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upon Virtue of Sending Blessings upon the Messenger of Allah


alalImm al- abb Abdullh al- addd1
Translated by Zakariya Goga
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Allah As for salutation2 upon the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, its virtue is great and benefit in this world and the hereafter for those who are excessive in it are

ange plenty. Allah the Exalted said: Indeed Allah and His angels confer blessings upon the salutation Prophet, O believers! Confer blessings upon him and salute him with a worthy salutation
[33:56] So make conclusion from what Allah stipulates in this verse in great honour for his messenger; an encouragement and stimulus for the believing worshippers to send blessings and salutation upon him. He, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said: Allah confers ten blessings upon the

person who confers one blessing upon me. Some of the rightful scholars, may Allah have
mercy on them, have said: If Allah was to send one blessing upon a slave during his entire life, that would be enough honour and bounty for him. So what (can be said) for ten blessings for every blessing the Muslim sends to his Prophet?! So, praise be to Allah for this great virtue and rich gift. He, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said: He who confers blessings upon me,

Allah confers upon him ten blessings, raises him in ten ranks, writes ten virtuous deeds for him, and forgives ten of his sins.

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Excerpted from Imam Abdullh al-Alaw al- addad's Nasi al-Diniya wal-Wasya al-Imniya Translated from the word Salawt, this is also known as Durd in Urdu.

He, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said: Indeed, those closest to me on the Day

of Judgement will be those who confer blessings upon me the most.


He, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said: My intercession will become incumbent

upon whoever confers the following blessing: O Allah, confer blessings upon Mu ammad and bestow upon him the station of proximity to You on the Day of Judgement.
He, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said: Whoever says: May Allah reward

Mu ammad on our behalf with a reward befitting what he deserves, Allah will put seventy angels to trouble in writing its reward for one thousand days.
He, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said: Send blessings upon me wherever you

are as indeed your blessings are conveyed to me


He, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said: Allah has certain angels who roam the

earth and convey the salutations of my followers to me.


(From) a narration: Indeed no one from his community sends salutations upon him except Allah returns his noble soul to him until he replies to him. Shaykh Ibn ajar mentions in Dur

al-Mandud, it has reached us from the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant
him peace, that he said: There is not one of you who sends salutations upon him except

Allah returns his noble soul until he replies to him


He, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said: May that person be destroyed who

refrains from conveying blessings upon me when I am mentioned in his presence, and Whoever forgets to confer blessings upon me has lost the way to Paradise.
Indeed he, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, instructed specifically on the day of Friday to increase in sending blessings upon him. He, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said: Confer blessings upon me abundantly on Friday, for the blessings of my

followers are presented to me every Friday. Whoever confers the most blessings upon me the closer he shall be with me on the Day of Judgement. He, may Allah bless him and grant him
peace, said: Confer blessings upon me abundantly on the luminous night and the luminous

day (meaning: The night and day of Friday).

Hence, it is paramount for each believer to increase in their sending of blessings upon the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, during all periods and in particular the night of Friday and its day. Send salutations along with blessings upon him as indeed Allah has commanded them both together. In a tradition, Allah the Exalted said to him, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, Whoever confers blessings upon you I confer

blessings upon him and he who confers salutations upon you I confer salutations upon him.
Prophet: It is vital that for the one who sends blessings and salutations upon his Prophet to send blessings and salutations upon his family after it, as indeed he loved for them that, may Allah bless him and grant him peace. It has reached us from traditions and from some narrations that the blessings presented with which no blessings conferred upon the household (of the Prophet) is known as a void blessing. And Allah knows best.

Invoking upon The Excellence of Invoking Blessings upon the Prophet


Shaykh Mu ammad al-Jazl
Translated by Arfan Shah
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Allh

stated in the Qurn,

Allh and his angels send blessings on the Prophet: O you who believe, blessings send your blessings on him and salute him with a worthy salutation. 2
It was related that the Messenger of Allh came one day with a cheerful appearance. He said, Jibrl came to me and said, Are you not pleased that whenever anyone invokes blessings upon you Allh will bless him tenfold. No one will ask Allh to grant you peace, except that Allh will grant them peace tenfold. He said, The nearest people to me are those who invoke the most blessings upon me. He said, An Angel supplicates upon those who invoke blessings upon me for as long as he supplicates, be it a short time or long. He said, A person is considered miserly if I am mentioned in his presence and he does not invoke blessings upon me. He said, Increase your invocation of blessings upon me on Fridays.

He said, Whoever of my nation invokes blessings upon me once, ten good deeds are written for him and ten sins are erased. He said, Whoever hears the call to prayer and says: O Allh, Lord of this perfect call and this established prayer, grant Mu ammad the wasla, 3 the lofty rank, and
1

This is a translation of a short section excerpted from the book of Imm al-Jazl (d.870 H) entitled Dalil al-Khayrt [The Waymarks of Benefits]. The traditions of the Messenger of Allh presented (which may vary in authenticity) were cited without chains of transmission for ease in memorisation. For further details regarding Dalil al-Khayrt please see: http://www.dalail.co.uk/dalail.htm.
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Srat al-A zb 33:56 A place in Heaven that is only worthy for one person.

resurrect him in the most praised position that You have promised him, my intercession for him will be binding on the Day of Judgment. He said, Whoever invokes blessings upon me in a book, for as long as my name remains in that book an angel will supplicate for him. Ab Sulaymn al-Darn said, Whoever wishes to ask Allh to fulfil his need, let him increase his supplications upon the Prophet and then request his need and seal it with further supplications upon the Prophet . Allh will accept the two requests for blessings upon the Prophet and He is too generous to refuse what is in between them. It is narrated that the Prophet said, Whoever asks Allh to bless me one hundred times on a Friday, he is forgiven the sins of eighty years. Ab Hurayra said the Messenger of Allh said, For the one who invokes blessings upon me is a light on the Traverse, 4 he who has a light on the Traverse is from the People of the Light and cannot be from the People of the Fire. He said, Whoever neglects to ask for blessings upon me has lost the way to heaven. The route to heaven is barred for such a neglectful one whilst it is open for the one who invokes blessings upon me. In a narration from Abdul Ra mn ibn Awf the Messenger of Allh said, Jibrl came to me and said, O Mu ammad, anyone who invokes blessings upon you is blessed by seventy thousand angels and whoever is blessed by the angels is from the people of heaven. He said, The more you supplicate upon me the more you will have in heaven.

It was narrated that he said, Whenever someone invokes blessings upon me, extolling my right, Allh, Mighty and Majestic, creates an angel from his speech whose wings spread from the east to the west, with feet that are firm upon the lowest world and a neck hovering below the Throne. Allh, Mighty and Majestic, says to him, Bless my slave the like of which he asked for blessings upon my Prophet and the angel will bless him until the Day of Judgement. He said, Nations will come to my Pool on the Day of Rising who I will not know except through their frequent invocation of blessings upon me. It was narrated that he said, Whoever invokes blessings upon me once, Allh blesses that person ten fold; Whoever invokes blessings ten times for me, Allh blesses him one hundred times; Whoever invokes blessings one hundred times for me, Allh blesses him a thousand times, and whoever asks Allh to bless me a thousand times Allh will prohibit his body from the fire and affirm him with a weighty word in this world and the afterlife. He will enter heaven on the Day of Judgment and his supplications will be a light for him upon the Traverse visible for a distance of five

The Bridge over Hell that leads to Heaven.

hundred years. Allh will grant him a palace in Heaven for every supplication upon me, regardless of how many. The Prophet said, Whenever one invokes blessings upon me his request leaves him quickly and passes over the land and sea, through east and west saying, I am the supplication of so and so who prayed upon Mu ammad the Chosen One, the Best of Allhs Creation. Then a bird is created from these supplications which has seventy thousand wings, on every wing there is seventy thousand feathers, on every feather there are seventy thousand heads, on every head there are seventy thousand faces. On Each face there are seventy thousand mouths and in every mouth there are seventy thousand tongues who praise Allh most high in seventy thousand languages. Allh records the reward of all this to him. Al ibn Ab lib reported that the Messenger of Allh said, Whoever invokes blessings upon me one hundred times on Friday comes with a light on the Day of Judgement. If this light was divided between creation, all of it would be engulfed. It was mentioned in another account, Written on the leg of the Throne is: Whoever longs for Him is shown mercy, whoever requests is given and whoever draws closer to Me through asking for blessings upon Mu ammad is forgiven his sins even if they are as plentiful as the foam on the sea. It was narrated that one of the companions said, In every gathering that Mu ammad is supplicated upon, a sweet smell emanates until it reaches the clouds of the sky and the angels say, This is a gathering in which blessings upon Mu ammad are being asked for. It was mentioned in another account, When the believing slave, male or female, begins with supplication on Mu ammad the doors and canopy of the skies open, reaching the Throne. There is no angel in the heavens except it invokes blessings upon Mu ammad and requests forgiveness for that servant, as long as Allh wills. He said, Whoever is troubled by some matter, let him increase his salutations upon me because it will remove concerns, sadness, distress and will increase his provisions and his needs will be fulfilled. One of the pious said, I had a scribe for a neighbour, when he died, I saw him in a dream. So I asked, What did Allh do to you? He replied, He forgave me. How was that? He said, When I used to write the name Mu ammad in a book, I would invoke blessings upon him. Thus my Lord gave me what no eye has ever seen, no ear has ever heard and what has never occurred to the hearts of man. Anas narrates that the Messenger of Allh said, None of you truly believes until I become more beloved to him than himself, his wealth, his children, his parents and all of mankind. In a narration, Umar ibn Khattb is related to have said, You are more beloved to me, O Messenger of Allh, than everything except the soul that is between my two sides. He replied, You are not a believer until I am more beloved to you than

your own self. Umar said, I swear by the One who sent you the Book, 5 you are more beloved to me than my soul that is between my two sides. The Messenger of Allh , O Umar, now your faith is complete. The Messenger of Allh was asked, How will I become a believer? and in another narration, A truthful believer. He said, When you love Allh. And when will I love Allh? When you love His Messenger. And when will I love his Messenger? When you follow his way and practices, love what he loves, dislike what he dislikes, befriend his friends and dislike his enemies. People differ in their faith according to their love for me and people differ in their disbelief according to their hatred for me. There is no faith in one that doesnt love him, there is no faith in one that doesnt love him, there is no faith in one that doesnt love him. The Messenger of Allh was asked, We see humble believers and those who are not humble, what is the reason for this? He said, Whoever finds the sweetness of faith is humble and he who doesnt is not humble. How can we find, attain or acquire such faith? He said, By sincerely loving Allh. How is the love of Allh attained or acquired? He said, By loving His Messenger. So seek out the pleasure of Allh and the pleasure of His Messenger by loving them. Someone asked the Messenger of Allh , Who are the family of Mu ammad whom we are ordered to love, to honour and be dutiful to? He said, The people of purity and loyalty, those who believe in me, sincerely. It was asked, What are their signs? The effect of my love is upon every lover internally who is busy with my remembrance after the remembrance of Allh . And in another narration, Their signs are that they remain in my remembrance and intensify their asking for blessings upon me. Someone asked the Messenger of Allh , Who has the strongest love for you? He said, The one who believes in me without seeing me. He truly believes in me through yearning and is sincere in his love. The signs of this are that he desires to see me more than everything he owns. The Messenger of Allh was asked, Are you aware of the supplication for you by those who are not with you or will come after you? What is their state regarding you? He said, I hear and know the supplication of the people who love me, their supplication and others supplications are displayed to me.

The Qurn

Narrations of Light upon the Merits of Invoking Blessings Upon the Chosen Prophet
Imm Ab al-`Abbs Ahmad ibn Ma`add al-Uqlsh 2 Abridged and Translated by Sidi Arfan Shah
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Peace and blessings of Allh be upon him Ab Dawd in his Sunnan reports that Uways ibn Uways of Allh said, narrated that the Messenger

The most superior of your days is Friday, 3 it is the day Adam was created, the seizing will occur, the trumpet will be blown and the souls will be clutched. So increase your invocations upon me, for they are shown to me. They asked, How are our invocations shown to you, when you have disintegrated? He said, Allh Most high has prohibited the bodies of the Prophets from being consumed by the earth. 4

Peace and blessings of Allh be upon him In the Musnad of al-Bazzr, Abdullh ibn Mas`d
1

narrated that the Prophet

said,
(ed.

Abridged from Anwr al-Athr al-Mukhtassat bi-Fadl al-Salt `al al-Nab al-Mukhtr Husayn Muhammad `Al Shukr; Medina, 1996)

al-Hfiz, Imm Ahmed ibn Mud ibn `Is ibn Wakl al-Tajb al-Andals known as Abu al`Abbs al-Uqlsh was born in Daniyt. His father was originally from Uqlsh. He studied the Arabic language with Ab Muhammad al-Batilims and Hadth with Ab al-Hasan ibn Sibtha alDn. He authored several works too numerous to list here. The Imm passed away in Mecca in the year 550H. Imam Sakhw narrates in his book, Innovative Speech on Invoking Blessings Upon the Beloved Intercessor (al-Ql al-Bayi'a f Salt `al al-Habb al-Shaf`a) page 360 that, Ab al-`Abbs alUqlsh was seen in a dream as if he was being scented in heaven. He was asked, How did you achieve this position? He replied, Through excessive supplications upon the Messenger of Allh in the book, Forty concise narrations upon him . This is the epistle that you are currently reading.
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Jumu`ah

Sunnan Ab Dawd 1/635 (1048), al-Nas 1/519 (1/1666), Ibn Hibbn 3/190 (910) and Hkim who says its authenticity meets the criteria of Bukhr.
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The nearest to me on the Day of Judgement are those who invoke the most blessings upon me in the world. 5

Peace and blessings of Allh be upon him Muslim in his authentic collection reports that Ab Hurayra said, narrated that the Prophet

He who invokes blessings on me once, Allh sends ten blessings upon him.

Peace and blessings of Allh be upon him Al-Bazzr reports in his Musnad that `Umayr ibn al-Ansar was cheerful when he heard the Prophet say,
Whoever of my nation invokes blessings upon me, sincerely from his heart, Allh sends ten blessings upon him. 6

Peace and blessings of Allh be upon him Ibn Skhir narrated in his Fawidu from `Abdullh ibn `Amr ibn Rabi`ah from his father that the Prophet said,
There is no Muslim who invokes blessings upon me except that the Angels send blessings upon him equal to that which he invoked; so invoke some, or increase upon that. 7

Peace and blessings of Allh be upon him Ibn Ab Shayba in al-Musnad reports that Anas Ibn Mlik said, narrates that the Prophet

Whoever invokes blessings upon me once, Allh conveys ten blessings upon him and erases ten sins from his account. 8

Peace and blessings of Allh be upon him

Tirmidh 2/354 (474) and Ibn Hibbn 3/192 (911) has a variant. Tabarn Al-Kabr 4/46 and Nis 6/21 (9892) Ibn Mjah 1/294 (908)

Imm Ahmad 3/102 (11587) and Hkim 1/550 (2018) who says its chain is authentic and alDhahab agreed

Al-Nas reports that Anas Ibn Mlik

said that the Prophet

said,

Whoever invokes upon me blessings, once, Allh will convey ten blessings upon him, absolves him of ten sins and raise him ten degrees. 9

Peace and blessings of Allh be upon him Ibn Ab Shayba reports in al-Musnad that Ab Burda Ibn Niyr narrated that the Prophet said,
There is no servant of my nation who sincerely invokes blessings upon me, except that Allh blesses him ten fold, ten good deeds are written for him, he is raised ten degrees and ten sins are wiped clean from his record. 10

Peace and blessings of Allh be upon him `Abdul Razzk reports in his Musnaf that Anas relates that Ab Talh said,

I came to the Prophet one day and found him joyous, so I said, O Messenger of Allh, I never thought that I would see you so happy and in high spirits. Why wouldnt I be, Jibrl has just left me with the glad tidings that each and every slave who invokes blessings upon me, ten good deeds are written for him, ten sins are omitted from his record and he is raised ten degrees. Their invocations are shown to me as they are said and I respond similarly to their invocation.

Peace and blessings of Allh be upon him Al-Zhir narrates from Anas that Ab Talh (may Allh taala show them mercy) said that Jibril informed the Prophet that:
Whoever supplicates for you, Allh returns the like thereof and it will be displayed to him on the Day of Judgement. 11

Peace and blessings of Allh be upon him Al-Nas reports from `Abdullh Ibn Mas`d that the Prophet said,

Allh mighty and majestic has angels who roam the earth and convey to me your greetings. 12

Ibn Hibbn 3/185 (903) Tabarn in al-Kabr 22/195 (513) and al-Nis in al-Sunnan al-Kubr 21/6(9892) Tabarn al-Saghr 5/101 (4721) Sahh Ibn Hibbn 195:914, Hkim 2/421 (3586) and agreed by al-Dhahab.

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Peace and blessings of Allh be upon him Al-Nas reports that Ab Talh said that:
The Prophet came one day with a cheerful appearance, so we said, We can really see joy in your face. He replied, Truly, an angel came to me and said, O Muhammad, your Lord, Mighty and Majestic said, Are you not satisfied that anyone who invokes blessings upon you except that I convey ten supplications upon him. No one greets you, except he is greeted tenfold. 13

Peace and blessings of Allh be upon him Ibn Ab Shayba reports in al-Musnad that `Al narrated that the Prophet said,

Do not make my grave a place of festivity and your houses graveyards, invoke blessings upon me for your invocation and greeting will reach me, wherever you may be. 14

Peace and blessings of Allh be upon him Al-`Uqyl reports that `Abdul Rahmn ibn `Awf said the Prophet said,

Whoever invokes blessings upon me, Allh sends blessings upon them and whoever greets me, Allh greets them. 15

Peace and blessings of Allh be upon him Ab Hurayra narrates the Prophet said,

Not one of you greets me except that Allh restores my soul to me so that I may return the greeting. 16

Peace and blessings of Allh be upon him Whatever prayer upon the Prophet you make, ask Allh al-wasla for him. Do not be neglectful of saying this after the call to prayer, to make your intercession by the Prophet obligatory.

13

Hkim 2/420 (3575) and agreed by al-Dhahab Imm Ahmad 2/367 (8586) Hkim 1/222; agreed by Al-Dhahab Imm Ahmad 2/527 (10434), Ab Dawd 2/435 (2041) and al-Bayhaq 5/402 (10270)

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In the Musnad of Ibn Ab Shayba it is reported that Ab Hurayra Prophet said,

narrates that the

Invoke blessings upon me, truly your invocation for me, is charity for you. And ask Allh for al-waila. We asked, What is al-waila, O Messenger of Allh? He replied, That is the highest degree in Heaven and no one will attain it, except one man. I hope that it will be me. 17

Peace and blessings of Allh be upon him Al-Nas reports that `Abdullh ibn `Umar heard the Messenger of Allh say,

When you hear the caller of prayer, say what he says and then invoke blessings upon me. For he who supplicates for me, Allh sends blessings upon him tenfold; and then implore Allh to grant al-wasla to me. This is a place in Heaven that is not appropriate except for one servant of Allh, I hope that I will be him. So whoever asks this for me, my intercession is validated for him. 18

Peace and blessings of Allh be upon him Whatever supplication you make to your Lord, begin with His praise, then invoke blessings upon the Prophet . Invoke blessings on the Prophet at the beginning, in the middle and at the end. Embellish your invocation upon him with precious jewels. By doing this your invocation will be answered and the veil between you and Allh will be lifted. Tirmidh reports in his Musnaf that Fudliya ibn `Ubayd said,
We were sitting with the Prophet , when a man came and prayed then supplicated. O Allh, show me mercy and forgiveness. The Prophet said, O Dear worshipper, you have hastened. When you have prayed, sit, praise Allh as he is most worthy, invoke blessings upon me, and then supplicate. Then another man prayed, praised Allh and sent prayers upon the Prophet . The Prophet said, O Dear worshipper, your supplication will be answered. 19

Peace and blessings of Allh be upon him Al-Hassan ibn Araft narrates that `Al ibn Ab Tlib said,

There is no supplication except that there is a veil between it and Allh until you invoke blessings upon Muhammad . When you invoke blessings upon

17

Imm Ahmad 2/365 (8552) Muslim 1/882 (483) Tabarn al-Awsat 81/803 (498), Tirmidh 5/284 (6843)

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Muhammad it pierces the veil and is then responded to. When it has no invocation upon the Prophet it is rejected. 20

Peace and blessings of Allh be upon him Tirmidh reports that `Umar Ibn Khattb said,

Your supplication is suspended between the Heavens and the Earth, until you invoke blessings upon your Prophet . 21

Peace and blessings of Allh be upon him Tirmidh reports that Ubayy ibn Kab said when the last third of the night would enter, the Prophet would stand and say.
O dear people make remembrance of Allh, the first blow (of the trumpet) follows the second and then comes death. 22

Peace and blessings of Allh be upon him Ibn Ab Shayba reports in his Musnad that Ubayy said,
O Messenger of Allh, I would like increase my supplications upon you, how much shall I make? He replied , However much you wish I said, A fourth [of my supplications]? He said, As you wish. I then said, A third? As you wish, but it is better [for you] to devote more. Half? I asked As you wish, but it is better [for you] to devote more. Two thirds? As you wish, but it is better [for you] to devote more. Then, I shall make all my supplications for you. He said, You will be freed from anxiety and your sins will be forgiven. 23

Peace and blessings of Allh be upon him Al-Bazzr in his Musnad reports that Ruwayfi` ibn Thbit said the Prophet said,

20

al-Bayhaq in al-Saab 2/612 (1575/1576) and Ibn al-Jawz 2/586 (1650) Al-Qawl al-Badi` by al-Sakhw page 52 Hkim 2/421 (3587) says the chain is authentic; agreed by al-Dhahab Musnaf of `Abdul Razzk 2/512 (3114)

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Whoever prays upon Muhammad and then says, O Allh place him in a position near to you, on the Day of Judgement. My intercession becomes obligatory for him. 24

Peace and blessings of Allh be upon him Al-Bazzr reports from Ysir ibn Amr that the Prophet said,

Allh has assigned an angel to allow me to hear the sound of creation, until the Day of Judgement. Not one of you invokes blessings upon me except that I am informed of their name and their fathers name thus: This is so and so, son of so and so, who has invoked blessings upon you.

Peace and blessings of Allh be upon him Al-Nas reports that Ab Hurayra narrates that the Prophet said,

When (one of you) enters the Masjid, convey greetings upon your Prophet , then say, O Allh open for me the doors of your mercy. When you leave, greet your Prophet , then say, O Allh protect me from the accursed Satan.

Peace and blessings of Allh be upon him It was reported that Ali ibn Ab Talib said that the Prophet said,

Your invocation upon me protects your supplication, pleases your Lord and is a purification for your bodies. 25

Peace and blessings of Allh be upon him It was narrated that Anas ibn Mlik said that the Prophet said,

Truly, the one who is rescued from disastrous problems on the Day of Judgement is the one who made the most supplications upon me in the world. 26

Peace and blessings of Allh be upon him It was narrated from Ab Bakr al-Siddq that the Prophet said,

Whoever writes knowledge about me and writes salutations with it, the reward of it is not lost as long as the book exists. 27

24

Tabarn, al-Awsat al-Qawl al-Badi by al-Sakhw Daylam, al-Firduwa 2/391 (3839) and Ibn Jawz, al-Tagrib wa Taharib 2/689 (1660)

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Peace and blessings of Allh be upon him Ab Hurayra narrates that the Messenger of Allh said,

Whoever invokes blessings upon me in a book, the angels do not cease, in their asking forgiveness for him for as long as my name is in the book. 28

Peace and blessings of Allh be upon him Sufyn al-Thawr (may Allh show him mercy) said,
There is no benefit for a Prophetic narration expert unless he writes salutations upon the Messenger of Allh as it supplicates for him as long as the book exists. 29

Peace and blessings of Allh be upon him Muhammad ibn Ab Sulaymn said,
I saw my father in a dream. I asked him O Father, what did Allh do to you? He said, He forgave me. How? I asked. He said, I wrote salutations upon the Prophet in my book. 30

Peace and blessings of Allh be upon him `Abdullh ibn `Abdul Hakm said,
I saw Imam Shafi (may Allh show him mercy) in a dream. I asked him: What did Allh do to you? He said, My Lord showed mercy and forgave me. I was paraded into heaven and embellished with confetti like a bride. He asked, How did you achieve this? By the salutations that I made upon Muhammad in my book, The Treatise. How was it written? He said, O Allh send salutations upon Muhammad [equivalent in number to] the number of those who remember him and the number of those who are heedless of him. When I woke up and looked in the book, The Treatise, I found it was as he had said. 31

Peace and blessings of Allh be upon him


27

Khatb al-Baghdd 36 (65) and Tabarn in al-Awsat Tabarn, Ibn Jawz 2/693 (1680) Al-Baghdd in Sharaf Ahlil Hadith 36 (66) After every narration Sharafuddn al-Nabr page 36

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Al-Nas reports that `Al ibn Ab Talib

said that the Prophet

said,

The miserly one is the one who does not invoke blessings upon me when I am mentioned.

Peace and blessings of Allh be upon him Also in al-Nas, Jbir ibn `Abdullh narrates that the Prophet said,

Those who sit in a gathering and then disperse without invoking blessings upon the Prophet , it is as if they leave behind a rotting corpse. 32

Peace and blessings of Allh be upon him Muhammad ibn `Al narrates that the Messenger of Allh said,

Whoever has forgotten to invoke salutations upon me has lost the way to Heaven. 33

Peace and blessings of Allh be upon him Ibn Ab Shayba reports in his al-Musnad from Anas that:
The Messenger of Allh was ascending the pulpit. He climbed a step and said, Amn. Then he climbed a second and said, Amn. Then he climbed a third and said, Amn. He reached the top and sat down. A companion asked, Prophet of Allh, Why did you say Amn three times? He said, Jibrl came to me and said, Disaster befalls the one who knows that both or one of his parents are alive and does not enter Heaven (through serving them). I said, Amn. Disaster befalls the one who exits Ramadan and did not attain forgiveness. I said, Amn. Then he said, Disaster befalls the one who hears your name mentioned and does not say, Peace upon you. So I said, Amn. 34

Peace and blessings of Allh be upon him Mlik reports in his Muwatta that Ab Mas`d Al-Ansr said that:

32

Imm Ahmad 2/463 (9649) and Ibn Hibbn 2/352 (591) Tabarn al-Kabr 12/139 (12819) and Ibn Mjah 1/294 (908) `Asqaln al-Matalib al-A`liyya 3/223, Ibn Hibbn 2/140 (409), Tabarn 11/67.

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The Prophet came into the gathering of Saad ibn Ubayd, and Bashir ibn Saad asked him, Allh has ordered us to send salutations upon you, O Messenger of Allh. So tell us how. The Prophet remained silent until we did not think he would answer. Then he said, Say: O Allh bless Muhammad and his family as you have blessed Ibrahm and his family. Exalt Muhammad and his family as you have exalted Ibrahim and his family amongst the people of the universe. Truly, You are Praiseworthy and Majestic. Send supplications as you know. 35

Peace and blessings of Allh be upon him Also from Maliks Muwatta is the report from Ab Humayd al-Sa`d who said:
They (the companions) asked, O Messenger of Allh, how should we invoke blessings upon you? He said, Say: O Allh bless Muhammad, his wives and his offspring as you have blessed Ibrahim. Exalt Muhammad, his wives and his offspring as you have exalted the family of Ibrahim, truly you are Praiseworthy and Majestic. 36

Peace and blessings of Allh be upon him Al-`Uqayl narrates from Ab Hurayra that the Messenger of Allh said,

Whoever says: O Allh bless Muhammad and his family as you have blessed Ibrahim and his family. Show mercy to Muhammad and his family as you have shown mercy to Ibrahim and his family. Exalt Muhammad and his family as you have exalted Ibrahim and his family, truly you are praiseworthy and exalted. Whoever testifies this, I shall intercede for them on the Day of Judgement. 37

Peace and blessings of Allh be upon him Al-Nas reports from Zayd ibn Kharija said, the Messenger of Allh replied. was asked and

Invoke blessings upon me and endeavour in your supplication. Say: O Allh bless Muhammad and his family. 38

35

Muslim 1/305 (405), Muwatta 103 (398) Muslim 1/306 (407), Muwatta 103 (397) Bukhr, al-Adab al-Mufrad 233 (641) Imm Ahmad 1/199 (1716)

36

37

38

Peace and blessings of Allh be upon him Ab Hussain al-Sharqn said,


I saw Mansr ibn A`mr in a dream and I asked him: What did Allh do to you? He said, I stood before him and He asked, Are you Mansr ibn A`mr? Yes, I am. Are you the one who advised the people to abstain from the world yet you desired it? I used to do that but I did not attend a gathering except I began with Your praises then invoked blessings upon Your Prophet and then advised your servants. You are right, put him on a chair in Heaven, so he can praise Me there amongst the angels as he praised Me in the earth amongst My servants.

Peace and blessings of Allh be upon him Ahmad ibn A`tt al-Rawdbar said he heard Ab Qsim `Abdullh al-Marwazy say,
My father and I used to study Prophetic narrations at night, a pillar of light was seen at the place we used to study in which reached the sky. It was asked, What was that light? That was salutations upon the Prophet , righteous and noble.
39

All praise is for Allh , the book is complete, and may the Peace and blessings of Allh be upon his Prophet Muhammad.

39

Sharaf Ahlil-Hadith p.37

Out ecrets The Branching Out of Secrets in the Exposition of the Meaning of Upon Benedictions Upon the Chosen Prophet
Daw at al-Asrr f Man al- alt ala al-Nab al-Mukhtr

By: Abu Sd Shaykh Abul Abbs A mad alalibn Mu tafa al-Alaw al-Shadhul
(quddisa rhahu)

Translation and commentary by the faqr Ibrahim ibn Mu ammad Radwan Hakim al-Shaghouri
may his shortcomings be covered with Allahs mercy Released by www.marifah.net 1429 H

In the Name of Allah, the Universally Merciful, the Singularly Compassionate

It was requested from the great master of the Path, famous for the transmission of the invocation of the Supreme Divine Name, Mawln Abul Abbs Shaykh Sd A mad ibn Mu tafa al-Alaw al-Mustaghnim, may Allah grant us and the Muslims his good-pleasure and extend his life, that he compose some words dealing with the prayer of benediction ( alawt) upon the Prophet , explicating its profound meanings. So he responded to this request may Allah be ever-pleased with him saying:

***
I praise You O Allah with every heart and tongue, O You Who elects the sincere ones to the highest degrees of Ihsn! You bestow Your grace upon whom You will, and You are the possessor of all grace and bounty and bestowal. I witness that You are One and Only, Singular in Being and in granting being, and I witness that our liegelord and master Mu ammad is Your messenger, who has the complete capacity to receive Your most perfect theophanies (tajalliyt). So send Your glorious blessings upon him according to the amount of Your generosity, with glorious blessings ( alt) and strengthening peace (salm) which fulfill his desired purpose from You; and the same upon his household and companions who stand upright by the aid of the Real (al- aqq). Have mercy O Allah upon those righteous ones who remain in this community, and rain upon their bodies and spirits and hearts from the clouds of mercy, and support them and strengthen them with every argument (of truth), proof, and wisdomAmen! As to what follows: I have received the letter of the one who is the reason behind composing this essay, namely, the honest truthful one, our brother in Allah Sd Mu ammad ibn al- abb al-Idrs al- asan ibn Mawln al- iddqmay Allah cause you and us to be among those who are faithful to the covenants we commit to with Allah.

Sayyid, after our finding blessing in your qualities, and inquiring about all of your states, and giving you greetings of peace which surrounds you from all sides as you are worthy of, we have indeed been honored with your letter after we received it. By it were our hearts expanded and our reflections made lofty, so that we found it to be a fruitful garden and a perfect rose, and it suffices as an indication of the rank of its writer, especially due to the Prophetic vision included within it, may the choicest blessings and purest greetings be upon its subject! Indeed, this vision you had of the Prophet is nothing but a Divine grace which you are obliged to be grateful for, and we praise Allah for your likes still existing in this world. As for what you requested from us concerning the meanings contained in the specific prayer of benediction which Allah has inspired your tongue to utter, then we have no more in this regard than what you have and Allah knows best only that for the purpose of fulfilling your request and serving you, and gaining blessing from the alt upon the Prophet , we write the following; and I admit to every shortcoming in this regard The meaning of the alt (prayer of benediction) varies according to its sender and receiver. As for its sender, if it is Allah then its reality is different from that which is due from His creations. For from Him it is an action, and from other than Him it is speech, which cannot mean other than an entreaty (du), which is for mercy along with exaltation, or it could be an entreaty for something else, as we shall see. In any case, it is considered a du when it comes from the creation. Furthermore, if it is from Allah, then its meaning varies according to the receiving object of that alt. It is widely understood that the alt of Allah upon the commonality of the believers is not the same as His alt upon the elect among them, these are the messengers We favored, one above the other 1. And if there are other variations in the degrees of the elect, then it is even more obvious there be variations between the common. For some of them pray to be taken out of the darkness of shirk to the light of mn, and others pray to be brought from the light of mn to the secret of certitude, and others pray to be brought from the secret of certitude to direct visionand so on. To this I add: Allah has made His alt upon His prophets and chosen ones to be the mirrored opposite of His curse (lan) upon His enemies. For the meaning of this curse is expulsion and distance and separation and the lowering of the veil over the cursed one. As for the meaning of His alt, it is His endearment and love and proximity and theophanic manifestation for the object of His alt, as he deserves. So if he is among the commonality of the believers, then his portion from Allah is His endearment over him with the mercies which he deserves. And if he is among the elect of the believers, then his portion from Allah is Him Himself, for he is not satisfied with anything less than Him. Faces on that day will be shining Lord resplendently, looking towards their Lord .2
1 2

Qurn 2:253 Qurn 75:22-23

In addition to this, the elect vary among themselves according to the various theophanies (tajalliyt) they receive. Among them are those to whom the Real (Most Exalted) draws close and makes Himself known thru His actions, and others He makes Himself known to them thru His Names, and others thru His Attributes, and others He makes Himself known to them thru His Essence, which is the greatest his Lord sign alluded to in the verse, indeed, he saw the greatest of the Signs of his Lord 3. Had the meaning of the alt upon the Prophet been mercy as they claim, then it would be superfluous, for Allah already said about him that he is not sent except as a mercy to all the worlds4. In other words, Allah caused him to be the source (ayn) of mercy for the entire creation. He is always seeking further increase from Allah the Exalted. He said, and the core delight of my eye was made to lie in the alt, 5 and the truest words ever spoken by a poet are those of Labd: Indeed, everything other than Allah is falsehood. 6 Meaning, in his prophetic eye, everything is null and false, whether it be of this world or the next, except if it be connected with witnessing the perfections of the Divine Essence and the lights of the Divine Attributes. So when the composer of this specific form of benediction discussed here had knowledge of his desired goals , and that in the constant succession of mercy that flows upon and thru him he is not distracted from beholding the perfect Beauty of the Essence, the author entreated Allah to send the alt upon him in accordance with his value and aspiration, so he said: O Allah, send glorious blessings and strengthening peace according to the liegevariations of Your perfections in all of Your theophanies upon our liege-lord and ammad, master Mu ammad, the first of the lights flowing from the ocean of the immensity of Divine verified the Divine Essence, he who is verified in the meanings of the Divine Names and Attributes in the two worlds of inwardness and outwardness, the first to praise and outwardness, near, worship with the various acts of devotion and drawing near, and the one who extends existent support to all existent beings in the spiritual and material worlds; and likewise upon his household and companions, with a alt which lifts the veil from his noble face in the moments of vision and wakefulness, and causes us to come to know You and him every Master, in every degree and presence. And be mercifully gentle with us, O our Master, by virtue of his sublime rank, in every movement, stillness, moment, and passing thought. Glorified be your Lord, the Lord of Might, above what they describe, and messengers, worlds. peace be upon the messengers, and praise belongs to Allah, Lord of the worlds. So it is as if he (the author) is saying:
3 4

Qurn 53:18 Qurn 21:107 5 Recorded by Nas in his Sunan, abarn in his Mujam al-Aw at and al- aghr, Bayhaq in his Sunan alKubr, Hkim in his Mustadrak, Ab Yala in his Musnad, Imm A mad in his Musnad, and others. 6 Recorded by Bukhr and Muslim in their Sa , and Tirmidh and Ibn Mjah in their Sunan, and Imm A mad in his Musnad.

O Allah, You certainly know what Your Prophet desires from You, for he does not halt at anything below the direct and complete vision of Your Beauty (Jaml), so incline towards him with Your affection, move closer to him, and make Yourself known to him, and manifest Yourself to him with all the variations of the perfections of Your Essence which are in all of Your theophanies of acts or we could say the sensory (hiss) and the meaning (man) and make that perpetual for him. Safeguard him from the dangers of that theophanic manifestation upon him, so that he does not turn away from Your desire from him by turning towards his desire from You. This is the meaning of the subtle gentleness and mercy (Lutf) and the safeguarding ( if ) which every one who arrives to Allah (to His aqq) is in the most pressing need of. It is referred to in the Sharah as Salm (strengthening peace), as in His Peace saying, and their greeting in it will be Peace 7alluding to the inhabitants of the Garden and none else. For every possessor of Divine blessing does not ask from Allah except security and well-being in that blessing. This is why they have made it a condition that the alt and Salm (upon the Prophet) always be together, so that the necessary balance may be achieved and the great blessing may be completed from Allah to the receiver of the alt. The alt (blessings of Glory) in itself even if it is a blessing from Allah is not guaranteed to last and continue as it is, except if it is connected to and followed up with Peace (Salm) from Allah Most High. Therefore, as much as the alt is a noble matter, the Salm is even more noble (but only in the sense of its succeeding after the alt). As for Salm considered by itself, it does not equal the rank of the alt. The meaning of this alt is the Divines close approach to the slave according to what he deserves and merits, while the meaning of the Salm is the attainment of safety within that mighty approach. So the Salm has no meaning outside the context of the alt, which must precede it. Furthermore, when the immense grant of the alt from Allah to Sayyidina Mu ammad was and is realized, without doubt, according to His Words, Indeed, Prophet Allah and His angels send alt upon the Prophet 8, the command and request to the believers (to send him alt) came un-emphasized. In other words, He did not say allu alayhi altan as He said wa sallimu taslman (a verb form implying emphasis). So it is as if He (Most High) is saying, the theophanic manifestation and the close approach is already realized in abundance for Mu ammad , so frequently ask for strength for him and firm-rootedness, and safety in his spiritual state of receptivity. In reality, requesting strength and firm-footing for him means requesting it for his faithful community, and Allah knows best His intent. So if you ask: why did some of the scholars allow for the invocation of Salm for nonProphets (such as Sayyida Maryam for example), while none of the scholars allowed for the permissibility of invoking alt for them? I say:
7 8

Qurn 10:10 Qurn 33:56

We have mentioned previously that the meaning of the reality of the alt is more exalted than that everyone (other than the Prophets or the angels) should partake of it in themselves, except in the case of it being thru subordination and dependency (to those Prophets). As for the Salm, the most that it can be said to mean is the request for safety and well-being from Allah for the receiving object in terms of his inward relationship with Allah. Therefore, it is fitting and appropriate for every individual among the believers according to his or her spiritual station (maqm), and because of this possibility, those scholars have permitted its invocation on behalf of nonProphets. Furthermore, the Prophets (upon them be blessings and peace) have been singled out with the blessing of receiving the alt together with the Salm from Allah always at the same time, in contrast to the Awliy. For the Awliy could receive only the alt from Allah, or could also receive the Salm but after a delay in time and not at once. For this reason, there might appear from them what would not appear from the Prophets, which would be in contradistinction to the norm of human natural (tab) states. It might even be that there would appear from the Wal what would contravene the Sharah, and that would only be due to the absence of Divine protection for the Wal in that state; and this would be considered receiving the Prophetic inheritance in other than its normal form. As for the firmly-footed inheritors of the Prophets, there does not appear from them in the majority of cases anything which would contravene the Sharah, or contradict the natural and normal state (tab). And we are referring to here the sound and whole natural disposition, not the general commonly-seen disposition. This maintenance of the norm would be because of the transmission of Prophetic inheritance in its normal form. Therefore, by virtue of the combination of the alt and Salm in the Prophet , the possibility is actualized to receive his inheritance in its natural form unchanged (for otherwise it would not be possible). Furthermore, these two Divine graces known in the Sharah as alt and Salm are termed in the technical vocabulary of the Sufis intoxication (sukr) and sobriety (sahw), and annihilation (fan) and subsistence (baq), and other similar pairs Because the aspirations (himma) of the elect are above looking towards the creatures, they are constantly revolving around the Pivot of the Divine Names and Attributes, looking with intent and ardent desire towards what lies behind that, namely, the perfections of the Divine Essence. And Allah gives the slave in accordance with his Himma, and when the Himma is great, it does not ask for or seek except for greater things. In this regard, the Prophet said, If you ask Allah, then make the request great 9. And there is no request more noble, or aspiration greater, than that which turns away from the creation, and attaches to the True Sovereign As for his saying, according to the variations of Your perfections, it is not confined to its ascription to the Divinity (uluhyya), for His perfections are infinite. For this
9

A adth of similar wording was recorded by Tirmidh and Ibn Mjah in their Sunan

reason, he requested Him (Most High) to make Himself known to Mu ammad with all of the variations of His perfections. In other words, whatever perfection of His He reveals to him , there follows an even greater perfection. In this meaning Q Ysuf al-Nabahn said in his amziyya:

You do not cease to be glorified above every above-ness, rising and rising, there being no end or limit to the ascension. former and so on, to what has no bounds, and the later state is better than the former 10. The theophanic manifestations apply similarly in this regard, so there is no end or them limit to them. If you enumerate the blessings of Allah, you will never number them 11 . Since this verse pertains to the Divine acts, it is all the more fitting that this infinitude apply to the Essence and Its Attributes, and Allah is indeed Vast, Knowing Knowing 12.
Know also that it has become the habit of the rifn to deposit and detail some of their experiential knowledge in the words of their salawat upon the noble Prophet , which in turn becomes a means for the spiritual advancement of their students and followers, enabling them to realize some of the hidden aspects of the Divine Being and the realities of messenger-hood (Rislah). Along these lines, in this benediction, the (author) has described Mu ammad as the first of the lights emanating from the Immense Ocean of the Divine Being. From this we understand that he is the primal created light out of which flowed the springs of all created manifestations. It is reported that he said, The first thing that Allah created was my light 13, and from that light all other lights came to be, and by it the various levels and degrees of existence became established. Furthermore, the word light is an expression for that meaning which illuminates all things it comes into contact with, whether it be material or non-material. The former illuminates what is outward, and the later illuminates what is inward; the former is the share of the physical eyes (ab r), the later is the share of the spiritual eyes (ba ir). However, that which comes to mind first (when light is mentioned) is the material light which allows one to see the outward physical manifestations, even though in reality it is secondary in relation to that which is covered (away from physical sight) in the hidden realm of the inward secrets (sarir). In whatever manner the inner root branches outward, its reality is always connected back to its origin in the Single Light: Allah is the Light of the heavens and the earth the earth 14 and that is the Absolute (mujarrad) Light. As for the secondary (i fi) light known and expressed as Mu ammad Allah (Most High) has described it with
10 11

Qurn 93:4 Qurn 16:8 12 Qurn 2:115 13 Recorded on the authority of Jbir ibn Abdullh in the Mu annaf of Abdur-Razzq, who was one of the Shuykh of Bukhr and Muslim from whom they took many adths. 14 Qurn 24:35

His saying: the similitude of His light is the niche 15, where His light is Sayyidina niche Mu ammad . Here, the similitude (tashbh) is descriptive of the adjoining noun (mu af), and not the Object of adjoinment (mu f ilayh) which is the Eternal Divine Light. In this way, the Divine Transcendence is absolved from being touched by any similarity, even though Transcendence (tanzh) becomes Resemblance (tashbh) from Allah the viewpoint of wherever you turn, there is the Being of Allah 16. However, each level of reality demands its own requisite description. Were it intended for the similitude to be applied to the Absolute Light itself, then only the pronoun would be used, and there would be no need to use the genitive construction; and instead of niche as an adjective, He would have used in its place lamp, due to the greater similarity between lamp and light. In addition, this would demand the confinement of all Inward within the Outward (leaving no more unmanifested Inward), making the niche and the glass other than the light, whereas in reality they are light upon light. Therefore, the object and its similitude become united in their aspect of being light, and to Allah do all affairs have their final return 17. return It becomes clear from all this that He (Most Exalted) is an Absolute Light free from all materiality and adjoinment and correlation with anything else, for there is Him nothing like Him 18. The likeness of the created light from Him named Mu ammad, and connected in a subtle manner to the Absolute Single Light is the niche which holds a lamp from the Divine Secret, which is the case based on His Divine Subsistence being behind the existence of every substance (jawhar) and form (ard). Allah is the Light of the heavens and the earth, and the niche has the greatest share of the light of Allah. Whoever obeys the messenger has obeyed Allah Allah 19 . To summarize the above, all that became dense in existence from the Mu ammadan light was alluded to with the word niche, and all that became subtle in existence from that light was alluded to with the word lamp 20. The lamp is the source of light for the glass and niche, and Allah is the Light of the heavens and the earth. A narration states that Allah created the creation in darkness, then he showered upon them from His light 21; meaning He decreed (qaddar 22) their creation in His Eternal Knowledge, then He manifested upon them a share of His Wujd and the context here has drawn us to the explanation of a Qurnic verse which is not our topic, and for which we will devote another writing in shaAllah.
Qurn 24:35 Qurn 2:115 17 Qurn 42:53 18 Qurn 42:11 19 Qurn 4:79 20 Allah knows best the intended meaning of the author, however to the translator it seems that glass would be the more appropriate word here, due to lamp symbolizing the source of light behind both the subtle and dense manifestations in existence. It most likely is a typographical error. 21 Recorded in the adth collections of Imm A mad, Tirmidh, akim, and others. 22 Qaddar here literally means: He apportioned for each created thing a specific measure of being/existence (wujd), or you can say pre-determined a specific capacity for each created things share of wujd.
16 15

The fundamental point is that all things which arise from the most holy emanation, varying in their hidden and physical aspects, have their common source in the Mu ammadan light. From this light branched out all the other lights, which include the heavens and the earth. Nor do we allow the solid density of material manifestations deceive us away from witnessing their source in the (subtle) rays of emanation from the Presence of Divine Holiness. The deception of established variance and complete separation between the outward manifestations arises from the inability of eyes to penetrate thru them. By absolving the Source from any deficiency, then such deficiency is removed from all effects coming from It. Turn your sight, therefore, to the original formation and primary creation, which is light upon disharmony? light, then return your sight, do you see any disharmony? 23. Of course not! You only see inward hiddenness and outward manifestation, and that manifestation is described as light. Whoever is guided to it is truly guided, and Allah guides to His wills light whom He wills 24. He was asked, do you see your Lord? and he responded, Light! How can I see Him? 25 I say: that blinding Light is the veil which prevents the Divine Essence from being perceived or comprehended. Therefore, His veil is also His manifestation, and from the intensity of that manifestation His Being became hidden! The adth mentions: His veil is light 26. Due to the manifestation of that secondary light (Mu ammad ), the Absolute Eternal Light was veiled, and the Light is not perceived except in the light, nor is the hidden seen except in its outward manifestation. He said: 27 Whoever has seen me has seen the Real (al- aqq) , which means, whoever has come to know me experientially has come to know the Real. He does not mean by seeing him seeing that physical form named Mu ammad ibn Abdillh, but rather seeing his reality which flows out from the oceans of the Immensity of the Divine Being, for his being is the locus of His Divine manifestation. It is reported that He said: Neither my earth nor my heaven can encompass Me, but the heart of My believing worshipper encompasses Me 28. That (Mu ammadan) heart is what manifests in all other (believing) hearts, and his spirit in all other spirits, and his self in all other selves. Your creation and your resurrection is all like that of

Qurn 67:3 Qurn 24:35 25 Recorded in the adth collections of Imm Muslim, A mad, Tirmidh, Taylis, Bazzr, and others. 26 Recorded in the adth collections of Muslim, Ibn Mjah, A mad, abarn, Ab Yala, Ibn Hibbn, and others. 27 Recorded in the adth collections of Bukhr, Muslim, Imm A mad, and many others. 28 Imm A mad ibn anbal in his Kitb al-Zuhd recorded something similar as an Israelite tradition in connection to the Prophet Hizqeel (alayh al-salm). However, abarn and others recorded with authentic ( asan) chains the following adth of similar import: Allah has on the earth containers (awani), and the most beloved of containers to Allah is the pure humble heart.
24

23

. Whoever comes to know that soul , and recognizes the spiritual meaning in the sensory form, then his portion of the rays from the Presence of Divine Holiness will never be depleted. Such a quality is only found among a few select individuals who were graced by Allah to have the requisite capacity and preparedness above and beyond the common ability to perceive shared by the general rank of the believing worshippers and these select ones include the Prophets and the elect of the Awliya. Based on the above, the author lauded the station of prophethood in his being verified (muta aqqiq) in the realities of the Divine Names and Qualities in both the hidden and manifest realms. Indeed, he alone is such in the most complete sense, while other than him has a share of that only thru inheritance from and connection to him , for the possessors of knowledge are the inheritors of the Prophets. Our statement that he is alone in that complete verification is because he is the primal manifestation with which the Divine Being manifested Itself; or, we can say in the same vein, he is the first locus on which fell the effects of the Divine Names and Qualities. Therefore, his ontological share of the hidden inward is in accordance with his share in outward manifestation, and similarly his share of firstness is as his share of lastness. By virtue of this he became the great intermediary between the Real and His other creations, for he stated: I was a prophet while Adam was still 30 between water and clay (i.e. as of yet uncreated potential); and his being sent as messenger was delayed until the end of the line of prophets in the world of forms. Thus, he combined between firstness and lastness, alluded to in his words, We are the last ones, who precede before others (sbiqn) 31. In this way the thing comes full circle to end in itself, and the branch reverts to its root, as is the norm of Allahs actions in His creation. Verily, He Who commissioned meeting you with the Qurn will return you to the original place of meeting 32. He also said, alluding to this meaning, Time has now come full circle as it was the moment Allah created the heavens and the earth 33. From this we can understand that prophethood is a circle, or a ring of connected points, each point representing a prophet, and that point which gathers and seals both arcs of the circle represents Mu ammad . From the viewpoint of his unique status of being that gathering point he stated: I am the leader of the children of Adam, and this is without boast 34. However, if we view
29 30

soul one soul

29

Qurn 31:28 Recorded with slight difference in wording (between spirit and body) in the adth collections of Imm A mad, abarn, Bayhaq (in his Dalil), akim, Ibn Ab Shayba, Bazzr, Ab Nuaym, Ibn Ab sim, and many others, with authentic chains. 31 Recorded in the adth collections of Bukhr, Muslim, A mad, Bayhaq, Nas, Ab Yala, and others. 32 Qurn 28:85 33 Recorded in the Sa collection of Bukhr, and others. 34 Recorded in the adth collections of Bukhr, Muslim, Ab Dawd, Tirmidh, Ibn Mjah, A mad, Ab Yala, akim, Ibn Hibbn, abarn, Bayhaq, Bazzr, Ibn Ab Shayba, Abdur-Razzq, and many others.

each point of the circle in itself, we see that each of them can be a connecting point, and from this viewpoint of equality he stated: It is not fit to elevate me above my brother Ynus ibn Matta 35. We do not discriminate between any of His messengers 36, because discrimination is a hole in the completeness of the circle of messengers prophethood, and we have verified that it is one complete unit, its points interconnected with each other, its end point being also its beginning point. Its reality is the great spirit (r ) responsible for imparting revelation from Allah, and this is none other than the Mu ammadan being, the spirit blown into Adam. Therefore, he is the original point of the circle. The poet said in the tongue of the Mu ammadan reality: Indeed, even if I appear to be a descendant of Adam, I have a subtle meaning in him which indicates my fatherhood Based on this, prophethood ultimately belongs to Mu ammad in every point among the circles points it happens to appear, for as we said it is all one complete unit. Whoever beholds it as such after the connection of its points says, We do messengers not discriminate between any of His messengers 37; whereas whoever beholds it before such connection, or his aspiration does not reach to that view, then he says, We believe in some and disbelieve in some 38 and the part cannot contain the meaning of the whole. In this sense we can understand the reality of his being the seal of prophecy, which can be expressed in two ways: 1) that he is the point which connects the separate arcs of the circle, as mentioned before, and 2) that he is the whole circle itself. Prophethood is one meaning, and he is its reality, so he is the seal of prophethood in every sense of the term. We also said that the reality of prophethood is the great spirit which informs and relays from Allah, and not the physical body known and witnessed by the generality. This is the allusion behind the words of Uways al-Qaran when he said: You have only known Mu ammad as the sheath knows the sword, referring to that great spirit which descended into the body, just as the Eternal Word of Allah descended within the Immense Qurn. So the body indicates and points to the spirit, and the Book indicates the Eternal Divine Quality (of Speech). Due to his distinguished virtue of being the relayer of revelation from Allah Most High from the first emanation of Holiness (al-fay al-aqdas), his noble spirit is also the one who took the solemn oath on behalf of all the spirits on the Day of Alast (Am I not your Lord? 39) because he functions as the intermediary in every Divine

35

Recorded in the adth collections of Bukhr, Ibn Mjah, A mad, Hkim, abarn, Bazzr, Ab Yala, and others with slight differences of wording between them. 36 Qurn 2:285 37 Qurn 2:285 38 Qurn 4:149 39 Qurn 7:172

communication; otherwise, what would be the value of his prophethood preceding the creation? For this reason, the author said: and he is the first praiser and worshipper with all acts of worship and means of approach. His being the first praiser is because of his universal light-nature, whereas his being the worshipper with acts of devotion and drawing near is based on the particulars of his being. Imm Nabahn said: Your light is universal, and the creation merely parts of it, O Prophet whose soldiers include all other prophets!

Imm) Allah said, and all things We enumerate within a clear prototype (Imm) 40, and (Imm there is none more clearly worthy of being a prototype than him.
The general allusions (ishart) of the knowers (rifn) indicates the envelopment and containment of all things in his reality . Rational thought finds this indigestible without giving due consideration and effort in understanding the meaning of that envelopment. However, the one whom Allah takes by the hand and shows how the branch proceeds from its root finds that all things without exception are fully contained within the Mu ammad reality. Therefore, he becomes the one who worships with all acts of worship and devotion in this sense. Believing in this takes little effort, but witnessing it is difficult due to the manifestations of variance and incompatibility seen within the different parts of existence, which block the normal view. This opens up only to the one who employs his vision to its fullest capacity and causes it to penetrate to the reality of things, in the aim that this view will appear clearly before him, and there is nothing except it glorifies His majesty in praise of Him Him 41. In any case, the continuance of the existence of variance in existence is insignificant in comparison to the greater universe, and none knows the soldiers of your Lord except He 42. Variance in the viewpoint of Divine acceptance becomes harmony in the it viewpoint of Divine Will, and had your Lord willed they would not have done it 43. We find enough of an explanation in His Words: He said to the heaven and the
44

unwillingly, willingly earth Come (into being) willingly or unwillingly, they both said, We come willingly
. Therefore, for everything we find repugnant in existence, we cannot continue to see any repugnance in it wherever our vision of his reality falls, as the poet said:

Every repugnant thing, when seen in relation to His Act, Rushes to bring before your view the forms of beauty
Qurn 36:12 Qurn 17:44 42 Qurn 74:31 43 Qurn 6:112. For example, how can the existence of Kufr be explained if it all is enveloped in his light? Although existence of kufr is in contradiction to Divine acceptance and pleasure, it is still in harmony with the Divine Will and Plan. 44 Qurn 41:11
41 40

There has occurred to us another example which will bring this understanding closer to you, and that is how the Qurn has gathered within it what one usually finds disparate in other than it. It included mention of sublime matters and base matters, Lordly matters and Pharaonic matters, examples of obedience and rebellion, and so Record on to no end. We did not neglect a single thing in this Record 45. Therefore, it shows variance from the viewpoint of what it discusses, and shows united harmony from the viewpoint of its original reality. We worship Allah by reciting words which entail blasphemy and disbelief, and by reciting words which point to the Divine Essence and Its Qualities. Every phrase among its phrases, in whatever point it purified discusses, cannot be reached except by the purified 46, and that is all in terms of its being attached to the Divine Speech. If, however, you strip them of their Divine origin and context, then it would be unlawful to utter them. Along this understanding, whoever beholds the creation in its reality sees it as a lamp within a niche, seeing the niche from in front. The one who sees the niche from behind does not see it except as dark, because it does not open out to both sides. The interior (of the wall) contains mercy, and the exterior brings forth torment 47. torment

And it does no harm to the suns splendor in the least If the blind of sight does not see it.
As for the authors words: And the one who feeds support to all existent beings in the spiritual and material worlds, they exclude only the realm of Divine Eternity. Therefore, everything else is fed from his reality in the manner of the branchs being fed from its root. And his words and likewise upon his household (l) and companions are clear to understand for everyone in their outward sense. The subtle allusion behind the former refers to the one who seeks and desires (la) with his whole being to reach to the Mu ammadan spring; in other words, to become a close relation to him, so that he becomes included among his household, as the Prophet said: Salmn is 48 among our household . And Imm Nabulus said:

Oh what glory in the tie which bonded Salmn to (him) By the utterance of H, the messenger of Allah, the noblest Prophet! Salmn is among us, indeed part of our household, Even though he is Persian and not an Arab.

45 46

Qurn 6:38 Qurn 56:79 47 Qurn 57:13 48 Recorded in the adth collections of Hkim, abarn, Ibn Ab Shayba, Ab Nuaym, Ibn Sad in his Tabaqt, Ibn Asakir in his Tarkh, and others with authentic chains.

This is the true tie of relation (nasab) which is bequeathed among the members of the Folk (al-Qawm 49). As for the subtle allusion behind companions, it includes those who share in his exalted station (of walya), such as his brothers among the Prophets and the elite of the elect among the Awliy, keeping in mind the rankings of superiority among them: these are the messengers sent by Us, some We favored above others 50. All those others not included in the above group are not granted a share of the Divine alawt in the sense explained in this letter. However, in its general sense, it includes within its scope every believer 51, not to mention his family and progeny may Allah be pleased with them. His saying: a alt which lifts the veil from his noble face in the moments of vision and wakefulness; in other words, make (this alt) for us a means to unveil the cover from his unique reality described above. After this, he (may Allah be pleased with him) became apprehensive and afraid that this vision would impede him from that which is even greater, namely, gathering both visions (Divine and Prophetic) and being firmly established in both presences. So he followed up saying: And cause us to come to recognize You and him in every degree and presence. It is as if he is saying: I ask You, O our Master, that You cause us to know him with a knowledge which does not come in the way of our knowledge of You, and grant us in that a perception of him which does not veil us from perceiving You, so that we fulfill the rights upon us in all degrees (of existence) and presences. This is the dearest and loftiest thing which the people attempt to grasp and reach, and this (combining both Divine and Prophetic visions) is none other than the Straight Path which is sought after as mentioned in His Words: and guide us upon the Path Straight Path 52. It is the rarest thing in existence, and the most difficult to perceive, because it occurs between two disparate realities, so it effectively becomes a combination of opposites, and Allah did not grant to any man to have two hearts him within him 53. However, the facilitation of Allah makes the most difficult paths easy to traverse. Due to this Path being the most delicate and the most demanding in exactitude, and the one traversing it experiencing the most fear and unsettling apprehension, as in his
49

This phrase refers to the people of dhikr among the true Sufis, and comes from the adth of Bukhr and Muslim from Ab Hurayra about the believers who gather together to make collective dhikr of Allah, benefiting even those outside them who sit temporarily with them, because they are such a Folk (Qawm) that none who sit with them become wretched. 50 Qurn 2:253 51 Allah Most High says: He is the One Who sends upon you (believers) His alat, as do the angels, to

bring those who believe out from the darkness into the light, and He is to the believers most merciful merciful
Qurn 33:43. 52 Qurn 1:6 53 Qurn 33:4

saying: I am the closest of you to Allah and the most fearful of Him 54, for as closeness increases so does the risk of destruction, the author said and I say along with him: And be mercifully gentle (lutf) with us, O our Master, by virtue of his sublime rank, in every movement, stillness, moment, and passing thought.

Glory to your Lord, the Lord of Might, transcendent above what they attribute to Him, and Peace be upon the messengers, and Praise belongs to Allah, Lord of the worlds!

54

Recorded in the Sa

adth collections of Bukhr and Muslim.