the utilities that can be fed into the new
generation of DMS power flow
applications for both planning and system
operations. This provides the information
that utilities need to plan and operate the
gridsafely and reliably[4].
A key enabler for effectively integrating,
monitoring and managing DG sources
within the smart grid lies with the utility's
ability to ingest, route, process and act
upon the increased levels of
instrumentation data from DG sources and
the larger grid. With the increasing
deployment of information technology
solutions such as enterprise service buses
(ESBs) and stream processing tools, the
latency between "sensory" and
"actionable" information has the ability to
be dramatically compressed, consequently
reducing the time between grid stimulus
and effective utility response.
Distributed generation, and especially
renewable based technologies, will
continue to gain in popularity due to
technology advances, environmental
benefits, political support and growing
energy awareness. Utilities need to prepare
themselves for this increased penetration
of renewable DGs through the
investigation and application of smart grid
solutions such as smart metering, smart
communications solutions, distributed
monitoring and control, and DMS
applications (see table). These solutions
have far-reaching value beyond supporting
DG. By proactively embracing these
changes, utilities can begin to shape the
myriad of planning and operating
approaches that maximize the potential
long term benefits to the utility and its
customers

VI.THE ASSESSMENT OF ENERGY
RESOURCES

Electric power is a prerequisite to the
operation of telecommunication and
Internet connection. Thus, in order to
enable ICT connection and provide
electricity to telecenters in remote areas of
a country, power requirements of each
subsystem must be met by certain
generation scheme. In other words, power
schemes must be identified to all ICT
subsystems (including Telecenters) at the
transmitting end, at the repeater station,
and on the subscriber premises. These
schemes depend very much on the locally
available resources, which vary from
country to country. Energy resources such
as solar energy, wind energy, and
agricultural waste are decentralized and
can be harnessed to produce electrical
energy for remote locations. This section
investigates renewable energy resources as
well as some fossil fuel options in a target
country [5].



Proceeding of National Seminar on Emerging Trends in Distributed Generation
149

SOLAR ENERGY
Due to its location, Bangladesh is ideally
located for utilizing solar energy. It is
situated between 20.30 26.38 degrees
north latitude and 88.04-92.44 degrees
east. Solar energy has been used in
Bangladesh for drying crops and fish since
time immemorial. The average solar
insolation is between 3 to 6 kWh/m2/day,
which is quite good for photovoltaics
applications.

WIND ENERGY
In Bangladesh, other than in coastal areas,
there is very little wind power potential for
electricity generation. Wind speeds at most
meteorological stations appear to be low
with typical annual mean wind speeds of
3-5 km/hour, at heights between 5 to 10
meters above ground level. The shape of
frequency distribution curve is generally
found to be skewed due to low frequency
for high-speed values and high frequency
for low speed values. By analyzing wind
roses, which were developed for all
meteorological stations in the country, it
was found that wind blows mainly from
two directions, NE and SE, in most
stations [14].

BIOMASS ENERGY
Biomass is the most important renewable
energy sources in Bangladesh since most
of the rural people are fully dependent on
biomass energy for their daily energy
needs. Biomass is estimated to provide as
much as 70% of the total final energy
requirement in Bangladesh. The main
sources of biomass energy are: rice husk
(26%), cow dung (19%), and rice straw
(16%). At present, there is acute shortage
of wood fuel in Bangladesh with the bleak
future projection for supply to meet the
need. On the other hand, agricultural
residues or crop production contribute
significantly to the biomass sector of
Bangladesh and generates considerable
amounts of residues that can be used as
energy source.

CONCLUSION

The paper neither considers wind turbine
nor biomass plant because (1) there is
insufficient wind resource to economically
operate wind turbines, and (2) efficient
biomass plants in general have capacities
in the order of 100s of kilowatts, which is
much higher than the requirement (<2kW).
Note that although Bangladesh has to
import diesel oil, diesel engines are
considered as an alternative due to its
popularity and ease of operation by village
farmers. The technical and economic data,
i.e. heat rate, heating value, investment
costs, fuel costs, maintenance costs and
service life of these alternatives are
summarized next.

REFERENCES

[1]. Acacia New, International
Development Research Center,
Volume 1, Issue 2, December 2001-
February 2002,
[2]. A training document from JRC,
Japan, role of rural
telecommunications, Mar 2000 from
Telephone Organization of Thailand
(TOT).
[3]. The Economist, elecommunications,
April 6th-12th, 2002, pp. 90.
[4]. Energy Information Administration,
U.S. natural gas and diesel prices,
2002,
[5]. International Telecommunication
Union (ITU 2002), ICT-Free Statistic
Homepage

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150

Series and Shunt FACTS Controllers in Power
System: A Review

Avinash
1
Sanjiv Kumar
2
Dushyant Gaur
3
MIT,Meerut MIT,Meerut MIT,Meerut


AbstractIn the last two decades power
demand has increased substantially while
the expansion of power generation and
transmission has been severely limited due
to many reasons like limited resources,
environmentalrestrictions, complexity
among operation and control. The existing
networks are mainly mechanically
controlled the mechanical switching device
are slow in operation and control cannot be
initiated frequently in these devices. To
overcome the problem related to the system
stability and controllability so FACTS
controllers are developed. Enhancement of
system stability using facts controllers has
been investigated. This paper is aimed
towards the benefit of utilizing FACTS
devices with the purpose of improving the
operation of an electrical power system as
well as the application of FACTS to power
system studies.

Keywords AC, FACTS, IPFC, PSS,
SVC, STATCOM, SSSC, TCSC, TCPS,
UPFC.

I. INTRODUCTION-
The problems faced in maintaining
economic and secure operation of large
interconnected systems can be eased if
sufficient margin (in power transfer) can be
maintained but this is not feasible due to the
difficulties in the expansion of the
transmission networks caused by economic
and environmental reasons. The required
safe operating margin can be substantially
reduced by the introduction of fast dynamic
control over reactive and active power by
high power electronic controllers. This can
make the ac transmission network flexible to
adapt to the changing condition caused by
contingencies and load variation then these
devices are known as facts devices.
FACTS; Flexible alternating current
transmission system is defined as a power
electronic based system and other static
equipment that provide control of one or
more ac transmission system parameter and
to provide stability to power system.

II. CONTROL OF POWER SYSTEM

GENERATION, TRANSMISSION,
DISTRIBUTION
In any power system, the creation,
transmission, and utilization of electrical
power can be separated into three areas,
which traditionally determined the way in
which electric utility companies had been
organized. These are illustrated in Figure 1
and are:
Generation
Transmission
Distribution
Although power electronic based equipment
is prevalent in each of these three areas,
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151

such as with static excitation systems for
generators and Custom Power equipment in
distribution systems, the focus of this paper
and accompanying presentation is on
transmission, i.e., moving the power from
where it is generated to where it is utilized.

CONTROLLABILITY OF POWER
SYSTEMS
To illustrate that the power system only has
certain variables that can be impacted by
control, we have considered here the power-
angle curve, shown in Figure 2. Although
this is a steady-state curve and the
implementation of FACTS is primarily for
dynamic issues, this illustration
demonstrates the point that there are
primarily three main variables that can be
directly controlled in the power system to
impact its performance. These are:
Voltage
Angle
Impedance
We can also infer the point that direct
control of power is a fourth variable of
controllability in power systems. With the
establishment of what variables can be
controlled in a power system, the next
question is how these variables can be
controlled. The answer is presented in two
parts: namely conventional equipment and
FACTS controllers.

III. Classification
There is different classification for the
fact devices;Depending on the types of
connection to the network

FACTS controllers can be differentiate into
four categories;
*series connected controllers
*shunt connected controllers
*combined series series controllers
*combined series shunt controllers

Depending on the power electronic based
devices used in the control

The FACTS controllers can be classified as;
*Variable impedance type
*Voltage source converter based FACTS
controllers

SERIES CONNECTED
CONTROLLERS
It can consist of variable impedance as a
condenser, coil, etc or a variable electronics
based source at a fundamental frequency.
The principle of operation of all serial
controllers is to inject a serial tension to the
line. Variable impedance multiplied by the
current that flows through it represents the
serial tension. While the tension is in phase
with the line current the serial controller
only consumes reactive power; any other
phase angle represents management of
active power. A typical controller is Serial
Synchronous Static compensator.

SHUNT CONNECTED
CONTROLLERS
As it happens with the serial controller, the
controller in derivation can consist of
variable impedance, variable source or a
combination of both. The operation principle
of all controllers in derivation is to inject
current to the system in the point of
connection. Variable impedance connected
to the line tension causes variable current
flow, representing an injection of current to
the line. While the injected current is in
phase with the line tension, the controller in
derivation only consumes reactive power;
any other phase angle represents
management of active power. A typical
controller is Synchronous Static
Compensator (STATCOM).

SERIES-SERIES CONTROLLERS
This type of controllers can be a
combination of coordinated serial controllers
in a multiline transmission system. Or can
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152

also be a unified controller in which the
serial controllers provide serial reactive
compensation for each line also transferring
active power between lines through the link
of power. The active power transmission
capacity, that present a unified serial
controller or line feed power controller,
makes possible the active and reactive
power flow balance and makes the use of
transmission bigger. In this case, the term
unified means that the DC terminals of the
converters of all the controllers are
connected to achieve a transfer of active
power between each other. A typical
controller is the Interline Power Flow
Compensator (IPFC).

SERIES -SHUNT CONTROLLERS
This device can be a combination of serial
and derivations controllers separated,
coordinately controlled or a unified power
flow controller with serial and derivation
element s. The principle of operation of the
serial-derivation controllers is to inject
current to the system through the component
in derivation of the controller, and serial
tension with the line utilizing the serial
component. When the serial and derivation
controllers are unified, they can have an
exchange of active power between them
through their link. A typical controller is
Unified Power Flow Controller (UPFC),
which incorporating function of a filtering
and conditioning becomes a Universal
Power Line Conditioner (UPLC).

VARIABLE IMPEDANCE TYPE

STATIC VAR COMPENSATOR
(SVC)
A static VAR compensator (or SVC) is
an electrical device for providing fast -
act ing react ive power on high-voltage
electricit y transmission networks.
SVCs are part of the Flexible AC
transmission system device family,
regulat ing voltage and stabilizing the
system. The t erm "static" refers to the
fact that the SVC has no moving parts
(other than circuit breakers and
disconnects, which do not move under
normal SVC operation). Prior to the
invent ion of t he SVC, power factor
compensat ion was the preserve of
large rotating machines such as
synchronous condensers. The SVC is
an automated impedance matching
device, designed to bring the system
closer to unit y power factor. If the
power system' s react ive load is
capacit ive (leading), the SVC will use
reactors (usually in t he form of
Thyristor-Controlled Reactors) to
consume VARs from the system,
lowering the system voltage. Under
induct ive (lagging) condit ions, the
capacitor banks are automat ically
switched in, thus providing a higher
system voltage. They also may be
placed near high and rapidly varying
loads, such as arc furnaces, where they
can smooth flicker voltage. It is
known that the SVCs wit h an auxiliar y
inject ion of a suitable signal can
considerably improve the dynamic
stabilit y performance of a power
system. It is obser ved that SVC
controls can significant ly influence
nonlinear system behavior especially
under high-stress operat ing condit ions
and increased SVC gains.

THYRISTOR-CONTROLLED SERIES
CAPACITOR (TCSC)
TCSC controllers use thyristor-controlled
reactor (TCR) in parallel with capacitor
segments of series capacitor bank. The
combination of TCR and capacitor allow the
capacitive reactance to be smoothly
controlled over a wide range and switched
upon command to a condition where the bi-
directional thyristor pairs conduct
continuously and insert an inductive
reactance into the line. TCSC is an effective
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153

and economical means of solving problems
of transient stability, dynamic stability,
steady state stability and voltage stability in
long transmission lines. TCSC, the first
generation of FACTS, can control the line
impedance through the introduction of a
thyristor controlled capacitor in series with
the transmission line. A TCSC is a series
controlled capacitive reactance that can
provide continuous control of power on the
ac line over a wide range. The functioning
of TCSC can be comprehended by analyzing
the behavior of a variable inductor
connected in series with a fixed capacitor.

THYRISTOR-CONTROLLED PHASE
SHIFTER (TCPS)
In a TCPS control technique the phase shift
angle is determined as a nonlinear function
of rotor angle and speed. However, in real-
life power system with a large number of
generators, the rotor angle of a single
generator measured with respect to the
system reference will not be very
meaningful.

THE VSC BASED FACTS
CONTROLLERS

STATIC COMPENSATOR
(STATCOM)
The emergence of FACTS devices and in
particular GTO thyristor-based STATCOM
has enabled such technology to be proposed
as serious competitive alternatives to
conventional SVC [21] A static synchronous
compensator (STATCOM) is a regulating
device used on alternating current electricity
transmission networks. It is based on a
power electronics voltage-source converter
and can act as either a source or sink of
reactive AC power to an electricity network.
If connected to a source of power it can also
provide active AC power. It is a member of
the FACTS family of devices. Usually a
STATCOM is installed to support electricity
networks that have a poor power factor and
often poor voltage regulation. There are
however, other uses, the most common use
is for voltage stability .From the power
system dynamic stability viewpoint, the
STATCOM provides better damping
characteristics than the SVC as it is able to
transiently exchange active power with the
system.

STATIC SYNCHRONOUS SERIES
COMPENSATOR (SSSC)
This device work the same way as the
STATCOM. It has a voltage source
converter serially connected to a
transmission line through a transformer. It is
necessary an energy source to provide a
continuous voltage through a condenser and
to compensate the losses of the VSC. A
SSSC is able to exchange active and reactive
power with the transmission system. But if
our only aim is to balance the reactive
power, the energy source could be quite
small. The injected voltage can be controlled
in phase and magnitude if we have an
energy source that is big enough for the
purpose. With reactive power compensation
only the voltage is controllable, because the
voltage vector forms 90 degrees with the
line intensity. In this case the serial injected
voltage can delay or advanced the line
current. This means that the SSSC can be
uniformly controlled in any value, in the
VSC working slot.

UNIFIED POWER FLOW
CONTROLLER (UPFC)
A unified power flow controller (UPFC) is
the most promising device in the FACTS
concept. It has the ability to adjust the three
control parameters, i.e. the bus voltage,
transmission line reactance, and phase angle
between two buses, either simultaneously or
independently. A UPFC performs this
through the control of the in-phase voltage,
and shunt compensation. The UPFC is the
most versatile and complex power electronic
equipment that has emerged for the control
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154

and optimization of power flow in electrical
power transmission systems. It offers major
potential advantages for the static and
dynamic operation of transmission lines.
The UPFC was devised for the real-time
control and dynamic compensation of ac
transmission systems, providing
multifunctional flexibility required to solve
many of the problems facing the power
industry. Within the framework of
traditional power transmission concepts, the
UPFC is able to control, simultaneously or
selectively, all the parameters affecting
power flow in the transmission line.
Alternatively, it can independently control
both the real and reactive power flow in the
line unlike all other controllers.

INTERLINE POWER FLOW
CONTROLLER (IPFC)
The objective of introducing this controller
is to address the problems of compensating a
number of transmission lines connected at a
substation. While pure series reactive
compensation can be used to control or
regulate the active power flow in a line, the
control of reactive power is not feasible
unless active voltage in phase with the line
current is not injected. In addition to the
facility for independently controllable
reactive compensation of each individual
line, a capability to directly transfer or
exchange real power between compensated
lines. This is achieved by coupling the series
connected VSCs in an individual line on the
dc side, by connecting all the dc capacitors
of individual converters in parallel. Since all
the series converters are located inside the
substation in close proximity this is feasible.

IV. BENEFITS DUE TO FACTS
CONTROLLERS

1. FACTS contribute to optimal system
operation by reducing power losses and
improving voltage profile.
2. The power flow in critical lines can be
enhanced as the operating margins can be
reduced due to fast controllability.

3. The transient stability limit is increased
thereby improving dynamic security of the
system and reducing the incidence of
blackouts caused by cascading outages.

4. The steady state or small signal stability
reason can be increased by providing
auxiliary stabilizing controllers to damp low
frequency oscillation.

5. The problem of voltage fluctuation and in
particular, dynamic over voltage can be
overcome by FACTS controllers.

V. FACTS APPLICATIONS TO
STEADY STATE POWER
SYSTEM PROBLEMS
For the sake of completeness of this review,
a brief overview of the FACTS devices
applications to different steady state power
system problems is presented in this section.
Specifically, applications of FACTS in
optimal power flow and deregulated
electricity market will be reviewed

FACTS APPLICATIONS TO
OPTIMAL POWER FLOW
In the last two decades, researchers
developed new algorithms for solving the
optimal power flow problem incorporating
various FACTS devices. Generally in power
flow studies, the thyristor controlled FACTS
devices, such as SVC and TCSC, are usually
modeled as controllable impedance.
However, VSC-based FACTS devices,
including IPFC and SSSC, shunt devices
like STATCOM, and combined devices like
UPFC, are more complex and usually
modeled as controllable sources. The
Interline Power Flow Controller (IPFC) is
one of the voltage source convertor (VSC)
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155

based FACTS Controllers which can
effectively manage the power flow via
multi-line Transmission System.

FACTS APPLICATIONS TO
DEREGULATED ELECTRICITY
MARKET
Nowadays, electricit y demand is
rapidly increasing wit hout major
reinforcement projects to enhance
power transmission networks. Also,
the electricit y market is going toward
open market and deregulat ion creat ing
an environment for forces of
compet it ion and bargaining. FACTS
devices can be an alt ernat ive to reduce
the flows in heavily loaded lines,
result ing in increased load abilit y, low
system loss, improved stabilit y of t he
network, reduced cost of production,
and fulfilled contractual requirements
by controlling the power flows in t he
network. Generally, the changing
nature of the electricit y supply
industry is introducing many new
subjects into power system operat ion
related to trading in a deregulated
compet it ive market. Commercial
pressures on obtaining greater returns
from exist ing assets suggests an
increasingly important role for
dynamic network management using
FACTS devices and energy storage as
an important resource in generat ion,
transmission, distribut ion, and
customer service. There has been an
increased use of the FACTS devices
applicat ions in an electricit y market
having pool and contractual
dispatches.

CONCLUSION

To overcome the problems related to
stability and controllability of power system
FACTS controllers should be used. The
essential features of FACTS controllers and
their potential to improve system stability is
the prime concern for effective & economic
operation of the power system. The location
and feedback signals used for design of
FACTS-based damping controllers were
discussed. The coordination problem among
different control schemes was also
considered. Performance comparison of
different FACTS controllers has been
reviewed. The likely future direction of
FACTS technology was discussed.

REFERENCES
[1] N. G. Hingorani and L. Gyugyi,
Understanding FACTS: Concepts and
Technology of Flexible AC Transmission
Systems. New York: IEEE Press, 2000.
[2] N. G. Hingorani, FACTS-Flexible AC
Transmission System, Proceedings of
5th International Conference on AC and
DC Power Transmission-IEE Conference
Publication 345, 1991, pp. 17.
[3] N. G. Hingorani, Flexible AC
Transmission, IEEE Spectrum, April
1993, pp. 4045.
[4] N. G. Hingorani, High Power
Electronics and Flexible AC
Transmission System, IEEE Power
Engineering Review, July 1988
[5] R. M. Mathur and R. S. Basati,
Thyristor- Based FACTS Controllers for
Electrical Transmission Systems. IEEE
Press Series in Power Engineering, 2002.
[6] Yong Hua Song and Allan T. Johns,
Flexible AC Transmission Systems
(FACTS). London, UK: IEE Press, 1999.
[7] M. Noroozian and G. Andersson, Power
Flow Control by Use of Controllable
Series



Proceeding of National Seminar on Emerging Trends in Distributed Generation

156


Emerging Trends in Distributed Generation System

Renu Sharma
IET, Alwar, Rajasthan


Abstract - This paper describes model of smart
micro grids suitable for limited areas already
served by existing networks and remote zones
where electricity is not available with
technology of Active front end generators
which can be used efficiently with renewable
sources of energy.
I. INTRODUCTION:
As everything around us is dependent on
energy so there has been many
discussions/researches are ongoing for its
preservation and better use for future. In
terms of it most famous technology
emerging is Renewable sources of energy
also called green energies like sun energy,
wind energy but in promoting these energies
main drawback is that these energies are not
stable and could not be stored in greater
stock. For an efficient distributed generation
system it is necessary that power supply
shall be smooth without any
distortion/blackouts hence to sort this
problem Smart Micro grid system comes in
picture.
Distributed generation and energy efficiency
is the main basis for conception of smart
micro grid system.Micro grids are modern,
small-scale versions of the centralized
electricity system. They achieve specific
local goals, such as reliability, carbon
emission reduction, diversification of energy
sources, and cost reduction, established by
the community being served. Like the bulk
power grid, smart micro grids generate,
distribute, and regulate the flow of
electricity to consumers, but do so locally.
Smart micro grids are an ideal way to
integrate renewable resources on the
community level and allow for customer
participation in the electricity enterprise.
They form the building blocks of the Perfect
Power System.The smart grid can work in
parallel to main grid or disconnected from it.
In disconnected mode it is called to be in
island mode. A simple micro grid as
shown in fig. 1 represents the main
components of smart grid system: local
generating stations, loads with their
controllers and the power interface to main
grid and power management systems. Power
equipments shall be of good quality i.e.
provide energy with minimum distortion,
electrical losses, with reliable and safe duty
capable of managing every normal and
transient situation without tripping or losing
its functionality. Digital technology that
allows for two-way communication between
the utility and its customers, and the sensing
along the transmission lines is what makes
the grid smart. Like the Internet, the Smart
Grid will consist of controls, computers,
automation, and new technologies and
equipment working together, but in this
case, these technologies will work with the
electrical grid to respond digitally to our
quickly changing electric demand.

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157



DESCRIPTION
Distributed generation system can be
classified on basis of two parameters for
design of smart grids: kind of duty they can
provide and kind of equipment used by them
to deliver energy to grid. The first parameter
indicates the power availability provided by
generation system i.e. continuous or random.
For e.g. Main grid system provide the power
continuously while power from renewable
sources of energy depend upon climatic
condition thus it is random type so these
sources cant be taken as primary source for
smart grids so smart grid must be connected
to main grid to compensate these random
supplies. Proper calculation need to be done
to check how much power can be provided
from renewable sources and how much
power will be required from main grids as
back up.
The second power represents static type
generators or rotating type generators to be
used for smart grids. Generally static type
generators are being used for renewable
sources to store enrgy while rotating type is
used in conventional grid system. Thus a
smart micro grid shall have either type of
generators. But to reduce the cost and
improve functionality of generators to get
connected to both static power and to main
grid static power converters are used called
Active Front End type converters.
Active Front End Converters:
The active front end converter can be seen in
its basic hardware elements in fig. 2 &3,
where two main cases are illustrated. Fig. 2
provides a link between a dc source to an ac
grid, as in case of photovoltaic cells. Fig. 3
is related to method used for connecting a
variable speed rotating generator to grid for
e.g. in Wind generators using variable speed
motors or permanent magnet motors. The
frequency and amplitude of variable voltage
of rotating generator is converted to dc first,
then from the dc voltage the power section
connected to grid produces voltage equal to
the one of the grid. AFE is provided with
some special software features that it can be
used as generalized solution for delivering
energy to grid from any renewable sources
of energy




Following are the features of AFE solution
are:
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158

Production of sinusoidal voltage and
control emc emissions:
AFE is equipped with special type of T
low-pass filter in order to suppress any
voltage harmonics having an order
greater than fundamental frequency. The
T filter is inserted between the three
phase output of the AFE converter and
the grid.
Delivering power to grid in parallel with
other generators:
AFE converters can be used in weak grid
system to control active and reactive
energy components. Dedicated
regulation algorithms are implemented
in control system of AFE converter.
Management of grid transients:
AFE converter can be equipped with
special control functions to manage
transient of grid, mainly the short circuit
currents. This function provides
flexibility to prevent AFE from tripping
and contributes the clearing of fault
occurred on the grid.In case of fault AFE
just changes its mode of operation.

CONCLUSION

This paper introduced basic
understanding for smart micro grid system
and special technique of AFE converters
which is already running and tested in many
industrial applications. The micro grid can
be made smart with introduction of new
features and thus can solve the complex
problems of energy loss/blackouts with
random production capability and thus
reduction in conventional sources of energy
in power generation.

REFERENCES

[1]. Marina G. Gatti, 2004 Large Power
PWM IGBT converter for shaft
generator systems Vol.5 Page 3444-
3450
[2]. Numeroli R. Gatti, Torri. G.,
Kranenburg R, 1995, Four quadrant,
large power, igbt vector controller
adjustable speed drive
[3]. AA. VV. Enel. 2007 DK5940 ed 2.2
[4]. Flueck A. Zuyi li, 2008. Destination:
perfection. IEEE power & energy
magazine. Nov/Dec. 2008








Proceeding of National Seminar on Emerging Trends in Distributed Generation
159

Study and Characterization of reactive power in wind
farm operation using MATLAB Simulink

Dr. Tilak Thakur
1
Priya Sharma2


1,2
PEC University of Technology, Chandigarh


Abstract: To harness the wind power
efficiently the most reliable system in the
present era is grid connected doubly fed
induction generator. The DFIG brings the
advantage of utilizing the turns ratio of the
machine, so the converter does not need to
be rated for the machines full rated
power. The rotor side converter (RSC)
usually provides active and reactive power
control of the machine while the grid-side
converter (GSC) keeps the voltage of the DC-
link constant. The GSC can supply the
required reactive current very quickly while
the RSC passes the current through the
machine resulting in a delay. Both converters
can be temporarily overloaded, so the DFIG
is able to provide a considerable contribution to
grid voltage support during short circuit periods.
These wind energy conversion systems are
connected to the grid through Voltage Source
Converters (VSC) to make variable speed
operation possible. The studied system here
is a variable speed wind generation system
based on Doubly Fed Induction Generator
(DFIG). The stator of the generator is directly
connected to thegrid a fraction of the
generator rated power. The convertor as
well as the rotor requires reactive
power which is either drawn from the grid or
is obtained from the reactive power sources
like FACTS devices. An attempt has been
made to understand the role of reactive power
in the wind farm operation.
Keywords: DFIG, Phase locked loop, FACTS,
STATCOM
I. INTRODUCTION:

Wind turbine consists of induction generator
of wound rotor type. The stator is
connected to the grid and the rotor to
the turbine. The reactive power is fed to
the rotor through a convertor which has
sides- grid side and the
turbine side. These two are linked to each
other with a dc-link which is basically a
capacitor.
Also because of the large requirement of
the reactive power, the wind turbine is
generally supported with the reactive power
sources like capacitor banks or the
unconventional sources like FACTS
devices.[1],[2]
A case with the STATCOM has been
considered to analyze the impact of
reactive power in the wind farm operation.

MODEL DESCRIPTION
A wind farm consisting of six 1.5-MW
wind turbines is connected to a 25-kV
distribution system exports power to a 120-
kV grid through a 25-km 25-kV feeder. The
9-MW wind farm is simulated by three
pairs of 1.5 MW wind-turbines. Wind
turbines use squirrel-cage induction
generators (IG). The stator winding
is connected directly to the 60 Hz grid and
the rotor is driven by a variable-pitch wind
turbine. The pitch angle is controlled in
order to limit the generator output power at
its nominal value for winds exceeding the
nominal speed (9 m/s). In order to generate
power the IG speed must be slightly above
the synchronous speed. Speed varies
approximately between 1 pu at no load
and 1.005 p.u at full load. Each wind
turbine has a protection system
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160

monitoring voltage, current and machine
speed. [5],[7]
Reactive power absorbed by the IGs is
partly compensated by capacitor banks
connected at each wind turbine low
voltage bus (400 kvar for each pair of 1.5
MW turbines). The rest of reactive power
required to maintain the 25-kV voltage at
bus B25 close to 1 pu is provided by a 3-
Mvar STATCOM with a 3% droop setting.
The 9 MW wind farm considered for the
purpose of analysis has been shown in
the following figure 1





















Figure 1: Model for the 9 MW wind farm

The comprehensive model incorporating
the wind farm and the STATCOM has been
shown below in figure 2. The encircled wind
farm has already been discussed above.




















Figure 2: Model incorporating 9 MW wind farm &
STATCOM


DEMOSTRATION AND SIMULATION
RESULTS

(a)Turbine response to a change
in wind speed

Start simulation and observe the signals
on the "Wind Turbines" scope monitoring
active and reactive power, generator speed,
wind speed and pitch angle for each
turbine. For each pair of turbine the
generated active power starts increasing
smoothly (together with the wind speed)
to reach its rated value of 3 MW in
approximately 8s. Over that time frame
the turbine speed will have increased from
1.0028 pu to 1.0047 pu. Initially, the pitch
angle of the turbine blades is zero degree.
When the output power exceed 3 MW, the
pitch angle is increased from 0 deg to 8
deg in order to bring output power back to
its nominal value. We observe that the
absorbed reactive power increases as the
generated active power increases. At
nominal power, each pair of wind
turbine absorbs 1.47 Mvar. For a 11m/s
wind speed, the total exported power
Proceeding of National Seminar on Emerging Trends in Distributed Generation
161

measured at the B25 bus is 9 MW and the
statcom maintains voltage at 0.984 pu by
generating 1.62 Mvar (see "B25 Bus" and
"Statcom" scopes). [3]

(b) Operation of protection system
At t=15 s, a phase to phase fault is applied
at wind turbine 2 terminals, causing the
turbine to trip at t=15.11 s. If we look
inside the "Wind Turbine Protections" block
you will see that the
trip has been initiated by the AC
Undervoltage protection. After turbine 2 has
tripped, turbines1 and 3 continue to generate
3 MW each.

(c) Impact of STATCOM

First, opening the "Fault" block
menu and disabling the phase to phase
fault.Then putting the "STATCOM" out
of service by double clicking the "Manual
Switch" block connected to the "Trip" input
of the "STATCOM". Restart simulation. [4]
Observing on "B25 Bus" scope
that because of the lack of reactive
power support, the voltage at bus "B25"
now drops to0.91pu.This low voltage
condition results in an overload of the IG of
"Wind Turbine 1". "Wind Turbine 1" is
tripped at t=13.43 s. Looking inside the
"Wind Turbine Protections" block we see
that the trip has been initiated by the AC
Overcurrent protection.[6]

SIMULATION RESULTS

The simulation output gives the
variation of various parameters of wind
turbine, STATCOM and the isolated bus.


























Figure3. simulation showing variation of turbine
parameters.






















Figure4. simulation showing variation of turbine
output.



Proceeding of National Seminar on Emerging Trends in Distributed Generation
162



























Figure5. simulation showing variation of
connecting terminal parameters.

CONCLUSION
Each wind turbine block
represents two 1.5 MW turbines. The
turbine mechanical power as function of
turbine speed is displayed for wind speeds
ranging from 4 m/s to 10 m/s. The
nominal wind speed yielding the nominal
mechanical power (1pu=3 MW) is 9 m/s.
The system has been observed for 20s.The
wind speed applied to each turbine is
controlled by the "Wind 1" to "Wind 3"
blocks. Initially, wind speed is set at 8
m/s, then
starting at t=2s for "Wind turbine 1",
wind speed is rammed to 11 m/s in 3
seconds. The same gust of wind is applied
to Turbine 2 and Turbine 3, respectively
with 2 seconds and 4 seconds delays.
Then, at t=15s a temporary fault is
applied at the low voltage terminals (575
V) of "Wind Turbine 2".

REFERENCES
[1] Ancona DF, Goldman PR, Thresher
RW. Wind program technological
developments in the United States.
Renew Energy 1997;10:253-8.
[2] Bird L, Bolinger M, Gagliano T,
Wiser R, Brown M, Parsons B.
Policies and market factors driving
wind power development in the
United States. Energy Pol
2005;33:1397-407.
[3] Ja ger-Waldau A, Ossenbrink H.
Progress of electricity from biomass,
wind and photovoltaics in the European
Union. Renew Sustain Energy Rev
2004;8:157-82.
[4] Georgilakis PS. State-of-the-art of
decision support systems for the choice
of renewable energy sources for
energy supply in isolated regions. Int
Distrib Energy Resour 2006;2:129-50.
[5] Stampolidis VL, Katsigiannis YA,
Georgilakis PS. A methodology for the
economic evaluation of photovoltaic
systems. Oper Res An Int J
2006;6:37-54.
[6] Katsigiannis YA, Georgilakis PS.
Reliability and economic evaluation
of small autonomous power systems
containing only renewable energy
sources. In: Proceedings of the
international conference on electrical
machines, Chania, Greece, September
2006.
[7] Lambert T, Gilman P, Lilienthal P.
Micropower system modeling with
HOMER. In: Farret FA, Simo es
MG, editors. Integration of
alternative sources of energy. New
York: Wiley; 2006 pp.
379-418.
Proceeding of National Seminar on Emerging Trends in Distributed Generation

163

Potential Benefits of Self-excited induction generator
(SEIG) in Distribution Generation

Ahmed Riyaz
1
S P Singh
2
S K Singh
3

RGGI, Meerut IIT, Roorkee RGGI, Meerut
riyazamu@gmail.com spseefee@iitr.ernet.in sunil_iet2001@yahoo.com


Abstract: Owing to shrinking energy resources
facing mankind, have led to exhaustive hunt for
environment friendly ways of energy generation. A
novel trend in electric power production is the
decentralization of power generation and
increased use of non-conventional energy sources
such as wind energy, bio-gas, solar and hydro
potential, etc. Induction generators are
increasingly being used in non-conventional
energy systems such as wind, micro/mini hydro,
etc. The advantages of using an induction
generator instead of a synchronous generator are
reduced unit cost and size, ruggedness, brushless
(in squirrel cage construction), absence of
separate dc source, ease of maintenance, self-
protection against severe overloads and short
circuits, etc. In isolated systems, squirrel cage
induction generators with capacitor excitation,
known as self-excited induction generators
(SEIGs), are very popular. This paper, therefore,
reviews the progress made in induction generator
particularly, the self-excited induction generator
(SEIG) research and its importance with regard to
distribution generation. Attempts are made to
highlight the current and future issues involved in
the development of SEIG technology for its large-
scale future applications.
I. INTRODUCTION
A half century ago, electricity was important
but not necessary to maintain important
functions in the community. Today on the other
hand it is almost impossible to live a
sophisticated life without electricity. The
dependency on electricity has increased the cost
of a blackout. Our helplessness to a blackout is
increasing as the number of functions in the
society depending on electricity is mounting.
Following major blackouts all over the world,
in recent years, power supply reliability has
become a very important issue [1]. In the last
two centuries the world's population and the
worldwide total energy consumption have been
constantly mounting, at a rate even greater than
exponential [2]. By now a situation has been
reached in which energy resources are falling
short, which for a long time have been treated
as though they were almost inexhaustible. The
on-going growth of the world's population and
a growing demand of energy in developing
countries mean that the yearly overall energy
consumption will continue to grow, so that it
would have doubled by 2035 [2]. The
increasing rate of the depletion of conventional
energy sources, particularly after the increases
in fuel prices during the 1970s has given rise to
an increased emphasis on eco-friendly
technologies, the use of renewable sources such
as small hydro, wind and biomass is being
explored [3,4]. Generation of electrical energy
mainly so far has been from thermal, nuclear,
and hydro plants. They have continuously
degraded the environmental conditions. Also,
the utilities in many developing countries are
finding it difficult to establish and maintain
remote rural area electrification. The costs of
delivering power to such areas are becoming
excessively large due to large investments in
transmission lines for locally installed
capacities and large transmission line losses.
For these reasons, distributed power generation
has received attention in recent years.

This paper gives an overview on the
development of self-excited induction generator
research and its importance with regard to
distribution generation.
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164

II. DISTRIBUTED GENERATION
The increasing diffusion of distributed
generation is due to many factors. In many
Countries various government actions try to
incentive the diffusion of renewable energy
generation systems connected to electrical
distribution networks [5]. Society demands
environmental-friendly energy and
governments often promotes renewable energy
sources. By their nature, renewable energy
sources are mostly delocalized with limited
production capability and therefore their
utilization takes often the form of small to
medium scale distributed generation. Our
society has become highly dependent on
electricity supply. Important industrial sectors
and infrastructures are equipped with
emergency back-up electricity sources to
minimize the risks of damages due to power
outages. Private consumers may also be
seriously affected by long power outages.
Important industries such as paper mills
disconnect from the grid and use their own
power generation in an island grid during
thunderstorms to avoid uncontrolled
interruptions in the production. With the
deregulation of electric power utilities,
advancement in technology, and environmental
concerns, optimal distributed generation (DG)
will be a focus to the electric utilities to cater
the growing need of electric power [6].
Distributed generator is generally connected
directly to grid or can operate independently.
They are considered to be less than 5MW in
capacity [7]. There are different definitions of
distributed generation. In general, distributed
generation can be defined as electric power
generation within distribution networks or on
the customer side of the network. DG can be
based on renewable technologies such as wind
turbine, photovoltaic or non-renewable
technologies such as micro-turbine and fuel
cell. Distributed generation using micro-turbine
generator (MTG) is a practical solution because
of its environment friendliness and high energy
efficiency. Various applications such as peak
shaving, co-generation, remote power and base
load power will make its use worldwide.
Dynamic model of MTG system have been
suggested in [8, 9].
As per the Government of India, decentralized
power production facility is defined as any
facility that produces power less than 100 kW
and is not connected to central grid. These are
stand-alone systems that supply power to a
particular commercial/domestic setup. Due to
unavailability of grid the management of power
produces is more difficult for such systems
however there are no grid losses and voltage
problems associated with it. These systems are
characterized by an energy storage device in
form of batteries. The storage also has capacity
to run 24 hours of normal operation of the
setup. Decentralized electricity has some very
fundamental differences compared to
centralized electricity production [10].
Advantages of Decentralized over centralized in
Indian context:
Considering the unique demographical and
geographical position of India and collating it
with the current and the predicted future
economic scenario of the country, we can say
that decentralized electricity possess an edge
over centralized electricity for the rural and off-
grid electrification in India in the coming years.
Minimal losses
Cogeneration
Easier Set-up, Maintenance and
Operation
Opportunity for SMEs and entrepreneurs

Gas/fossil fuel can be a viable option for energy
production, but setting up infrastructure for
gas/fossil fuel supply over a wide region will be
a huge infrastructure investment that will also
take considerable time. Setting up decentralized
power production facility can drastically shrink
infrastructure investment which can then be
transferred for subsidizing renewable energy
production which will run on very less
operation cost. It will also aid in solving the
problem of Indias heavy dependence on
imported fossils. Decreasing its fossil fuel
import bill and simultaneously increasing rural
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165

electrification can thus be tackled by
decentralized renewable production of
electricity [11-13].
Different regions in India are endowed with a
wide variety of resources that can be used as
fuel. A large portion of coastal regions have a
huge wind power potential. Many remote
locations in the region of western desert, wind
power can be employed to generate electricity
and run irrigation pumps. India also possesses
the highest potential in the world to harness
solar power and thus MNRE has recognised
solar power as a major source of energy in
future for India and has created ambitious plan
in Jawaharlal Nehru National Solar Mission
(JNNSM). JNNSM has also been integrated
with RGVVY of Ministry of Power and RVE
programme of MNRE [14, 15]. Wind and Solar
power resources complement each other
perfectly in Indian climatic cycle. Wind-solar
hybrid systems can be very effective solutions.
Distributed generation may be divided into
different groups depending on the type of
network interface: induction generators,
synchronous generators or power electronic
converters. This paper focuses on the first of
these groups.
III. INDUCTION GENERATOR
Conventionally, synchronous generators
have been used for power generation but
induction generators are increasingly being
used these days because of their relative
advantageous features over conventional
synchronous generators. These features are
brush less and rugged construction, low
operational and maintenance cost, maintenance
and operational simplicity, capability to
generate power at varying speed, etc. The later
feature facilitates the induction generator
operation in stand-alone/isolated/island mode to
supply far flung and remote areas where
extension of grid is not economically viable; in
conjunction with the synchronous generator to
fulfil the increased local power requirement,
and in grid-connected mode to supplement the
real power demand of the grid by integrating
power from resources located at different
locations [16].

Unlike the synchronous generator, an induction
generator does not have an internal
magnetization source. However, a voltage may
build up in an induction generator as the result
of a physical process known as self-excitation.
This permits the utilization of an induction
generator as a standalone unit operating in
island without connection to any other voltage
source. It may take place if a sufficient amount
of capacitors is connected at the generator
terminals. Self-excitation is initiated by the
residual flux in the induction generator rotor
iron. When the generator is accelerated to a
certain speed, the residual flux will induce a
voltage in the stator. Under these conditions,
the induction generator behaves much like a
synchronous generator with permanent magnet
rotor [17].
The induction generators potential to produce
power even at varying speed facilitates its
application in various modes such as self-
excited stand-alone (isolated) mode; in parallel
with synchronous generator to complement the
local load, and in grid-connected mode also.
There is huge research in progress for the last
few decades for the use of induction generator
as an alternative to the synchronous generator
to utilize the small hydro and wind energy.
IV. SELF-EXCITED INDUCTION
GENERATOR
In early 1970s with a sharp rise in oil prices,
interest in wind power re-emerged. However by
the end of 1990s, wind power became as one of
the sustainable energy resource. No other
renewable energy based electricity producing
technology has attained the same level of
maturity as wind power. There are no major
technical barriers to large-scale penetration of
wind power. It also offers an attractive
investment option to the private sector for
power generation [18-21]. It is observed that
winds carry enormous amount of energy and
could meet sufficient energy needs of the
world. The regions in which strong winds
Proceeding of National Seminar on Emerging Trends in Distributed Generation

166

prevail for a sufficient time during the year may
use wind energy profitable for different
purposes. It has been found that cost of wind
generation is comparable to that of hydro and
thermal plants. There is a little doubt that while
the cost of wind generation would be even
lowers in the coming years; the prices of fossil
fuels used by thermal plants would definitely go
up. In view of high capital constructional cost
hydro power would be dearer too. In addition to
this wind energy generation provides a clean
and pollution free environment. It does not lead
to global warming and ozone depletion. No
hazardous waste is created. Further a wind
turbine generator may be a very worthwhile
proposition for an isolated and remote area.
Application of induction generators [22-37] is
well known to extract the wind energy through
turbines. An induction motor connected to
constant voltage, constant frequency supply
system behaves as a generator if made to run at
a speed higher than synchronous speed. In such
an operation, the exciting current is provided by
the supply system, to which the machine is
connected and the frequency of the voltage
generated by the induction generator is the
same as that of supply system. It was also well
established that an induction machine might be
run as a generator by connecting suitable
capacitors across stator terminals to provide
excitation. In such an arrangement, the
frequency of the generated voltage is not fixed
but beside other factors depends upon the speed
of the prime mover. Self-excited induction
generators (SEIG) are found to be most suitable
for many applications including wind energy
conversion systems. Such generators may also
be used in the remote areas in the absence of
grid. These machines have many advantages
such as brush less construction (squirrel-cage
rotor), reduced size, and no need of of DC
power supply for excitation as in conventional
generators, reduced maintenance cost; self-
short-circuit protection capability and no
synchronizing problem. Steady state equivalent
circuit representation and mathematical
modelling is required to evaluate the steady
state performance of a SEIG feeding a specific
load. In order to estimate the performance of a
SEIG, researchers have made use of the
conventional equivalent circuit of an induction
motor. Steady state modelling of grid connected
induction generator using saturated magnetizing
reactance has been described in [18]. Power
quality effects in case of SEIG are investigated
by [19]. Whereas, [20] investigated the stability
aspects of wind driven induction generator.
Some of the researchers [21, 22] used the
impedance model, and a few [23-26] used the
admittance-based model for to estimate the
performance of these machines. However it has
been felt that the old conventional equivalent
circuit model, in the absence of an active
source, does not effectively correspond to
generator operation. Therefore [27] suggested a
new circuit model for the representation of
induction generator. For windmill drives, the
speed of the induction machine depends upon
the velocity, volume and the direction of wind.
These parameters may vary in wide limits. It is
found that such machine exhibits poor
performance in terms of voltage and frequency
under frequent variations of operating speeds,
which is a common feature in wind energy
conversion. It is therefore, desirable to
investigate the behaviour of a self-excited
induction generator suitable for windmill drive
under controlled and uncontrolled speed
operation. It is realized that such variations in
operating speeds may be compensated by
proper handling of load and rotor resistance.

On the basis of rotor construction, induction
generators are two types (i.e., the wound rotor
induction generator and squirrel cage induction
generator). Depending upon the prime movers
used (constant speed or variable speed) and
their locations (near to the power network or at
isolated places), generating schemes can be
broadly classified as under [28, 29]:
i) Constant-speed constant-frequency (CSCF);
ii) Variable-speed constant-frequency (VSCF);
iii) Variable-speed variable-frequency (VSVF).


Proceeding of National Seminar on Emerging Trends in Distributed Generation

167

V. SELF-EXCITATION AND VOLTAGE
BUILD-UP IN SEIG
The principle of self-excitation of an
induction motor is well known since the 1930s
[30]. Self-excitation phenomenon is still a
subject of considerable attention. The interest in
this topic is primarily due to the application of
SEIG in isolated power systems. Physical
background of the self-excitation process has
been described in considerable depth in [30].
When an induction machine is disconnected
from the supply, and driven by a mechanical
source, terminal voltage builds up if its lagging
var demand is supplied externally, and
sufficient residual magnetism is present in the
rotor core. This is known as self-excitation
phenomenon in the literature. Shunt
compensation capacitors are the most common
var supplies for the self-excitation of induction
motors. The use of an induction machine as an
autonomous generator due to self-excitation
phenomenon has been extensively investigated
by several researchers, especially for wind
power generation [36-41].

In the self-excited mode, the induction
generator is excited with three-phase ac
capacitors. The frequency, the slip, the air gap
voltage and the operating range of the system
are affected by the characteristics of the
induction generators and the choice of capacitor
sizes. The operating slip in a self-excited mode
is generally small and the variation of the
frequency depends on the operating speed
range.

When an induction machine is driven at a speed
greater than the synchronous speed (negative
slip) by means of an external prime mover, the
direction of induced torque is reversed and
theoretically it starts working as an induction
generator. From the circle diagram of the
induction machine in the negative slip region
[43], it is seen that the machine draws a current,
which lags the voltage by more than 90. This
means that real power flows out of the machine
but the machine needs the reactive power. To
build up voltage across the generator terminals,
excitations must be provided by some means;
therefore, the induction generator can work in
two modes (i.e., grid connected and isolated
mode). In case of a grid-connected mode, the
induction generator can draw reactive power
either from the grid but it will place a burden on
the grid or by connecting a capacitor bank
across the generator terminals [4446]. For an
isolated mode, there must be a suitable
capacitor bank connected across the generator
terminals. This phenomenon is known as
capacitor self-excitation and the induction
generator is called a SEIG. The process of
voltage build-up in an induction generator is
very much similar to that of a dc generator.
There must be a suitable value of residual
magnetism present in the rotor. In the absence
of a proper value of residual magnetism, the
voltage will not build up. So it is desirable to
maintain a high level of residual magnetism, as
it does ease the process of machine excitation.
The operating conditions resulting in
demagnetization of the rotor (e.g., total collapse
of voltage under resistive loads, rapid collapse
of voltage due to short circuit, etc. should be
avoided [47]). When an induction generator
first starts to run, the residual magnetism in the
rotor circuit produces a small voltage. This
small voltage produces a capacitor current flow,
which increases the voltage and so forth until
the voltage is fully built up. The no-load
terminal voltage of the induction generator is
the intersection of the generators
magnetization curve with capacitor load line
[48]. The magnetization curve of the induction
generator can be obtained by running the
machine as a motor at no load and measuring
the armature current as a function of terminal
voltage. To achieve a given voltage level in an
induction generator, an external capacitor must
be able to supply the magnetizing current of
that level.

VI. MODELLING AND CONTROL OF
SEIG
The induction machine is modelled using the
steady-state equivalent circuit. Detail derivation
of equations for self-excited induction generator
can be found in literature [49, 50]. The stable
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168

operation of the system can be sustained at any
moment when the balance of real power and
reactive power can be maintained. The balance
of real power is established mainly between the
power produced in the rotor and the power
consumed from the stator winding through the
power converter. The balanced of reactive
power is established between the ac capacitors
and the air-gap flux condition at any operating
condition[51].

Fig. 1: Cross Section of Induction Machine

Fig. 2: Circuit-connection of a wound-rotor Induction
Machine.

Fig. 3: A 1.8kW wound-rotor induction machine.

Fig. 4: A 2.2kW squirrel-cage induction machine.
The frequency in a power system is closely
related to the generator speed. In synchronous
generators the speed is directly tied to the
frequency through the number of poles divided
by two. In induction generators the frequency
also differs from the mechanical speed by the
number of poles divided by two, but also by the
slip which is in order of a percent. The torque
balance in the system given by Eq. 1 directly
affects the system frequency.
. el mec
T T
dt
dw
J (1)
A difference between driving mechanical
torque, e.g. water in a turbine, and electrical
load torque results in a change in frequency.
Eq. 1 could be expressed with power as well.
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169

. el mec
P P
dt
dw
J (2)
If the input mechanical power is higher than the
electrical power consumption the frequency
increases and if the consumption is higher than
the input power the frequency decreases. The
rate of change in frequency is proportional to
the inverse of the inertia, J. In a big power
system J is the total inertia of all connected
generators and their turbines. With more
generators connected a disturbance has less
influence on the frequency. It is thus more
difficult to regulate frequency in an isolated
mode of operation with only one or a few
generators. The same load changes will have
greater impact on frequency than at
interconnected operation.
The influence between power and frequency is
utilized in the turbine control. The frequency
decreases and the frequency error are fed back
to the turbine governor which opens the gate.
The deviation f is determined by the gain R in
the turbine governor. The gain R is called
frequency droop. It is given by
P
f
R

(3)

and determines the maximum steady-state
frequency error when the generator is operating
at full load. If R is selected to have the same
value in p.u. for different generators this allows
parallel operation with equal sharing of the
control effort. A change in frequency then
results in the same power change in pu for all
the generators.

While the frequency is the same in the entire
grid the voltage is not. The voltage is controlled
by each generator individually. In a
synchronous generator this is done by changing
the excitation. The reactive power to the grid is
then changed and the voltage at the connection
point is changed accordingly. Another way to
control the voltage in a grid is to change the
reactive power balance by means of connecting
reactors or capacitors. The local change in
voltage may then be approximately calculated
from the short circuit capacity of the grid [17].
sc
S
Q
V

(4)
When the load in the power system is changed
it is important to immediately compensate for
this by means of changing the mechanical
power input to the generators. If this is not done
properly the frequency may deviate too much
from rated frequency (50 Hz) and in case of a
big change in power, caused by for example
disconnection of a large production unit, the
power system may go unstable. A fast turbine
governor is therefore desirable. However all
types of power sources do not permit fast
control of mechanical power. Among these are
hydro power stations which often have long
waterways and hence a large inertia in the water
that has to be accelerated when an increase in
power is required. An additional problem with
hydro power is the non-minimum phase
characteristic of the system. When opening the
gate the power decreases before increasing.
This may lead to instability if the electrical
power is used as feedback to the governor.
Another problem with power feedback is that
the voltage control affects the frequency
control. Voltage variations may then lead to
fluctuations in the water flow which results in
torque and power oscillations and further
voltage variations. If the gate position is used as
feedback signal instead, the system will be
more stable. However the relation between gate
position and power output is non-linear and
thus the feedback is slightly non-linear. In case
of an electro-hydraulic turbine governor this
may be easily compensated for and causes no
problem [17].

Small isolated systems with low inertia tend to
lead to higher frequency variations than for
large interconnected system. In hydro power
plants the water inertia is significant and
implies an additional challenge when
maintaining as stable frequency as possible.
The frequency control with droop described
above is insufficient for hydro turbines in island
operation. The total inertia is small, the load
steps are big in proportion to the generator
rating and the mechanical system is slow due to
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170

long water starting time. This together with the
non-minimum phase characteristic puts great
demands on the frequency control. If a fast
turbine governor is used this will lead to
instability. To maintain stability the governor
has to be slowed down in order to give time for
the water to accelerate. This is achieved by
means of transient droop compensation in the
governor (Kundur 1994). There is a strong
connection between frequency and voltage in
an induction generator. This does not cause
much problem when the generator is connected
to a strong grid due to the fixed frequency. In
isolated mode of operation on the other hand
there is no fixed frequency, the generator sets
both voltage and frequency by itself and the
connection between voltage and frequency
become obvious.

CONCLUSION
In contrast to conventional generators, self-
excited induction generators are found to be
most suitable machines for wind energy
conversion in remote and windy areas due to
many advantages over grid connected
machines. However such machines exhibit poor
performance in terms of voltage and frequency
under frequent variations of operating speeds,
which is a common feature in wind energy
conversion. In this paper an attempt has been
made to give an overview on the development
of self-excited induction generator research and
its importance with regard to distribution
generation.

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