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Basic Concepts for APA Style: How to Implement it Efficiently

Deanna Hanson-Abromeit Conservatory of Music and Dance Bob Schubert Faculty Center for Excellence in Teaching

Word Based Tools
Paper Format Paper Sections Resources Questions

Using Word and APA

Word 2007
Formats reference list and insertion of citations citation

Bibliographic software

Users can search, retrieve, and store citations directly from database

Paper Format
8 X 11 paper, one sided

12 pt Times Roman or Courier

Double spaced At least 1 inch margins top, bottom, left, right Paragraphs indentation of inch tab or 5-7 spaces
Exceptions: abstract & block quotations

Paper Format
Page Numbers
Number consecutively Begin with title page Upper right hand edge At least 1 inch from edge

Manuscript page headers

Identifier of manuscript pages First 2 or 3 words of title Right hand corner above or 5 spaces before page number

One space - periods and minus signs No space internal periods (e.g., U.S., p.m.), hyphens, colons in ratios

Paper Sections
Title Page


Footnotes & Notes Tables Figures

Title Page
Running Head for Publication Abbreviated title used for publication 50 characters max Flush left at the top of title page (below manuscript page header) ALL CAPS Title Centered; upper half of the page If more than one line, double space

Byline and Affiliation In order of contribution Centered One double-space below title

Begin on a new page

Manuscript Header and Page 2 in upper right hand corner of page

Label page Abstract, centered at top of page

Block paragraph form Not to exceed 120 words Type all numbers as Arabic numerals

Start on a new page; page number 3

Title of paper centered at the top of the page

Double-space Begin text No page breaks between sections All pages have the manuscript page header and the page number

Headers One to Five Levels

Centered Uppercase and Lowercase Heading Method

Flush left, italicized, upper & lower case side heading


Indented, italicized, lowercase paragraph heading ending with a period Description of groups.

In-text Citations
Single Reference Citation
Author last name and year of publication; separated by a comma e.g. (Hanson-Abromeit, 2009)

Multiple Reference Citation

Semi-colon (;) to separate multiple references for a single citation Alphabetical order

e.g. (Hanson-Abromeit, 2009; Schubert, 2009)

3-5 authors, list all last names first time; subsequent citations are listed under first author followed by et al. and publication year 6 or more authors
Last name first author et al., publication year

e.g. (Hanson-Abromeit et al., 2009)

In-text Citations
Book chapter
Chapter author, comma (,) year of publication

Web site and electronic references

Author name (if available) and year

Unknown author use page title or first couple of words of paragraph Unknown year use n.d.
Refer to APA Style Guide to Electronic Resources

Subsequent citation in same paragraph

Author(s) name only; no date Author and date included in subsequent paragraphs

Start on a new page; page number in upper right corner
Title page, centered at top of page References

Double space Hanging indent format Components of a reference:

Philbin, M. K., & Evans, J. B. (2006). Standards for the acoustic environment of the newborn ICU. Journal of Perinatology, 26, S27S30.

Each Appendix started on a separate page
Label each page, centered, at top Appendix

Use letters to identify the Appendix if more than one Appendix A Appendix B
Label appendix tables to correspond with the appendix Table B1

Footnotes & Notes

Author Note
For blind review the author note should be place on the title page Separate page, center label Author Note
Double spaced

Content & Copyright Permission Footnotes

Superscript Arabic numerals in text
New page, label Footnotes, center

Type all content of footnotes (do not use the automatic function as it may not translate accurately)

Numbered consecutively as they appear in text
Identified by the word Table and an arabic numeral, flush left; table title below label Table 1 Participant Comments Double space Begin each table on a separate page

Center column heads over column; if a multiple pages are necessary repeat column heads

Figures and Figure Captions

Numbered consecutively as they appear in text
Identified by the word Figure and an arabic numeral, outside of the figure image or on the back Be sure to include the manuscript page header outside of the figure image or on the back

Indicate the word TOP if orientation is not obvious Each figure must have a caption; captions are listed on a separate page, placed prior to the figures
Figure 1. Discography of recorded music

Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association. (5th ed.) (2001). Washington, D.C.: American Psychological Association. ?doc_id=796 APA Style Guide to Electronic Resources available from