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VeGetAtIon | SWARM HoUSInG

Angela Yoo
PRoJeCt DeSCRIPtIon
The traditional notion of the Garden City has become increasingly obsolete in contemporary times and postearthquake Christchurch serves as a unique opportunity to question and push architectural design related to the green belt. Research into Christchurch ecosystems reveal a strong dependency between native plant and native bird species which have participated in mutualistic co-evolution in the isolated condition of New Zealand. This attraction between species has given way to Swarm logic as a possible means of organization of architecture. In a similar fashion to native birds being attracted to native plants, behavioural agents may seek certain local conditions and interact with one another to organize the collective gesture from a bottom up approach. By defining laws of interrelations and coding behavior sensitive to site, an architecture derived from these complex dependencies can emerge, free of the influence of empty traditions. The project centred at the heart of Christchurch is aimed at providing housing for the influx of workers who come to the city as part of the rebuild. At a crucial time for Christchurch, unique ideas appropriate for the new city emerging from disaster should be considered.

FUtURe CHRIStCHURCH
CoURSe tHe UnIVeRSItY oF AUCKLAnD ADVISoRS

V2

2nd Semester 2012 Design 6 School of Architecture and Planning Camia Young & Jordon Saunders

INTERIOR RENDER

RENDER

APPRoACH

INTERIOR RENDER
SeCtIon

Context

The housing project proposes a public garden near the Cathedral Square

InteRIoR

DeSIGn ConCePt
1 4 7

+++ + -

1
Performing Arts district

2
Central Library Cathedral Square Hotel

3
Cathedral Square Shops

4
Restaurants Hotels

5
Hotel

6
Green Frame Seed R&D

7, 8, 9

SWARM IteRAtIonS

Large building

Large building Small building

Large building Small building

LeVeL 5

LeVeL 5

SeCtIon LIne

The site is analysed in terms of fields of information. Surrounding program, buildings, amenities and open spaces have been considered. This information is used to generate an attractor field which has specific relationships with the swarm agents.

PRoGRAM HIeRARCHY on SIte

Public Agents

Private Agents Green Frame Central Library Shops Public native garden Flyover pathways Quiet (noise controlled) Green Frame Open Space Housing Private gardens Views Sun accessibility Privacy

++++ ++ +

Cathedral Square Performing Arts Restaurants

Separation Alignment Cohesion Alignment View direction for apartments according to site Studio apartments and bigger apartments distinguished by view direction Balcony lines extruded to create edge condition Line connections forming levels

Cohesion

Separation

Frozen swarm units with directional value

Apartments extruded along swarm directional value

AGent BeHAVIoURS

Public agents and Private agents have been given different behaviours by simple attraction/repulsion rules determined by the site. Private agents are represent the housing and seek the specific needs of housing such as views, privacy etc. In addition, private agents have a separation call to ensure each apartment size can occupy its own minimum area.

GeneRAtIon oF FoRM

The public agent swarm was frozen so that each agent became the centre of a housing unit

LeVeL 4 LeVeL 4

DeSIGn InVeStIGAtIon
Grassland 2027 ha Native shrubland 185 ha Wetlands 560 ha Coastal dunes 354 ha

noRtH eLeVAtIon

+
CHRIStCHURCH AttRACtoR FIeLD FoR KeReRU
Plant hierarchy +++++
Coprosma, Kowhai

+
CHRIStCHURCH AttRACtoR FIeLD FoR tUI

+
CHRIStCHURCH AttRACtoR FIeLD FoR BeLLBIRD LeVeL 3

Dry plains
McLeans Island Riccarton Bush Kahikatea Matai, Totara Kowhai, Miro, Poroporo Coprosma, Ti Kouka

Wet plains
Styx Mill Reserve Travis Wetland, Horseshoe Reserve Totara, Matai Kanuka, Flax Raaupo Ti Kouka Ti Kouka NZ Flax, Karamu Kowhai, Karamu Kahikatea Mahoe Titoki

Port hills
Jollies Bush, Dry Bush, Hoon Hay scenic reserve, Taitapu

Coastal
Brooklands Spit

NZ Flax

+++ +

Titoki, Hinau

nAtIVe PLAnt AnD nAtIVe BIRD DePenDenCY

Conservation sites around Christchurch were given overall attraction sizes determined by the dominant plant species in each area and the favourite plants of the native birds. The forces of attraction differed for each type of bird agent (Kereru, Tui and Bellbird) according to the birds preferences.

LeVeL 3

Kereru (nZ native Pigeon)

tui Karaka Kowhai Kahikatea Karaka NZ flax Fuschia Cabbage tree Fuschia Mistle toe

Bellbird Kowhai Karamu Coprosma Cabbage tree

eASt eLeVAtIon

++++ ++ +

Kahikatea Matai Titoki

Kowhai Cabbage tree Totara

Poroporo Hinau

Coprosma

nAtIVe BIRD BeHAVIoURS

KeReRU DenSItY ACCoRDInG to SIMPLe AttRACtIon

tUI DenSItY ACCoRDInG to SIMPLe AttRACtIon

BeLLBIRD DenSItY ACCoRDInG to SIMPLe AttRACtIon

According to existing native vegetation figures, attractors were calculated and bird agents were released over a map of Christchurch. Behavioural tendencies of birds in relationship to the site were translated into simple attraction/repulsion forces.

LeVeL 2

ReSeARCH

LeVeL 2

SoUtH eLeVAtIon

Coastal Dry Plains Wet Plains Port Hills

Totara Kahikatea Te Kakahi Pukio

Houhere Ti Kouka Tussock Kowhai

Kereru Bellbird Tui

CHRIStCHURCH eCoSYSteM MAP

Wet PLAInS eCoSYSteM MAP

Human occupation and the effects of human activity has seen a severe loss of original plant and bird species in the Wet Plains. Historically it supported expansive Kahikatea, wetland and swamp forest. The Tui and Bellbird were abundant in Canterbury in the past.

DRY PLAInS eCoSYSteM MAP

Prior to European Settlement, the Dry Plains were covered by silver tussock grassland, localized woodland areas of Kowhai, Cabbage trees and Kanuka. Very few of these areas now remain within the boundaries of Christchurch.

nAtIVe BIRD SPeCIeS SIGHtInGS In CHRIStCHURCH


Indicates the urban habitat of existing bush are suitable for survival

LeVeL 1 / LeVeL 1 FLooR StRUCtURe

LeVeL 1

Wet PLAInS eCoSYSteM


Tall trees Small trees/Shrub Tussock/Grass Bird species Other

DRY PLAInS eCoSYSteM KAHIKAteA


Older plains ecosystem wet taitapu soils

totARA
Older plains ecosystem moist and deep kaiapoi soils

te KAKAHI
Dry or stoney

PUKIo
Peat plains ecosystem wet and peaty waimairi and aranui soils

HoUHeRe
Mid age plains ecosystem moist and deep waimakariri soils

tI KoUKA
Mid age plains ecosystem droughty and shallow waimakariri soils

tUSSoCK
Young plains ecosystem

KoWHAI
Young plains ecosystem moist and deep selwyn soils

StRonG Co-DePenDenCY BetWeen nAtIVe VeGetAtIon AnD nAtIVe BIRDS


Streams of interactions and mutualistic relationships between native vegetation and native bird species have been identified. Native species in New Zealand have co-adapted to eachother and are intrinsic to the survival of the other. The Kereru, tui and Bellbird have been identified as crucial links in the ecosystem nutrient cycles.

native trees

Totara Podocarpus totara

Matai Prumnopitys taxifolia

Kahikatea Dacrycarpus dacrydioides

Kanuka Kunzea ericodes

Manuka Leptospermum scoparium

Pukio Carex secta

Karamu Coprosma robusta

Houhere Hoheria augustifolia

Kohuhu Pittosporum tenuifolium

Manuka Leptospermum scoparium

Kanuka Kunzea ericodes

Ti Kouka Cordyline australis

Kowhai Saphora microphylla

Thick leaved mikimiki Coprosma

Mikimiki Coprosma propinqua

native Birds / Birds

Kereru

tui

Bellbird

Kakariki

Grey Warbler

Kuruwhengi

Silvereye

Kereru, tui, Bellbird

Fantail

Fantail

Insects

Kakariki

Silvereye

Insects

Kereru

tui

Bellbird

Banded dotterel

Lizard

Silvereye

other native Plants

Common plum tree

Related Native Plants

Insects

Related Native Plants

Insects

Related Native Plants

Native Fuchsia

Insects

Related Native Plants

Insects

Related Native Plants

GRoUnD LeVeL

GRoUnD

WeSt eLeVAtIon