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Final Report Thermo-Shell-Ectric

December 17, 2012

John Finazzo Sam Neupane Colby Hawkey Louis Robinson

Executive Summary
The goal of this project is to design a safe, clean, sustainable, and affordable cook stove for the developing region of Nepal. Throughout the semester, the team will evaluate and meet customer needs culturally and performance wise, and conduct external searches to design a sustainable cook stove that reduces harmful emissions, requires less fuel, is longer lasting and durable, and is easy to use and clean. This report will outline the methods taken to select a final concept, the processes carried out to produce the cook stove, and the analysis involved with testing the cook stove. We are looking to achieve a production cost of just over $20 and be able to reduce the current carbon monoxide emissions by at least 30%. The ultimate goal is to obtain a CO emission of less than 30 ppm. However, the lowest recorded emission from the Envirofit G3300 Cook Stove is 86 ppm. Therefore, anything below this value will show that the design is heading in the right direction.

Table of Contents
Executive Summary....................................................................................................................................... 0 1.0 Introduction ............................................................................................................................................ 3 1.1 Initial Problem Statement ................................................................................................................... 3 1.2 Objectives............................................................................................................................................ 3 2.0 Customer Needs Assessment.................................................................................................................. 3 2.1 Gathering Customer Input .................................................................................................................. 3 2.2 Weighing of Customer Needs ............................................................................................................. 5 Table 1: AHP Pairwise Comparison Chart to Determine Weighting for Main Objectives .................... 5 3.0 External Search ....................................................................................................................................... 5 3.1 Patents ................................................................................................................................................ 5 Figure 1: Envirofit Patent US2010/0258104 A16................................................................................... 6 3.2 Existing Products ................................................................................................................................. 7 4.0 Engineering Specifications ...................................................................................................................... 7 4.1 Establishing Target Specifications ....................................................................................................... 7 4.2 Relating Specification to Customer Needs.......................................................................................... 8 Table 2: Needs-Metrics Matrix to relate Specifications to Customer Needs ...................................... 8 5.0 Concept Generation and Selection ......................................................................................................... 8 5.1 Problem Clarification .......................................................................................................................... 8 Table 3: Questions/Solutions Table for Concept Generation ............................................................... 9 5.2 Concept Generation ............................................................................................................................ 9 5.3 Concept Selection ............................................................................................................................. 11 Table 4: Pugh Concept Scoring Matrix ................................................................................................ 11 6.0 System Level Design .............................................................................................................................. 11 Figure 2: 3-D SolidWorks Drawing of Concept 1 ................................................................................. 12 7.0 Special Topics ........................................................................................................................................ 12 7.1 Budget and Vendor Purchase Information ....................................................................................... 12 Table 5: Distribution of Funds ............................................................................................................. 13 7.2 Project Management ........................................................................................................................ 13 7.3 Risk Plan and Safety .......................................................................................................................... 13 Table 6: Risk Management Plan Chart ................................................................................................ 14 7.4 Ethics Statement ............................................................................................................................... 14

2 7.5 Environmental Statement ................................................................................................................. 15 7.6 Community and Coordination with Sponsor .................................................................................... 15 8.0 Detailed Design ..................................................................................................................................... 15 8.1 Manufacturing Process Plan ............................................................................................................. 16 Table 7: Manufacturing Process Plan.................................................................................................. 16 8.2 Analysis ............................................................................................................................................. 17 Figure 3: Output voltage versus Temperature Gradient.................................................................... 17 8.3 Material and Material Selection Process .......................................................................................... 18 8.4 Component and Component Selection Process ............................................................................... 19 8.5 CAD Drawings.................................................................................................................................... 19 Figure 4: Thermo-Shell-Ectric Prototype Design ................................................................................. 19 8.6 Test Procedure .................................................................................................................................. 20 8.7 Economic Analyses Budget and Vendor Purchase Information..................................................... 20 Table 8: Current Spending on Project ................................................................................................. 21 9.0 Final Discussion ..................................................................................................................................... 21 9.1 Construction Process ........................................................................................................................ 21 9.2 Test Results and Discussion .............................................................................................................. 22 Table 9: Testing Results of Prototype ................................................................................................. 22 Table 10: Testing Result of the Two Thermoelectric Devices ............................................................. 22 10.0 Conclusions and Recommendations ................................................................................................... 23 11.0 Self-Assessment (Design Criteria Satisfaction) ................................................................................... 24 11.1 Customer Needs Assessment.......................................................................................................... 24 11.2 Global and Societal Needs Assessment .......................................................................................... 25 References .................................................................................................................................................. 27 Appendix ..................................................................................................................................................... 28

1.0 Introduction
1.1 Initial Problem Statement
Nearly half of the worlds population cooks their daily meals by burning biomass fuel (wood, animal dung or agricultural waste). Most meals are cooked on open fires or rudimentary, inefficient stoves that release high levels of toxic emissions into peoples homes. The World Health Organization estimates that this Indoor Air Pollution (IAP) kills over 2 million people annually, where over half (56%) of these deaths are children under the age of 5. Additionally, in many regions the gathering of wood causes deforestation (leading to increased erosion, landslides and habitat destruction) and is often dangerous for the gatherers (primarily women and children). In areas where fuel is not readily available to gather, households must purchase their wood at great cost that is a substantial portion of the household budget. Technical solutions are available to address both the health, environmental and economic effects of IAP; however they need to be implemented on a large enough scale to make a difference. The world-wide IAP problem is too large to be tackled via subsidy or give-away programs. A true market based solution is needed.

1.2 Objectives
The objective of this design is to develop a clean sustainable cooking stove for developing world countries. The targeted audience for this design is the country of Nepal, specifically the region of Chitwan. The current cook stoves provide a way for low-income families in developing world countries to cook food in their home by means other than an open fire. However, the carbon monoxide emissions off of these cook stoves have been reported up to 86 ppm.1 The current Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) permissible exposure limit is 50 ppm.2 The design will aim to lower these emissions while keeping the cost and weight of the cook stove about the same.

2.0 Customer Needs Assessment


2.1 Gathering Customer Input
In any design process the most important aspect is addressing customer needs. The audience that was targeted in this project design was in the region of Chitwan in the country of Nepal. The audience was targeted because of the firsthand experience associated with Sambharant Sharma Neupane. The country of Nepal was picked primarily due to the firsthand knowledge of the country that Sambharant provided us. The

information was also gathered from various journals and articles regarding their cooking methods. The region of Chitwan is about 150 kilometers from the capital of Nepal, Kathamandu.5 It is in the middle of Terrai which is a vast, flat, fertile area that borders India and stretches across southern Nepal. The people in Chitwan region are from mixed tribes but primarily thareu people.5 The average family size comprises of four people.5 There primary work is farming because of the vast, fertile land. The farming provides their primary income therefore; the people of Chitwan have a very low income. The current cooking methods in Nepal are a traditional cooking stove which involves a dugout fire pit that uses cord wood, agro residue, and cow dung as fuel. Also, the newly introduced sustainable cooking stoves have modified features to enhance efficiency with respect to fuel wood consumption. The traditional cook stoves have a very low efficiency of about 10% (energy stored in the wood). Most of the smoke stays in the kitchen because of the absence of any type of chimney or ventilation system. This smoke can be very harmful and has claimed mostly the lives of women and children in Nepal. The smoke can cause diseases ranging from acute respiratory infection, pneumonia, lung cancer, and many other harmful diseases. Not only do traditional cooking stoves pose a medical threat to the people in Nepal, but they also contribute to house fires There have been reports of children falling into the open flame and causing serious burns. Not to mention there are serious environmental effects of these traditional cooking stoves. Therefore, a more efficient, safe cooking stove is needed. The main fuel source in Nepal is woody biomass accounting for almost 80% of the countrys energy demands.3 The woman and children in Nepal are responsible for collecting the wood. Since fuel wood accounts for most of the energy needs in Nepal, it exerts immense pressure on the forest resources within the country. Therefore, it is important for the improved cook stoves to reduce the amount of fuel consumption. Most of the meals that are prepared in Nepal are curry vegetables, rice, meat curry, and potatoes.4 The main dish that is served in Nepal is called dal bhat which comprises of at least one dish of rice (bhat), lentil soup (dal), and a vegetable curry (tarkari).4 They do eat meat curry (maseu) but only on certain occasions. They also eat a small amount of pickle sauce (achar) as a side dish. The cooking methods that are involved include stewing, frying, steaming, and simmering. For the serving of an average family, (4 people) the average cooking time is about 30-35 minutes for rice, 1060 minutes for lentil, 20 minutes for the vegetable curry, 25 minutes for meat curry, and about 10 minutes for the pickle sauce.4 Therefore, it is important for the improved cook stoves to be able to perform all of these cooking functions. One of the main goals for designing this cook stove is to ensure this stove can be produced in Chitwan, Nepal. From research, it was found that there is an industrial site in Hetauda which is a small city about 45 miles from Chitwan. The industrial park comprises of many industries like steel factories, textiles, chemical plants, and mining plants. Therefore, it was determined that the cook stove can be produced in Nepal. Along with knowledge obtained from Sambharant, information was gained from various journals and articles online. The weighing of the customer needs was then ranked based on the groups knowledge obtained from Sambharant and the online articles.

2.2 Weighing of Customer Needs


Once the customer needs data was gathered, the design specifications had to be determined based on our research. To determine the importance of each specific customer need, an analytic hierarchy process (AHP) was used. The AHP was calculated based on the following customer needs: Safety, Ease of Use, Ease of Manufacturing, Cost, Efficiency, Durability, and Portability. These needs were decided to be the most important needs to consider for the design. The needs and associated weight of the need is shown in the table below:

Table 1: AHP Pairwise Comparison Chart to Determine Weighting for Main Objectives
Safe Safe Ease of Use Ease of Mfg Cost Efficient Durable Portable 1.00 0.50 1.00 1.00 1.00 0.33 0.33 Ease of Use Ease of Mfg Cost 2.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.50 1.00 2.00 1.00 1.50 0.50 1.00 0.50 1.00 0.67 1.00 1.00 1.00 0.50 0.50 Efficient Durable Portable Total Weight Percent 1.00 3.00 3.00 12.00 0.21 20.63% 0.50 0.67 1.00 5.33 0.09 9.17% 1.00 2.00 2.00 9.00 0.15 15.47% 1.00 2.00 2.00 9.50 0.16 16.33% 1.00 2.00 3.00 11.00 0.19 18.91% 0.50 1.00 3.00 7.33 0.13 12.61% 0.33 0.33 1.00 4.00 0.07 6.88%

These criteria are the 7 most important features gathered from our data with customer needs. After all of the specifications were ranked and weighted according to the Table 1 above. We developed specific characteristics that our final design will have to follow. The top three criteria that received the highest percent of importance were safety, efficiency, and cost. All of these criterias will be considered heavily when producing our final product design.

3.0 External Search


3.1 Patents
The main goal of our design was to develop a cook stove that was cleaner, more efficient, and affordable for the people of Nepal. From the patent search, there are a variety of sustainable cook stoves that are patented. To determine what products are already on the cook stove market, we searched Google Patents for cook stove designs. The scope of the search was limited to sustainable cook stoves to eliminate irrelevant designs. The patent search returned multiple results that explored the smaller aspects of the cook stove, including different combustion chambers, air to fuel ratio calculations, forced air fans, and different fuel consumption. We determined our criteria then narrowed our search for a cook stove that ran on woody biomass, incorporated a fan, relatively small and most importantly inexpensive.

The best patent to meet most of our design specifications was Patent No: US 2010/0258104 A1, shown below in Figure 1.

Figure 1: Envirofit Patent US2010/0258104 A16

The next step in the external search was to benchmark the competition to see what products are currently being sold. This is useful to see what designs customers prefer and what they dislike. This stage of the external search was done by searching through cook stove patents to determine the market value. The single-most mentioned comment was the need for a better air to fuel ratio to increase the efficiency of our product.

3.2 Existing Products


There are many current sustainable cook stoves on todays market. The one mentioned above in Figure 1 is the Envirofit G-3300 cook stove. Also, a picture of the Envirofit G-3300 can be found in Appendix B. The Envirofit G-3300 cook stove utilizes a basic construction with a combustion chamber surrounded by an insulation cylinder. Above the combustion chamber is an cast iron plate which a pot can be placed. It also has an attachable rack to the front of the stove to allow the fuel source to be fed into the stove. The fuel source that seems most reasonable for this cook stove is woody biomass. Envirofit also offers two attachments to this stove including pot skirts for improved efficiency, and a dual pot system. The design will be strongly considered in the concepts generated. Many of the sustainable cook stoves that are available are through different types of projects and foundations that aim to lower indoor air pollution and promote safer cooking methods in developing countries. A lot of these stoves are similar to Envirofit models and will also be strongly considered in concept generations for our design.

4.0 Engineering Specifications


4.1 Establishing Target Specifications
Establishing the target specification was based off answering the following question: How effectively will the stove be able to compete with current cooking designs and practices? The metrics determined by the team were weight, carbon monoxide emissions, thermal efficiency, part count, production cost, learning curve, lifetime, number of cooking methods supported, and surface finish/color. Ideally, the cook stove design would result in an acceptable amount of exposure to carbon monoxide according to the Occupational Safety and Health Organization (OSHO). However, this is a lofty goal since the lowest recorded emissions from Envirofit was 86 ppm. Therefore, anything below 86 ppm would be an improvement and show that the design is heading in the right direction. To meet the standards set by OSHO, the cook stove design should result in a 30% decrease of carbon monoxide emissions. The stove should also not exceed 15 pounds in total weight. The stove should also not exceed $30.00 in production costs to compete in the market. The stove should have a lifetime of 5 years. The thermal efficiency that results from the add-ons should be an increase of 30%. The stove should support all methods of cooking in Nepal. These methods include stewing, frying, steaming, and simmering. The stove should also be a red color to blend with the respected culture. The learning curve for the stove should be one day for ease of use.

4.2 Relating Specification to Customer Needs


The customer needs that were established are compared to the engineering specifications shown Table 2 Needs-Metrics Matrix below. Any space marked with an x indicates that the associated metric is needed to evaluate the customer need.
Table 2: Needs-Metrics Matrix to relate Specifications to Customer Needs

Cooking Methods Supported

Carbon Monoxide Emitted

Surface Finish/Color

Thermal Efficiency

Production Cost

1 2 3 4 5 6 7

Needs Safety Ease of Use Ease Of Mfg Cost Efficiency Durability Portability

x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x

Table 2 indicates that which customer need is related to the engineering specification. As you can see only one of the engineering specifications cannot be met by a certain customer need. This chart explains which engineering specifications are supported by customer needs.

5.0 Concept Generation and Selection


5.1 Problem Clarification
In order to guide the concept selection, the needs were broken down into questions that would need to be answered for the design. This list of questions along with potential answers is shown in the table below.

Learning Curve

Total Weight

Part Count

Lifetime

Metrics

Table 3: Questions/Solutions Table for Concept Generation Problem Potential Solution Biomass (wood) Kerosene Solar What will the fuel source for the stove be? Gas Propane Charcoal Fan add-on How will carbon monoxide emissions be lowered? Holes in side of cook stove Fuel feeding system What add-ons will make the cook stove easier to use? Quick start kerosene system Pull out tray $0-10 $10-20 How much will the stove cost? $20-30 $30-40 Aluminum Steel What materials will be used to make the stove? Powder Coated Steel Iron Thermoelectric Device Battery How will the fan be powered? Hand Powered Spring Powered Solar Funnel Shaped How will the combustion chamber look? Doubled Cylindrical

5.2 Concept Generation


Our design concepts started with a brainstorming session where we each individually drew and wrote down ideas that we thought our cook stove should incorporate. These ideas included the shape of the cook stove, the fuel that should be used, the size, the combustion chamber, how to decrease the air to fuel ratio, and the layout of the pieces we would use to build the cook stove. Our design concepts varied starting with the original cook stove design and ranging to concepts that were out of the box. With 11 different concepts laid out, the team took each concept and placed them into

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closely-related groups. Each group was given a name that would clearly identify the theme of the group. The groups included, fuel source, combustion chambers, air to fuel ratio, and add-on parts. Using the design concept brainstorming session we also looked at our sponsors specifications as well as our customers needs. We had the option to either modify the Envirofit G-3300 Cook Stove or come up with a brand new design incorporating the ideas generated above. The group decided to design a brand new prototype. The concepts discussed below are original ideas developed by the group. These ideas resulted from the information that was found during the external search, the gathering of customer needs, and the generation of specifications. Many ideas were tossed around about a possible different fuel source. However, as shown in the graph in the Appendix A, fuel wood accounts for almost 75% of the fuel consumption in Nepal. Using any other fuel besides that would put the design at an economic disadvantage. However, due to fuel wood being the main source, Nepal is under immense pressure with deforestation issues. Therefore, it is important that we take into account how much fuel is consumed in our generation. Another idea that was tossed around was the use of a fan to enhance the air to fuel ratio. Currently, in most cook stoves, a fuel rich reaction occurs. Basically, there is not enough air for all the fuel to burn. If we could incorporate a fan that could increase the amount of air in the combustion chamber then it would result in an increase of efficiency. The last thing to take into consideration was the combustion chamber itself. We generated several ways to make the combustion chamber different to possibly result in complete combustion or efficiency. All these ideas are expressed in the four concepts generated below. The first concept (Appendix C-I) had a fan at the bottom of the cook stove with spacing along the side of the combustion chamber to force air into the reaction to allow for complete combustion. The fan is powered using a thermoelectric device which will be placed below the ceramic plate which is below the combustion chamber. The thermoelectric device and fan are relatively low cost of production and have a significant impact on lowering emissions therefore the extra cost in production is necessary. The combustion chamber in this concept was also changed to a double combustion chamber to decrease the smoke due to partial combustion. A picture of this design can be found in the Appendix C-I. The second concept (Appendix C-II) that was generated made modifications to the Envirofit G-3300. The Envirofit G-3300 is an acceptable cook stove because it is very simple, light weight, and low part count. Therefore, making small changes that resulted in lower emissions it would be beneficial to the already existing manufacturing process. Our concept idea included a funnel shaped combustion chamber instead of the existing cylindrical chamber. This would allow for more air to access the flame and result in more complete combustion by decreasing the air to fuel ratio. A drawing of this design can also be found in the Appendix C-II. The third concept (Appendix C-III) was almost the same idea as the first concept but with a different method of powering the fan. In this concept, we decided to power the fan by means of a hand crank. This would be the same type of technology that is used in emergency flash lights. Two different air flow locations where considered in this concept. The first was forcing air on top of the combustion reaction and the second was forcing air on the sides of the combustion reaction. A drawing of this design can be found in the Appendix C-III.

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The last concept (located in Appendix C-IV) was looking at the current cook stoves they use in Nepal. This design is more a rectangular prism design with a chimney stack coming out the back and two burners. This was appealing due to the two burners because most cooking involves more than one pot. The idea was to add fans and holes in the stove to allow for an increase in air flow to reduce emissions and increase efficiency. The downside to this design was that it would not be portable like the other three concepts. A drawing of this design can be found in Appendix C-IV.

5.3 Concept Selection


The concept was selected using the Pugh Concept Scoring matrix that is shown below. The ratings were based on a 1-5 scale with 3 being the same as the reference which in this case is the G-3300 Envirofit Cook Stove. Concept 1 generated the best total score of 3.52 and is going to be the primary design. Concept 2 came in second with 3.24 and will be the alternate design.
Table 4: Pugh Concept Scoring Matrix

In conclusion, our scoring matrix has indicated that our first design is the most feasible for this market region. Concept 1 will now be further tested with developing and alpha and beta prototypes. These prototypes will be generated using the Penn State Learning Factory and materials that we have purchased.

6.0 System Level Design


The sustainable cook stove shown in Figure 2 provides a more efficient way for our customers to prepare food. Notice the gap (A) between the combustion chamber and the lower compartment for the fan. This gap provides the air flow from the fan into the combustion chamber to be directed by flaps into the combustion reaction. The large opening in the cook stove (B) provides the customer with simple fuel feeding access to

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the combustion chamber (D). The combustion chamber is set up into two stages (Appendix C-I), the first combustion chamber burns the woody biomass with the increased air flow. The second combustion chamber recirculates the unburned exhaust gases back into the first combustion chamber. The flat top cooking surface (C) allows for direct heat from the flame to reach the bottom of the cooking pot. The bottom compartment (E) is responsible for the storage of the thermoelectric device and the fan. The thermoelectric device is mounted in between the first combustion chamber and the fan. Since the thermoelectric device generates the most electricity when the temperature gradient is the largest, the placement of this device is significant. Our SolidWorks drawing cannot feature all the key components of our cook stove, refer to Appendix C-I for a hand sketch.

Figure 2: 3-D SolidWorks Drawing of Concept 1

7.0 Special Topics


7.1 Budget and Vendor Purchase Information
A sponsor budget of $1000 was given to our team. These funds will go towards research, testing, and manufacturing the new stove design. The funds spent currently can be seen below in Table 5 below. Currently the two biggest purchases we have encountered are the Envirofit cook stove which was purchased for testing. A CO detector was also purchased for testing the current cook stove and our prototype in the near future. We plan on being under budget for this project due to the constraints given to us by our

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sponsor and the low manufacturing abilities of our region of Nepal, roughly under $30 USD. Future purchases include powder coated steel, insulation, and aluminum.
Table 5: Distribution of Funds

Distribution of funds Equipment Quantity Amount in dollar(USD) Envirofit Cook Stove 1 $116.00 CO Detector 1 $230.00 Cord Wood 1 $5.00 Thermoelectric Device 1 $5.00 Fan 1 $8.00 Total $364.00

7.2 Project Management


Various major works have to be completed before the end of the semester such as testing the add-on attachments and measuring their efficiency as well as its durability. Carbon monoxide emission level will be tested to ensure our product does not go over 82 ppm. We are currently ahead of schedule on out Gantt chart (Appendix E). Major milestones to achieve within the coming weeks are to manufacture a working prototype and test run the emissions of our cook stove.

7.3 Risk Plan and Safety


There will be many risks that will be involved in this project ranging from schedule delays to not completing the design project in time. Through time management skills and sticking to the schedule we wont have to face any of the problems. A Risk Plan chart was setup up so if the problems do arise we have a plan of action.

14 Table 6: Risk Management Plan Chart

Risk Change in customer specification

Level

Moderate

Schedule delays

Low

Delays in order placements or delivery Product does not function as predicted Customer not satisfied

Moderate

Actions to Minimize *Research customer needs and make adjustments *Track time and have good management on due dates *Expedite shipping *Make sure you have all the shipping information so you can track it

Fall Back Strategy *Add time to schedule for that particular task *Additional budget required *Build in safety time *Re-allocate resources

Low

Moderate

*Test early and often *Research customer needs and make adjustments

*Build it by yourself *Alternative design *Different material, technology, etc *Discuss ways to fix the problems

7.4 Ethics Statement


The goal of this project is to uniquely create a product so that it enhances the lively hood and good environment for the developing communities. We are a goal driven team that understands the key issue associated with indoor air pollution and the risk thats associated with it. We as a team understand that reducing indoor air pollutions will be our main focus. Ethically we are committed to design an affordable cook stove that will better the living environment without concerning with profitability and incorporating safety as a key component. In designing any product that will be used by consumers, safety is always the number one priority. In order to make sure that all companies abide by the same guidelines and to ensure safety to consumers, several agencies have been established that check the safety of products wanting to be sold in the marketplace. One of these companies is UL which is a global corporation that focuses on five areas of product development: product safety, environment, life & health, university services, and verification services. The UL provides a specific guide for cook stoves. Our design will meet all relevant guidelines pertaining to the product safety of the cook stove, and we will also take great concern in being environmentally minded. Life and Health will also be important as this product will be used by consumers in their home and cannot have any adverse effects on living conditions. Another company that is highly regarded in product standards and safety is the IEC, International Electrotechnical Commission. Because our product is simple and has very few parts associated with its construction, the safety checklists are not as extensive as with some other models. Many

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of the safety requirements deal with the allowed voltage of the power supply and other electrical components. Safety requirements will continue to be reviewed throughout the continuation of the design and building process at every step. The construction process brings about many small changes that will each have to be approved in a safety mindset. As we finish with the final prototype, safety checks will be of the highest priority. At the current phase, we foresee no issues concerning meeting these safety requirements.

7.5 Environmental Statement


Every year, millions of people die all over the world due to indoor air pollution. Unnoticeably it has become the source of many deaths and actions to reduce indoor air pollution are in dire need. We as a team are committed to reduce harmful air pollution that is emitted by sustainable cook stoves in many underdeveloped communities around the world. By designing a new type of sustainable cook stove that will produce less carbon monoxide emissions we will ultimately keep reducing environmental pollutants.

7.6 Community and Coordination with Sponsor


Communication with our sponsor, Mr. Buddy Bealer of Shell, has helped us by giving constant feedback and helping us stay on our target. In our initial team teleconference he helped us solve many misconceptions that we had initially had with the problem statement and from there we started heading down the right path. We agreed to a biweekly teleconference where we update him with our problems and achievements and also report on our weekly status report. Our current communication is progressing smooth in formulating solutions and solving them.

8.0 Detailed Design


The basic design for our cook stove is a cylindrical housing unit with a 5V DC fan and two thermoelectric generators located on the inside. The fan will be powered by two thermoelectric generators which will be controlled by a toggle switch located on the base of the housing unit. We incorporated a fan design to control the fuel to air ratio which will help reduce harmful emissions. We will experiment with different flow rates to determine the optimal fan speed correlated with the highest combustion efficiency. The fan will also be used to cool the thermoelectric generators giving us the largest temperature gradient achievable for our design. The thermoelectric devices will be held in place with a bracket and will be located on the opposite side of the base of the combustion chamber. The fan will take in room temperature air from the vents located on the bottom of the cylindrical housing and blow the air up the cylindrical pipe to other parts of the cook stove. We believe this design will best suit the people of Nepal since the addition of a fan will reduce indoor air pollution while also increasing the overall efficiency of the cook stove. With these new additions, the people of Nepal will spend an

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additional added cost to buy our product, but will receive this investment back in the amount of fuel they will save with the increase in efficiency.

8.1 Manufacturing Process Plan


Although we are manufacturing the cook stove in the U.S., it is important to Shell and to our team that all the parts and materials can be manufactured and are accessible in Nepal. The cylindrical housing unit will be made up of .064 thick 6061-T6 Aluminum that will be rolled to a 10 diameter by 16 height. The circular base will be made up of the same aluminum and will consist of a 10 diameter with three 1 x 1 tabs located on the outer diameter of the circle that will be folded up and screwed into the cylindrical housing unit. Another 10 diameter circle will be placed 4 up from the bottom of the cylindrical unit inside the main housing unit and will be attached to the cylindrical unit by three 1 x 1 tabs that will be pop riveted into place. Within the bottom of the cook stove underneath the combustion chamber, the thermoelectric devices will be mounted to the bottom of the 10 diameter circular plate that is fastened 4 from the bottom of the cook stove. The fan will be fastened to the opposite 10 diameter plate that is located at the bottom of the housing unit. The next step to manufacturing the cook stove is the combustion chamber which will be located on the top of the second 10 diameter circular plate that is 4 from the bottom of the unit. The combustion chamber will sit on top of this plate when completed. The combustion chamber will be made up of 0.024 thick 6061-T6 Aluminum. The combustion chamber will have three sections. The first section will be an 8 circular tube that will extend to the opening of the cook stove door. On top of this section will be a cone octahedron with upper and lower diameter of 4 and a middle dimension of 6 diameter. The final section will be a 4 diameter by 4 high cylinder that will sit even with the top of the cylindrical housing unit.

Table 7: Manufacturing Process Plan

ASSEMBLY NAME Housing Base Inside Base Combustion Chamber Part 1

MATERIAL TYPE 6061-T6 Aluminium 6061-T6 Aluminium 6061-T6 Aluminium 6061-T6 Aluminium

RAW STOCK SIZE 2' x 4' x .064" sheet 2' x 4' x .064" sheet 2' x 4' x .064" sheet 2' x 4' x .024" sheet

OPERATIONS Cut to size on cutter Debur edges using flap wheel Rolled to a 10 Diameter with roller Cut to size on wet jet (10 diameter) with (3) 1 x 1 tabs for construction Cut to size on wet jet (10 diameter) with (3) 1 x 1 tabs for construction Cut to size on cutter Debur edges using flap wheel Rolled to a 8 Diameter with roller

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Combustion Chamber Part 2 Combustion Chamber Part 3 Thermoelectric Assembly Base Assembly

6061-T6 Aluminium 6061-T6 Aluminium

2' x 4' x .024" sheet 2' x 4' x .024" sheet

Cut to shape and size using wet jet Rolled to final cone shape Cut to shape and size using wet jet Rolled to final cone shape Devices will be mounted on the Inside Base using brackets to slide piece in place Inside Base will be riveted together and Housing Base will be bolted in place on Housing TIG weld together

Combustion Chamber Assembly Final Assembly

Bolt together using tabs on all pieces

8.2 Analysis
We will predict the system performance of the cook stove by using equations to solve for air flow rate, thermoelectric generations voltage output, internal & external temperatures and emissions output. The voltage output can be determined from the specification report on the TEC112706 thermoelectric cooler. The graph shown below is a graph from the specification report that displays output voltage as a function of temperature gradient.
Figure 3: Output voltage versus Temperature Gradient

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The graph above is not completely accurate when describing our thermoelectric device because it assumes a Th of 25 degrees Celsius. In reality, the Th of our thermoelectric device will be closer to 100 degrees Celsius. However, the graph does provide us a decent estimate of what kind of temperature gradient we should expect for the desired voltage. The purchased fan which we wish to power runs at a current of 0.8A and at a voltage of at least 4.5V. Using the graph above, it shows we cannot realistically get the desired voltage from 1 thermoelectric device. Therefore, we decided to go with 2 thermoelectric devices in series. By using 2, we will be able to obtain about 2.5 volts per device thus giving us the voltage necessary to power the fan. Another important calculation needed was the heat transfer rate from the thermoelectric device. The thermoelectric device has a maximum operating temperature of 138 degrees Celsius before it becomes mechanically unstable. Although this may be hard to achieve due to the environment in which it will be in. The aluminum fins and the convective flow of air should keep the device below this maximum temperature. The calculation for the heat transfer rate to the thermoelectric device was calculated to be 252 W with efficiency of 60% (Appendix J). The calculation for the pin fin heat transfer rate from the combustion chamber to the thermoelectric device is 6.714 W with efficiency of 77.6% (Appendix J). Heat sink performance usually is specified in terms of thermal resistance (s): Ts - Ta s = --------------Q where: s = Thermal Resistance in Degrees C per Watt Ts = Heat Sink Temperature in Degrees C Ta = Ambient or Coolant Temperature in Degrees C Q = Heat Input to Heat Sink in Watts

8.3 Material and Material Selection Process


The biggest factor when selecting the materials for this project was: availability of these materials in Nepal and their manufacturing capabilities. The outer cylindrical unit needed to be strong, flexible, durable, corrosion resistant and most importantly low cost. After looking at different steels and aluminums, we chose to go with a steel alloy, more specifically Alloy Stainless Steel (ASS) or Silicon-Manganese Steels (92XX) Silicon which will increases the strength without a serious loss of ductility. It also adds scale resistance. These steels are generally heat treated to specific properties. Manganese is one of the least expensive means of increasing hardenability at a given carbon content. It can also enhance machinability in the presence of sulfur. One material available is Chromium Stainless (4xx) Silicon which will increase the strength without a serious loss of ductility. It also adds scale resistance. These steels are generally heat treated to specific properties. However, due to time constraints and the manufacturing capabilities we are provided with at the Learning Factory, we will be using 6061-T6 Aluminum for the prototype. The inner combustion chamber will also be

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made up of this material as well. The fan is made up of high tempered plastic allowing it to work close to high temperatures and not dysfunction.

8.4 Component and Component Selection Process


Components selected for the cook stove are as follows: fan, two thermoelectric generators, toggle switch, and insulation. The fan purchased is a 5V DC powered 5 blade axial fan. When picking a fan we had several options to choose from. This fan was chosen for its small size, air flow rate, low voltage and low cost. The fan will be powered by (2) 23 couple thermoelectric generators with an output of 12V DC (note: generators can produce 12V DC only during the maximum temperature gradient possible). The generator is 1.5 x 1.5 x .025 in dimension with a positive and negative wires extruding from one end. This generator was chosen for its output voltage capabilities, small size and low cost. It can withstand a maximum temperature of 138 degrees Celsius and will work within the cook stove limits. The toggle switch selected is just an average on/off switch that can be purchased anywhere. The insulation we will be using is the same as the tested Envirofit model. It is a fiber glass, low cost insulation.

8.5 CAD Drawings

Figure 4: Thermo-Shell-Ectric Prototype Design

The air flow in the cook stove works initially by sucking in the air by the fan which is located on the bottom of the stove. Next, it pushes the air from outside into the tube. The thermoelectric devices are located a bit to the right with multiple fins attached to its bottom for increased cooling. As the air gets pushed from the fan, it goes through the fins and upwards towards the first combustion chamber. Since the diameter for both

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the tubes are equal, we predict equal flow rate will be divided into the first and second combustion chamber. The pipes are relatively close to the combustion chamber therefore as the chamber gets hot; the temperature inside the pipe will also increase. The incoming hot air to the second combustion chamber creates a downward push causing the smoke to re-combust ultimately lowering the CO emission.

8.6 Test Procedure


Our new prototype cook stove is engineered to specifically meet our customer needs. Efficiency is the main factor we will be testing. Two tests will be done to check the new prototypes efficiency. First, we will test our fan and thermoelectric generator. We need to make sure the temperature gradient is large enough for the thermoelectric generator to produce enough voltage to power the 5V DC fan with a minimum working voltage of 4V. The voltage is measured with a voltmeter attached to the positive and negative leads on the thermoelectric generator. With the thermoelectric devices we are using we need a temperature gradient of 80C to produce 2V. Test simulations have been done in order to test our design. We used a lighters flame against the hot end of the device and the cold end exposed to room temperature air with a final result of .5V. at 20C gradient. By adding two 12 fin heat syncs to both sides, we were able to increase the output voltage to 2V reaching a high enough gradient. We tested this result by placing the fins directly on an electric stove heating the fins to 100 degrees Celsius. When then place our fan 1 away from the cold fins to simulate the setup in our cook stove. This is half of the required voltage needed to power the fan. This test confirmed that our concept was correct however that we needed another thermoelectric device to complete the design in order for it to function properly. The next step is to test the thermoelectric generators on the prototype and record the output voltage and temperature gradient of our design. Our second and most important test will be an emissions test. The emissions being tested will be CO (carbon monoxide). We will be testing a direct comparison of the G3300 Envirofit stove to our prototype. The current Envirofit stove was recorded to have CO emissions of 86 PPM (Parts per Million). We have purchased a hand held precalibrated CO tester for this analysis. The specifications of this CO detector can be found in Appendix H. We will test the CO emissions by taking the probe that is hooked up to the handheld device and hold it 2 inches above the flame to record the displayed PPM.

8.7 Economic Analyses Budget and Vendor Purchase Information


From our research of the different materials that are used to make the existing Envirofit cook stove, we were able to determine the cost of production of each stove. We broke down each piece of the existing cook stove to accurately determine the cost of each part. From this we were able to compare our bill of materials (Appendix F) from our cook stove design to the existing Envirofit concept. The existing cost of production for this stove is around $20 dollars and our design cost about $33. The added cost is due to

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the addition of a fan and power source to lower the carbon monoxide emissions and increase the overall efficiency of the cook stove. We will be using the Aluminum 6061-T6 sheets along with other miscellaneous materials that the Learning Factor provides for the production of this prototype. As of now we have made all the other purchases such as the thermoelectric device, 5-volt DC fan, toggle switch, and testing equipment. The table 6 below shows the current spending on the Shell 3 cook stove project.
Table 8: Current Spending on Project Date Vendor Item Cost Purchased Comments (USD) By 9/27/2012 Lowe's CO Detector/Wood $47.86 Colby Petty Cash Fund 9/28/2012 Amazon.com Envirofit Cook $50.00 Louis Petty Cash Stove Fund 10/2/2012 Sensorcon CO Tester $203.36 Colby Material Request 10/23/2012 Amazon.com Thermo Device, $21.38 Colby Petty Cash Fan, Toggle Switch Fund 10/30/2012 Lowe's IR Temperature $48.00 Louis Petty Cash Reader Fund 10/30/2012 eBay Fan and Heat Sink $29.50 Louis Petty Cash Fund 10/30/2012 Amazon.com 2 Thermo Devices $25.44 Louis Petty Cash Fund Rolling Total (USD) $952.14 $902.14 $698.78 $677.40 $629.40 $599.90 $574.46

9.0 Final Discussion


9.1 Construction Process
The Thermo-Shell-Ectric cook stove was built and assembled in three parts. The main cylindrical body, the combustion chamber, and the bottom fan and thermoelectric assembly make up these three parts. The mail cylindrical body was assembled by hand rolling 1/8th 60-61 Aluminum to a 10 diameter by 16 height. The ends of the cylinder were pop riveted into place with 12 pop rivets. This part of the assembly also includes water jetting two 10 diameter plates. One plate for the bottom of the combustion chamber and the other plate for the bottom of the coot stove. These circular plates were mounted by three l-brackets each and bolted into place. Four c-beam legs where then added to the bottom of the plate as legs, holding the cook stove off the ground. A wiz wheel was then used to cut the opening of the cook stove into the side of the main cylindrical housing body. The next part of assembly was the combustion chamber. It was formed from 12 different pieces of 60-61 Aluminum that was then all tig welded together into place to form a solid seal. The combustion chamber was then mounted to the 10 circular plate that had previously been mounted inside the main housing body. The last and final part of

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assembly was the placement of the thermo electric devices and fan. The fan was mounded onto the bottom of the bottom 10 plate located on the main housing body. An airflow hole was drilled into the plate. The air ran through a PVC pipe that was mounted in between the bottom 10 plate and the 10 bottom combustion chamber plate. The thermoelectric devices where located in between the 10 combustion plate the PVC pipe, the PVC pipe had 1.5 x1.5 slits cut outs so that the bottom of the thermoelectric device where the fins where located could sit inside the pipe and be cooled by the air flowing through while the hot side was exposed to the bottom of the 10 bottom combustion chamber plate. The final step of assembly was to run the air flow pipes from the opposite end of the PVC pipe where the fan was mounted to the two separate combustion chambers.

9.2 Test Results and Discussion


In our testing we found out that our prototype lowered the carbon monoxide emissions by 44%, compared to the existing Envirofit model. We were able to record a carbon monoxide (CO) emission of 48 ppm which can be compared to the 86 ppm of the existing model. We were able to achieve this due to the second combustion chamber and the increased air flow in the combustion process. As you can see from Table 9 below the
Table 9: Testing Results of Prototype

Test Parameters Without Fan With Fan (15 CFM) 2nd Combustion Chamber

Min. CO Emissions (ppm) 81 48 76

addition of a fan significantly decreased the CO emissions by 40% when testing our own prototype. Also we devised a simple test to see if the second combustion chamber had any effect on the CO emissions. To do this test, we plugged the air flow from the fan into the main combustion chamber and tested the CO emissions from the cook stove to see if this result was different than without the fan running. From Table 9, the addition and design of the second combustion chamber resulted in a 6% decrease in overall emissions. Even though this is a minor decrease in emissions, this proves that the second combustion chamber did have an effect on the overall carbon monoxide emissions. Also, the overall 44% decrease in carbon monoxide emissions shows a great improvement from the existing model. Graphs and tests tables are located in Appendix K. Another test which we had to preform was the voltage our thermoelectric devices were producing. As the cook stove was running, we hooked up the thermoelectric device to a multimeter to record the voltage output. From Table 10 below you can see the lack of voltage these produced. These result indicate the lack of a large temperature gradient,
Table 10: Testing Result of the Two Thermoelectric Devices

Device Thermoelectric 1 Thermoelectric 2

Voltage Output (V) 0.82 0.61

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(2) Thermoelectric on Bottom Plate

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which can be overcome by increasing the temperature of the hot side or decreasing the temperature of the cool side. For our prototype to produce the necessary voltage to power the fan, a voltage about 4 volts is required. In order to fix our design flaw, the thermoelectric devices will be place directly below the bottom combustion plate in order to have the maximum allowable heat transfer from the fire. By making this simple switch this will allow a more direct air flow from the fan into the combustion chamber and reduce the cost by eliminating the heat sinks and PVC piping.

10.0 Conclusions and Recommendations


In conclusions, our design proved to be an overall successful prototype. Relating our prototype back to our customer needs, our design was too expensive for our customers in Nepal. Adding another thermoelectric device to the cook stove drastically increased the price of our prototype. As of now, our prototype would cost $45 USD to produce. If we were to make the mount the thermoelectric devices to the bottom of the combustion (eliminate heat sinks for hot side) and have a more direct air flow to the combustion chambers (eliminate the PVC piping), our design would cost roughly $38 USD which is still above our intended price. In the Figure 5 below you can see a SolidWorks drawing of our prototype. The pieces that we would discard are objects 1 and 2 the heat sinks (copper pipe), and object 3 the PVC piping.

Figure 5: Final Prototype CAD Drawing

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For the next team to take this over we recommend that our design be examined and tested with altering the angle of the air flow into the combustion chambers, different air flows into the fire to see the change in carbon monoxide emissions, and looking into other low cost ways to power a 5 volt DC fan. With our time constraints, our team was not able to go back and redesign and test these different factors. Also, adding a simple front hood to the combustion chamber opening can reduce the soot that accumulated on the cook stove when testing. Overall our concept reduced the carbon monoxide emissions of the existing product, which can reduce deaths caused by indoor air pollution.

11.0 Self-Assessment (Design Criteria Satisfaction)


11.1 Customer Needs Assessment
An assessment of the customer needs shows that the customer needs of the people in Nepal were met. The customer needs that were determined were as follows in rank of importance: safety, efficiency, cost, ease of manufacturing, durability, ease of use, and portability. The most important customer need that was determined was safety. This related to the harm that the stove could cause via IAP or fire. The ultimate goal in these sustainable cooking stoves is to get IAP to an acceptable human exposure limit. The Occupational Safety and Health Organization (OSHO) recommends that no one be exposed to up to 30 but no more than 50 ppm of carbon monoxide. However, as we stated earlier, the lowest recorded carbon monoxide reading obtained from Envirofit G3300 was 86 ppm. Therefore, we felt if we could achieve a carbon monoxide reading below this then we could consider it a success and show that the project is heading in the right direction. The carbon monoxide our stove emitted was recorded at 48 ppm which is an emission reduction of about 40%. When it came to testing safety in regards to fire hazards, there was no true way to test how safe our stove really was in that regard. However, it was determined that as long as all precautions are taken by the user that would be when around a fire, the stove is perfectly fine. The customer need of efficiency is almost hand in hand with the safety need. The goal was to create a more efficient cooking stove by promoting more complete combustion thus reducing the amount of carbon monoxide released. The fact that carbon monoxide emissions were reduced by 40% shows that more complete combustion was happening as opposed to incomplete combustion. This increase in complete combustion thus satisfied the customer need of the stove being more efficient. The customer need of cost was decided on how feasible this stove would be in Nepal economically. A lot of the people in Nepal do not have a very high income, therefore it was important to keep the cost of the stove reasonably low. The estimate that we deemed reasonable was to keep it $30.00 (USD) or less. Our stove ended up being priced at about $45.00. This was due partially to the additional thermoelectric device that was necessary and the additional fin attachment that went along with that. It was also due to the complex nature of the bottom part of our stove to get the fan to force air into the combustion chamber. For the design to work properly, we also had to add a PVC pipe and metal tubing up the stove and two additional copper pieces to act as conductors

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for the thermoelectric devices. This ended up raising our cost to the said price. However, the carbon monoxide emissions that resulted from this additional cost could make the stove competitive due to the safety of it compared to other cooking methods currently used in Nepal. The ease of manufacturing need was determined based on if the stove could potentially be built in Nepal. Ideally, the stove would be able to be fully constructed in Nepal as opposed to being constructed in the US and then being shipped over. This would add additional unwanted cost to the cook stove. It was concluded that this stove would be able to be constructed in Nepal. It was determined that there are steel industries in Nepal close to the region of Chitwan which was our specific area of interest. There is nothing that was put in our cook stove that would not be able to be produced in Nepal therefore the ease of manufacturing need was met. The customer need of durability had to do with how long the stove would be able to last before it would no longer work. We believed that the stove should be able to run about as long as the Envirofit G-3300 can which is about 5 years. The concerns with our stove in terms of durability would be how resistant the material is that it is made out of, how long the thermoelectric devices would work for, and how long the fan would work for. Although our prototype was made out of aluminum, the stove ideally would be made out of powder coated steel. This would improve durability greatly over the use of aluminum for the stove. The thermoelectric devices have a maximum operating temperature of 125 degrees Celsius. In testing, we determined that the thermoelectric devices would not get to that temperature. Therefore, the thermoelectric devices would not cause an issue in terms of durability. Lastly, there were some concerns regarding how hot the fan would get and if that would affect its operation. During testing, it was determined the fan would not get very hot and thus would not affect the fans operation. Therefore, the stove succeeds in the customer need of durability. The customer need ease of use was judged based on how difficult it would be for the average person to figure out how to use the stove. We specified a learning curve of 1 day as a reasonable time frame to figure out how to operate the stove properly. Our stove essentially has the same design as the Envirofit G-3300 when it comes to wood feeding and overall use. Therefore, our stove is about as easy to use as the Envirofit G-3300. There is no additional user operation required with the fan as it generates its power from the thermoelectric devices which generate power from the heat of combustion. The customer need of portability referred to how reasonable it would be to physically move the cooking stove. It is known that in Nepal, the people prefer to cook both indoors and outdoors. Therefore, we wanted to make it so the stove would be light enough that they could easily carry it from one spot to another. The aim was for the stove to be no more than 15 pounds. Our stove ended up weighing approximately 12 pounds. This is lower than our 15 pound limit we had set. From our research 12 pounds is a reasonable weight for someone to carry outside or inside without having any trouble with it. Therefore, the customer need of portability was met sufficiently.

11.2 Global and Societal Needs Assessment


For global needs assessment we as a team felt it deserved an 8. This is primarily because we have successfully succeeded our goal on lowering the CO emission compared

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to Envirofits model. Incorporating thermoelectric device as a mean to power the fan and integrating the second combustion chamber into the model to re-combust the smoke has greatly helped further lower the CO emission. But because indoor air pollution is not considered to be a problem by the customers, higher costs or radical changes to the current design would not be fully accepted or more over would be disregarded by the costumers. Since the customer needs were not fully met it deserves a 6 in this category. This design is a bit more complicated from the ordinary, but it would inherently enhance cooking and lowering CO emission thus an improvement overall.

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References
1. Emissions and Performance Report G-3300 Envirofit Cook Stove. Department of Mechanical Engineering Colorado State University. Fort Collins, CO. 2011. 2. Occupational Safety and Health Administration. Occupational Safety and Health Guidelines for Carbon Monoxide. United States Department of Labor. Washington D.C. 2012. 3. Basnyat, Madan. Government Policy and Strategies of Improved Cook Stove for Dissemination in Nepal. 2003. 4. Food-Nepal. DesiGrub. 2009. 5. Nepal Tourism. Indo Vacations. Kathmandu, Nepal. 2012. 6. Patent: http://www.google.com/patents/US20100258104?pg=PA14&dq=wood+cookstove&hl =en&sa=X&ei=SM5gUPCYH9KL0QGd8YGYBQ&ved=0CEYQ6AEwBw#v=onepa ge&q=wood%20cookstove&f=false

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Appendix
A. Graph of Fuel Consumption in Nepal

B. Envirofit G-3300 Sustainable Cook stove

Patent Number: US2010/0258104 A1

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C. Concept Generation Drawings I. Concept 1

II.

Concept 2

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III.

Concept 3

IV.

Concept 4

D. Art Function Matrix


Function Art Cook Stove with holes Bucket stove with fan Cylindrical stove with dual burner Angled platform 4 cylinder stove Burns coal, collects ash 6138661 Cooks, Circulates air, portable 1042273 Burns wood sustainably D612662 Feeds wood to stove 4442825 Burns wood, hay, straw 422951

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E. Gantt Chart

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F. Bill of Materials

Current Cook Stove Bill Of Materials Component Aluminum Cylindrical Body 11.3 x 26.1 x 27.5 inches Aluminum Handle Aluminum Front Piece Feet Inside Steel Grate Outside Steel Grate Cast Iron Top Burner Top Mount Screws Screw Brackets Front Plate Screw Front Plate Nut Metal Alloy Combution Chamber Rivets Insulation Quality 1 2 1 4 1 1 1 6 3 1 1 2 8 1 Unit Production Cost ($) Overhead Total Cost ($) Variable Cost($) 1 0.25 0.35 0.1 0.5 0.6 1 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2 1 0.2 1 Labor ($) 0.2 0.1 0.35 0.05 0.4 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.1 0.5 0.2 1.5 0.5 1 Total ($) 1.2 0.6 0.7 0.45 0.9 1.1 1.5 1.7 0.7 0.7 0.4 3.5 2.1 2 17.55 2 19.55

33 Final Concept Cook Stove Bill Of Materials Component Aluminum Cylindrical Body Aluminum Handle Aluminum Front Piece Feet Inside Steel Grate Outside Steel Grate Top Burner Top Mount Screws Screw Brackets Front Plate Screw Front Plate Nut Metal Alloy Combution Chamber Rivets Insulation 5V DC fan CPU Thermoelectric Device Quality 1 2 1 4 1 1 1 6 3 1 1 2 8 1 1 2 Unit Production Cost ($) Overhead Total Cost ($) Variable Cost($) 1 0.25 0.35 0.1 0.5 0.6 0.5 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2 1 0.2 1 2 4 Labor Total ($) ($) 0.2 1.2 0.1 0.6 0.35 0.7 0.05 0.45 0.4 0.9 0.5 1.1 0.5 1 0.5 1.7 0.1 0.7 0.5 0.7 0.2 0.4 1.5 3.5 0.5 2.1 1 2 2 4 1.5 9.5 30.55 2 32.55

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G. Shop Drawings

35

36

37

38

39

40

41

42

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H. CO Inspector Specifications

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I. Carbon Monoxide PPM Levels

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J. Hand Calculations

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K. Testing Results
With Fan 2nd Combustion Chamber Test Without Fan Time (min) CO Emissions (ppm) Time (min) CO Emissions (ppm) Time (min) CO Emissions (ppm) 0 55 0 82 0 86 0.5 57 0.5 80 0.5 81 1 60 1 76 1 83 1.5 51 1.5 79 1.5 85 2 48 2 82 2 110 2.5 51 2.5 88 2.5 121 3 53 3 93 3 130 3.5 49 3.5 97 3.5 85 4 53 4 106 4 91 4.5 56 4.5 111 4.5 90 5 59 5 121 5 85 5.5 66 5.5 115 5.5 84 6 69 6 126 6 101 6.5 51 6.5 110 6.5 109 7 55 7 103 7 121 7.5 53 7.5 98 7.5 126 8 50 8 91 8 131 8.5 56 8.5 86 8.5 121 9 59 9 96 9 110 9.5 51 9.5 101 9.5 91 10 57 10 95 10 95
Min Max 81 131

Min Max

48 69

Min Max

76 126

48

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