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CHEMICAL EARTH

Electrolysis: the decomposition of a chemical substance (in solution or the molten state) by the application of electrical energy Identify the difference between elements, compounds and mixtures in terms of particle theory Element: made up of identical atoms Compound: a pure substance composed of simpler substances with 2 or more elements chemically bonded Molecule: the smallest unit of a substance containing 1 or more elements (can be 1 atom)

Identify that the biosphere, lithosphere, hydrosphere and atmosphere contain examples of mixtures of elements and compounds Atmosphere Mixture of gases(mostly elements) Nitrogen, oxygen, argon Water, carbon dioxide, nitrogen dioxide Water, carbon dioxide, sodium/calcium/magnesium chlorids/sulfates Oxygen, nitrogen Rocks: silicon, oxygen, various metals Sand: silicon dioxide, ground-up shells, dirt Mineral ores Coal, oil, natural gas Carbon-containing compounds: proteins, fats, vitamins

Hydrosphere Lithosphere

Biosphere

Identify and describe procedures that can be used to separate naturally occurring mixtures of: Solids of different sizes o Sieving separate small particles from large ones (eg. at quarries fine sand separated from coarser material) Solids and liquids o o o o Liquids o Distillation (if BP sufficiently different) substance heated to boiling liquid with lower BP vaporises first vapour rises and diffuses down side arm into water-cooled condenser condenses and collected as liquid o o Gases o o Distillation/fractional distillation gases liquefied fractionally distilled Solubility pass mixture though bubbler + U-tubes dissolves some gases, condenses some Eg. natural gas (containing CO2, hydrogen sulfide, water Fractional distillation (similar BP) fractionating column allows repeated condensation/vaporisation eventually pure sample of more volatile emerges Separating funnel (immiscible liquids) put in separating funnel run off bottom liquid Filtration liquid/solution passes through paper, suspended solid stays on top Sedimentation + decantation solid settles to bottom and liquid carefully poured off Evaporation liquid heated to temp below BP so particles vaporise Boiling liquid heated to BP so liquid vaporises and solid remains

Dissolved solids in liquids

Assess separation techniques for their suitability in separating examples of earth materials, identifying the differences in properties which enable these separations Natural gas (above) uses different solubilities, boiling points Saltwater evaporation uses boiling points Crude oil fractional distillation uses diff. but similar BPs Argon from air fractional distillation separates nitrogen, then argon, then oxygen (diff. but similar BPs)

Describe situations in which gravimetric analysis supplies useful data for chemists and other scientists The process of separating components of an original mixture to find the composition of a mixture in terms of grams and percentage mass that involves weighing A mining company wants to know composition of particular ore sample to see if its economic to mine the ore Apply systematic naming of inorganic compounds as they are introduced in the laboratory Identify IUPAC names for carbon compounds as they are encountered Explain the relationship between the reactivity of an element and the likelihood of its existing as an uncombined element The more reactive less chance of finding it in earth as an uncombined element Because if more reactive then when contact with other elements it may react to form compounds

Classify elements as metals, non-metals and semi-metals according to their physical properties Metals Usually solid at room temp (high BP) Shiny/lustrous appearance Conduct heat/electricity Malleable and ductile High strength Non-metals Usually gas/liquid (low BP) Dull Dont conduct electricity/little heat conductivity Brittle Low strength Semi-metals Properties of both classes

Account for the uses of metals and non-metals in terms of their physical properties METALS Aluminium Use Properties Aircraft low density NON-METALS Carbon graphite Properties Electrodes electrical

Iron

Motor cars/trains high tensile strength Electrical wiring high electrical conductivity Filaments in light bulbs high MP

Carbon diamond

Copper Tungsten

Liquid nitrogen

conductivity Lubricant slippery/soft Jewellery very hard, scatters light (high refractive index) Cooling agent suitability of MP/BP

Identify that matter is made of particles that are continuously moving and interacting Describe qualitatively the energy levels of electrons in atoms Electrons surround nucleus by orbiting in discrete energy levels Each energy level accommodates certain number of electrons and has certain amount of energy Number of electrons: 2n
2

Electron configuration: arrangement of electrons in energy levels

Describe atoms in terms of mass number and atomic number Atom consists of nucleus with proton/neutron and electron cloud Atomic number: number of protons in nucleus Mass number: protons + neutrons

Describe the formation of ions in terms of atoms gaining or losing electrons Atoms can transfer electrons to obtain noble gas configurations When an atom gains or loses an electron to obtain ^ it becomes an ion Because not equal number of protons/electrons atom is positively/negatively charged

Apply the periodic table to predict the ions formed by atoms of metals and non-metals Apply lewis electron dot structures to: The formation of ions

The electron sharing in some simple molecules

Describe the formation of ionic compounds in terms of the attraction of ions of opposite charge Ions are positively/negatively charged When an atom transfers electrons, forming ions there is strong electrostatic attraction between the ions of opposite charge holds them together in ionic compound/bonding Describe molecules as particles which can move independently of each other Distinguish between molecules containing one atom (noble gases) and molecules with more than one atom Describe the formation of covalent molecules in terms of sharing of electrons

Covalent bonds formed between pairs of atoms by atoms sharing electrons shared pair of electrons orbits nuclei of both atoms holding atoms together in covalent molecule Covalent molecule made up of atoms covalently bonded by sharing electrons Covalent molecular substance: made up of covalent molecules

Construct formulae for compounds formed from: Ions Atoms sharing electrons

Identify the differences between physical and chemical change in terms of rearrangement of particles Chemical: breaks up particles and rearranges the atoms Physical: rearrange particles without changing their nature

Summarise the differences between the boiling and electrolysis of water as an example of the difference between physical and chemical change Boiling Electrolysis No new substance converts liquid water to gaseous Produces 2 new substances Easily reversed cool the vapour to liquid Hard to reverse Less energy required Much more energy required Boiling doesnt alter particles (molecule) only separates them from each other water vapour contains same water molecules as liquid water Identify light, heat and electricity as the common forms of energy that may be released or absorbed during the decomposition or synthesis of substances and identify examples of these changes occurring in everyday life Decomposition: o o o o Calcium carbonate (limestone) decomposed to make lime, cement, glass Aluminium extracted by electrolysing molten aluminium oxide Rusting of iron to form iron(III) oxide Lightning creates such high temp that N2 and O2 gases form nitric oxide

Direct combination:

Explain that the amount of energy needed to separate atoms in a compound is an indication of the strength of the attraction, or bond between them Stronger the bonds/strength of attraction more energy needed to separate the atoms Stronger the chemical bonding the more energy released when the compound is formed

Identify differences between physical and chemical properties of elements, compounds and mixtures Physical - Metals - Non-metals - Semi-metals Ionic o Solid o Soluble o Conduct electricity when dissolved in solution (not solid) Covalent molecule Chemical - Metals: form cations/basic oxides/ionic chlorides - Non-metals: form anions/acidic oxides/covalent chlorides - Different chemical properties to constituent elements - Can be decomposed to component elements/simpler compounds

Elements

Compounds

Mixtures

o Dont conduct electricity o Low MP o Soft, brittle Covalent network o Non-conductors o Insoluble o Very high MP o Very hard/brittle Heterogenous o Demonstrate physical properties of constituent substances o Dont look same throughout mixture Homogenous o Physical properties of constituent substances o Looks same throughout

Demonstrate chemical properties of constituent pure substances

Describe the physical properties used to classify compounds as ionic, or covalent molecular or covalent network Ionic o o o o o o o o Solid at room temp Hard/brittle Conduct electricity as liquid/dissolved Gases/liquids Dont conduct electricity Solid very high MP Hard Dont conduct electricity except graphite

Covalent molecular

Covalent network

Distinguish between metallic, ionic and covalent bonds Metallic Lattice of positive metal ions in sea of delocalised electrons Ionic Electrostatic attraction between positive cation and negative anion caused by transfer of electrons Covalent Sharing of electrons between atoms shared pair of electrons orbits nuclei of both atoms, holding them together

Describe metals as three-dimensional lattices of ions in a sea of electrons Delocalised electrons lost from valence shell of metal atom positive ions Attraction between positive metal ions/delocalised electrons is metallic bonding

Describe ionic compounds in terms of repeating three-dimensional lattices of ions Ionic compounds: infinite 3D array of cations and anions bonded by electrostatic attraction

Explain why the formula for an ionic compound is an empirical formula No discrete molecules, just infinite array of cations/anions Simplest ratio of ions present in the crystal determines empirical formula of ionic compound

Identify common elements that exist as molecules or as covalent lattices Molecules: oxygen gas, carbon dioxide, water Covalent lattice: diamond, sand (silicon dioxide) Explain the relationship between the properties of conductivity and hardness and the structure of ionic, covalent molecular and covalent network structures IONIC Hard and brittle Ions tightly bound by electrostatic forces Breaking lattice forces like charged ions together, when forced together they repel accounts for hardness/brittleness Ions in fixed positions Electrons strongly held by nuclei of ions no free electrons Mobile ions can transfer electric charge

Non-conductor as solid Conductor as liquid/dissolved

COVALENT MOLECULAR Soft Non-conductor of electricity Intermolecular forces are weak Molecules are uncharged Electrons are localised in covalent bonds/with atoms

COVALENT NETWORK Hard and brittle Non-conductor of electricity Atoms strongly bound in covalent bonds Strong covalent bonds very hard Electrons are localised in covalent bonds or with atoms

METALS
Outline and examine some uses of different metals through history, including contemporary uses, as uncombined metals or alloys Metal Copper Use Over 8000yrs Electrical wiring Pipes and plumbing fittings Electroplating, jewellery, household decorations History: tools/weapons Railways, bridges, buildings Motor car bodies, ships, trains, heavy machinery in industry Pipes, nails, nuts, bolts Fridge, washing machine, domestic appliances Car batteries Plumbing and in solder Buildings (window/door frames, panelling) Aeroplanes, motor car parts Domestic pots/pans, wrapping foil, drink containers High voltage transmission lines

Iron and steel (alloy of iron)

Lead Aluminium

Describe the use of common alloys including steel, brass and solder and explain how these relate to their properties Metal Brass (50-60% copper with zinc) Use Plumbing fittings Musical instruments, decorations Ships propellers Casting statues Joining metals together in plumbing/electronics Car bodies, pipes, nuts and bolts, roofing Safes, files, ball bearings Food processing machinery, kitchen sinks and appliances, cutlery, surgical and dental instruments, razor blades How the use is related to properties Lustrous gold appearance decorations/musical instruments Hard but easily machined plumbing fittings Hard, resists corrosion, easily cast Low melting point and adheres firmly to other metals when molten joining metals Soft, malleable roofing

Bronze (80-90% copper with tin) Solder (30-60% tin with lead)

Mild Steel (<0.2% carbon) Chrome steel (2-4% chromium) Stainless steels (1020% chromium, 520% nickel)

Hard, shock resistant structural purposes Hard, resist corrosion knives/hammers

Explain why energy input is necessary to extract a metal from its ore Most metals found in minerals and energy necessary to extract metal from compound/mixture Energy required to break metal ion-oxide bonds in the ore to separate pure metal from other substances

Identify why there are more metals available for people to use now than there were 200 years ago Technology/science developed (eg. electricity, nuclear reactors) better metal extraction techniques to extract more reactive metals (eg. aluminium) from compounds in nature Development of metallurgical skills for making new alloys

Describe observable changes when metals react with dilute acid, water and oxygen Metal + oxygen metal oxide o o Those that burn (eg. Mg) will form crystalline white solids with no physical properties of original (lustre, strength, malleability, conductivity) Those that react slowly in room temp. (eg. Al, Zn) lose shiny lustre and some (Al, Zn) are coated in dull layer of oxide preventing further reaction Metal + water metal hydroxide + hydrogen o o o o o Bubbles of H2 Na and K often produce flame as H2 ignites Some produce precipitate (calcium hydroxide) Bubbles of H2 If salt insoluble then precipitate formed

Metal + dilute acid salt + hydrogen

Describe and justify the criteria used to place metals into an order of activity based on their ease of reaction with oxygen, water and dilute acids Sodium Magnesium Iron Copper Oxygen Yes Yes No No Water Yes Yes No No Acid Yes Yes Yes No From table Na and Mg least reactive sodium more reactive because reactions more violent Iron more reactive than copper because reacted in acid Using reactions with water, acid, oxygen effective in ranking activities based on whether or not they react + violence of reaction Identify the reaction of metals with acids as requiring the transfer of electrons Reactions of metals with acids transfers electrons from metal metal becomes positive ions

Outline examples of the selection of metals for different purposes based on their reactivity, with a particular emphasis on current developments in the use of metals Non-reactive aluminium/cheaper galvanised iron roof guttering for houses Non-reactive copper/cheaper corrodible iron water pipes Cheap copper (forms non-conducting oxide layer)/gold electrical contacts for replaceable circuit boards in comp/electronics Extremely inert titanium alloys/long term corrosion-susceptible stainless steel body implants

Outline the relationship between the relative activities of metals and their positions on the Periodic Table Group 1 most reactive, reactivity decreases across period Reactivity increases down a group

Identify the importance of first ionisation energy in determining the relative reactivity of metals Ionisation energy decrease = reactivity increase

Identify an appropriate model that has been developed to describe atomic structure Daltons atomic theory (1803 and 1808): o o o Matter composed of tiny invisible particles called atoms All atoms of one element identical but diff from atoms of other elements Chemical reactions consist of combining, separating, rearranging atoms in simple whole number ratios Outline the history of the development of the Periodic Table including its origins, the original data used to construct it and the predictions made after its construction 1829 Dobereiner drew attention to groups of 3 elements (triads) with similar properties o o o weight o o 8 element starting from given one is like the first Identified many similarities among elements but required similarities where there were none works up to calcium 1869 Dmitri Mendeleev and Lothar Meyer produced forerunner of modern periodic table o o o Elements arranged in increasing atomic weight similar elements placed under one another Periodic law: properties of the elements vary periodically with atomic weight Mendeleev left gaps because recognised probs undiscovered elements Predicted the properties of 6 undiscovered elements elements later discovered with properties very similar to his predictions 1914 Henry Moseley determined atomic number of elements which he proposed was basic feature to determine properties (instead of atomic weight) o Modified periodic law: properties of elements vary periodically with atomic number Once recognised properties dependent on atomic number tendencies towards relating layout of table to electron configuration developed current table developed
th

Lithium, sodium, potassium Calcium, strontium, barium Chlorine, bromine, iodine

1864 John Newlands proposed law of octaves elements arranged in order of increasing atomic

Explain the relationship between the position of elements in the Periodic Table and: Electrical conductivity o o o o o o o o o Decreases across periods Increase across periods (gaining another proton, electrons in same shell stronger attraction) Decrease down group (gaining another shell electrons further from nucleus) Decrease across period (stronger attraction between electrons and protons) Increase down group (gaining another shell) Highest in middle of period (bonding and structure) Decreases down group (more outer shells attraction of electrons to nucleus weaker) Highest in middle of period (bonding and structure) Decreases down group (more outer shells attraction of electrons to nucleus weaker) Ionisation energy

Atomic radius

Melting point

Boiling point

Combining power (valency)

o o o o -

Increases across period to group 4 where it goes back down and increases again Same down a group Increase across periods (stronger attraction because more positive nucleus and outer electrons added to same shell) Decrease down group (outer electrons further away as theyre added to new shell big atoms with more shell)

Electronegativity

Reactivity o o Decrease across period Increase down period

Define the mole as the number of atoms in exactly 12g of carbon-12 (avogadros number) A mole of substance contains as many elementary units as number of atoms in exactly 12g of Carbon-12 This number is Avogadros number = 6.02 x 10
23

Compare mass changes in samples of metals when they combine with oxygen OEI, burning Mg to MgO mass increase (all metals)

Describe the contribution of Gay-Lussac to the understanding of gaseous reactions and apply this to an understanding of the mole concept Gay-Lussacs law of combining volumes: o When measured at constant temp and pressure, volumes of gases in chemical reaction show simple whole number ratios to one another Mole ratios can be considered as volume ratios Volume of gaseous product/reactant can be used to calculate amount of another gaseous product/reactant Can use results from quantitative analyses of compounds/reactions to determine formulae for compounds + relative atomic masses for elements existence of formulae/atomic weights + ability to write chemical equations essential for talking about moles critically important Recount Avogadros law and describe its importance in developing the mole concept At same temp and pressure, equal volumes of gases contain same number of molecules (vice versa) (same as above) determined formulae + atomic masses for elements existence of formulae/atomic weights + ability to write chemical equations essential for talking about moles critically important Distinguish between empirical formulae and molecular formulae Empirical: ratio in which atoms are present in compound Molecular: how many of each type of atom in a molecule of the compound

Define the terms mineral and ore with reference to economic and non-economic deposits of natural resources Ore: mineral of economic value, defined on economics only defined as ore if commercially viable Mineral: compound found in rocks

Describe the relationship between the commercial prices of common metals, their actual abundances and relative costs of production

Prices affected by abundance, location, cost of extraction, cost of transportation, world-wide demand Less abundance ores generally higher royalties more expensive Expensive to extract higher price If shipped from remote location higher price

Explain why ores are non-renewable resources They were formed when earth was formed and no way of forming more of them

Describe the separation processes, chemical reactions and energy considerations involved in the extraction of copper from one of its ores

1. 2.

Ore is mined then crushed Froth floatation to concentrate ores a. b. c. d. e. air blown through tiny jets into detergent solution froth forms particles wetted by solution sink to bottom, particles not wetted are drawn inside the bubbles and float to surface froth is skimmed off and is richer in non-wettable particles than the starting mineral by adding certain oils to finely crushed ore, sulfide particles can be made non-wettable so can be separated out (most copper ores in aus are sulfides)

3.

Copper concentrate heated with sand produce 2 immiscible liquids: one mainly copper sulfide, one with unwanted iron silicate (discarded) a. Remaining iron in second liquid removed by reheating with more sand and air bubbled through it

4.

Copper sulfide liquid heated with air bubbled through it reduces sulfide to copper metal, sulphur dioxide produced a. Some sulphur dioxide doesnt leave until cooling copper almost solid blister copper 98% pure

5.

Copper can be purified to 99.95% by electrolysis

Chemical reactions Copper sulfide with oxygen: o o Cu2S (l) + O2 (g) 2Cu (l) + SO2 (g) 2CuFeS2 (s) + 2SiO2 (s) +4O2 (g) 2Cu2S (l) + 2FeSiO3 (l) + 3SO2 (g) Chalcopyrite, silica (sand) and oxygen copper sulfide, iron silicate, sulfur dioxide

Energy considerations Large amount of energy needed to extract metal from ore Energy needed to:

o o o o

Mine the ore Purify/concentrate the ore Maintain high temp to make extraction reactions go Purify raw metal/form it into useful alloys

Energy required for production of 1kg of certain metals Metal Aluminium Copper Mild steel From natural ores (megajoules) 200 70 40 From recycled material (megajoules) 7 4 8

Recount the steps taken to recycle aluminium 1. Collect used products from homes, shopping centres, factories etc 2. Transport to central processing plant 3. Separate aluminium from impurities (eg. labelling, food remnants, dirt) 4. Re-smelt into ingots and transport to product manufacturers

WATER
Solute: minor component of solution, dissolved in solvent Solvent: major component of solution which dissolves solute Solution: a homogenous mixture with a completely dissolved solute in solvent Identify the importance of water as a solvent Compare the state, percentage and distribution of water in the biosphere, lithosphere, hydrosphere and atmosphere

Outline the significance of the different states of water on Earth in terms of water as: A constituent of cells and its role as both a solvent and a raw material in metabolism o o o o o o o o Comprises approx. 70% of cells and keeps them turgid Solvent for life processes to occur (eg. metabolism) Raw material in chemical reactions essential for photosynthesis Transports nutrients to cells and remove waste products Thermal regulator by smoothing out sudden large temp change Metabolic water produced by respiration is important water source for living things Water bodies have less temp. fluctuation (high heat capacity) than land/air Ice less dense than water float on surface of waterbody insulating layer allows aquatic life to survive An agent of weathering of rocks both as liquid and solid o o o Ocean waves and rains wear surface rocks Glaciers wear away rocks and cause significant erosion as they move down valleys from mountain top to ocean Freeze-thaw mechanism of water freezing cracking rocks

A habitat in which temperature extremes are less than nearby terrestrial habitats

o -

Chemically weather rocks by reacting with minerals converting them to more easily eroded minerals

A natural resource for humans and other organisms o o o o o o Drinking, food prep, washing, recreation Irrigating crops and watering livestock Fluid in electricity generating station and coolant in industries Hydro-electricity Reactant, solvent, cleaning agent in industry and waste disposal, settling dust Mode of transport

Construct Lewis electron dot structures of water, ammonia and hydrogen sulphide to identify the distribution of electrons Compare the molecular structure of water, ammonia and hydrogen sulphide, the differences in their molecular shapes and in their melting and boiling points Describe hydrogen bonding between molecules Intermolecular force involving H atom bonded to F,O,N in a molecule attracted to F,O,N bonded to H in another molecule F,O,N are 3 most electronegative and H is least electronegative significant negative dipole on F,O,N and significant positive dipole on H Stronger form of dipole-dipole force

Identify the water molecule as a polar molecule Describe the attractive forces between polar molecules as dipole-dipole forces Polar molecules have a net dipole because electron pairs unevenly shared o o o -> due to differences in electronegativity Molecules line up so that positive end of one attracts negative end of another Electrostatic attraction acting between opp.-charged poles of the molecules

Explain the following properties of water in terms of its intermolecular forces: Surface tension: measure of resistance of a liquid to increasing its surface area Viscosity: measure of resistance of a liquid to being poured or to flowing through a tube Boiling and melting points: weaker forces = lower BP/MP (less energy needed to overcome/break forces); stronger forces = higher BP/MP (more energy needed)

Explain changes, if any, to particles and account for those changes when the following types of chemicals interact with water: A soluble ionic compound (eg. NaCl) o o o o o chloride Anions and cations in ionic compound break apart Negative end of water surrounds the cation Positive end of water surrounds anion Break up into individual molecules Forms hydrogen bonds with water because contains many O H groups

A soluble molecular compound (eg. sucrose)

A soluble or partially soluble molecular element or compound such as iodine, oxygen or hydrogen

o o o o

Molecule has weak dispersion forces with water molecules Because these forces are weak only slightly soluble Insoluble no change because water cant break the strong covalent bonds between atoms Insoluble no change because large molecule held together by hydrogen bonds in orderly way that water cant separate them from each other H-bonding with substance can occur but these arent sufficient because substance so strongly H-bonded to itself

A covalent network structure substance such as silicon dioxide A substance with large molecules, such as cellulose or polyethylene

Some large proteins are soluble because their complex structures dont pack neatly into crystals so water can separate molecules by H-bonding with it

Analyse the relationship between the solubility of substances in water and the polar nature of the water molecule Polar nature allows for H-bonding, dipole-dipole or dispersion interactions between water and substance Polar ends of water molecule surround the substance and break it apart by attracting oppositely charged particles OR Hydrogen bonding which occurs because of polar nature and breaks apart the substance

Identify some combinations of solutions which will produce precipitates, using solubility data Describe a model that traces the movement of ions when solution and precipitation occur Saturated solution of lead nitrate add some lead nitrate crystals with radioactive lead Half hour later amount of solid lead nitrate in solution is the same but some radioactivity detected in solution previously no radioactivity in solution concentration of lead ions in solution and mass of solid not changed Identify the dynamic nature of ion movement in a saturated dissolution Ions moving from solid into solution at the same time as ions moving from solution back into solid o Both occurring at equal rates so concentration of solution and mass of solid doesnt change dynamic equilibrium Describe the molarity of a solution as the number of moles of solute per litre of solution using c=n/v Molarity is number of moles of solute per litre of solution Concentration of solute in terms of moles per litre (c=n/V)

Explain why different measurements of concentration are important Each method has advantage in particular situations Commerce, industry, shopping amount of solute present is main concern mass per unit volume convenient easier to measure out volumes than mass If solute liquid: volume per unit volume preferred because liquid measure in volumes usually Environmental context: concentrations quite low ppm give more manageable numbers Quantities in chemical reactions: concentration in terms of moles convenient

Explain what is meant by the specific heat capacity of a substance Amount of heat required to raise temp of unit mass of substance by 1degree celcius (1 kelvin) Measured in joules per Kelvin per gram: J K g
-1 -1

Compare the specific heat capacity of water with a range of other solvents

Explain and use the equation -

H = -mC T

Change in heat = - mass x specific heat capacity x change in temp

Explain how waters ability to absorb heat is used to measure energy changes in chemical reactions Because specific heart capacity of water known and if water mass known, temp change in water observed to work out heat change in water hence energy change in chemical reaction in/immersed in water Describe dissolutions which release heat as exothermic and give examples Exothermic dissolutions that release heat Eg. dissolution of sodium hydroxide, sulfuric acid in water

Describe dissolutions which absorb heat as endothermic and give examples Endothermic dissolutions that absorb heat Eg. potassium nitrate in water, dissolution of ammonium chloride/silver nitrate

Explain why waters ability to absorb heat is important to aquatic organisms and to life on earth generally High heat capacity stable temp allow aquatic organisms thrive Water within cells provide necessary temp regulation all living organisms survive/reproduce Water in biosphere (oceans) moderates global temp more hospitable environment for all life

Explain what is meant by thermal pollution and discuss the implications for life if a body of water is affected by thermal pollution Discharges into river/lake of quantities of hot water large enough to increase temp. of water body When river/lake water used for cooling in industry/electricity generation discharged back into river/lake but 10-15degrees hotter Oxygen less soluble in hotter water 5degree increase lowers O2 concentration but 10-15%

o o o o o o

Causes stress to organisms Increased metabolism rates increases demand for oxygen (but less oxygen) Fish eggs dont develop/hatch if temp too high False temp. cues to aquatic life migration/spawning at wrong time of year Sudden temp. change kill fish eggs Lethal temp limits may be exceeded

ENERGY
Outline the role of photosynthesis in transforming light energy to chemical energy and recall the raw materials for this process Photosynthesis is process plants transform light to chemical energy

Outline the role of the production of high energy carbohydrates from carbon dioxide as the important step in the stabilisation of the suns energy in a form that can be used by animals as well as plants Solar energy chemical energy energy is stored in the glucose Production of high energy carbohydrates (glucose) from CO2 stores suns energy in form that can be used by animals and plants carbs in plants are energy source for animals Production of carbs by photosynthesis is main way solar energy collected for plants/animals

Identify the photosynthetic origins of the chemical energy in coal, petroleum and natural gas Fossil fuels basically stored solar energy from photosynthesis

Identify the position of carbon in the periodic table and describe its electron configuration Electron configuration is 2, 4

Describe the structure of diamond and graphite allotropes and account for their physical properties in terms of bonding Diamond C atoms bonded to 4 other C atoms Tetrahedrally arranged Covalent bonds/network Doesnt conduct electricity Transparent and brilliant (orderly arrangement of atoms throughout) Graphite - C atom bonded to 3 other C atoms - Planar structure - Covalent bonds/network - Conductor of electricity - Slipperiness/lubricating (weak intermolecular forces between layers)

Structure Bonding Physical properties

Identify that carbon can form single, double or triple covalent bonds with other carbon atoms Explain the relationship between carbons combining power and ability to form a variety of bonds and the existence of a large number of carbon compounds Readily forms carbon-carbon bonds that can be single/double/triple Readily forms cyclic compounds (rings) and straight and branched chain compounds

Describe the use of fractional distillation to separate the components of petroleum and identify the uses of each fraction obtained Identify and use the IUPAC nomenclature for describing straight-chained alkanes and alkenes from C1 to C8 Meth, eth, prop, but

Compare and contrast the properties of alkanes and alkenes C1 to C8 and use the term homologous series to describe a series with the same functional group Homologous series: family of compounds represented by 1 general molecular formula Alkanes - MP/BP/dispersion forces increases with molecular weight - Volatility decreases with increase molecular weight - Insoluble (non-polar) - Dont conduct electricity Gases Colourless liquids Alkenes - MP/BP/dispersion forces increase with molecular weight (but BP slightly lower than alkanes) - Insoluble (non-polar) - Dont conduct electricity Gases Liquids

C1/C2 C4 C5 C8

Explain the relationship between the melting point, boiling point and volatility of the above hydrocarbons, and their non-polar nature and intermolecular forces (dispersion forces) MP/BP increases as volatility decreases Because they are non-polar intermolecular forces are dispersion forces

Assess the safety issues associated with the storage of alkanes C1 to C8 in view of their weak intermolecular forces (dispersion forces) Extremely flammable and can be toxic Weak intermolecular forces molecules held less strongly exist as gases/liquids so harder to store Also high volatility Safety precautions o o o o o o o Use well-maintained cylinders and fittings for gaseous hydrocarbons Add odours for early detection of leaks Use sturdy containers for liquids Minimise quantities in everyday use Keep alkanes away from naked flames/sparks Erect warning signs Dont handle liquids in confined spaces

Describe the indicators of chemical reactions Colour, production of energy (light, heat, noise etc), formation of new substances, process cant be easily reversed Identify combustion as an exothermic chemical reaction releases heat Outline the changes in molecules during chemical reactions in terms of bond-breaking and bond-making Explain that energy is required to break bonds and energy is released when bonds are formed Breaking bonds in molecules input energy Making bonds release energy

Describe the energy needed to begin a chemical reaction as activation energy

Minimum amount of energy reactant molecules must possess to form products

Describe the energy profile diagram for both endothermic and exothermic reactions

Explain the relationship between ignition temperature and activation energy Ignition temp: of fuel/air mixture is min temp to which mixture must be heated for combustion Higher activation energy higher ignition temp

Identify the sources of pollution which accompany the combustion of organic compounds and explain how these can be avoided Carbon monoxide/soot Incomplete combustion insufficient oxygen Sulfur dioxide Impurities in fuel, commonly coal Oxides of nitrogen Reaction of O2 and N2 in air from high temp in combustion Particulates Industry/power generation burning coal and higher BP fractions of crude oil - Minimised by electrostatic precipitators

Source

Avoidance

- Use excess air - Catalyst in exhaust to convert to CO2 because excess air impossible

- Difficult - Low-sulfur coal - SO2 removal from effluent gas at power stations

- Locating power stations away from population centres - Use catalyst to remove from gas effluents from power stations

Describe the chemical reactions by using full balanced chemical equations to summarise examples of complete and incomplete combustion