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1. Consonants (자음)
-- Click on the chart and listen to how they sound.
Plain ㄱ [k] ㄴ [n] ㄷ [t] ㄹ[ r / l ] ㅁ [m] ㅂ [p] ㅅ [s] ㅇ [zero / ng ] ㅈ [ch] ㅎ[h] ㅊ [ch'] ㅉ[cc] ㅍ[p'] ㅃ [pp] ㅆ [ss] ㅌ[t'] ㄸ [tt] Aspirated ㅋ [k'] tensed ㄲ [kk]
ㄱ (ㄲ), ㄴ, ㄷ (ㄸ), ㄹ, ㅁ, ㅂ (ㅃ), ㅅ (ㅆ), ㅇ, ㅈ (ㅉ), ㅊ, ㅋ, ㅌ, ㅍ, ㅎ
Aspirated ones are with more puff of air than the plain ones. As for tensed ones, you add more stricture, but without puff of air, when letting out the sound. Tensed ones are difficult for beginners, and many students take long time to acquire the correct pronunciation.
ㄱ is similar to g as in god. ㄲ is similar to k as in sky. ㅋ is similar to k as in kill. ㄷ is similar to d as in do. ㄸ is similar to t as in stop. ㅌ is similar to t as in two. ㄹ is similar to tt as in butter (not [t] but a flap like a Spanish [r]), in a syllable initial position.
ㄹ is similar to l as in filling, in a syllable final (받침) position. ㅂ is similar to b as in bad. ㅃ is similar to p as in spy. ㅍ is similar to p as in pool. ㅅ is similar to s as in astronaut. ㅆ is similar to s as in suit. ㅈ is similar to j as in jail. ㅉ is similar to tz as in pretzel. ㅊ is similar to ch as in charge. ㅎ is similar to h as in hat. 2. Vowels (모음)
-- Click on the chart and listen to how they sound.
Simple ㅏ [a] ㅐ [ae] ㅓ [o^] ㅔ [e] ㅗ [o] ㅜ [u] ㅡ [u^] ㅣ [i] Palatalized ㅑ [ya] ㅒ [yae] ㅕ [yo^] ㅖ [ye] ㅛ [yo] ㅠ [yu] ㅘ [wa] ㅙ [wae] ㅝ [wo^] ㅞ [we] ㅚ [oe] ㅟ [ui] ㅢ[u^i] labiovelarized
ㅏ(ㅐ, ㅒ), ㅑ, ㅓ (ㅔ, ㅖ), ㅕ, ㅗ (ㅘ, ㅙ, ㅚ), ㅛ, ㅜ (ㅝ, ㅞ, ㅟ), ㅠ, ㅡ (ㅢ), ㅣ ㅏ is similar to "Ah".
ㅐ is similar to "add". ㅔ is similar to " editor". ㅕ is similar to "just" or "Eliot". ㅠ is similar to "you". ㅖ is similar to " yes".ㅑ is similar to "yard". ㅟ is similar to "we" or "Oui!". ㅒ is similar to "yam". This classification is very important. ㅗ is similar to "order". ㅛ is similar to " Yoda". The cassification is as follows: . that is yang (bright). ㅞ is similar to " weather". ㅝ is similar to " one". vowels are classified into three categories. ㅓ is similar to "cut". ㅘ is similar to " Wow!" or "what". for it will be used when we learn conjugation of predicates and some phonological aspects of Korean. ㅚ is similar to "Koeln". and neutral. ㅜ is similar to " Ungaro". ㅣ is similar to "easy". ㅡ is similar to "good" or "le chatau". yin (dark). Traditional vowel classification: Traditionally. The classification also principles the vowel-hamp3ony phenomena that Korean has as a member of Altaic language family. ㅙ is similar to "wagon".
ㄺ. ㅑ. ㄽ. ㄶ. ㅒ. ㄼ. ㄻ. i. ㅝ) 3. the structure of which may be described as (C)V(C). ㅕ. ㅐ. ㅣ (and their derivatives. ㅀ. Final consonants are always placed at the bottom. some are placed underneath the initial consonant: Vowels ㅏ. ㅠ.g) ㄱ ㄱ ㄲ ㄴ ㅎ ㅇ ㅇ ㄱ ㄲ ㅂ ㅎ ㅇ ㄸ + + + ㅏ ㅜ ㅜ ㅏ ㅘ ㅐ ㅗ ㅗ ㅗ ㅏ ㅡ ㅓ ㅓ + + + ㅁ ㄱ ㅇ = = = = = = 감 국 꿍 나 화 애 옷 곧 꽃 밭 흙 없 떫 [kam] [kuk] + + + + [na] [hwa] [ae] [ot] [kot] [kkot] [pat] [hu^(r)k] [o^p] [tto^(r)p] + + + + + + + ㅅ ㄷ ㅊ ㅌ ㄺ ㅄ ㄼ = = = = = = = + + + + + + NB) Final consonant clusters: ㄳ. where C stands for a consonant.e. ㄾ. ㄿ. ㅘ) (ㅓ. How to make a character out of alphabet Each character is designed to represent one syllable. ㅓ.ㅖ) are placed on the right.yang (bright) yin (dark) neutral ---- ㅏ and ㅗ series ㅓ and ㅜ series ㅡ and ㅣ (ㅏ. ㄵ. ㅄ . and V does a vowel--(C) means that the consonant in the position is optional. ㅡ are placed undersneath the initial consonant. ㅜ. (C) initial consonant + V vowel + (CC) final consonant (coda) Some vowels are placed on the right side of the initial consonant. ㅗ. and vowels ㅗ. ㅛ. ㅔ. E. ㅜ.
2) Some of the consonants merge into one sound when they are in the syllable-final position. As for ㄺ. 낯. ㄾ. 부엌 눈 낟. In reality. any consonant can be in the 받침 (syllable final) position. ㅋ ㄴ ㄷ. 삶 = sa(l)m "a living" "a living (with a subject particle)" 삶 + 이 = sal mi In clusters ㄽ and ㅀ. ㄼ. 낫. ㄻ. the foregoing liquid sound [ㄹ] of the cluster is ignored when followed by another consonant or nothing. ㅈ." Korean lessons: Lesson 3 Phonological notes 1. [ㄹ] is alive even when followed by another consosnant. This ㄹ comes alive when the cluster is followed by another vowel. 낱. ㅊ. ㄼ. Orthographically. however. 낮. ㄿ. ㄸ. they remain different. This second consonant will come alive when there is a vowel after it. ㅅ. ㅌ. Syllable-final Consonants (받침): 1) Theoretically. 값 = kap "price" 값 + 과 = kap kwa "price and" 값 + 이 = kapsi "price (with a subject particle)" Final clusters with 'ㄹ+consonant' fomp3ation are pronounced with slight irregularity. however. However. ㄿ. Summarized as follows: consonant endings 받침 ㄱ. 낳 all pronounced as [ 낟] 쌀 봄 . when followed by another consonant or nothing.. ㄻ. ㅀ (ones with ㄹ placed befre another consonant). the second consonant of the cluster becomes silent. and ㅃ are not used as 받침. Seoul speakers (and many other regions too) tend to throw in a touch of liquid sound for the ㄹ even when the cluster is followed by a consonant or nothing. ㄾ. 끓 + 고 = kku^l k'o "boil and. ㅎ ㄹ ㅁ sound [k] [n] [t] [l] [m] examples 각.Except for ㄺ. ㅉ. ㄽ.
e.ㅁ).ㅂ. ㅋ → ㅇ . keeping its place of articulation. ㅍ ㅇ [p] [ng] 입. maeker) = = = = = = [가기 kagi] [부어케 puo^k`e] [나제 naje] [나체 nach`e] [이비 ibi] [이피 ip`i] 2. ex) 국이 → 밥을 → 잎이 → [구기] [바블] [이피] 문이 → 옷이 → 밖에 → [무니] [오시 ] [바께] 2) The second part of a double 받침 is carried over by the folowing syllable when the following syllable starts with a zero-syllable. 'ㅇ' in the initial position is not a nasal consonant but a zero./sub. ex) 앉아요 → 밟아요 → 읊어요 → [안자요] [발바요] [을퍼요] 읽어요 → 핥아요 → 없어요 → [일거요] [할타요] [업서요] 2. Liason (받침 carry-over) 1) A 받침 is carried over by the following syllable when the following syllable starts with a zero-initial. Remember. the non-nasal consonant absorbs the nasality.1.2. Nasalization When a final (non-nasal) consonant is followed by a nasal initial (ㄴ. ㄱ. Rules of Pronunciation 2. 잎 both pronounced as [입] 영 3) These merged sounds regain their original values when they are followed by a zero-initial syllable (i. vowel). 각 부엌 낮 낯 입 잎 + + + + + + 이 (topic/subject marker) 에 (place marker) 에 (temporal marker) 에 (place marker) 이 (top. marker) 이 (top./sub.
ㅋ ㅌ ㅍ ㅊ / before or after ㅎ → → → → 2. a paplatalization occurs. ㅅ. ㅌ.3.5. ㅎ ㅂ. a consonant is influenced and aspirated. ㄷ[t] ㅌ[t`] ex) 미닫이→[미다지] 굳이 →[구지] 같이 →[가치] → → ㅈ [ch] ㅊ [ch`] / before 이 2.ㄷ. ㅈ.4. Liquidation ㄴ ex) 전라북도 → [절라북도] 신라 → [실라] → ㄹ /before another ㄹ . Palatalization When ㄷ or ㅌ is followed by 이 [i]. ㅊ. Aspiration When ㅎ ㄱ ㄷ ㅂ ㅈ ex) 좋다 → [조타] 생각하다 → [생가카다] 노랗다 → [노라타] 입히다 →[이피다] [h] is adjacent. ㅍ ex) 갑니다 → [감니다] → → ㄴ ㅁ / before ㄴ or ㅁ 낱말 → [난말] 먹는다 → [멍는다] 2.
we use adjectives. For example. "Do you go (Are you leaving?)" or "Shall we go?". and noun phrases. Stem + 다 = Base Form 가 + 다 = 가다 (Base Form. ("-요" has more stories. and "-ing" are alternating. A simple "How are you?" is made as the following. 가 stem "to go/leave" 요 mid-polite suffix (present tense) "가". you need to use a different form of the verb. When we say.Korean lessons: Lesson 4 Base forms and Stems In a language. Thus. adjectives. In English. "ed". pushed. etc. it can be a question. When we list it in dictionaries.) Subjects can be omitted in many simple everyday-conversational sentences." If you used to be quite tall for your age in the past." in English. in a verb predicate. When we talk about facts that happened in the past. the story is not simple. "가 요"thus can be used in the sense of "I go. a high-polite stle of speech is used. To describe a state. we make variation on the predicates--in other words. as long as they are obvious by the context. pushing. This variation is called "conjugation. "He goes. and identity. To say "I am a student" is characterizing a property of the subject ('I')...) The constant part is called the 'stems'. you have to say. such as tense. "I ate lunch." "you go. and the other part that changes according to the modes of facts. "Go (Leave)!" A stem is a part of a verb predicate. for example. With an intonation rising at the end ( )." it describes the state ('being tall') of the subject ('I'). is attached with a mid-polite suffix "요". We will learn them later. "I was a student. where "-es"." For similar reasons. verbs. Korean also uses this conjugation of predicates. state. pushes. "to go") High-polite -세요 When addressing a senior (in terms of age or social ranking). characterizing the property of the subject. ." Like English. To describe an action. Therefore. "I was tall. (Think of "push. in English.e. or refer to it as a word--just as when we say "to go" or "to eat" as words--. It can even be taken as an imperative sentence. we see a part that is constant in all kinds of sentences. not a whole word. Describing an identity is relating one thing to another." or sometimes. we find three basic ways of describing facts: description of action. The conjugation in Korean is made by attaching different suffixes to the stems. i. we say. we use verbs. "-세요" is a typical suffix of this style. if the your action of eating had happened in the past. by identifying the subect as a student." In order to differentiate the mode of facts. we say "I eat lunch." which describes the action ('eating') of the subject ('I'). etc. a lexical verb stem. making a present-tense predicate. "Push" is the constant. or a something that will happen in the future.." etc. "I am tall. we add "다" at the end of a stem. but it is not the case now.
일하다 (to work) <Key> (adj. [verbs] --. you may not want to use it when the subject is you.비싸다 (to be expensive). 차다 (to be cold) <Key> 싸다 (to be cheap) : 싸요.)건강하다 (to be healthy) (verb)공부하다 (to study). whereas "-요" is for the addressee. as in "You go (Please leave)" or "Do you go (Are you leaving)?". 자다 (to sleep). Is it cheap? (adj. 파다 (to dig) <Key> 가요. the subject. 사다 (to buy).만나다 (to meet). Practice Using the given words. make different sentences as seen in the key. 1. "-세요" can be used you use "요". the base form of which is "안녕하다". 가세요? 가세요! I/you go. However.안녕하 stem "to be well" 세요 high-polite suffix (present tense) "안녕하" is a stem. etc. 짜다 (to be salty). For the added politeness by "-세-" is for the subject. 가다 (to 가요? go): 가요! 가세요. Do you go? Does he/she go? Please go! 2. 타다 (to ride). He/she goes. or "Does he/she go".) 안녕하다 (to be well): (verb) 하다 (to do) : 안녕하세요? Are you well (How are you)? 하세요? Do you do (it)? 하세요! Do (it)! . not the addressee. as it is used in the mid-polite style. [adjectives] --. "He/She goes". 싸요? 3. Apart from the politeness of the style. '-하다' verbs and adjectives It's cheap.
"구름이다" ("to be clouds")." or "He/She is small.) 작다 to be small 오다 to come 괜찮다[괜찬타] to be alright 주다 to give : 작 + -아요 : 오 + -아요 → 작아요 "It's small. etc. "-이다" is of course the base form. use -어요. however. and "싸다" for "to be cheap"." → (주어요) → 줘요 "Give (me. we learned that there are base forms and stems. etc. "학생이다" ("to be a student"). see Lesson 2." which can be used both in nominal predicates and adjectival predicates. 1) Mid-polite suffix -아/어요 Verbs and adjectives that we practiced with for -요 suffix in Lesson 4 have something in common: they all have the stem ending in vowel ? without any patch'im followed ('가다'." For verbs and adjectives. the vowel harmony principle ('yang with yang. Now. True stories of the present-tense suffix -요 and -세요 In Lesson 4. The last vowel of the stem decides which of the two to take.) Those whose stems end otherwise." → 괜찮아요 [괜차나요] "It's OK.) In order to relate two nouns (i. yin with yin') applies: If the stem has a yang vowel at the last syllable. '자다'."? → (오아요) → 와요 "Come!" or "I come" or "He/She comes. We thus get base forms." : 괜찮 + -아요 : 주 + -어요 . which still has to be conjugated to be used in actual sentences. ("I am a student" and "I am tall". use -아요.)!" or "I give. how are we going to say such sentences as "I am a student"? Many languages lack the verb like "to be. such languages use so-called 'copula'. '싸다'. -요 and -세요 were introduced. Hence. the subject and the nominal complement). not exactly everything that we should know about them. It was. etc.Nominal predicates : "--이에요" Sample Dialogues By 'nominal predicate'. Once again.e. that copula is "-이다".. should take either -아요 or -어요. If the stem has a yin or neutral vowel at the last syllable. we mean a predicate of a sentence that describes the subject by identifying it with another noun: "I am a student. If there is no such thing as the English verb "to be". In Korean. "가다" for "to go". we are facing a new problem. (For yang/yin/neutral vowels.
so are the others in Lesson 4. In order to make it into a real sentence. XXX(name)이에요." In fact. For them. If the stem ends with a patch'im. we arrive the detail structure of "안녕하세요." → 읽어요 [일거요] "Read!" or "I read. 오영균 이다 →오영균 이 + -어요 → 오영균이에요 "I am Oh Young Kyun. (NB) -하다 verbs and adjectives are rather peculiar. but -하다 words are in fact easier. 가다 → 가요 is a contraction [가 + -아요 → (가아요) → 가요]. -어요 is added." Since personal names are the same as nouns. 일하다 to work 공부하다 to study 착하다 to be nice (person) → → → 일해요 공부해요 착해요 2) High-polite suffix -(으)세요 Although not so complicated as -아/어요." or "He/She reads. For 이 is a neutral vowel.먹다 to eat 읽다 [익다] to read : 먹 + -어요 : 읽 + -어요 → 먹어요 "Eat!" or "I eat. This may sound quite overwhelming. -여요 is assumed instead of -아 요. we need to add either -아요 or -어요 in place of the base-form making -다 after -이-. -이어요 had gone through a certain phonological change in modern Seoul speakers' speech. use -세요." or "He/She eats. All the -하다 stems with no exception appear as -해요. and ended in -이에요. use -으세요." 가세요 웃으세요 안녕하세요 괜찮으세요 [괜차느세요] . this suffix also has its own rules: If the stem ends without a patch'im. 가다 가 + 세요 : → 웃다 to laugh 웃 + 으세요 : → 안녕하다 안녕하 + 세요 : → 괜찮다 괜찮 + 으세요 : → "오영균이에요" Finally. we use the nominal-predicate copula. -이다.
일해요? 일하세요." "Do you work?" "He/she works. Please give at least one possible translation for each sentence. 일하세요? "It is good. mark each word whether it is a verb (V) or an adjective (A). make sentences with -아/어요 and -(으)세요 conjugation. just 이에요 suffice." "Is he/she good?" "I work.Similarly. 좋으세요? 일하다 "to work" (V) 일해요. Practice 1. Also. put on) 비싸다 (to be expensive) 편안하다 (to be comfortable) 웃다 (to laugh) 보다 (to see) 작다 (to be small) 읽다 (to read) 차다 (to be cold) 건강하다 [겅강하다] (to be healthy) . 좋아요 ? 좋으세요." "Is it good?" "He/She is good. 학생: 학생이에요 "I am / You are a student" or "He/She is a student" 기차: 기차이에요 "It's a train. Using the following words. <Key> 좋아요." "Is he/she working?" 좋다 "to be good" (A) <Words> 싫다 [실타] (to be hated) 사다 (to buy) 괜찮다 (to be OK) 많다 [만타] (to be many/much) 공부하다 (to study) 입다 (to wear. As far as we are concerned." There are two forms to spell this -이에요: -예요 and -이에요.
an adjectival.) <Key> 오리: a duck A-오리이에요? Is that a duck? B.2. make dialogues. . (And translate them. Only nouns can be subjects in Korean. employing rather a fixed word order and prepositions in order to specify the role of each part. Korean is an agglutinating language.e. Assuming that a state of being can also be treated as an action. i. whereas -가 is for those ending without a final consonant. In other words. Think of "S goes.. For these sentences. S is the subject. Using the following nouns. a subject can take any kind of predicate. you will know that it must be a noun. In sentences the structure of which is complex. It is because the sentences were simple and a conversational reality is presumed. when you see a part of a sentence attached with -이 or -가. 오리이에요. -이 is used when the subject word ends without a final consonant (patch'im). it is a duck. Yes. or a nominal predicate." "S is bad. However. A subject of a sentence is the agent (doer) of the action described by the sentence. or in written forms. subject markers can be replaced by a short pause. English is not an agglutinating language. you might hear sometimes people say sentences without using subject markers -이/가 for subjects. <Nouns> 나무 (tree). Korean attaches either 이 or 가 to it.네. To mark this subject. It means that Korean uses little grammatical devices attached to words to specify their roles in a sentence." In each case. the markers should be specified." and "S is a man. such is the case in English. 바지 (pants) 바나나 (banana) 아기 (baby) 나비 (butterfly) 별 (star) 모자 (hat) 차 (car) 곰 (bear) Subject marker: -이/가 As mentioned in Lesson 1. a verbal.
차 (car) 오다 (to come) 12. 바지 작다 (to be small) 10. . subject 이 바지 가 기차가 선생님이 저것이 이것 이 연습 <practice> Use the following pairs of words to make sentences in mid-poite style. 학교이에요. 곰이예요. 웃으세요. The teacher is laughing. These pants are comfortable. we get a sentence meaning. The train is coming. this place) 학교 9. predicate 편안해요.Finally. 아기 (baby) 건강하다 7. 나무 (tree) 좋다 (to be good) 4. 돈 (money) 많다 (to be many/much) 6." Now. 와요. "The embassy is far. 여기 (here. subject predicate 이 사람 (this person) 친구 (friend) 1. 공부 (studying) 싫다 (to be dislikable) 11. 이것 (this [thing]) 모자 (hat. This is a bear. Don't forget to use subject markers. cap) 8. as given in the above examples. let's look at some more examples. and to translate each sentence. That (over there) is a school. 장미 (rose) 비싸다 (to be expensive) 2. 물 (water) 차다 (to be cold) 3. 저 사람 (that person) 건강하다 (to be healthy) 5.
receives the action).13. in order to understand this grammatical terminology." As you might have noticed already. find. As we know. choose. buy. 15. the doer of eating is "friend ('my' is assumed). see.") Such verbs as "go. 14. not every sentence will have both subject and object. You handle an object in an English sentence simply by placing it AFTER the verb.. understand. the subject is the doer (agent) of the action that the verb describes. 16. you have a group of verbs that are transitive and another that are intransitive. you get a completely different meaning. object . 친구 집 (home) 저 사람 책 (book) 미국 (America) 이 컴퓨터 (this computer) 동생 (a younger sibling) 숙제 (homework) 일하다 (to work) 어디 (where) 누구 (who) 싸다 (to be cheap) 멀다 괜찮다 (to be okay) 자다 (to sleep) 많다 Object marker -을 / -를 [Not many people are fond of talking about grammar. Only those sentences containing verbs that take objects will." are intransitive. In this sentence. die. (What these verbs have in common is that you can say "to [verb] something / someone. 20. 17. sit. bites verb predicate a person. come.] An object in a sentence is the thing or a person that receives the action (described by the verb) from the subject. Similarly. 19. stay. "to eat" is a transitive verb. since there must be something that is eaten (that is. 18. We will be as plain as possible while discussing it. Let us think about English for a moment.. However." and the recipient of the action ("eating") is "lunch. A dog subject If you switch the positions of the subject and the object. drink. this is the least bit of the Korean grammar that you should know.' For example. the verbs that take objects are called 'transitive verbs.. In English grammar." are transitive.. Such verbs as "love.
as long as you keep them together. and such change of meaning depending on the word order is less likely to happen. i.) As you might have noticed. Thus.e. let's go back to Korean." The meaning can only change when you switch the markers. A: 개가 누구를 물어요? (Who does the dog bite?) B: 사람을 물어요." -이 and -를 are subject and object markers. What clarifies the meaning. with a vowel (no patch'im). use -를. 물어요 . verb predicate "bite" 연습 <practice> answer .A person subject bites verb predicate a dog.) 사람이 subject "a person" 개를 object "a dog" "A person bites a dog. both subject and object should come before the verb (predicate). respectively. ([It] bites a person. 개를 object "a dog" 사람이 subject "a person" "A person bites a dog. 사람을 object "a person" 개가 subject "a dog" "A dog bites a person. a subject is simply not said in Korean when it is understood. therefore. subject/object markers. We know that the predicate must be placed at the of a sentence. A subject does not necessarily come before the object in a Korean sentence. verb predicate "bite" 물어요 . the difference between -을 and -를 is purely phonological: when the previous syllable ends with a consonant (patch'im). Since the subject and object are labeled with markers. (Linguists usually call them Case markers.. use -을. object Now. is the particle." Oftentimes. verb predicate "bite" 물어요 . there is no possibility of confusion.
It's Sun-i. -어 요. 할머니 (grandmother). 읽다 (read) 3. (television) 보다 → (watch. when needed. 여자친구 (girl friend). 책. 어머니 (mother).You are given two nouns and one transitive verb in each line. 남자친구 (boy friend). 여자친구. (friend) 텔레비. 좋아하다 (like) 5. see) ([My] friend watches TV. 한국어 (Korean). 아버지 (father). Key 친구. Be sure to conjugate the verb with -아요. Q: 누구를 만나요? A: 순이를 만나요. 먹다 (eat) 7. 1. 신문 (newspaper). 아이 (child). 친구. 학생 (student). Where? Q: 누구 세요? Who is it? A: 순이이에요. 읽다 4. 공부하다 (study) 9. 점심 (lunch). Whom are you meeting? . 책 (book). 만나다 Who. 사다 (buy) 2. assuming that the first noun is the subject and the second is the object. 돈 (money). 영화 (movie). What. 삼촌 (uncle). 만나다 (meet) 8. I meet sun-i. 영어 (English). 공부하다 10. 친구. -(으)세요. Combine them into a sentence. 남자친구. 주다 (give) 6.) 친구가 텔레비를 봐요.
while "where" in English is not. Although we have not discussed it in detail. 무엇이 (= 뭐가 ) 누구가 (>누가) 어디가 obj.g.Q: 무엇이에요? What is it? Q: 무엇을 좋아하세요? What do you like? Q: 어디에 있어요? Where is it? Q: 어디에 가요? Where are you going? A: 사과이에요. It is in Seoul. 무엇을 (=뭐를) 누구를 어디를 what who where E. sub. object markers. adverbial. etc. It is an apple. whereas 를 is for elsewhere. 무엇이 어려워요? What is difficult? . A: 서울에 가요. Note that 어디 (where) is also a noun (pronoun). -을 is used when there is a final consonant (patch'im) preceding. let us learn -을 and 를. object. 누구 무엇 (often > 뭐 ) 어디 who what where These words are pronouns. I go to Seoul. such as subject. I like apples. A: 사과를 좋아해요. They need particles to be specified for their functions. A: 서울에 있어요.
<Korean> 서울 에 (Seoul + in) = This 'n that. 저기는 우리 집이에요. and 저 are demonstrative modifiers for nouns. When it is closer to the listener than to the speaker. 그--.should be in the sight of the speaker. If it is rather distant from both parties. 저-이. 그 사람은 내 친구이에요. 저 사람은 내 동생이에요. <English> in Seoul We will discuss this in detail later. though they are placed after the noun they work with. it is referred to as 그--. -에 is a marker that functions like the preposition ('in' or 'to') in English. 저것은 미국 신문이에요. 이것이 무엇이에요? 저것은 무엇이에요? 그것은 무엇이에요? 이 사람은 누구이에요? 저 사람은 누구이에요? 그 사람은 어디 가요? 여기는 어디이에요? 저기는 어디이에요? 그것은 한국 책이에요. 이 사람은 학교에 가요. The only thing that is different from the case in English would be that what is referred to with 저-. Where is hurting? (Which part of your body is hurting?) What do you learn? Whom are you meeting? Where do I hit? For similar reasons. it is referred to as 이--. it is referred to 저--. 그.누가 와요? 어디가 아파요? 무엇을 배워요? 누구를 만나요? 어디를 때려요? Who is coming? lit. 여기는 학교이에요. 이것은 일본 잡지이에요. here 'n there 이--. this 이 that over there 저 that 그 Q-word +thing 이것 저것 그것 무엇(what) +person 이 사람 저 사람 그 사람 누구 (who) +place 여기 저기 거기 어디(where) When the referent (an object or a person) is close to the speaker. -에 is needed after 어디 in the above dialogues. .
. Then. Throughout these categories applies a supervening category of formality. whereas the informal would better be used among close friends. This category concerns the occasion where the conversation occurs. 이 분은 누구세요? 저 분은 누구세요? 그 분은 어디 가세요? 그분은 김 선생님이세요. 존댓말 or Polite speech 반말(non-polite style): the style of speech in which you speak to your friends (of your age) or to people younger than you are. and people in private relationship.Politeness is achieved by -아요/-어요 or -ㅂ니다 (2) whom you talk about -. We can summarize the above: ABOUT formal ending -ㅂ/습니다 -(으)십니다 -다 -(으)시다 informal ending -아/어요 -(으)세요 -아/어 -(으)셔 TO TO seniors ABOUT juniors or self (polite) ABOUT seniors TO juniors ABOUT juniors or self (plain) ABOUT seniors . However. For example. 존댓말 (polite style): the style in which you speak to your superiors or seniors. the predicate will have to change accordingly into high-polite (with honorific infix -시-) style. In addition to age. in many cases. When you talk to someone. you may feel free switch back and forth between formal and informal style within a conversation. that person you are talking about can also be older or younger than you are.Politeness is achieved by infix -시-. Styles of speech--a broad classification 1. as long as you keep the consistency of politeness. when you talk about a person to someone (of course. 저분은 박 선생님이세요. You replace 사람 with 분 in such cases. family members. 이분은 학교에 가세요. Politeness of style can be demarcated into two criteria: (1) whom you talk to -. etc.거기는 어디이에요? 여기는 미국이에요. public speech. they can either be different or identical). Chon-dae mal concerns the proper handling of both these criteria in speech. the formal style will be adopted more in work place. In other words. the consistency of formal/informal speech style is not really strict. that person you are talking to could be older or younger than you are. army. rank in various social relations also dictates proper use of these speech styles. Using 사람 ('person') is not polite enough to refer to an older person.
. announcement) aiming at actual readers. modern 'nuclear' families offer very few opportunities for the children to practice different speech styles. There are also other supplementary devices.-ㄴ다/는다 (present-tense verb) or -다 (elsewhere) Newspaper articles. this is somehow related to the shifts that happened in the Korean social structure. polite formal ending -. public announcement. As there are polite and non-polite styles. e. 선생님이 우리 집에 오셔. are written in these styles. As we will learn later. (Talking to my younger sister) My friend is coming to our house. (Talking to my mother) The teacher is coming to our house. unless the document is by nature a dialogue (i." in which you write formal documents. 문어체 or written style 문어체 literally means "written-language style. However. which will also be discussed later. Now let us see how we can make variation for same sentences. and so on. (Talking to my mother) My friend is coming to our house. Speech style is a product of layers of social/kinship relationship. They both have -다 at the end.-ㅂ니다/습니다 non-polite formal ending -. verb/adjective differentiation. there are other grammatical details that may be needed according to tense. such as self-effacing pronoun for the first person (저 instead of plain 나 for 'I'). the non-polite is preferred in most written documents over the polite. ) 2. words'). academic papers. (Talking to my friend) The teacher is coming to our house. papers in classes.This is a simple outline of endings. as much as it is hard to foreigners. lexically honorific words (말씀 instead of 말 for 'speech. . we have polite formal style and non-polite formal style. Extensive variety in speech style is often the most overwhelming part when a foreigner begins to learn Korean. . Compared to traditional families where more than three generations lived in one house or neighbourhood. People in younger generations in Korea also experience difficulty with proper use of speech style. (In fact. It is known to be more complicated than in Japanese. etc. 선생님이 우리 집에 오세요. In fact. and so forth. it is not an easy matter to native speaker. articles. etc. The following is in informal style. 친구가 우리 집에 와. 친구가 우리 집에 와요.
The Chinese remnants in Japanese and Korean. The style is also used frequently by a speaker toward others in the same or younger age. the Japanese and Korean sounds of Chinese numbers are quite similar to those in many modern Chinese dialects. Korean numbers 하나 둘 셋 넷 다섯 여섯 일곱 여덟 아홉 열 Chinese numbers 일 이 삼 사 오 육 칠 팔 구 십 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 . The Chinesebased set transmitted to Korea long time ago. which may explain why it is also used in diaries--something that can be most informal. Japanese ichi ni san shi go Korean il (일) i (이) sam (삼) sa (사) o (오) one two three four five yi er san si wu In fact. reflect old phases of Chinese language. and therefore we can call it 반말. as we saw in the chart above. It is also the case in Japanese. probably with Chinese writing system. sometimes even more similar than modern Mandarin to them. to settle in the language. For the sake of our convenience.The non-polite formal. and we see certain phonological similarity among Chinese numbers and Chinese-based sets of Japanese and Korean numbers.' Here are the two sets of 1 to 10. gives the impression of self-addressing. let us call these two sets 'Korean numbers' and 'Chinese numbers. Numbers (I) Two Sets of numbers Two sets of numbers are in use in Korean: native Korean and Chinese-based sets. from a native speaker's intuition. along with other Chinese dialects.
. 70 mil. . Both '하나' and '일' means one. 2 mil. 10 mil. 4 mil. 5 mil.000 5. let us learn more about the Chinese numbers.000 2. 천만 천만 이천만 삼천만 사천만 오천만 육천만 칠천만 팔천만 구천만 .000 100 thou. 900. 90 mil. 30 mil.000 80. First. 20 mil.There is no semantic difference between the two sets. 12 is made of 10 and 2--there are other ways of making it. 20 stands for two tens. Counting more than ten observes the arithmetic principles. Take "12" and "20" for example.000 20.000 300. 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 영 일 이 삼 사 오 육 칠 팔 구 tens 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 십 십 이십 삼십 사십 오십 육십 칠십 팔십 구십 hundreds 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 백 백 이백 삼백 사백 오백 육백 칠백 팔백 구백 thousands 1. 백만 백만 이백만 삼백만 사백만 오백만 육백만 칠백만 팔백만 구백만 10 mil.000 800. They differ according to when and how they are used. 40 mil. We will discuss this in the next lesson.000 40.000 70.000 9.000 3. On the other hand.000 4. 9 mil.000 600.000 500.000 700.000 8.000 만 만 이만 삼만 사만 오만 육만 칠만 팔만 구만 100.000 6. thousands .000 천 천 이천 삼천 사천 오천 육천 칠천 팔천 구천 10 thou.000 60. 6 mil. hundreds.000 7. 10. but this is what the number stands for--. 80 mil. 3 mil.000 400.000 50. the Chinese number has them: 12 = 10 + 2 십이 20 = 2 x 10 이십 Chinese numbers under 100 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 십 십일 십이 십삼 십사 십오 십육 십칠 십팔 십구 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 이십 이십일 이십이 이십삼 이십사 이십오 이십육 이십칠 이십팔 이십구 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 삼십 삼십일 삼십이 삼십삼 삼십사 삼십오 삼십육 삼십칠 삼십팔 삼십구 Tens. 50 mil.000 200.000 십만 구십만 십만 이십만 삼십만 사십만 오십만 육십만 칠십만 팔십만 millions 1 mil. 60 mil. 8 mil. Thus.000 30. 7 mil.000 90.
thirty. The formation of numbers is quite similar to that of English numbers in the sense that you have a set of numbers for single digits (1-10) and another set for tens (10-90).500 dollar) Phone number: 238-7834 (이삼팔에 칠팔삼사) Room/APT Number: Room 305 (삼백오 호) Numbers (II) Native Korean Numbers Another set of numbers are of native Korean numbers. 700 mil. 600 mil. 삼천 오백 달러 (3. '일천'. 168: 백 육십 팔 250: 이백 오십 7.100 mil. 구억 Notice that 'one hundred'. Numbers and formation Single digits 1 Native numbers 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 하나 둘 셋 넷 다섯 여섯 일곱 여덟 아홉 열 Ten. 200 mil.000 won).543: 구억 팔천 칠십 육만 팔천 오백 사십 삼 Some examples in the usage of Chinese numbers. They are indigenous in Korean.. are not '일백'. 800 mil. 'one thousand'. 400 mil. let us see how these work. 억 100 mil. twenty. Although they used to have a complete system of native numbers that can go up to three digits (or more). Now. etc. possibly stemmed through a different route from that of the Chinese-based set.768. they now only use the numbers up to two digits (99).. 300 mil.. Money: 만 이천 원 (12.892: 칠천 팔백 구십 이 980. . etc. 500 mil. 억 이억 삼억 사억 오억 육억 칠억 팔억 900 mil.
2. numbers changes examples 하나 둘 셋 → → → 한 두 세 새 한 마리 "a bird" (마리: counter for animals) "two students" (명: counter for people) 학생 두 명 사과 세 개 "three apples" (개: counter for countable objects) . for the ease of pronunciation." however. 3.' 'coffee. the proper formation should be the following: **Noun + number + counter** noun + number + counter 새 (bird) 다섯 (five) 마리 (counter for animals) Thus. is not directly applicable in Korean. when before counters. for there are a certain number of counters that are more frequent and common than the others. this is applied to all nouns. There is yet another issue of when to use Chinese numbers and when to use native Korean numbers. change their shape slightly. It is necessary in English to specify the measure unit when it comes to uncountable nouns. In Korean. 4. though. Do not panic. Does this mean that they have different counters for all nouns and that you have to memorize all of them? Probably. numbers 1. and 20. It may remind you of such expressions as "two bottles of wine" in English. This will be discussed in the next lesson. Slight changes when used before counters Also. When you speak of a thing with its amount.' etc.10 20 Native numbers 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 열 스물 서른 마흔 쉰 예순 일흔 여든 아흔 백 The formation is quite simple: 15 = 10+5 열 다섯 하나 일곱 21 = 20+1 스물 87 = 80+7 여든 Using with counters and measure words Such formation as "five birds. an expression like "다섯 새" is not used in Korean. such as 'water. and you could strat by learning them and then move on to the rest.
계시다 ) directional in ( at ) . except that . used after a noun. like a postposition (the opposite concept to English 'preposition').에서 and .에서 still keeps the meaning of 'in' and that it is the directionality implied by the predicate that produces the sense of 'from'.에서 is 'in'.에 and . 김 선생님은 한국에서 오셨어요 . In the above example. 없다. No apparent semantic difference is noticed. 다니다.에서 means 'from'.) . I work at a bank. The following table summarizes what we have discussed above.에 indicates the place of a state of being (있다. Now it becomes quite puzzling how .) NB) 살다 is rather peculiar. For example: 나는 은행에서 일해요 .에서 . We now have a new location marker: . -에 state ( 있다 . Kim came from Korea.에서 are different. 오다. .에 as a marker indicating a place. We may understand that . etc.에 means 'to'. (2) With directional predicates (가다.에 So far.에서 x 집에 있어요 to from .넷 스물 → → 네 스무 책네권 "four volumes of books" (권: counter for books) "age of twenty" (살: counter for age) 나이 스무 살 Locative markers . (1) Meaning of 'in (or at/on)' . 일하다.에 and .에 because these verbs are recognized to be directional. his action of 'coming' must have started in Korea. NB) 넣다 (to put) and 앉다 (to sit) also use .) . Kim may not be in Korea at the time that the sentence is spoken. etc. 계시다. 먹다. 없다 . although Mr. The meaning of . 공부하다.에서 indicates the place of an action (하다. Mr.에서 . being used with both . etc.에서 with 살다 induces more vivid image of 'life' than simple 'dwelling'. we have used .
보다 . 은행에서 일해요 . 일하다 .) x indicates that the respective marker is not used with the predicates. 다니다 ) action 학교에 가요 한국에서 왔어요 in ( at ) x ( 먹다 .( 가다 . etc. 오다 .