Pimento Pimento is an essential ingredient of Rastafarian cooking.

Most people call the tree "pimento' and the berries 'allspice'. Because the pimento berry has the flavor and aroma characteristic of cloves, nutmeg, cinnamon and pepper, all combined in one spice it is called allspice.
Scotch Bonnet The Scotch bonnet pepper is an essential ingredient of Rastafarian cooking because of its distinctive flavor. It looks almost identical to a habanero pepper but it has its own unique flavor. To get the flavor of the scotch bonnet without the heat, which is mostly in the seeds, you can use the skin sparingly. Or use it whole in soups and remove it without breaking the skin after the soup is cooked. Scotch bonnet peppers are available at Jamaican food stores, but be careful and ask questions, because many times regular habanero peppers are sold as Jamaican scotch bonnet.

Callaloo You could say that Callaloo, of Illaloo, according to Rastafarians, plays a role in the Rastafarian diet that is similar to the role Spinach plays in the American diet. But that would understate the importance of callaloo in the Jamaican and Rastafarian diet. And those who have had both agree callaloo has more going for it than spinach. Steamed callaloo is often served with breakfast, lunch and dinner. It is cooked with codfish and used in soups.

Breadfruit . The coconut is crushed and coconut milk is extracted and distilled by boiling to remove water leaving a very flavorful oil.Ackees Coconuts Coconuts are essential to Rastafarian cooking providing both oil and flavor.

or in the rice. . has an edgy taste that transforms many dishes. It is supposed to be good for high blood pressure and the leaves are sometimes used as a home remedy for flu and colds.Roasted Breadfruit Avocados Susumba Susumba is small green and bitter berry. or cooked with salted codfish. but when cooked and eaten as a side dish. Susumba should be cooked separately and the water discarded.

Green Bannanas (used for cooking) Green Plantains (used for cooking) Sweet Potatoes .

in 1930. and as time went on. First with his band the Wailers and then in his solo career. the people living in the slums of Kingston. or “Jah” as they call him. included all men. In Rastafarianism. especially the elderly. “Look to Africa. However. His followers in Jamaica proclaimed themselves “Rastafarians” and Selassie the “Conquering Lion of the tribe of Judah. a black African named Ras Tafari Makonnen was named Emperor Haile Selassie I of Ethiopa. with his Twelve Tribes of Israel movement. I-tal food is natural food that has not been preserved or chemically altered in any way. and so the Kingdom on earth becomes very important. but even more specifically. for the day of deliverance is at hand!” His prophetic statement resonated with Jamaicans when. The music of Rastafarianism was at first ska.” Garvey proclaimed in 1920. though they do eat fish. while many others. Haile Selassie claimed to be a direct descendant of King David. Rastafarianism was much more radical than it is today. Most Rastafarians are vegetarians. The average Rastafarian eats a diet of I-tal food. They lived in grinding poverty and felt that their culture was being destroyed by white imperialism. How could Jah on earth die? Some were shaken in their beliefs. A major proponent of Rastafarianism in the Sixties and Seventies was Bob Marley. fruits. greedy. In the beginning.CULTURE In the 1920’s. refused to believe his death at all and insisted it was a white media conspiracy. Reggae music has been used for the last four decades to express the joy of Jah and Rasta and also to protest the injustices the Jamaican people have had to endure. A man named Marcus Garvey changed that when he began to preach a new philosophy called “Back to Africa. and seeds is considered one that will keep impurities out of the body and ward off sickness.” The death of Haile Selassie in 1974 shook the Rasta world. Even those who do eat meat never touch pork. this talented musician became for many the voice of Jamaica and was the first Jamaican superstar. the prophet Gad. in salvation. however. and coffee and salt are strongly discouraged. of whatever race. there is no afterlife. and avaricious. Jamaica had little to celebrate or look forward to. nor a lawgiver from beneath his feet. Ethiopa. . Early Rastas despised white people and taught that their culture was “Babylon”—impure. he came to be regarded by Rastafarians as a manifestation of God. which then mutated into reggae. Rasta culture has only grown stronger in the years since Selassie’s death. until Shiloh comes and unto him will be the gathering of the people. because the divine lineage comes down through the Ethiopian Monarchy: “The scepter shall not depart from Judah. on earth. A diet of vegetables. Whites can never be Rasta leaders. though.” This black self-empowerment movement taught that all blacks should move back to the home of their ancestors— Africa. “where a black man shall be crowned king.” Rastafarians believe themselves to be one of the twelve tribes of Israel. Alcohol is forbidden. in later years.

as opposed to the Mexican variety that is familiar in the United States. This habit has always caused a lot of friction between Jamaican authorities and the followers of Rasta. These dreadlocks represent the Lion of Judah.” for he truly believes that all men are one. causing hallucinations and spiritual visions. This Indian strain is much stronger. and Rastafarians believe that they become one with Jah when they smoke it. .” a Rastafarian will often say. The “herb” that they smoke is an Indian strain of hemp. or Rastafarian manhood. “you and I. They also speak a distinct form of the English language. “I and I.The most controversial aspect of Rastafarianism is probably the fact that its adherents smoke “ganga” for religious purposes. Some Rastafarians can be recognized by the long “dreadlocks” they sport. Instead of saying.

and the connection between the movement and various kinds of music has become well known. the concepts of Nyabinghi were appropriated for similar anti-colonial efforts. The British in Africa later led efforts against Nyabinghi. It is played at worship ceremonies called grounations. The drum is a symbol of the Africanness of Rastafari. a healing woman from Uganda who organized resistance against German colonialists.MUSIC Music has long played an integral role in Rastafari. Nyabinghi Music Nyabinghi music is the most integral form of Rastafarian music. that include drumming. In Jamaica. This form of nyabinghi was centered around Muhumusa. and some mansions assert that Jah's . The name Nyabinghi comes from an East African movement from the 1850s to the 1950s that was led by people who militarily opposed European imperialism. along with prayer and smoking of ritual ganja. chanting and dancing. classifying it as witchcraft through the Witchcraft Ordinance of 1912. and it is often danced to invoke the power of Jah against an oppressor. due to the international fame of musicians like Bob Marley and Peter Tosh.

incorporating roots percussion and traditional Rasta influences into avant-garde jazz along the lines of Sun Ra or Archie Shepp. Songs like "Rastaman Chant" led to the movement and reggae music being seen as closely intertwined in the consciousness of audiences across the world (especially among oppressed and poor groups of African Americans and Native Americans. African music survived slavery because many slaveowners encouraged it as a method of keeping morale high. Maroons. prior to his death in 1976. Ossie then recorded with the Fokes Brothers on "Oh Carolina". who incorporated nyabinghi and Rastafarian chanting into his music. soon blended traditional Jamaican folk music. Some orthodox Rastas disdain reggae as a form of commercial music and "sell-out to Babylon. Israel Vibration. Reggae Music Reggae was born amidst poor blacks in Trenchtown. Ras Michael. Jamaican musicians. Prince Lincoln Thompson. largely due to the fame of Bob Marley. Reggae Music on the move . Bad Brains and literally hundreds more. and Rastafari mushroomed in popularity internationally. First Nations Canadians. and were also contributing founders of Rastafari. many of them Rastas. Other reggae musicians with strong Rastafarian elements in their music include Toots and The Maytals. or communities of escaped slaves. Black Uhuru. Ossie later became well known for other recordings (with his band. a song produced by Prince Buster. and throughout most of Africa). The Mystic Revelation of Rastafari) especially 1974's Grounation. Burru was later introduced to the burgeoning Rasta community in Kingston. Ossie also recorded albums that fell solidly into the jazz category. Jamaica. Jamaica. first played in the Parish of Clarendon. Afro-Caribbean music arose with the influx of influences from the native peoples of Jamaica. Prince Far I. Burning Spear. Popularization and recording The first recording of Rastafarian music was perhaps made by Count Ossie. and then in West Kingston. as well as the European slaveowners. using styles and rhythms adapted from burru. as well as music of other Jamaican religions such as Pocomania. This was followed in the 1950s by various recordings of burru. "Oh Carolina" was the first popular song from Jamaica. featuring roots percussion and musical styles. kept purer African musical traditions alive in the interior of Jamaica. it is "JAH Throne Music". American R&B. Australian Aborigines and New Zealand Maori. the main ghetto of Kingston. and the same recording session produced the ska hits "They Got to Go" and "Thirty Pieces of Silver". Another style of Rastafarian music is called burru drumming. Bunny Wailer. that later developed into reggae under the influence of soul. who listened to radio stations from the United States. Ossie introduced akete drums to Rastafarian communities in West Kingston." To others. In 1953. Reggae began to enter international consciousness in the early 1970s. and jazz into ska.spirit of divine energy is present in the drum.

the subject matter of reggae songs deals with many subjects other than Rastafari. The creative pinnacle of roots reggae is arguably in the late 1970s. including ska. dub. whose lyrics are predominantly in praise of Jah (God). Horace Andy. musician and singer Ziggy Marley (born 1968). Barrington Levy. musician and singer Peter Tosh (1944–1987) Bunny Wailer. roots reggae has found a small. and Coxsone Dodd. Reggae Music Fesitvals Jamaican reggae music festivals    Reggae Sunsplash.Reggae may be used in a broad sense to refer to most types of Jamaican music. with love songs. Sting reggae music festival. and a bass drum hitting on the third beat of each measure. Reggae is often associated with the Rastafari movement. known as "one drop. Roots Reggae Roots is the name given to specifically Rastafarian reggae music. rocksteady. Jamaica Rasta Music       Bob Marley (1945–1981). which influenced many prominent reggae musicians in the 1970s and 1980s. Kingston. Jamaica. The experimental pioneering of such producers within often restricted technological parameters gave birth to dub music. known as the "bang". played by a rhythm guitarist. Montego Bay.1947) Burning Spear (born 1948). and is seen by some music historians as one of the earliest (albeit analogue) contributions to the development of techno. reggae singer (born April 10. but growing. Roots reggae was an important part of Jamaican culture. with singers such as Johnny Clarke. ska and rocksteady. sexual themes and broad social commentary being particularly well-represented. It is a spiritual type of music. The term may also be used to distinguish a particular style that originated in the late 1960s. dancehall and ragga. Jamaica Reggae Sumfest. musician and singer . Recurrent lyrical themes include poverty and resistance to government oppression. and Lincoln Thompson teaming up with studio producers including Lee 'Scratch' Perry. and whilst other forms of reggae have replaced it in terms of popularity in Jamaica (Dancehall for instance). Ocho Rios. King Tubby. musician and singer (converted to Ethiopian Orthodox Church before death) Damian Marley (1978–). niche globally." Characteristically. However. Reggae is founded upon a rhythm style which is characterized by regular chops on the back beat. this beat is slower than in reggae's precursors.

                Joseph Hill. Poet and Reggae Musician Augustus Pablo. Reggae Singer and DJ Richie Spice. Reggae Singer Mutabaraka. Reggae Musician . dancehall and ragga musician and singer Ras Michael. composer and musician Buju Banton (born 1973). musician and singer Bad Brains (1977-). jazz musician and composer Jah-Cure. German Reggae Singer Everton Blender. hardcore punk band Wadada Leo Smith. Reggae singer Gentleman. (1949-1998). musician and singer Lincoln Thompson. musician and singer Sizzla. Reggae Singer Anthony B. musician and composer Prince Far I (1945-1983) Toaster Cedric Myton.

red. They were often proudly displayed by Bob Marley. mostly of Marcus Garvey. In the summer you can also catch Caribbean people wearing normal shorts. and shirts. Rastafarian clothing has to be made out of natural fibres. the men usually make brooms. Rastafarians are very self reliant. Badges are used to decorate the clothing. It is modelled from the Ethiopian flag because many West Indians traced their roots back and found that they were originally from Ethiopia. khaki or white. The Women wear long skirts and dresses. Many of them are farmers. the tam is used as a hat for dreadlocks. baskets and other item out of straws. These colours represent the Rastafari way of life. The tam is considered one of the most precious Rastafarian clothing items. There are different typed of clothing for different styles. Rastafarian Clothing The Tam . The gold is for all of the treasures in the world that people cherish. to which Rastas feel a special connection. The people of West Indies almost always dress traditionally. Haile Selassie or Bob Marley. The clothing worn in the West Indies is very comfortable yet the designs are very elaborate. As the weather is quite hot most people wear light clothing. Head gear is often worn by both males and females in the form of tams or turbans. and gold which are the colours of the Ethiopian flag. The red is for the blood of all living things in the world. mats. done mainly in the Rasta colours. crocus bag or other natural fabrics. A lot of west Indians were encouraged to do this by the emperor of Ethiopia. shoes and other articles of clothing for sale. one of the leading people in the rastafarian movement. They mostly wear the traditional African type clothing. The women usually make ethnic jewelry and knit tams.CLOTHING The black is for Africa. Rastafarians are a modest and deeply religious set of people. most of their clothing are self-made and their tams and sandals are usually hand knitted in the rasta colours. hats. . The men generally wear loose fitting pants and African or military styled shirts. The green is for the earth that people walk on. These are usually made from cotton. All Rastafarian clothes are the colours green. sandals.

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Submitted by: Submitted to: Class: Dana-Lee Andrews Mrs. Dillon Commercial Food Preparation 1 . I.

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