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Organization Dev elopment
Development of human resources -- Part 3
ORGANIZATION DEVELOPMENT the management of change
Robert H. Rouda & Mitchell E. Kusy, Jr.
(C) copyright 1995 by the Technical Association of the Pulp and Paper Industry. This is the third in a series of articles which originally appeared in Tappi Journal in 1995-96, to introduce methods addressing the development of individuals and organizations through the field of Human Resource Development. (The article has been updated, and is reproduced with permission of the copyright owner.)
WHAT IS OD?
Beckhard (1) defines Organization Development (OD) as "an effort, planned, organization-wide, and managed from the top, to increase organization effectiveness and health through planned interventions in the organization's processes, using behavioral-science knowledge." In essence, OD is a planned system of change. Planned. OD takes a long-range approach to improving organizational performance and efficiency. It avoids the (usual) "quick-fix". Organization-wide. OD focuses on the total system. Managed from the top. To be effective, OD must have the support of top-management. They have to model it, not just espouse it. The OD process also needs the buy-in and ownership of workers throughout the organization. Increase organization effectiveness and health. OD is tied to the bottom-line. Its goal is to improve the organization, to make it more efficient and more competitive by aligning the organization's systems with its people. Planned interventions. After proper preparation, OD uses activities called interventions to make systemwide, permanent changes in the organization. Using behavioral-science knowledge. OD is a discipline that combines research and experience to understanding people, business systems, and their interactions. We usually think of OD only in terms of the interventions themselves. This article seeks to emphasize that these activities are only the most visible part of a complex process, and to put some perspective and unity into the myriad of OD tools that are used in business today. These activities include Total
such as strategic planning and team building. And. They need to be more efficient. We must change to survive. humane manner. 4). we can easily identify the competitions on an international scale for people.) Effective change requires leadership with knowledge. preferably a combination of both. OD must have the buy-in.may be a large fraction of our costs of doing business. and we argue that we should attack the problems.edu/~rouda/T3_OD. It is critical to select the correct intervention(s). and commitment to social responsibility. WHO DOES OD? To be successful. Accelerated rate of change. and experience in change management.. to improve their time management. which we can use to decide if an organization is ready for change: Dissatisfaction x Vision x First Steps > Resistance to Change This means that three components must all be present to overcome the resistance to change in an alumnus. not the symptoms. planned. Global markets. a sense of accomplishment. feelings of value and worth. and information. ownership. And there are dozens of other interventions. capital. Our workers today want feedback on their performance. if we are to continue doing more work with less people. We need to be more responsible to and develop closer partnerships with our customers. not just of the employees throughout the organization. in a systematic. Taking an open-systems approach. and this can only be done with proper preparation. ("These people are professionals. We strongly recommend that external or internal consultants be used. and involvement of all stakeholders. they can be more effective in facilitating significant and meaningful changes. OD is usually facilitated by change agents -. WHEN IS AN ORGANIZATION READY FOR OD? There is a formula." Since experts from outside are less subject to the politics and motivations found within the organization. Our environments are changing. we need to make our processes more efficient. physical resources. These change agents may be either employees of the organization (internal consultants) or people from outside the organization (external consultants.12/16/12 Organization Dev elopment Quality Management (an evolutionary approach to improving an organization) and Reengineering (a more revolutionary approach).our people -.people or teams that have the responsibility for initiating and managing the change effort. WHY DO OD? Human resources -. and our organizations must also change to survive and prosper. of course.html 2/5 .caltech. We better know how to manage them. attributed to David Gleicher (3. They certainly can make the difference between organizational success and failure. don't try this at home.. the power structure in a way that most internal change agents cannot.") Bennis (2) notes that "external consultants can manage to affect . Changing nature of the workplace.
Assessment and diagnosis. and build a trusting relationship. An implementation plan will be developed that is based on the assessment data. consider alternative actions and focus our intervention(s) on activities that have the most leverage to effect positive change in the organization. Here we collect data in order to find the opportunities and problems in the organization (refer to DxVxF>R above. or need of that system. and to participate in selecting appropriate change interventions. It is also the time to quickly grasp the nature of the organization. Intervention. Start-up and contracting. based on an analysis of the data. and evaluating the results of actions by collecting more data. In this step. Action planning. Now. do we actually carry out the change process. goal. Evaluation. This is also the time for the consultant to make a diagnosis.) For suggestions about what to look for. Successful OD must have made meaningful changes in the performance and efficiency of the people and their organization." The steps in Action Research are (6. 4. 7): 1. This phase consists of marketing. so we can begin the process of change. yet remain flexible enough to modify the process as the organization changes and as new information emerges. is logically organized. to learn about how different parts of the organization affect each other. 3. taking actions by altering selected variables within the system based both on the data and on hypotheses. on needs assessment (8). If any of the three is zero or near zero. It is important to follow the action plan. Entry. the product will also be zero or near zero and the resistance to change will dominate.oriented. Everyone who contributed information should have an opportunity to learn about the findings of the assessment process (provided there is no apparent breach of anyone's confidentiality. OD can bring approaches to the organization that will enable these three components to surface. We need to have an evaluation procedure to . 7. In this step we will distill recommendations from the assessment and feedback. and only now. quick diagnostic aid to decide if change is possible. identify the appropriate decision maker. 2. OD IS A PROCESS Action Research is a process which serves as a model for most OD interventions. and clarify roles for the consultant(s) and employees. Feedback. 6. finding needs for change within an organization. results. 5. and achievable first steps towards reaching this vision. see the previous article in this series. French and Bell (5) describe Action Research as a "process of systematically collecting research data about an ongoing system relative to some objective. This two-way process serves to tell those what we found out. We use this model as an easy. This is also the time to deal with resistance within the organization. link into the organization's culture and processes.) This provides an opportunity for the organization's people to become involved in the change process. i. a vision of what is possible in the future. in order to recommend appropriate interventions.e. A formal or informal contract will define the change process.organization: Dissatisfaction with the present situation. we identify critical success factors and the real issues. measurable and rewarded. feeding these data back into the system. We must plan for a participative decision-making process for the intervention.
8. we highly recommend the books by Cummings and Worley (9). In future articles. LITERATURE CITED 4/5 . we must be prepared to re-enter this process when and where appropriate. not a sequential process. and when continued consultation is counterproductive. we plan to discuss some of the major OD interventions in common use today. These events will focus on education and Human Resource Development. Separation.contact Clare Reagan at Tappi if you would like to get involved.) Its current tasks include developing a getting-started guide for people newly assigned to training responsibilities in the pulp and paper industry. that commitments for action have been obtained. and to classify these into systematic categories. We must recognize when it is more productive for the client and consultant to undertake other activities. Sullivan and McLean (10). identify needs for new or continuing OD activities. Often they will have to move back and repeat previous steps in light of new information. We invite your participation. WHERE YOU COME IN TAPPI has a Training and Development Subcommittee (of the Board's Education Committee. and improve the OD process itself to help make future interventions more successful. We also should plan for future contacts. and may include a workshops on Organization Development. If you would like to know more about OD. or because of the changes that have already been made. Case studies. WHAT'S NEXT? In future articles in this series. the consultants must be flexible and be ready to change their strategy when necessary. After steps have been made to change the organization and plans have been formulated. Instead. It would be nice if real OD followed these steps sequentially. But for successful OD to take place. This rarely happens. It works best if they are taken in the order described. since learning is really an iterative. 9. TAPPI in 1997.12/16/12 Organization Dev elopment verify this success. and that they will be carried out. we plan to include some case histories of the successes (and failures) of applying OD practices in the paper industry. please contact us. Adoption. And. and by Rothwell. we follow-up by implementing processes to insure that this remains an ongoing activity within the organization. If you are involved in OD and would like to join us in this effort. new influences. all of these steps must be followed. We are in the preliminary stages of planning for events at future TAPPI conferences. to monitor the success of this change and possibly to plan for future change activities. Join us -.
pp. San Francisco: Berrett-Koehler Publishers. Real-Time Interventions High Performance Training This page is maintained by Robert Rouda.. NJ. 4.. & McLean. 3.. 3. West Publishing. R. Beckhard. 1987.. Cummings.. Addison-Wesley.html 5/5 .. p. Mitch Kusy is professor of organizational learning and development at the University of St. Organization Development and Change. 9. Thomas. Thomas. Pfeiffer. Organization development: Strategies and models. R. Organizational Transitions.the first step Organization Development . p. 8. Englewood Cliffs. 1969. R.a perspective on improving organizations and people Needs Assessment .G. 7. W..caltech.. Sullivan. Sullivan. 1990. R.12/16/12 Organization Dev elopment 1. 6... R. 1995. G.. Brown & Co. p. Rouda..the management of change (this article) Career Development . Rothwell.. C.G. San Diego. 5. & McLean.edu/~rouda/T3_OD. Reading. T. other articles in this series: 1. Pfeiffer. MA. Beckhard. 12.personal career management and planning Managing Change with Large-Scale. W. 1994. Bennis. St. & Worley. and is a practicing organization development consultant. W. Last update 5/4/96. MA. MA: Addison. 1995. Prentice-Hall. Boston. R.122. San Diego. G. 51-69. & Bell. W. Reading. 1969. Human Resource Development: Beyond training . 9. & Kusy. M. origin and prospects. in Practicing OD: A Guide for Consultants. Bob Rouda is a consultant on human resource development and process engineering. Jr. and is a research associate and student of organization development and change management at the University of St. Jacobs. alumnus. Reading. 5th edition. Practicing OD: A Guide for Consultants. Addison-Wesley..Wesley.the first step". Organization development: Principles and practices. "Needs assessment . He has practiced education and training in the paper industry for 20 years. C. Rothwell. Reading. Real Time Strategic Change. 1993.. Paul. 5. 6. "Models for Change and Steps in Action Research"... Organization development: Behavioral science interventions for organization improvement (4th ed). 2. Burke. San Francisco. p. 99. 1982. 4. 10. French. Jr. R. Boston: Little. Inc. Organization development: Its nature. 2. & Harris. CONTACT webmaster for information. Tappi Journal 78 (6): 255 (1995).. W. MA..
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