You are on page 1of 2

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

In the theory of general relativity, and differential geometry more generally, Schild's ladder is a first-order method for approximating parallel transport of a vector along a curve using only affinely parametrized geodesics. The method is named for Alfred Schild, who introduced the method during lectures at Princeton University.

1 Construction 2 Approximation 3 Notes 4 References

Two rungs of Schild's ladder. The segments A1X1 and A2X2 are an approximation to first order of the parallel transport of A0X0 along the curve.

The idea is to identify a tangent vector x at a point with a geodesic segment of unit length , and to construct an approximate parallelogram with approximately parallel sides and as an approximation of the Levi-Civita parallelogramoid; the new segment thus corresponds to an approximately parallel translated tangent vector at

A curve in M with a "vector" X0 at A0, identified here as a geodesic segment.

Select A1 on the original curve. The point P1 is the midpoint of the geodesic segment X0A1.

The point X1 is obtain geodesic A0P1 for tw length.

Formally, consider a curve γ through a point A0 in a Riemannian manifold M, and let x be a tangent vector at A0. Then x can be identified with a geodesic segment A0X0 via the exponential map. This geodesic σ satisfies

The parallel transport which is constructed by Schild's ladder is necessarily torsion-free. Now let A1 be a point on γ close to A0. Finally construct the geodesic A1X1. In a curved space.php?title=Schild%27s_ladder&oldid=511023860" Categories: Connection (mathematics) First order methods This page was last modified on 6 September 2012 at 05:05. Arkady. Inc. and extend it to a point X1 so that the parameter length of A0X1 is double that of A0P1. See Terms of Use for details. Relative distance may be provided by affine parametrization of geodesics. at least to first order. Wheeler. Charles W. this is exactly parallel transport. from which the required midpoints may be determined.. Schild's ladder requires not only geodesics but also relative distance along geodesics. Let P1 be the midpoint of X0A1 in the sense that the segments X0P1 and P1A1 take an equal affine parameter to traverse. 2.wikipedia. A Riemannian metric is not required to generate the geodesics. additional terms may apply. ISBN 0-7167-0344-0 Retrieved from "http://en.. Construct the geodesic A0P1. the error is given by holonomy around the triangle which is equal to the integral of the curvature over the interior of the triangle. and the steps define parallelograms. This is a discrete approximation of the continuous process of parallel 1.. Schild's ladder parallel transport procedure for an arbitrary connection. by the Ambrose-Singer theorem. Misner. Kheyfets. Kip S. Thorne. Freeman. Newton. the parallel transport which is constructed in the limit by Schild's ladder is the same as the Levi-Civita connection because this connection is defined to be torsion-free. Wikipedia® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation.. Gravitation. Warner A. so the geodesic segment has unit length. The tangent to this geodesic x1 is then the parallel transport of X0 to A1..The steps of the Schild's ladder construction are: Let X0 = σ(1). W. a non-profit organization. . But if the geodesics are generated from a Riemannian metric. which agree with the Levi-Civita parallelogramoid. (1973). and construct the geodesic X0A1. If the ambient space is flat. John A. Text is available under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License. H. this is a form of Green's theorem (integral around a curve related to integral over interior). Miller. 3. Gregory A.