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A Report on

“Installation of Nuclear Power Plant : A Solution to the Power Crisis in Bangladesh”

Prepared for Khanam Nargis Sultana & Nishat Sultana

Department of Humanities Bangladesh University of Engineering & Technology Dhaka- 1000

Prepared By

1. Tahmida Binte Mahmud Student No. 0706061 3. Mohammad Saad Billah Student No. 0706063 5. Sharifa Sultana Student No. 0706065

2.Muhammad Asaduzzaman Student No. 0706062 4.Tanvir Hossain Galib Student No. 0706064 6.Nazmul Hassan Student No. 0706066

Forwarding Letter
13 May, 2009 Khanam Nargis Sultana Nishat Sultana Department of Humanities Bangladesh University of Engineering & Technology Dhaka- 1000

Dear Teachers, It is honour and pleasure to submit our report on “Installation of Nuclear Power Plant: A Solution to the Power Crisis in Bangladesh”. In this report, we tried our best to visualize the present power crisis of Bangladesh & its solution. It is our pleasure to express our gratitude to both of you, our honorable teachers, for your kind assistance, proper instructions and valuable suggestions. Gratitude also goes to our friends of section B and Dr. Md. Shawkat Akbar, Head of Nuclear Power and Energy Division, Bangladesh Atomic Energy Commission & Dr. Md. Farhad Mina, Professor, Department of Physics, BUET who sincerely co-operated with us to collect data. With our very best effort, we included only the necessary data to keep the size of the report within limit. We would like to apologize for any kind of mistakes that we might have made unintentionally due to time constraints and other limitations.

Yours faithfully, Student no: 0706061-0706066 Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering Bangladesh University of Engineering & Technology Dhaka – 1000

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Table of Contents:
Forwarding Letter Table of Contents List of Illustrations Summary 1. Introduction a. New Title 2. Possible Solution a.Steam Turbine, Gas Turbine or Combined Cycle Power plant b.Solar Power Plant c.Wind Power Plant d. Nuclear Power Plant 3. Nuclear Power Project in Different Countries 4. Nuclear Power plant: Best Possible Solution to Solve the Power Crisis of Bangladesh? a. What Bangladesh thinks about power crisis and nuclear power plants? b. Future projects c. Rooppur Project d. Why nuclear power plant is a must? 5. Challenges We May Face a. Producing carbon dioxide b. Nuclear fuel c. Catastrophic consequences d. Nuclear Ghost Town 6. Conclusion: 7. Recommendations: 8. Appendix 9. List of References 10. Glossary iii iv v vi

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List of Illustrations:
Fig 1.1: Fig 1.2: Fig 1.3: Fig 2.1: Table 3.1: Table 3.2: Table 4.1: Fig 4.1: Fig 4.2: Fig 4.3: Load – generation balance in past 7 years A typical daily load curve Consumption pattern of BPDB Total Power Generation per year %Total power from nuclear power plant in developed countries %Total power from nuclear power plant in neighbour countries Carbon Dioxide Emission in Different Power Plants Deaths per year at different types of power plants Future projects according to PSMP Electricity per unit production cost for different power plants 01 02 02 04 05 05 06 06 07 08

Fig 5.1: Fig 5.2:

Treatment of radioactive waste Pripyat, A nuclear ghost town

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Summary:
As almost all the people of Bangladesh are the worst sufferers of load shedding, it is not unknown to us that our country is passing through the most hazardous crisis of power in its total lifetime. Bangladesh is not a well developed country in the sector of technology; poor economic condition, scarcity of resources, mismanagement in processing technology of these resources are contributing to the discontinuity of scientific progress and the power sector as well. It is high time we thought about some more alternative way to solve the problem. Using the available resources in a different way was a thought, which showed us their immaturity in the socioeconomic condition of Bangladesh. Discussing although the possibilities of each solution, we saw that accepting foreign aid and setting up of new power plant to produce energy using nuclear reaction can be a favourable solution. It’s true that we might face some challenges at the beginning but if we really want to emerge as a roaring “Royal Bengal Tiger” in the soil of mother world, we must overcome the challenges through our wisdom and awareness.

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“According to the law of nature, deficiency of power is supplied by duration of time” –Robert Jameson
We know nature favours those who help themselves. So we also must not leave the power crisis problem to the time and sit idle. At present, it has reached to such an agonizing level that virtually it has crippled the nation. So it is not possible for our country to stand up solving the problem in a day. Timely investigation and sustainable approach together can unravel the problem. At present context, Nuclear Power Plant seems to be the most reliable crutch relying on which our country can try to stand up again. We also must keep other possible solutions in the frame of our mind so that we can step out of this anomalous power crisis situation within the lowest possible time. It is true that so many challenges will impede the process of nuclear power plant installation but we need to move onward with the nuclear power plant project if we really wish to decode the enigmatic power crisis solution.

The Present Situation of Power in Bangladesh:
The most common as well visible result of power crisis is the huge amount of load-shedding which we are experiencing this year at an alarming rate even 12 hours a day in some places. In Bangladesh only 43 % citizen of the entire population have access to electricity facility with a per capita consumption of 140 KWH-this rate is rather low compared with 325 in Sri Lanka, 498 in Pakistan and 665 in India. Our daily demand of electricity is 4500 MW and the net generation is 3600 MW which indicates the huge gap between demand and supply. A quick look to some brief information may clear our vision about the current situation.

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Electricity Growth: 7.2 % in 2008 Installed Capacity: 5450 MW (Jan 01, 2009) BPDB: 3809 MW IPP: 1641 MW Peak Demand: 6000 MW (summer 2009) Generation Capacity: 4500 MW (summer 2009) Anticipated Load Shed: 1000-1500 MW (summer 2009) Per Capita Consumption: 149 kWh / annum (FY 2008) Access to Electricity: 45 % (FY 2008)

DPDC is in charge of power distribution in Dhaka metropolis and 60 % of its suburbs .950 MW per day is the power demand of DPDC franchise which was expected to rise to 1200 MW from April 2009.But per day allocation for DPDC is only 600 MW excluding the 12% distribution loss. The power demand in DESCO is 450-550 MW and allocation is only 250 MW. The Power Sector Master Plan (PSMP) approved in 2005, forecasts that this year we will have 7200 MW power demand and suggests 10% higher generation capacity than the demand projected. Practically the installed capacity of the existing power plants is 4921 MW. Because of routine emergency and maintenance 800 MW is inaccessible and due to gas supply constraints another 700 MW remains unused. There is also additional demand of 1500 MW for the irrigation pumps. In the Eastern Zone indigenous gas and a small amount of hydro power are used for electricity generation and the Western Zone depends on coal and
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imported fuel. But as the per unit generation cost is lower in the Eastern Zone electricity generated in the Eastern Zone in transferred to the Western Zone using the East-West Inter connector transmission line of 230 kV.Gas crisis greatly contribute to power crisis for example a 45 MW captive power plant of Maloncho is not in production from January 2009.We have a deficiency of 1100 MW going towards 3800 MW indicating our inability to meet about 60 % of the demand. We have the clear idea now that the problem of power crisis is increasing day by day affecting our economic progress, national security and social condition. Mere ignorance and petty idealism can lead the country to complete darkness. So it is high time now we found possible and effective solutions to the existing power crisis. Only quick, decisive and bold steps can help the nation the overcome the crisis and make our dream of digital Bangladesh come true.

Possible Solutions:

Steam Turbine, Gas Turbine or Combined Cycle Power plant: Steam Turbine, Gas Turbine or Combined Cycle Power plants are the main source of power generation of Bangladesh. About 95% of total power generation is from this type of power plants. This type of Power plant uses gas, coal or diesel as raw material. According to Power sector master plan (PSMP), there are more ST, GT and CC power plants to be built in future to meet the demand. But the main problem is the deficiency of the natural resources. Bangladesh does not possess any oil mines, only natural gas & coals are available. Currently, there is only storage of 14 TCF natural gas among which 5 TCF gas is needed for the CNG driven vehicles up to year 2035. Rest of the gas (9 TCF) is needed for power generation, in the factories & industries, for household work etc. The coal mines of Bangladesh can contribute only 1138 Million tons. But after 2014, if average GDP growth at 8% is considered, then 26 TCF gas will be required which is equivalent to 1 Billion tons of Coal. So, we must find an alternate way.

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Solar power plant: Solar power plant is used throughout the country with over 70000 household level installation comprising 3.5 MW total capacity. But this is very insignificant amount considering the total generation and these panels are intended for individual use. For setting up solar panel we also require much space which is not available always and commercial large scale solar panels are very much expensive to deploy & are not affordable for Bangladesh.

Wind Power plant: Wind turbines can be used to generate electricity in areas with strong, steady winds. But additional work is needed on technical requirements and opportunities for wind power in monsoonal regions, as extensive wind development has taken place in India, where conditions similar to Bangladesh can be found.

Nuclear power plant: Nuclear Energy is the most promising renewable energy source for Bangladesh. Many developed and developing countries are producing electricity from the nuclear plants. In nuclear reactor, through nuclear fission reaction it heats water to produce steam, which is then converted to mechanical work for the purpose of generating electricity. In 2007, 14% of the world's electricity came from nuclear power. Nuclear power is widely recognized as a safe and clean energy because it does not emit CO2, SO2 and NOX and does contribute anything which can lead to any environmental pollution. In Bangladesh steps must be taken to setup nuclear plants to meet up the emerging demand of the energy in future.

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Nuclear Power Project in Different Countries:
The first nuclear power plant of the world started its journey on June 27, 1954 in Obninsk, outside Moscow. Immediately all the other developed countries followed this footstep. Country US France Japan Germany Reactors 104 59 55 17 Total Production (MW) 100,599 63,473 47,577 20,339 %Total Production 19.4% 77% 27.5% 26%

In the 1970’s several developing countries started their nuclear power project. India and Pakistan, for example started in 1969 and 1971 respectively. Now they are set to produce a significant amount of their demand in the form of nuclear power. Country India Pakistan Reactors 17 2 Total Production (MW) 4120 400 %Total Production 2.8% 2.3%

India has a flourishing and largely indigenous nuclear power program and expects to have 20,000 MW nuclear capacities on line by 2020. It aims to supply 25% of electricity from nuclear power by 2050. 1980’s saw a huge anti-nuclear movement fuelled by the Chernobyl incident. Many countries considered to abandon their nuclear programme. But now, thanks to advanced technologies the world is leaning to Nuclear Power yet again. A€50 Billion Mistake: In Italy, Nuclear power was utilized until the Italian nuclear power referendum closed all plants by 1990, a decision which was reversed in 2008. Calling the phaseout a "terrible mistake, the cost of which totaled over €50 billion (approximately $68 billion)". Italy may have the Luxury to make a €50 billion mistake but Bangladesh cannot afford it.
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Nuclear Power plant: Best Possible Solution to Solve the Power Crisis of Bangladesh?
It just seems surprising that some people oppose to set up nuclear power plants. Even a group of environmentalists come up with severe criticism at the question of setting up nuclear power plant. They feel worried about anything and everything that emits CO2. Here goes a chart. Hopefully this will remove their anxiousness. If we search around the world, we will find that there are 440 nuclear power plants at present in 31 countries producing 14% of the world‟s electricity. If we shut down all these plants then we will have set out in search of some new „Saudi Arabia‟. But the interesting thing is that even the present total production of oil from Saudi Arabia would not be sufficient to run these 440 nuclear power plants. As the potential electricity producing sources like coal, gas and coil are exhaustible, today or tomorrow we must have to certify nuclear power plant as the best possible solution to produce electricity. Installation of nuclear power plant costs higher just to ensure the safety-case. If we just fear radiation then we also have to shut down all the coal-fired power stations which produce 40% of total world electricity because a coal power plant releases 100 times as much radiation as a nuclear power plant of equal power generation capacity releases. The World Nuclear Association provides a very interesting comparison of deaths due to accidents at
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Deaths per TW-yr of electricity produced from 19701992 at different types of power stations 800 600 400 200 0 hydropower coal natural gas nuclear
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different types of power stations. We just cannot deny the role that nuclear power plants can convincingly play in the power generation even in the context of third world countries like Bangladesh.

What Bangladesh thinks about power crisis and nuclear power plants? National Energy Policy: The government formulated and announced revised NEP (National Energy Policy) of the country in 2004 aims at ensuring proper exploration, production and rational use of energy sources to meet the growing energy demand of country on a sustainable basis. Some of the objectives of NEP are: 1. To bring entire country under electrification by the year 2020. 2. To ensure reliable supply of energy to the people at reasonable and affordable price. 3. To develop a regional energy market for rational exchange of commercial energy to ensure energy security.

Future projects: As Bangladesh is eyeing to reach electricity to every citizen by the year 2020, several projects have been under consideration. The charts beside show the cost for those projects (in Million US dollar) and the capacity of the plants (in MW).From these charts it is prominent that Bangladesh is progressing harmonically to meet power crisis permanently on a sustainable basis. By 2020 we shall have at least two units at Rooppur. Mawa may be another nuclear park if we want to set up more nuclear power plants.

Rooppur project: Bangladesh at long last has understood that nuclear power plant is the best device to crack the
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hard nut-„power crisis‟. Some of the key points of Rooppur project are.

Installation site: Rooppur, Pabna: 125km north-west to capital Dhaka Estimated power generation capacity: 700-1000 MW though experts believe at best 600 MW plant is possible. Physicist Dr C S Karim, a former chairman of Bangladesh Atomic Commission opined that anything around 300 to 600 would be okay. No of power plants: Two. Investment required: 1-1.5 billion US dollar. Estimated time to complete the whole process: 10 years. As we have immaculate non-proliferation history, the global nuclear watchdog IAEA gave a clearance last year to go ahead with this nuclear power plant project. IAEA also provided 366,000 US dollars as technical support. Russia, the country that helped to establish 65 nuclear plants around the world in the last decade, is very much eager to provide financial and technical support to set up the plant. Recently they have said that they are eager to provide only loan and not grants. Diplomatic initiatives must be taken so that we can manage some grants also. Some people may question at the installation of nuclear power plants because the investment cost involved is pretty high. But we need to keep in mind that fuel cost, O&M cost are comparatively much lower. For example, a 600MW nuclear power plant may cost 1.2 billion US dollar with 4045 million fuel cost a year. But a coal-fired power plant installed with US$ 600 million only, require US$ 120 million a year at current prices. So Per unit cost of electricity from nuclear power plant is very much competitive with coal-fired steam.

Why nuclear power plant is a must? At present, Bangladesh practically runs completely on natural gases. But the onshore gas reserve has depleted to
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such a point that at the present consumption rate they can at best meet demand for another 25 years. So we have two options: to go for nuclear power plant or to look for offshore natural gas. But geologists believe it would be a gambling to go for offshore natural gas. Professor Md. Hussain Monsur, Department of Geology, Dhaka University commented on the matter in an interview “I don’t think there is a huge gas reserve in the Bay of Bengal”. So it certainly will not be wiser for Bangladesh to run after natural gases. At the present context, nuclear power plant can only be the best possible solution to puzzle out from the problem of power crisis.

Challenges We May Face:
Producing carbon dioxide: Nuclear fuel does not produce carbon dioxide, but it does provide a unique set of problems all of its own. Mining and purifying uranium has not always been a very clean process. The transportation of nuclear fuel to and from plants poses a contamination risk. Nuclear fuel: A nuclear power plant generates s 20 metric tons of used nuclear fuel a year. This is classified as high-level radioactive waste. When you multiply this by every known nuclear plant on earth, the combined total rises to 2,000 metric tons yearly. These are radioactive and potentially lethal. This is particularly true of the spent fuels, which must be stored or disposed of in some way. Catastrophic consequences: The plants themselves have shown to have catastrophic consequences when things go wrong. The Chernobyl disaster is a good example. On 26 April 1986 01:23:45 the Ukrainian reactor exploded following decisions taken to rectify some

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relatively lax procedure. It is the only level 7 instance on the International Nuclear Event Scale. 50 tons of radioactive material discharged into the surrounding area, contaminating millions of acres of farmland and forest. The disaster forced the evacuation of tens of thousand of people and eventually caused untold numbers to die from cancer and other illnesses. Nuclear Ghost Town Pripyat, Ukraine, is a ghost town of empty buildings and overgrown weeds. The town had to be abandoned after the nuclear explosion at the nearby Chernobyl nuclear power plant. What will happen to the nuclear waste is also a big question. One thing is for certain; it will be good when certain green technologies help wean us off nuclear power, and, by extension, fossil fuels. Then we will be able to ensure the safety arrangement of the system.

Conclusion:
Adopting a positive attitude and an optimistic view, we have to solve our problem of power crisis. But if we take natural gas, coal, steam, solar energy and wind as the possible solutions, it may not be fruitful for the future of country. Survey that we launched also supports our idea. People are at least not pessimist. They know the present condition is vulnerable but still they believe we can get out of the problem if the government can complete all its planned projects including Rooppur project within time. If we aspire to bring the entire country under electrification by the year 2020 without creating any negative impact on our socio-economic condition, we have to receive foreign aid to set up nuclear plant and simultaneously have to explore our own natural resources. So by analyzing all the aspects of different solutions, it is for sure that the construction of nuclear power plant can mitigate the distressing power crisis problem.

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Recommendations:

Though the total installed capacity of existing power plants is 5375 MW, 700 MW is inaccessible due to gas supply constraint. Government should increase the gas supply at the power plants rather fertilizer factories because according to the information of agriculture ministry, imported fertilizers cost less than producing in Bangladesh

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Additional 600 MW can also be retrieved by proper maintenance of the power plants & replacement of some 50 year old machinery which has ran out of their lifetime. We have serious gas shortfall, but still government has to install more ST, GT & CC power plants before installing the first nuclear power plant. Because, according to BPDB, when a base load power plant is installed, its capacity must be within 10% of the current generation capacity. So, if the government does not increase the generation capacity now, even a 400 MW nuclear power plant will be of no use in 2015.

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There is a proposed international oil pipeline from Iran through Pakistan to India. We can work to extend it to Bangladesh. Our closest neighbor Assam is filled with natural resources .We can Import resources from there .We also have to explore and exploit our own natural resources. Privatization of Power sector can be the next step. We have all seen the revolution in the telecom sector .If we can encourage the foreign investors to make the investment then the situation can change dramatically. The privatized power plants produce almost 1500 Mw today. With a friendlier environment where the rules are loosened things can be different.

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For remote villages, desolate hill tracts, islands we need not reach grid power supply, rather solar, wind and biogas generation will do for those type regions. Mine city is a good concept. Government soon take appropriate action to start coal mining in Phulbaria and in other mines applying most suitable method to extract maximum coal.

Unfortunately, due to geological and political position of our country Bangladesh is, at least to a minimum degree, terrorist-threatened country. So all required move to set up nuclear power plants should be taken with sagacity. Vigorous campaign must be launched to uproot terrorism from the soil of our country.

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Appendix:
Questionnaire: We some students of Electrical and Electronic Department, BUET are preparing a report on the topic “Installation of Nuclear Power Plant: A Solution to the Power Crisis in Bangladesh”. It is our pleasure to know your valuable opinion about the matter. Please choose the answers of the following questions and put a tick mark on the box Name: ........................................................... Age: .......... Location :....................................

1. What do you think about the degree of power crisis in our country? Power crisis is Severe Severe and intolerable Minor and insignificant 2. Can privatization of power sector solve the problem of power crisis?  Yes No No comment 3. Onshore natural gas is depleting. There is also no assurance of offshore natural gas. So do you suggest to take the risky project of exploring offshore natural gas or to go for some other solution? Go for Offshore gas Other solution  comment No 4. Do you think nuclear power plant is the only possible solution of the power crisis problem?  Yes  No No comment 5. Do you think Rooppur project will be a success?  Yes  No  comment No

6. Should we discourage the construction of nuclear power plants thinking of the environmental threats? Yes  No  comment No 7. Does Bangladesh have the technological ability to maintain a nuclear power plant ensuring the safety issues?  Yes  No  comment No 8. Is it a good idea to privatize the nuclear power plant in our country if set up?  Yes  No  comment No 9. Do you fear financial problem can halt the Rooppur project?  Yes  No No comment 10. Can our government reach electricity to every house by the year 2020? Yes  No No comment “Sorry for wasting your valuable time & thanks a lot for your kind help”
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List of References:
1. Bangladesh Power Development Board Official Website – www.bpdb.gov.bd

2. Power Crisis: Issues and Challenges by Md. Mizanur Rahman, Magazine „Energy & Power‟ : Volume 6 Issue 15 3. Plunged into Darkness by Mollah M Amzad Hossain, Magazine „Energy & Power‟ : Volume 6 Issue 15 4. Power crisis in Bangladesh - Posted by B. Doza in BANGLADESH, Budget, ECONOMY, GOVERNANCE.

5. National Energy Policy – Ministry of Power, Energy & Mineral Resources
6. Statistical Pocket Book Bangladesh 2008: Bangladesh Bureau of statistics, Planning Division, Ministry of Planning, Government of People‟s Republic of Bangladesh 7. Indendent Bangladesh: Internet Edition: 25 December 2007 8. Magazine „The Executive Times‟: April 2009 issue

9. Wikipedia – en.wikipedia.org
10. Fifty Years From Trinity - www.seattletimes.com/trinity 11. PBS Online : Nuclear Reaction - www.pbs.org/wgbh/pages/frontline/shows/reaction 12. How Nuclear Radiation Works - www.howstuffworks.com/nuclear.htm 13. Bangladesh Must Go Nuclear to Meet Energy Demand , a news article by Engr. Khondkar Abdus Saleque - www.energybangla.com

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Glossary

BPDB – Bangladesh Power Development Board CC – Combined Cycle CNG – Concentrated Natural Gas CO2 – Carbon Dioxide DESCO – Dhaka Electric Supply Company € (Euro) – A common monetary unit for the whole Europe GDP – Gross Domestic Product GT – Gas Turbine GWH – Giga Watt Hour (A unit for power measurement) IAEA-International Atomic Energy Association INEA-International Nuclear Event Scale introduced by IAEA in 1990 to enable promot communication of safety significance information in case of nuclear accidents IPP – Independent Power Plant KM2 - Square Kilometer KV - Kilo Volt (1 Kilo Volt = 1000 Volt) KWH – Kilo Watt Hour (A unit for power measurement) Metric ton – One thousand kilogram MMCF - 1000000 Cubic Feet MMCFD - 1000000 Cubic Feet per day MW – Mega Watt NEP – National Energy Policy NOX - Oxides of Nitrogen Nuclear fission reaction – The reaction by which power is produced in a Nuclear power plant Nuclear park-a site suitable for setting up nuclear power plants O&M cost-Operation and Maintenance cost Peak Demand – The maximum demand of a particular day Plutonium – A Radioactive Material Plutonium oxide – A lethal compound SO2 - Sulphur Dioxide ST – Steam Turbine TBTU - Trillion British Thermal Unit TCF – Trillion Cubic Feet Thorium - A Radioactive element that is used as raw material in Nuclear power plant Uranium – A Radioactive element that is used as raw material in Nuclear power plant Uranyl nitrate – A lethal compound produced from radioactive waste

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