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o Name o SUBJECT o Instructor o Course o Term Paper

Hamza Zulfiqar Data-Communication Engr.Jahanzeb Ahmed BS (CS) Wi-Fi


Definition History Technology before Wi-Fi Importance of Wi-Fi Technical specifications of Wi-Fi Wi-Fi standards
802.11 802.11b 802.11a 802.11g 802.11n

Advantages of Wi-Fi Disadvantages of Wi-Fi

Wi-Fi stands for wireless fidelity is a term for certain types of wireless local area network Wlan that use specifications in the 802.11 family. The term Wi-Fi was built by an organization called the Wi-Fi Alliance, which oversees tests that certify product interoperability. A product that passes the Wi-Fi alliance tests is given the label called "Wi-Fi certified" a registered trademark of Wi-Fi Alliance.

IN 1991 Wi-Fi was created by NCR Corporation/AT&T. After that Lucent & Agere Systems made Wi-Fi in Nieuwegein, the city of Netherlands. Initially it is used for cashier systems the first wireless products were brought on the market under the name with speeds of 1Mbps/2Mbps. Vic Hayes who is the inventor of Wi-Fi has been named father of Wi-Fi and was with his team involved in designing standards such as IEEE 802.11b, 802.11a and 802.11g. In 2003, Vic retired from Agere Systems. Agere Systems suffered from strong competition in the market even though their products were cutting edge, as many opted for cheaper Wi-Fi solutions. Agere's 802.11abg all-inone chipset CODE NAME WARP never hit the market, Agere Systems decided to leave the Wi-Fi market in late 2004.

Technology before Wi-Fi

Before the introduction of Wi-Fi many technologies had been used to implement an easier method to computer networking. The metal COAT HANGER method was famous choice for wireless networking when the coat hangers were hung from a coat rack facing in the direction o the magnetic north pole. it is possible to receive signals by hooking it up to the Ethernet jack of a computer using a device called a bridge Therefore , the use of this method requires the user to wear a tinfoil hat to protect inadvertent control the mind.

Other devices or methods although less popular, used were the invis- a-net packet pidgin, and sending signals using earth quick tremors.

Importance of Wi-Fi
Wi-Fi gives you an extremely large amount of freedom because person can use it from anywhere in the world but with in the range. From your home to your local shopping mall or you access to your school, wireless fidelity can always lend a helping hand. Also Wi-Fi can not restrict by any organization unless there is no policy issue. Doesnt matter who you are, you allowed to use it. And, on top of its convenience, Wi-Fi is fast, reliable, and easy to use. In the corporate enterprise, wireless LANs are usually implemented as the final link between the existing wired network and a group of customer of computers. This gives these users wireless access to the full resources and services of the corporate network across a building or campus setting. Wireless Fidelity is important to the wireless LAN world, because it is securely tested to assure operability of equipment of the same frequency band and feature. Wi-Fi is the certification logo given by the WiFi Alliance for equipments that passes the tests for compatibility for IEEE 802.11 standards. This Wi-Fi Alliance organization, is a nonprofit organization that promotes the acceptance of 802.11 wireless technology and they ensures all Wi-Fi certified 802.11 based wireless networking equipments works with all other Wi-Fi certified equipments of the same frequency. The Wi-Fi Alliance works with technical groups like IEEE and other companies that are creating other wire less equipment.

Technical specifications of Wi-Fi

Stands for wireless fidelity . Wi-Fi is a networking 802.11 standard which allows the wireless internet access and data downloading .Wi-Fi transfers data over extra ordinary high-frequency radio signals, and is only available when within range of a hotspot. Wi-Fi technology is based on the 802.11 family of networking standards, and uses a radio frequency of 2.4 GHz. These technical specifications were developed by the Wireless Ethernet Compatibility Alliance [WECA], which is still responsible for certifying new WiFi hardwares which should be compatible with 802.11 standards.

Wi-Fi Standards
In the year of 1997, the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers [IEEE] created the first WLAN standard. It is known as standard 802.11 after the name of the group formed to oversee its development. The bad luck for 802.11 only supported a maximum network bandwidth of 2 MBPS.Which is too slow for many applications. By this reason the ordinary 802.11 standard products are no longer manufactured and easily available in market.

Standard 802.11device

802.11b standard supports bandwidth up to 11 Mbps, comparable to traditional Ethernet. 802.11b uses the same unregulated radio signaling frequency 2.4 Ghz just like the original 802.11 standard. Suppliers also prefer using these frequencies to lower their production costs. To be unregulated, 802.11b gear IEEE expanded on the original 802.11 standard in July 1999, creating the 802.11b specification. can incur interference from microwave ovens, cordless phones, and other appliances using the same 2.4 GHz range. Therefore, by installing 802.11b gear a responsible distance from other devices in compulsory, interface can be avoided.

Lower cost Good signals

Not easily obstructed

Slowest maximum speed Home appliances may interface on unregulated frequency

Standard 802.11b device.

When 802.11b was in development, IEEE created a second extension to the original 802.11 standard called 802.11a. Because 802.11b gained in popularity much faster than did 802.11a, some peoples believe that 802.11a was created after 802.11b. But the truth is, 802.11a was created at the same time when the 802.11b was manufactured. Because of its higher cost, 802.11a is usually found on business networks whereas 802.11b better serves the home market. The standard 802.11a supports bandwidth up to 54 Mbps and signals in a regulated frequency spectrum around 5 GHz. If 802.11a frequency compared to 802.11b it shortens the range of 802.11a networks. The higher frequency also means 802.11a signals have more difficulty penetrating walls and other obstructions. Because 802.11a and 802.11b uses different frequencies, both technologies are incompatible with each other. Some suppliers uses the combination of 802.11a/b network gear, but these products merely implement the two standard side by side each connected devices must use one or the other.

Fast maximum speed Regulated frequencies prevent signals interference from other devices

Highest cost Shorter range signal Easily obstructed

Standard 802.11a device.

In the year of 2002 and 2003, wireless local area network products supporting a newer standard known as 802.11g emerged on the market. 802.11g is the best combination of both 802.11a and 802.11b. 802.11g is capable to supports bandwidth up to 54 Mbps, and it l uses the 2.4 GHz frequency for greater range. 802.11g is compatible with 802.11b you can say it is the extension the standard 802.11b with some features of 802.11a.

Maximum speed Good signal range Not easily obstructed

Cost more then 802.11b Home appliances may interface on unregulated frequency

Standard 802.11g device.

The latest IEEE standard in the field of Wi-Fi is 802.11n. 802.11n was basically designed to improve the 802.11g standard.In this the amount of bandwidth supported by utilizing multiple wireless signals and antennas known MIMO technology as instead of one. When 802.11n standard is finalized, the connections should support data rates of over 100 Mbps. 802.11n also increase the range as compare to earlier Wi-Fi standards because of its increased signal intensity. 802.11n

Fastest maximum speed Best signal range More resistant to signal interference from outside sources

Standard is no finalized Cost more then 802.11g

Standard 802.11n device.

Advantages of Wi-Fi
Wi-Fi uses unlicensed radio spectrum and does not require regulatory approval for individual developers Wi-Fi permits local area networks LANs to be setup with cabling. It can reduce costs of network connection and can expand it. It can be used where cables can not be used, outdoor and historical places use Wi-Fi. Wi-Fi products are easily available in the market. They may be different in brands But there purpose are some and the one. Prices of Wi-Fi products are lower because of competition amongst suppliers. Wi-Fi networks are capable to support roaming. This allows mobile users to connect with laptops. Wi-Fi is a global standard. It is not like the cellular carriers. Wi-Fi users can work in different countries all over the world.

Disadvantages if Wi-Fi
Wi-Fi bands of 2.4 GHz doesnt require a license in most countries provided that is stays below 100mws Operational limitations are not consistent worldwide. Power consumption is higher then other standards .Should increase battery life. Wi-Fi uses 2.4GHz spectrum, which crowded with other devices such as Bluetooth, microwave ovens, cordless phones, or video sender. Wi-Fi networks have limited range. A typical Wi-Fi home router might have a range of 45m (150ft) indoors and 90m (300ft) outdoors. Ranges may also vary as Wi-Fi is no exception to the physics of radio wave propagation with frequency band.

The most common wireless encryption standard, wired equivalent privacy or WEP has been shown to be breakable even when it has been correctly configured.


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