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Electrolysis: the decomposition of a chemical substance (in solution or the molten state) by the application of electrical energy Identify the difference between elements, compounds and mixtures in terms of particle theory Element: made up of identical atoms Compound: a pure substance composed of simpler substances with 2 or more elements chemically bonded Molecule: the smallest unit of a substance containing 1 or more elements (can be 1 atom)
Identify that the biosphere, lithosphere, hydrosphere and atmosphere contain examples of mixtures of elements and compounds Atmosphere Mixture of gases(mostly elements) Nitrogen, oxygen, argon Water, carbon dioxide, nitrogen dioxide… Water, carbon dioxide, sodium/calcium/magnesium chlorids/sulfates Oxygen, nitrogen Rocks: silicon, oxygen, various metals Sand: silicon dioxide, ground-up shells, dirt Mineral ores Coal, oil, natural gas Carbon-containing compounds: proteins, fats, vitamins
Identify and describe procedures that can be used to separate naturally occurring mixtures of: Solids of different sizes o Sieving – separate small particles from large ones (eg. at quarries fine sand separated from coarser material) Solids and liquids o o o o Liquids o Distillation (if BP sufficiently different) – substance heated to boiling liquid with lower BP vaporises first vapour rises and diffuses down side arm into water-cooled condenser condenses and collected as liquid o o Gases o o Distillation/fractional distillation – gases liquefied fractionally distilled Solubility – pass mixture though bubbler + U-tubes dissolves some gases, condenses some Eg. natural gas (containing CO2, hydrogen sulfide, water Fractional distillation (similar BP) – fractionating column allows repeated condensation/vaporisation eventually pure sample of more volatile emerges Separating funnel (immiscible liquids) – put in separating funnel run off bottom liquid Filtration – liquid/solution passes through paper, suspended solid stays on top Sedimentation + decantation – solid settles to bottom and liquid carefully poured off Evaporation – liquid heated to temp below BP so particles vaporise Boiling – liquid heated to BP so liquid vaporises and solid remains
Dissolved solids in liquids
Assess separation techniques for their suitability in separating examples of earth materials, identifying the differences in properties which enable these separations Natural gas (above) – uses different solubilities, boiling points Saltwater – evaporation uses boiling points Crude oil – fractional distillation uses diff. but similar BPs Argon from air – fractional distillation separates nitrogen, then argon, then oxygen (diff. but similar BPs)
Describe situations in which gravimetric analysis supplies useful data for chemists and other scientists The process of separating components of an original mixture to find the composition of a mixture in terms of grams and percentage mass that involves weighing A mining company wants to know composition of particular ore sample to see if it’s economic to mine the ore Apply systematic naming of inorganic compounds as they are introduced in the laboratory Identify IUPAC names for carbon compounds as they are encountered Explain the relationship between the reactivity of an element and the likelihood of its existing as an uncombined element The more reactive less chance of finding it in earth as an uncombined element Because if more reactive then when contact with other elements it may react to form compounds
Classify elements as metals, non-metals and semi-metals according to their physical properties Metals Usually solid at room temp (high BP) Shiny/lustrous appearance Conduct heat/electricity Malleable and ductile High strength Non-metals Usually gas/liquid (low BP) Dull Don’t conduct electricity/little heat conductivity Brittle Low strength Semi-metals Properties of both classes
Account for the uses of metals and non-metals in terms of their physical properties METALS Aluminium Use – Properties Aircraft – low density NON-METALS Carbon graphite Properties Electrodes – electrical
Iron Motor cars/trains – high tensile strength Electrical wiring – high electrical conductivity Filaments in light bulbs – high MP Carbon diamond Copper Tungsten Liquid nitrogen conductivity Lubricant – slippery/soft Jewellery – very hard. forming ions – there is strong electrostatic attraction between the ions of opposite charge – holds them together in ionic compound/bonding Describe molecules as particles which can move independently of each other Distinguish between molecules containing one atom (noble gases) and molecules with more than one atom Describe the formation of covalent molecules in terms of sharing of electrons . scatters light (high refractive index) Cooling agent – suitability of MP/BP Identify that matter is made of particles that are continuously moving and interacting Describe qualitatively the energy levels of electrons in atoms Electrons surround nucleus by orbiting in discrete energy levels Each energy level accommodates certain number of electrons and has certain amount of energy Number of electrons: 2n 2 Electron configuration: arrangement of electrons in energy levels Describe atoms in terms of mass number and atomic number Atom consists of nucleus with proton/neutron and electron cloud Atomic number: number of protons in nucleus Mass number: protons + neutrons Describe the formation of ions in terms of atoms gaining or losing electrons Atoms can transfer electrons to obtain noble gas configurations When an atom gains or loses an electron to obtain ^ it becomes an ion Because not equal number of protons/electrons – atom is positively/negatively charged Apply the periodic table to predict the ions formed by atoms of metals and non-metals Apply lewis electron dot structures to: The formation of ions - The electron sharing in some simple molecules Describe the formation of ionic compounds in terms of the attraction of ions of opposite charge Ions are positively/negatively charged When an atom transfers electrons.
glass Aluminium extracted by electrolysing molten aluminium oxide Rusting of iron to form iron(III) oxide Lightning creates such high temp that N2 and O2 gases form nitric oxide Direct combination: Explain that the amount of energy needed to separate atoms in a compound is an indication of the strength of the attraction.Metals: form cations/basic oxides/ionic chlorides .Semi-metals Ionic o Solid o Soluble o Conduct electricity when dissolved in solution (not solid) Covalent molecule Chemical .Different chemical properties to constituent elements . or bond between them Stronger the bonds/strength of attraction – more energy needed to separate the atoms Stronger the chemical bonding – the more energy released when the compound is formed Identify differences between physical and chemical properties of elements.- Covalent bonds formed between pairs of atoms by atoms sharing electrons – shared pair of electrons orbits nuclei of both atoms – holding atoms together in covalent molecule Covalent molecule made up of atoms covalently bonded by sharing electrons Covalent molecular substance: made up of covalent molecules Construct formulae for compounds formed from: Ions Atoms sharing electrons Identify the differences between physical and chemical change in terms of rearrangement of particles Chemical: breaks up particles and rearranges the atoms Physical: rearrange particles without changing their nature Summarise the differences between the boiling and electrolysis of water as an example of the difference between physical and chemical change Boiling Electrolysis No new substance – converts liquid water to gaseous Produces 2 new substances Easily reversed – cool the vapour to liquid Hard to reverse Less energy required Much more energy required Boiling doesn’t alter particles (molecule) only separates them from each other – water vapour contains same water molecules as liquid water Identify light.Non-metals .Metals . compounds and mixtures Physical . cement. heat and electricity as the common forms of energy that may be released or absorbed during the decomposition or synthesis of substances and identify examples of these changes occurring in everyday life Decomposition: o o o o Calcium carbonate (limestone) decomposed to make lime.Can be decomposed to component elements/simpler compounds Elements Compounds - .Non-metals: form anions/acidic oxides/covalent chlorides .
brittle Covalent network o Non-conductors o Insoluble o Very high MP o Very hard/brittle Heterogenous o Demonstrate physical properties of constituent substances o Don’t look same throughout mixture Homogenous o Physical properties of constituent substances o Looks same throughout - Demonstrate chemical properties of constituent pure substances Describe the physical properties used to classify compounds as ionic.- Mixtures - - o Don’t conduct electricity o Low MP o Soft. ionic and covalent bonds Metallic Lattice of positive metal ions in ‘sea’ of delocalised electrons Ionic Electrostatic attraction between positive cation and negative anion caused by transfer of electrons Covalent Sharing of electrons between atoms – shared pair of electrons orbits nuclei of both atoms. just infinite array of cations/anions Simplest ratio of ions present in the crystal determines empirical formula of ionic compound . holding them together Describe metals as three-dimensional lattices of ions in a sea of electrons Delocalised electrons lost from valence shell of metal atom – positive ions Attraction between positive metal ions/delocalised electrons is metallic bonding Describe ionic compounds in terms of repeating three-dimensional lattices of ions Ionic compounds: infinite 3D array of cations and anions bonded by electrostatic attraction Explain why the formula for an ionic compound is an empirical formula No discrete molecules. or covalent molecular or covalent network Ionic o o o o o o o o Solid at room temp Hard/brittle Conduct electricity as liquid/dissolved Gases/liquids Don’t conduct electricity Solid – very high MP Hard Don’t conduct electricity except graphite Covalent molecular Covalent network Distinguish between metallic.
carbon dioxide. water Covalent lattice: diamond. when forced together they repel – accounts for hardness/brittleness Ions in fixed positions Electrons strongly held by nuclei of ions – no free electrons Mobile ions can transfer electric charge Non-conductor as solid Conductor as liquid/dissolved COVALENT MOLECULAR Soft Non-conductor of electricity Intermolecular forces are weak Molecules are uncharged Electrons are localised in covalent bonds/with atoms COVALENT NETWORK Hard and brittle Non-conductor of electricity Atoms strongly bound in covalent bonds Strong covalent bonds – very hard Electrons are localised in covalent bonds or with atoms . covalent molecular and covalent network structures IONIC Hard and brittle Ions tightly bound by electrostatic forces Breaking lattice forces like charged ions together. sand (silicon dioxide) Explain the relationship between the properties of conductivity and hardness and the structure of ionic.Identify common elements that exist as molecules or as covalent lattices Molecules: oxygen gas.
files. motor car parts Domestic pots/pans. pipes. surgical and dental instruments. nuts.2% carbon) Chrome steel (2-4% chromium) Stainless steels (1020% chromium. trains. resist corrosion knives/hammers Explain why energy input is necessary to extract a metal from its ore Most metals found in minerals and energy necessary to extract metal from compound/mixture Energy required to break metal ion-oxide bonds in the ore to separate pure metal from other substances . 520% nickel) - - - - Hard. cutlery. ships. easily cast Low melting point and adheres firmly to other metals when molten joining metals Soft. panelling) Aeroplanes. wrapping foil. domestic appliances Car batteries Plumbing and in solder Buildings (window/door frames. jewellery. bridges. bolts Fridge. nails. razor blades How the use is related to properties Lustrous gold appearance decorations/musical instruments Hard but easily machined plumbing fittings Hard. kitchen sinks and appliances. heavy machinery in industry Pipes. decorations Ships’ propellers Casting statues Joining metals together in plumbing/electronics Car bodies. drink containers High voltage transmission lines Iron and steel (alloy of iron) Lead Aluminium Describe the use of common alloys including steel. buildings Motor car bodies. brass and solder and explain how these relate to their properties Metal Brass (50-60% copper with zinc) Use Plumbing fittings Musical instruments. ball bearings Food processing machinery. including contemporary uses. as uncombined metals or alloys Metal Copper Use Over 8000yrs Electrical wiring Pipes and plumbing fittings Electroplating. roofing Safes. resists corrosion. malleable roofing - - Bronze (80-90% copper with tin) Solder (30-60% tin with lead) - Mild Steel (<0.METALS Outline and examine some uses of different metals through history. household decorations History: tools/weapons Railways. shock resistant structural purposes Hard. nuts and bolts. washing machine.
Identify why there are more metals available for people to use now than there were 200 years ago Technology/science developed (eg. water and dilute acids Sodium Magnesium Iron Copper Oxygen Yes Yes No No Water Yes Yes No No Acid Yes Yes Yes No From table Na and Mg least reactive – sodium more reactive because reactions more violent Iron more reactive than copper because reacted in acid Using reactions with water. Zn) lose shiny lustre and some (Al. conductivity) Those that react slowly in room temp. water and oxygen Metal + oxygen metal oxide o o Those that burn (eg. Mg) will form crystalline white solids with no physical properties of original (lustre. aluminium) from compounds in nature Development of metallurgical skills for making new alloys Describe observable changes when metals react with dilute acid. Zn) are coated in dull layer of oxide preventing further reaction Metal + water metal hydroxide + hydrogen o o o o o Bubbles of H2 Na and K often produce flame as H2 ignites Some produce precipitate (calcium hydroxide) Bubbles of H2 If salt insoluble then precipitate formed Metal + dilute acid salt + hydrogen Describe and justify the criteria used to place metals into an order of activity based on their ease of reaction with oxygen. with a particular emphasis on current developments in the use of metals Non-reactive aluminium/cheaper galvanised iron – roof guttering for houses Non-reactive copper/cheaper corrodible iron – water pipes Cheap copper (forms non-conducting oxide layer)/gold – electrical contacts for replaceable circuit boards in comp/electronics Extremely inert titanium alloys/long term corrosion-susceptible stainless steel – body implants Outline the relationship between the relative activities of metals and their positions on the Periodic Table Group 1 most reactive. reactivity decreases across period Reactivity increases down a group Identify the importance of first ionisation energy in determining the relative reactivity of metals Ionisation energy decrease = reactivity increase . electricity. nuclear reactors) better metal extraction techniques to extract more reactive metals (eg. acid. oxygen effective in ranking activities based on whether or not they react + violence of reaction Identify the reaction of metals with acids as requiring the transfer of electrons Reactions of metals with acids transfers electrons from metal metal becomes positive ions Outline examples of the selection of metals for different purposes based on their reactivity. strength. (eg. malleability. Al.
the original data used to construct it and the predictions made after its construction 1829 Dobereiner drew attention to groups of 3 elements (triads) with similar properties o o o weight o o 8 element starting from given one is like the first Identified many similarities among elements but required similarities where there were none works up to calcium 1869 Dmitri Mendeleev and Lothar Meyer produced forerunner of modern periodic table o o o Elements arranged in increasing atomic weight similar elements placed under one another Periodic law: properties of the elements vary periodically with atomic weight Mendeleev left gaps because recognised probs undiscovered elements Predicted the properties of 6 undiscovered elements elements later discovered with properties very similar to his predictions 1914 Henry Moseley determined atomic number of elements which he proposed was basic feature to determine properties (instead of atomic weight) o Modified periodic law: properties of elements vary periodically with atomic number Once recognised properties dependent on atomic number tendencies towards relating layout of table to electron configuration developed current table developed th Lithium. bromine. barium Chlorine. potassium Calcium. rearranging atoms in simple whole number ratios Outline the history of the development of the Periodic Table including its origins. strontium. iodine 1864 John Newlands proposed ‘law of octaves’ elements arranged in order of increasing atomic Explain the relationship between the position of elements in the Periodic Table and: Electrical conductivity o o o o o o o o o Decreases across periods Increase across periods (gaining another proton. sodium. electrons in same shell stronger attraction) Decrease down group (gaining another shell – electrons further from nucleus) Decrease across period (stronger attraction between electrons and protons) Increase down group (gaining another shell) Highest in middle of period (bonding and structure) Decreases down group (more outer shells attraction of electrons to nucleus weaker) Highest in middle of period (bonding and structure) Decreases down group (more outer shells attraction of electrons to nucleus weaker) Ionisation energy Atomic radius Melting point Boiling point Combining power (valency) . separating.Identify an appropriate model that has been developed to describe atomic structure Dalton’s atomic theory (1803 and 1808): o o o Matter composed of tiny invisible particles called atoms All atoms of one element identical but diff from atoms of other elements Chemical reactions consist of combining.
their actual abundances and relative costs of production . equal volumes of gases contain same number of molecules (vice versa) (same as above) determined formulae + atomic masses for elements existence of formulae/atomic weights + ability to write chemical equations essential for talking about moles critically important Distinguish between empirical formulae and molecular formulae Empirical: ratio in which atoms are present in compound Molecular: how many of each type of atom in a molecule of the compound Define the terms mineral and ore with reference to economic and non-economic deposits of natural resources Ore: mineral of economic value.02 x 10 23 Compare mass changes in samples of metals when they combine with oxygen OEI.o o o o - Increases across period to group 4 where it goes back down and increases again Same down a group Increase across periods (stronger attraction because more positive nucleus and outer electrons added to same shell) Decrease down group (outer electrons further away as they’re added to new shell – big atoms with more shell) Electronegativity Reactivity o o Decrease across period Increase down period Define the mole as the number of atoms in exactly 12g of carbon-12 (avogadro’s number) A mole of substance contains as many elementary units as number of atoms in exactly 12g of Carbon-12 This number is Avogadro’s number = 6. burning Mg to MgO mass increase (all metals) Describe the contribution of Gay-Lussac to the understanding of gaseous reactions and apply this to an understanding of the mole concept Gay-Lussac’s law of combining volumes: o When measured at constant temp and pressure. volumes of gases in chemical reaction show simple whole number ratios to one another Mole ratios can be considered as volume ratios Volume of gaseous product/reactant can be used to calculate amount of another gaseous product/reactant Can use results from quantitative analyses of compounds/reactions to determine formulae for compounds + relative atomic masses for elements existence of formulae/atomic weights + ability to write chemical equations essential for talking about moles critically important Recount Avogadro’s law and describe its importance in developing the mole concept At same temp and pressure. defined on economics only defined as ore if commercially viable Mineral: compound found in rocks Describe the relationship between the commercial prices of common metals.
sulfide particles can be made non-wettable so can be separated out (most copper ores in aus are sulfides) 3. Copper sulfide liquid heated with air bubbled through it reduces sulfide to copper metal. iron silicate. particles not wetted are drawn inside the bubbles and float to surface froth is skimmed off and is richer in non-wettable particles than the starting mineral by adding certain oils to finely crushed ore. b. c. one with unwanted iron silicate (discarded) a. Copper concentrate heated with sand produce 2 immiscible liquids: one mainly copper sulfide. chemical reactions and energy considerations involved in the extraction of copper from one of its ores 1. cost of extraction. Some sulphur dioxide doesn’t leave until cooling copper almost solid blister copper – 98% pure 5. Copper can be purified to 99. e. sulfur dioxide Energy considerations Large amount of energy needed to extract metal from ore Energy needed to: . cost of transportation. air blown through tiny jets into detergent solution froth forms particles wetted by solution sink to bottom. location. sulphur dioxide produced a.95% by electrolysis Chemical reactions Copper sulfide with oxygen: o o Cu2S (l) + O2 (g) 2Cu (l) + SO2 (g) 2CuFeS2 (s) + 2SiO2 (s) +4O2 (g) 2Cu2S (l) + 2FeSiO3 (l) + 3SO2 (g) Chalcopyrite.- Prices affected by abundance. world-wide demand Less abundance ores generally higher royalties more expensive Expensive to extract higher price If shipped from remote location higher price Explain why ores are non-renewable resources They were formed when earth was formed and no way of forming more of them Describe the separation processes. Remaining iron in second liquid removed by reheating with more sand and air bubbled through it 4. Ore is mined then crushed Froth floatation to concentrate ores a. d. 2. silica (sand) and oxygen copper sulfide.
Transport to central processing plant 3. Re-smelt into ingots and transport to product manufacturers . food remnants. labelling. factories etc 2. dirt) 4. Collect used products from homes.o o o o Mine the ore Purify/concentrate the ore Maintain high temp to make extraction reactions go Purify raw metal/form it into useful alloys Energy required for production of 1kg of certain metals Metal Aluminium Copper Mild steel From natural ores (megajoules) 200 70 40 From recycled material (megajoules) 7 4 8 Recount the steps taken to recycle aluminium 1. Separate aluminium from impurities (eg. shopping centres.
fluctuation (high heat capacity) than land/air Ice less dense than water float on surface of waterbody insulating layer allows aquatic life to survive An agent of weathering of rocks both as liquid and solid o o o Ocean waves and rains wear surface rocks Glaciers wear away rocks and cause significant erosion as they move down valleys from mountain top to ocean Freeze-thaw mechanism of water freezing cracking rocks A habitat in which temperature extremes are less than nearby terrestrial habitats . metabolism) Raw material in chemical reactions – essential for photosynthesis Transports nutrients to cells and remove waste products Thermal regulator by smoothing out sudden large temp change Metabolic water produced by respiration is important water source for living things Water bodies have less temp. hydrosphere and atmosphere Outline the significance of the different states of water on Earth in terms of water as: A constituent of cells and its role as both a solvent and a raw material in metabolism o o o o o o o o Comprises approx. percentage and distribution of water in the biosphere. lithosphere.WATER Solute: minor component of solution. 70% of cells and keeps them turgid Solvent for life processes to occur (eg. dissolved in solvent Solvent: major component of solution which dissolves solute Solution: a homogenous mixture with a completely dissolved solute in solvent Identify the importance of water as a solvent Compare the state.
ammonia and hydrogen sulphide to identify the distribution of electrons Compare the molecular structure of water. recreation Irrigating crops and watering livestock Fluid in electricity generating station and coolant in industries Hydro-electricity Reactant.o - Chemically weather rocks by reacting with minerals converting them to more easily eroded minerals A natural resource for humans and other organisms o o o o o o Drinking. oxygen or hydrogen .O.N are 3 most electronegative and H is least electronegative significant negative dipole on F. ammonia and hydrogen sulphide.N and significant positive dipole on H Stronger form of dipole-dipole force Identify the water molecule as a polar molecule Describe the attractive forces between polar molecules as dipole-dipole forces Polar molecules have a net dipole because electron pairs unevenly shared o o o -> due to differences in electronegativity Molecules line up so that positive end of one attracts negative end of another Electrostatic attraction acting between opp. food prep. NaCl) o o o o o chloride Anions and cations in ionic compound break apart Negative end of water surrounds the cation Positive end of water surrounds anion Break up into individual molecules Forms hydrogen bonds with water because contains many O – H groups A soluble molecular compound (eg. settling dust Mode of transport Construct Lewis electron dot structures of water. the differences in their molecular shapes and in their melting and boiling points Describe hydrogen bonding between molecules Intermolecular force involving H atom bonded to F. if any. solvent.O. sucrose) A soluble or partially soluble molecular element or compound such as iodine. washing.O.-charged poles of the molecules Explain the following properties of water in terms of its intermolecular forces: Surface tension: measure of resistance of a liquid to increasing its surface area Viscosity: measure of resistance of a liquid to being poured or to flowing through a tube Boiling and melting points: weaker forces = lower BP/MP (less energy needed to overcome/break forces). stronger forces = higher BP/MP (more energy needed) Explain changes.N in a molecule attracted to F. cleaning agent in industry and waste disposal. to particles and account for those changes when the following types of chemicals interact with water: A soluble ionic compound (eg.N bonded to H in another molecule F.O.
o o o o Molecule has weak dispersion forces with water molecules Because these forces are weak only slightly soluble Insoluble no change because water can’t break the strong covalent bonds between atoms Insoluble no change because large molecule held together by hydrogen bonds in orderly way that water can’t separate them from each other H-bonding with substance can occur but these aren’t sufficient because substance so strongly H-bonded to itself A covalent network structure substance such as silicon dioxide A substance with large molecules. industry. such as cellulose or polyethylene o Some large proteins are soluble because their complex structures don’t pack neatly into crystals so water can separate molecules by H-bonding with it Analyse the relationship between the solubility of substances in water and the polar nature of the water molecule Polar nature allows for H-bonding. dipole-dipole or dispersion interactions between water and substance Polar ends of water molecule surround the substance and break it apart by attracting oppositely charged particles OR Hydrogen bonding which occurs because of polar nature and breaks apart the substance Identify some combinations of solutions which will produce precipitates. using solubility data Describe a model that traces the movement of ions when solution and precipitation occur Saturated solution of lead nitrate add some lead nitrate crystals with radioactive lead Half hour later amount of solid lead nitrate in solution is the same but some radioactivity detected in solution – previously no radioactivity in solution concentration of lead ions in solution and mass of solid not changed Identify the dynamic nature of ion movement in a saturated dissolution Ions moving from solid into solution at the same time as ions moving from solution back into solid o Both occurring at equal rates so concentration of solution and mass of solid doesn’t change dynamic equilibrium Describe the molarity of a solution as the number of moles of solute per litre of solution using c=n/v Molarity is number of moles of solute per litre of solution Concentration of solute in terms of moles per litre (c=n/V) Explain why different measurements of concentration are important Each method has advantage in particular situations Commerce. shopping – amount of solute present is main concern mass per unit volume convenient easier to measure out volumes than mass If solute liquid: volume per unit volume preferred because liquid measure in volumes usually Environmental context: concentrations quite low ppm give more manageable numbers Quantities in chemical reactions: concentration in terms of moles convenient Explain what is meant by the specific heat capacity of a substance Amount of heat required to raise temp of unit mass of substance by 1degree celcius (1 kelvin) Measured in joules per Kelvin per gram: J K g -1 -1 .
sulfuric acid in water Describe dissolutions which absorb heat as endothermic and give examples Endothermic – dissolutions that absorb heat Eg. of water body When river/lake water used for cooling in industry/electricity generation discharged back into river/lake but 10-15degrees hotter Oxygen less soluble in hotter water 5degree increase lowers O2 concentration but 10-15% . dissolution of ammonium chloride/silver nitrate Explain why water’s ability to absorb heat is important to aquatic organisms and to life on earth generally High heat capacity stable temp allow aquatic organisms thrive Water within cells provide necessary temp regulation all living organisms survive/reproduce Water in biosphere (oceans) moderates global temp more hospitable environment for all life Explain what is meant by thermal pollution and discuss the implications for life if a body of water is affected by thermal pollution Discharges into river/lake of quantities of hot water large enough to increase temp.Compare the specific heat capacity of water with a range of other solvents Explain and use the equation - H = -mC T Change in heat = . dissolution of sodium hydroxide. potassium nitrate in water.mass x specific heat capacity x change in temp Explain how water’s ability to absorb heat is used to measure energy changes in chemical reactions Because specific heart capacity of water known and if water mass known. temp change in water observed to work out heat change in water hence energy change in chemical reaction in/immersed in water Describe dissolutions which release heat as exothermic and give examples Exothermic – dissolutions that release heat Eg.
cues to aquatic life migration/spawning at wrong time of year Sudden temp. change kill fish eggs Lethal temp limits may be exceeded .o o o o o o Causes stress to organisms Increased metabolism rates increases demand for oxygen (but less oxygen) Fish eggs don’t develop/hatch if temp too high False temp.
ENERGY Outline the role of photosynthesis in transforming light energy to chemical energy and recall the raw materials for this process Photosynthesis is process plants transform light to chemical energy Outline the role of the production of high energy carbohydrates from carbon dioxide as the important step in the stabilisation of the sun’s energy in a form that can be used by animals as well as plants Solar energy chemical energy – energy is stored in the glucose Production of high energy carbohydrates (glucose) from CO2 stores sun’s energy in form that can be used by animals and plants – carbs in plants are energy source for animals Production of carbs by photosynthesis is main way solar energy collected for plants/animals Identify the photosynthetic origins of the chemical energy in coal. but .C atom bonded to 3 other C atoms .Conductor of electricity . 4 Describe the structure of diamond and graphite allotropes and account for their physical properties in terms of bonding Diamond C atoms bonded to 4 other C atoms Tetrahedrally arranged Covalent bonds/network Doesn’t conduct electricity Transparent and brilliant (orderly arrangement of atoms throughout) Graphite . petroleum and natural gas Fossil fuels basically stored solar energy from photosynthesis Identify the position of carbon in the periodic table and describe its electron configuration Electron configuration is 2. prop.Covalent bonds/network . eth.Slipperiness/lubricating (weak intermolecular forces between layers) Structure Bonding Physical properties - Identify that carbon can form single.Planar structure . double or triple covalent bonds with other carbon atoms Explain the relationship between carbon’s combining power and ability to form a variety of bonds and the existence of a large number of carbon compounds Readily forms carbon-carbon bonds that can be single/double/triple Readily forms cyclic compounds (rings) and straight and branched chain compounds Describe the use of fractional distillation to separate the components of petroleum and identify the uses of each fraction obtained Identify and use the IUPAC nomenclature for describing straight-chained alkanes and alkenes from C1 to C8 Meth.
noise etc).MP/BP/dispersion forces increase with molecular weight (but BP slightly lower than alkanes) .MP/BP/dispersion forces increases with molecular weight . formation of new substances.Insoluble (non-polar) . boiling point and volatility of the above hydrocarbons.Compare and contrast the properties of alkanes and alkenes C1 to C8 and use the term ‘homologous series’ to describe a series with the same functional group Homologous series: family of compounds represented by 1 general molecular formula Alkanes . production of energy (light. process can’t be easily reversed Identify combustion as an exothermic chemical reaction – releases heat Outline the changes in molecules during chemical reactions in terms of bond-breaking and bond-making Explain that energy is required to break bonds and energy is released when bonds are formed Breaking bonds in molecules – input energy Making bonds – release energy Describe the energy needed to begin a chemical reaction as activation energy .Don’t conduct electricity Gases Liquids C1/C2 – C4 C5 – C8 Explain the relationship between the melting point.Insoluble (non-polar) .Volatility decreases with increase molecular weight .Don’t conduct electricity Gases Colourless liquids Alkenes . and their non-polar nature and intermolecular forces (dispersion forces) MP/BP increases as volatility decreases Because they are non-polar – intermolecular forces are dispersion forces Assess the safety issues associated with the storage of alkanes C1 to C8 in view of their weak intermolecular forces (dispersion forces) Extremely flammable and can be toxic Weak intermolecular forces molecules held less strongly exist as gases/liquids so harder to store Also high volatility Safety precautions o o o o o o o Use well-maintained cylinders and fittings for gaseous hydrocarbons Add odours for early detection of leaks Use sturdy containers for liquids Minimise quantities in everyday use Keep alkanes away from naked flames/sparks Erect warning signs Don’t handle liquids in confined spaces Describe the indicators of chemical reactions Colour. heat.
commonly coal Oxides of nitrogen Reaction of O2 and N2 in air from high temp in combustion Particulates Industry/power generation – burning coal and higher BP fractions of crude oil .Use catalyst to remove from gas effluents from power stations Describe the chemical reactions by using full balanced chemical equations to summarise examples of complete and incomplete combustion .- Minimum amount of energy reactant molecules must possess to form products Describe the energy profile diagram for both endothermic and exothermic reactions Explain the relationship between ignition temperature and activation energy Ignition temp: of fuel/air mixture is min temp to which mixture must be heated for combustion Higher activation energy – higher ignition temp Identify the sources of pollution which accompany the combustion of organic compounds and explain how these can be avoided Carbon monoxide/soot Incomplete combustion – insufficient oxygen Sulfur dioxide Impurities in fuel.Use excess air .Low-sulfur coal .Difficult .SO2 removal from effluent gas at power stations .Catalyst in exhaust to convert to CO2 because excess air impossible .Minimised by electrostatic precipitators Source Avoidance .Locating power stations away from population centres .
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