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Nazmus Saquib(1), Mustafa Hussain(2), Apurba Saha(1), Md. Omar Faruqe(3) (1)Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, BRAC University, Dhaka, Bangladesh (2)Dept. of Electronics and Communications Engineering, East West University, Dhaka, Bangladesh (3)Department of Computer Science & Engineering, BRAC University, Dhaka, Bangladesh firstname.lastname@example.org, email@example.com, firstname.lastname@example.org, email@example.com
ABSTRACT In this modern era of technology, the field of telecommunication has advanced tremendously worldwide, enhancing it an ever-expanding process which not only revolutionized the arena of telecommunication but also accelerated the process of making the world a step closer of being a single “Global Village”. In addition different technical advancement has made the existing mobile companies to upgrade there various services continuously in order to sustain in the competitive world. Therefore, it has become mandatory for the mobile companies of different countries to ensure a high quality voice and data communication services compounded with the provision of various value-added services. Thus QoS (Quality of Service) in the field of telecommunication needs to be emphasized greatly for customer satisfaction and providing a comprehensive service of consumer interest. Since the technology is changing rapidly, it is very important that the QoS is being standardized and constantly monitored in order to ensure that it is up to the set benchmark. In this report we analyzed different performance parameters involved in a calling process for different existing mobile operators, compared these results with the standard bench-marks and gave appropriate solutions to ensure a quality service. The resultant values are taken from a set of test driven real-time data that is attached with the report. Index Terms— MIMO, RSSI, CINR, GoS, QoS 1. INTRODUCTION In mobile communication Quality of Service or QoS in an important factor that enhances the mechanisms which include the performance control, stability, reliability, scalability, usability and customer satisfaction. Therefore not only it has to be standardized but also needs to be monitored to ensure necessary changes in the specifications as per requirement. These specifications include the followings: i. Proper network planning with the provision of an effective further expansion. ii. Stability and reliability of the network. iii. Periodic monitoring and proper optimization of different network performance parameters iv. Addition of different value added services without hindering the network performance. Network Performance is the most important QoS parameter for the measurement of quality of service of a Telecommunication Operator. In order to ensure customer satisfaction different performance parameters needed to be maintained with highest quality. The Network Performance parameter can be categorized into the followings: i. Call Success rate. ii. Call set-up time iii. Call drop rate. iv. Handover Success Rate. v. GoS vi. Signal receive Level and it’s Quality vii. Speech Quality. Call Success Rate (CSSR) is defined as “The ratio of successfully established calls to the total number of calls that are attempted.” In other words CSSR is “The Number of the unblocked call attempts divided by the total number of call attempts”. Call set-up time is defined as, “The time taken to set up a desired call successfully”. This term is very important because this parameter indicates how well the network is designed and the amount of network congestion is there in a particular network. Call Drop Rate is defined as “The ratio of calls lost or prematurely terminated after establishment to all established calls”. This includes calls dropped due to failure of handover, radio loss and network congestion. Handover success rate is “The ratio of the number of successfully completed handovers to the total number of initiated handovers.” Grade of Service (GoS) is one of the most important performance parameter for ensuring a standard Quality of Service. The term Grade of Service (GoS) is defined as, “The ratio of lost traffic to offered traffic”. The offered traffic is the product of the average number of calls generated by a subscriber and the average holding time per call. Whereas, the lost traffic is difference between the offered traffic and the
The RxQual values describe the Bit Error Rate on the Air Interface.73 AKTEL 57 7. 2.6 AKTEL 63 57 0 6 9.33 57.7 7.00 63 57 90.5 12 .2: Call drop rate 2. Blink: Bangla Link) that is being obtained through the drive test.48 60 57 95.5 Fair : ≥ 2.59 BLink 57 8.9 Table 2. The proper received level of the signal and ensuring its highest quality is an integral part of quality of service. The table below signifies the call success rate for the leading telecommunication companies in Bangladesh (GP: Grameen Phone.17 GP 57 9.4 Call setup time Call setup time is an important performance parameter that needs to be reduced in order to ensure quality service to the subscriber.4: Call setup time .5 and < 2. Operator Atte Comp Drop Failed Drop mpt leted ped Rate (%) GP 63 62 1 0 1.5 (These Samples results to noise only i. The following table elaborates the successful handover rate of Bangladesh for different mobile operators. Received Signal Level (RxLev) is measured in dBm and the received signal power is within a range of -110dBm to -47dBm.2% (Best Quality) RxQual Level 7 : BER > 12. Operator No of sample Avg setup time(s) 58 7.1: Call setup success rate Call setup success rate (%) 100 95 90 85 90.3 Handover success rate Successful and efficient handover is an important phenomenon in telecommunication to enhance the performance and thus the success rate is being standardized as 99-100% worldwide. The range of the values is from 0 to 7: RxQual Level 0 : BER < 0. Operator GP AKTEL BLink AVG Attempts Successful Success Rate (%) 58 58 100.5 BLink 63 55 3 5 12. The following table indicates the call drop rate of the obtained experimented data.5 (The percentage of the samples of the received signal results in Excellent Speech Quality) Good : ≥ 2. AKTEL.9 GP A KT E L B l i nk AVG D ro p R at e ( %) Figure 2.6 9 .actual traffic that is carried by the network.862.1 Bad : < 1.1 classification scale: Excellent : ≥ 3. Usually GoS is measured is percentage and a network provider that poses a very low value of GoS is considered be more prominent.1 Call setup success rate The standard statistical percentage for call success rate worldwide is 98-100%. no speech is heard at the receiver) [Source: SwissQual] The following charts will give a broaden information of the results obtained from a test drive that mainly emphasizes on the aforesaid performance parameters. [Data Source: SwissQual] 2.00 60.1 and < 2.33 95.1: Call setup success rate 2.16 AVG Table 2. EXPERIMENT The sample experimental data for different parameter of QoS are being categorized and analyzed below in a tabular format. Received Signal Quality (RxQual) is measured in percent of received samples allocated on account of quality levels.03 Table 2.7 Poor : ≥ 1.7 and < 3.e.8% (Worst Quality) The Speech Quality is an essential performance indicator for establishing a better Quality of Service. The standard average call setup time is 3-5s. According to P.2: Call drop rate 15 10 5 0 1.7 AVG 63 58 2 3 7.2 Call drop rate The standard percentage for call drop rate worldwide is 2-5%.03 GP AKTEL Blink AVG Figure 2. 2.48 100 95 95. Speech quality is generally expressed as a Mean Opinion Score (MOS) and based on the percentage of the received samples the score is allocated.
73 7. It encompasses the features: Higher data rate of single user.4: Call setup time 2. SIMULATION AND RESULTS 3. In addition to improve the coverage range. Re ce ive d Q uality Le ve l (%) 100 80 60 40 20 0 RxQual < 3 [%] RxQual < 5 [%] GP AKTEL Blink AVG Figure 2. Relay techniques. other operators in different countries having similar problems can also be suggested to go with the proposed solutions. Through the combination of modulation and coding.95 94. which effectively emulates an increase of the density of base stations and access points.1 Adaptive Modulation The adaptive modulation selects the required modulation mode according to the channel conditions. the implementation of the newer technologies is necessary. It includes the features: Increasing SNR and the sensitivity of BS. transmit power is lower and/or data rates higher. such as 64-QAM or more is used.87 AVG Table 2. An effective way to increase the capacity is to create a network using relaying terminals.5 Received quality level Received quality level is also an important parameter and therefore as per the worldwide standard.37 93. The measurement of channel quality is based on RSSI and CINR in 802.59 8. The selection principles are Good channel quality: combination of high efficiency modulation mode and weak coding mode Bad channel quality: combination of low efficiency modulation mode and strong coding mode Advanced/Adoptive Antenna System is a modern antenna system that effectively disseminates the power from the base station.77 AKTEL 23734 89. in wireless communications is an efficient technology that offers significant improvements to data rate in a non-line-of-sight environment .16 GP AKTEL Blink AVG modes according to different channel qualities. If the subscriber is close to the BS the high modulation mode can be used.16e. Enhancing coverage. the high SNR can be used to conquer other interferences to keep the BER optimum. the network can provide different transmission rate. However.Call setup time (s) 10 5 0 Figure 2. Improvement of the spectrum efficiency by adopting the SDMA (Space Division Multiple Access) technology. Operator RxQual RxQual < RxQual < 5 [%] samples 3 [%] 27890 78.2-3%.24 94. The MIMO system utilizes multiple element antennas (MEAs) both on transmit and receive sides of the communication link and thus increases the capacity in a multi-path propagation environment.17 7. installation of Advanced/Adoptive Antenna System. such as QPSK can be used. In includes switched beam antennas where the cell is coved by fixed beams and adoptive antenna arrays where the beam can trace the user’s position automatically and disseminates power accordingly. When the high modulation mode.53 GP 25094 90.32 BLink 25573 86. The advantages of relaying is coverage area of Base Station or Access Point can be extended infrastructure-less networks can be maintained and aggregate path loss is lower than for direct link communication hence.5: Received quality level The results show that some of the operators don’t meet the desired level of the performance in different aspects. Decreasing the system interference. 3. it requires being 0. Decreasing the error bit of system. MIMO etc.5: Received quality level 9. Adaptive Modulation is an advanced modulation technique that selects the suitable modulation and coding .  Multiple Input Multiple Output (MIMO). Thus to ensure an upgrade of the performance of these operators.91 92. the lower modulation mode. the higher average transmission rate of whole network and Lower interferences. We used Bangladesh mobile operators an example in this paper and addressed the relevant problems associated with these operators. which include Adoptive Modulation techniques.
S. ANALYSIS The graphs referring to figure 3. in collaboration with adaptive modulation and MIMO we can significantly reduce the BER that would not only enhance the performance of the mobile operators but also will improve the parameters involved in this performance enhancement process statistically. No. S. 16. . Figure 3. Amin. R.e. Dhaka. REFERENCES . M. Haq.10 10 10 0 -1 -2 Diversity-1 Diversity-2 Diversity-4 Diversity-8 64QAM 16QAM QPSK BER BPSK/QPSK 16 QAM 64 QAM 128 QAM 256 QAM 10 10 10 10 10 10 -3 -4 Figure 3. Oct. the higher modulation techniques provide more BER which also leads to another concern that requires a solution too. 10 20 30 E /N (dB) b 0 -6 -7 -8 0 5 10 15 20 Eb/N0 (dB) 25 30 35 40 Figure 3. 8th International Conference on Computer and Information technology (ICCIT). "Concept of Data Relaying at Physical Layer". 2005 . and M. vol. 4. 8.2 MIMO Using MIMO if the diversity order is increased then the cell radius is subsequently increased with the proportions in the high-order modulation mode to improve the transmission capacity and spectrum efficiency of the radio communication system.3 for 64 QAM).1: Adaptive modulation 10 10 10 10 BER 10 10 10 10 10 0 -1 -5 -6 -2 -7 -3 -8 0 10 20 30 E /N (dB) b 0 40 50 60 -4 -5 Figure 3. CONCLUSION Analyzing the graphs we can come to the conclusion that with the implementation of Adaptive modulation and MIMO the performance parameters will be enhanced that would improve the quality of the services provide by different operators.3: BER versus SNR for different modulation technique for Rayleigh Channel 3.2: BER versus SNR for different modulation technique for AWGN channel 10 0 -1 10 10 -2 BPSK/QPSK 16 QAM 64 QAM 128 QAM 256 QAM 10 BER -3 10 -4 10 -5 10 -6 10 -7 0 40 50 60 10. 1998. 5.2 and figure 3. ”A simple transmit diversity technique for wireless communications”. Khan.R. in this scenario if MIMO can be implemented we can see that BER reduces significantly for higher modulation technique (i. Joyee. I. December 28-30.3 signify that while implementing adaptive modulation. figure 3.4: BER versus SNR with different diversity order for 64 QAM modulation techniques. Paper ID ICCIT05_643. Alamouti.N. IEEE Journal on selected areas in communications. Mustafa Hussain. Therefore. However.R.