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nktkrtD O 84 bZy i'Bh

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(r[opkDh dh soe e;tZNh s/)

nktkrtD O
84 bZy i'Bh

gq'H fJzdo f;zx xZrk
(fJzNo B?;aBb f;Zy fw;aBoh)
(w'pH 98551^51699)

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(r[opkDh dh soe e;tZNh s/)

b/ye

gq'H fJzdo f;zx xZrk
w[Zb L 40$^
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gfNnkbk.
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d{ih ;'Xh j'Jh n?vh;B Btzpo 2007

cfsj gpbhe/PBI

feskpK, feskpu/ ns/ ;hHvhH gqkgs eoB bJh gsk

91^ftfdnk Bro, ;kjwD/ gzikph :{Bhtof;Nh,

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gfNnkbk (gzikp). w'pH L 98144^55582

cfsj gpbhe/PBI
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;Gk, pfmzvk ^ (0164^2215252)

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dopko ;kfjp, nzfwqs;o.

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;H pbftzdo f;zx okwg[ok (d'okjk) 01628^687017

b/ye dhnK j'o ouBktK
g[;seK
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2H ;kvk p/Vk fJT[A rofenkHHH.
3H g"okDe eEktK dk nzs.
4H fet/A ehsk ik foj? f;ZyK dk ;opBk;.
5H e;{otko eT[D<
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3H r[o{ noi[B ;kfjp ih
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6H ro[V uV/ r'fpzd nkfJbk
7H fdB[ o?fD ;G ;[jktD/ fgnko/
8H ;G s/ tvk ;fsr[o[ BkBe[
nkvhU ;hHvhI
1H f;Zy f;XksK dk fBy/Vk
(18 xzN/ d' Gkr eEk MP-3)
2H fJfsjk; dk r"ot
(10 xzN/ eEk MP-3)
3H eh fJj f;ZyK d/ fsT[jko jB<
(10 xzN/ eEk MP-3)
4H r[oT[gd/;a eh j?<
(10 xzN/ eEk MP-3)
5H pBko; d/ mZr
(10 xzN/ eEk MP-3)
6H tfjw Gow feT[A<
(10 xzN/ eEk MP-3)
7H r[opkDh dk ukBD
(10 xzN/ eEk MP-3)
8H r[opkDh d/ 52 j[ew
(26 xzN/ d'' Gkr eEk MP-3)
9H f;Zyh s/ wkD
(10 xzN/ eEk MP-3)
10H r[opkDh dk ;Zu
(10 xzN/ eEk MP-3)
11H r[o wkor
(10 xzN/ eEk MP-3)
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12H nodk; eh j?<
(thvhU ;hvh eEk)
13H uVQdh ebk fet/A j't/
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;[nkb i[nkp)
14H eh Boe ;[or j?<
(thvhU ;hvh eEk)
15H Xow ftfdnk dh b'V

(thvhU ;hvh eEk)

nktkrtD O 84 bZy i'Bh

eoB dk T[gd/P ehsk. fJ;/ wB[Zyh ;fGnsk ftu, ekfsb u'o mZr
ns/ j'o pj[s soQK d/ Bhu fposh tkb/ b'e Gh ofjzd/ jB. Xow d/
Bkw s/ dkB g[zB wzso ikg gkm Gh ehs/ eokJ/ iKd/ jB. b'eK dh

;z;ko d/ f;nkD/ wB[Zy, nkgD/ fBZi sZe shws Bk ofje/, e[b
b'ekJh d/ Gb/ bJh isB eod/ jB.Xosh s/ ofjD bJh d{finK Bkb

nkfrnkBsk dk Xkowe gfjokt/ tkb/, Xow ;EKBK ftu p?m/ mZrK
tZb'A, Pow bkj e/, d[oT[g:'r Gh ;dk s'A ehsk iKdk fojk j?.

;bhe/ tkbk ftjko eoB, tk;s/ dkB/ g[oyK tZb'A p'be/ iK fbye/

fe;/ gqtko d/ fJe w?Apo B{z, e'Jh ftrfVnk pzd{eXkoh ekp{

f;ykT[D dhnK e'fPPK ;dk j[zdhnK nkJhnK jB. wB[Zy dh ezw eoB

eo bt/. T[; dh g[VgVh s/ fg;s"b oZye/, gqtko tkfbnK s'A gzi ;Zs

dh Pesh n;hw j?. ftfrnkBe ekYK B/ wB[Zysk B{z feZE'A feZE/ gjz[uk

bZy o{g? dh wzr eo/. toBk w?A j[D/ r'bh ubk fdnKrk. S/sh eo' ;'uD

fdZsk j?, gVQ t/y e/ j?okB ofj ikJhdk j?. ;w[zdo dhnK rfjokJhnK

dk tes BjhA j?. gotkfoe w?Apo dh ikB ;bkwsh bJh fizBh S/sh j'

s'A b? e/ g[bkV dhnK n;hw T[vkDk sZe i/ wB[Zy g[Zfink j? sK fJj

;e/, pzd{eXkoh vke{ B{z w{zj wzrh oew fdZsh iKdh j?.. fJj nsh

ftfrnkBhnK dh neb ns/ w/jBs dk f;ZNk j?. ;fezNK ftu d[BhnK

fBzdD:'r ngokX j?. nfij/ r[v
z / nB;o edh edkJh w"ek^J/^tkodks

pko/ jo soQK dk frnkB gqkgs eoBk, nZi nkw ftnesh dh gj[zu

s/ iK e[ZM ;w/A pkd, dp'u bJ/ iKd/ jB, i/jb dhnK ;bkyK fgZS/ vZe

ftu j?. f;q;Nh dh T[sgsh s'A b? e/, ftBk; sZe pko/ ftfrnkBhnK B/

fdZs/ iKd/ jB. feT[Afe fJj pb?e w/b eoBk j?. id'A Xow dhnK

y'i fbnk j?. wB[Zyh ;oho s'A b? e/ wB d/ ftek; dh gofefonk

ukdoK ftu fbgfNnk wB[y
Z , G'b/ gotkoK B{z GowK ftu gkt/. p[o/ rqfj

(wB'ftfrnkB) pko/ ft;wkd dh jZd sZe y'i j' u[Zeh j?, nr'A fBozso

dk ysok yVk eo/. gkg br ikD dh dfjPs gkt/. x'o BoeK dk y"c

ikoh j?. T[s'A y{ph fJj gJh nZi sZe fe;/ ftfrnkBh B/ fJj c'ek

ftykt/, iK u"ok;h bZy i{BK ftu GNeD dk ;keko fuZso ;kjwD/ gqrN

dkjtk BjhA ehsk fe w/oh y'i jh ‘‘nzsw ;Zu’’ j?. ;r'A j' u[Zeh y'i

eo ftykt/ sK eh T[; tes T[j mZr r[zvk, iK b[N/ok BjhA nkfynk

ftu, brksko ;[Xko iK ftek; j[zdk ofjzdk j?.

ikDk ukjhdk< w[nkc eoBk. fJj bep pj[s S'N/ jB. nfij/ b'eK

d{i/ gk;/ Xow w[ZyhnK B/ pdbt/A YzrK Bkb, d[BhnK B{z pj[s

bJh ‘‘Xkowe pdwkP’’ (pb?e w/bo) nkfynk ikDk T[fus oj/rk.

e[M fdZsk j?. ;w{j
z e o{g ftu, wB[y
Z h ;[Gk B{z xVB tk;s/, ;[shnK ebK

id'A gqf;X fcbw nfGB/soh n?Ptohnk okJ/ ns/ nfGP/e pZuB dk

irkT[D tk;s/, jZe ;Zu s/ gfjok d/D tk;s/, fiT[D ns/ woB pko/

foPsk s?j j'D bZrk sK g[ikohnK B/ ‘‘wzrbhe’’ j'D dk pK; rZv fdZsk.

p/nzs pzd dotki/ Xow B/ y'jb/ jB. i/ edh oZs ghD/ oki/, nkgDh

nfwskp pZuB pj[s nwho j?, T[;B/ dZyD d/ fJe tZv/ wzdo ftu, wjK

goik B{z tZY tZY ykD bZr/, sK jZe ;Zu dk Mzvk cVe/, p/ y"c fjZe

g[ioh B{z 51 bZy o[g? d/ e/ wzrbhe j'D dk frqj T[skoB dh p/Bsh ehsh.

skD e/ Xowh g[oy ikpo je{ws Bkb ik NeokJ/. Xowh g[oyK B/

T[jBK fJe tZvh oew b? e/ Gh phph n?Ptohnk dk ftnkj gfjbK fJe

jh ftekoK s/ ekp{ oZy e/, ;ziw tkbk goT[gekoh ihtB pshs

p'jV Bkb ehsk. sK fe okj{ e/s{ B{z iK oZp ih B{z X'yk fdZsk ik ;e/

[1]

[2]

fe i/ s[;hA fJ; phph d/ gsh dh bZs GZBDh jh j? sK fJ; dk y;w p'jV Bkio ikDe/, nfij/ e[co s'bd/ jB, fiBQK dk e'Jh f;o g?o j[zdk jh
j?, ikT[ T[; dh bZs s'V fdU. id'A nfij/ u'Nh d/ ebkeko pb?ew/b BjhA. ;aow Bkb gkDh gkDh j' ikJhdk j?.
j' ;ed/ jB, sK nkw fJB;kB dh eh wikb j? fe g[ioh nZr/ nZy g[ZN
e/ t/y ;e/<

i/ eo vkeNo wohi B{z efj d/t/ fe GkJh wkw{bh fijh fpwkoh
j?, fceo eoB dh b'V BjhA. nkj r'bhnK ykj, mhe j' ikt/Ark.

r[o{ BkBe ;kfjp pkpk ih B/ jo nvzpo, e{V fefonk s/ J/Bk e[ nkyD Bkb vkeNo B{z gzikj s'A ;" e[ o[g? fwb ikDr/. thj shj
tdkDh ;ZN wkoh j?. g[ikoh dh Bzrh fuZNh b[ZN B{z, Go/ fJeZm ftu jiko sK BjhA fwb/rk. tZvh oew sK sd'A fwb/rh nro wohi B{z
BzfrnK ehsk j?. shoEK, ;qkXK, iZrK, BoeK, ;[orK, iwokiK, XowokiK y"cidk eo/. fGnkBe o'r j'D dk n?bkB eo/. “ngq/PB sK eoBk
uT[ok;h bZy i{BK s/ nktkrtDK B{z, vze/ dh u'N Bkb oZd eo fdZsk. jh gt/rk.’’ dk Yzv'ok fgZN/. fco wodk eh Bk eodk. wohi tb'A
;G e[Vk eoeN trkj wkfonk s/ fJe fBozeko s/ Go';k oZyD bJh vkeNo B{z w{zj wzrh tZvh oew d/Dh jh gt/rh. fJ;/ soQK w[eZdw/ ftu
fejk. c[owkB j? L^

c;/ ftnesh B{z tehb efj d/t/, ‘‘rZb jh e'Jh BjhA, wkw{bh e/; j?,

ig[ sg[ ;ziw eow B ikBk Bkw[ igh gqG{ s/ok..

fJj sK ykoi j'fJnk jh ;wM'.’’ fJzR efje/ tehb tZvh ch; BjhA

r[o gow/;o[ BkBe G/fNU, ;ku? ;pfd fBp/ok..(878)

pN'o ;edk. shj ukbh jIko o[fgnk yok eoB tk;s/ sK ;pzXs

ig sg ;ziw eow ;[y ;kXB, s[fb B eS{n? bkfj..

ftnesh dk sqkj eZYDk gt/rk. d[ydkJh e?d, gqtko s'A ftS'Vk, i/jb

uoB ewb BkBe wB[ p/fXU, uoBfj ;zfr ;wkfj..(1222) ftubh em'o w[PZes, g[fb; dh wko eZ[N dk fGnkBe BePk ftyk e/
Gkt/A r[opkDh B/ Xkowe b'eK d/ c'eN ftukoK B{z fJe tZfYT[A , fdb dfjbke/, tehb w'Nh ch; t;{b eo ;edk j?. (Gb/ tehb, Gb/
oZd ehsk j'fJnk j?. nkw f;Zy ;wki r[opkDh s'A ;ZyDk j?. vkeNo ns/ ;Zu d/ gKXh Xow gqukoeK s'A fywk :kuBk) toBk wkw{bh
:{Bhtof;NhnK d/ b/ykoh ftdtkB, pqkjwDh t?fde ftuko, Xkok d/ e/; dh tZvh ch; e"D d/t/rk<
r[bkw, fgzio/ d/ P/o jB. r[opkDh d/ ukBD ftu g[;seK fbyD dh

fJ; wB'ftfrnkB dh bhj s/ ubfdnK ikD/ iK nDikD/ ftu

Ekt?A ‘‘fjzd{ w[yXkok’’ dk nzr pDe/ fbyd/ jB. Gkos dh J/esk n"o Xkowe u"fbnK ftu ;i/ ;zto/ mZr (n;b ftu pb?e w/bo) fdB oks
nkyzvsk s/ gZpK Gko j' e/ gfjok fdzd/ jB. f;ZyK dk pj[ frDsh Xow fJjh gquko eo oj/ jB. nkj ezw eoB Bkb fJzBk e[ gkg brdk j? .
gqukoe bkDk sK j? jh ‘‘eK;h dk ftdtkB dkjVh e/;K tkbk pqkjwD’’. T[ ; gkg B{ z T[ s koB tk;s/ fJz B / e[ shoEK s/ ikDk gt/ r k. fJsB/
f;Zyh ;o{g tkb/ fJ; pqkjwD B/ ;zsK wjKg[oyK pqjw frnkBhnK tb'A ;kXK d/ uoB g{iD/ j'Dr/ s/ fJzB/ ;ko/ wzso ikg eotke/ fJsBk dkB
(;e{bK ekbiK ftu'A Bjh), v/fonK Ne;kbK s/ fNekfDnK ftu'A, Xow eoBk gt/rk. fJ; soQK ehfsnK ;ko/ gkgK dh Bftosh eoBh ;kvh
ftfdnk gqkgs ehsh j[zdh j?. nfij/ wjKg[oy (n;b ftu wjKw{oy) rozNh j?. ;kT{ g[Zs pDe/ id'A g[ikoh nZr/ ngDk ;G e[M fBSkto eo
tZv/ Got/A fJeZmK ftu, r[o{ rqzE ;kfjp dh ji{oh ftu, oZp B{z jkio fdZsk fco i{Bh uzeo (84 bZy i{BK) ysw. s[jkv/ fJe fJe ;tk; dk
[3]

[4]

fuZso r[gs fj;kp oZyd/ jB. s[jkv/ tZb'A ehs/ rJ/ ;ko/ uzr/ wzd/ ezwK

o/bK iK jtkJh ijkiK dk gqpzX th ehsk j't/rk. fJjBK ;ko/ fGnkBe

B{z fbyd/ ofjzd/ jB. fJjBK gkgK g[zBK dk b/yk i'yk nZr/ Xowoki d/

ezwK B{z fBofpxB ubd/ oZyD bJh, pj[s tZvk ftGkr y'jfbnk frnk

;g[od eo fdzd/ jB. g{oh SkDphD s'A wro'A, Xowoki fwE/ ;w/A

j't/rk. T[; ftGkr ftu ezw eoB tkb/ pzd/, fejVh Xosh s'A wzrtkJ/

w[skpe, ;[or iK Boe ftu G/idk j?. iK fco ehs/ ezwK w[skpe feP/

iKd/ jB< T[j sBykjdko jB, fe trko ftu jh cVe/ bkJ/ j'J/ jB<

i'Bh ftu gk fdzdk j?. i'Bh Gh ehs/ ezwK w[skpe P/o, frZdV, pZeoh,

fco T[jBK w[bkIwK dhnK ihtB b'VK g{ohnK eoB tk;s/, T[E/ tZv/

;Zg, ehV/ wZSo iK wZyh e[M Gh.

pkiko, s/ ;N'o Gh j'Dr/< ;e{b ekbi, y/Y w?dkB, nktkikJh d/

fuZso r[gs feE/ ofjzd/ jB < e'Jh ;p{sK ;fjs BjhA efj

;kXBHHH< nZyK y'jbe/ t/y' j'o ;kok ;kwkB sK T[go feZE/ ikDk ;h,

;edk. T[jBK d/ ekri gZso, p?mD yb'D dh EK, ykDk ghDk, NZNh^fgPkp,

;r'A ;oho Gh fJE/ jh Xosh s/ fwZNh ftu fwZNh j' e/ fwb iKdk j?.;ko/

fJPBkB nkfd dk eh gqpzX j?< d[BhnK ftu bZrgr S/ nop fJB;kB

;ohoh sZs, w[V nkg' nkgD/ sZsK ftu tkg; bhB j' iKd/ jB. r[otke

w"i{d jB. fJzB/ e[ jh fuZso r[gs wzBD/ g?Dr/< j' ;edk j?, ;kfonK

jB^

XowK tkfbnK d/ fJj fuZso r[gs tZy' tZyoh uhi j'D< iht izs{nK d/

gtB? wkfj gtB[ ;wkfJnk.. i'sh wfj i'fs ob ikfJnk..

w'fYnK s/ Gh fuZso r[gs io{o ;tko j'Dr/. feT[Afe gP{nK gzShnK

wkNh wkNh j'Jh J/e.. o'tBjko/ eh etB N/e..(885)

vZv{nK wZShnK i' e[M eodhnK jB, T[j fj;kp fbye/ jh T[jBK B{z

r[opkDh ftu eJh gzeshnK nfijhnK fwb iKdhnK jB fiBQK

BfyZX i'Bh ftu'A eZYe/, wB[yk i'Bh tZb fbnKdk ik ;e/rk< fco Xow

s'A nDikD g[D/ ftu (iK ;/teK s'A u'yk wkb b[ZN b?D dh wB;k sfjs)

oki s/ T[;dk fvgkoNw?AN feZE/ j?< fezBk tZvk j?< fezB/ ;w/A s'A ezw

nktkrtD (84 dk r/V) dk Gow yVk j' iKdk j?. fJjBK gzeshnK dh

eodk nk fojk j?< i' Xow (Jh;kJh, w[;bwkB, :j{dh, p'Xh, i?Bh,

nkV b? e/, b/ykoh iK p[bkok nktkrtD d/ jZe ftu nV yb'Adk j?.

gko;h nkfd nktkrtD B{z BjhA wzBd/) fJ; wfjew/ s/ ftPtkP BjhA

feT[Afe f;ZyK dh ;wkie tos'A ftjko, pqkjwDh ebuo ftu v[p
Z / j'J,/ fjzd{

eod/ T[jBK d/ fj;kp bJh eh gqpzX j?< Xow oki dh T[wol ofjDk

;wki Bkb g?Adh j?. nypko fo;kb/ ;b/p; dhnK feskpK, fcbwK ns/

gfjBDk p'bh nkfd pko/ e'Jh d; ;e/rk< fco Xowoki B/ e'jb{ rZv/

NhH thH u?BbK okjhA fjzd{ g"okDe ejkDhnK B{z ;Zu ;kps eoB dh

j'J/ jB. gkghnK B{z T[jBK ftu ghVdk j?. s/b d/ eVkj/ T[FZpb oj/

g[oi'o e'fPP ehsh iKdh j?. id'A fe fJjBK ebfgs ejkDhnK dk e'Jh

jB, gkghnK B{z T[jBK ftu T[pkfbnk iKdk j?. T[E/ d/ ekfozd/ fGnkBe

ftfrnkBe nXko BjhA j?. dbhb dh eZ;tZNh s/ fJj eEktK edh

dzdK tkb/, f;zrK tkb/, g{SK tkb/, vokT[DhnK PebK tkb/HHH.

yohnK BjhA T[sohnK. fJjBK ftub/ gkso jh n;b ftu nD j'J/

fJT[A gqshs j[zdk j? fe Gkos ftub/ m/e/dkoK s'A eVkj/ e'jb{,

jB. Gkt fiBk dk edh iBw j'fJnk jh BjhA. id'A fe r[opkDh ftu

bZeVhnK, s/b nkfd ;kwkB Gh ;qhwkB Xowoki T[go wzrtkT[Adk

jh E'e d/ fj;kp Bkb fJjBK e{V gksoK dh n;bhns uzrh soQK Bzrh

j't/rk. fJj nfwDtk wkb T[go G/iD bJh, NoZeK Nq?eNoK, y'fsnK,

ehsh fwb iKdh j?. Xow oki, iwoki, fuZso r[gs ns/ Boe ;[or

[5]

[6]

B{z ‘‘vze/ dh u'N’’ Bkb BekoB tkb/ gqwkD r[opkDh ftu'A p/nzs fwb

noE ftuko ^ j/ GkJh ` fJj' fij/ pqjkwDk B{z wkfJnk d/ w'j

iKd/ jB.
Gbk fJj g[ikoh tor nktkrtD fto'Xh r[opkDh c[owkB

ftu v[p/ ikD', fijV/ fBd'P/ pzfdnK B{z Gh B[e;kB g[ukD dhnK ;'uK

feT[A gV/rk, ;zrsK B{z feT[A ;[DkJ/rk< id'A fJ; soQK eoB Bkb T[;d/

;'ud/ ofjzd/ jB. T[uh iks dk j'Dk, iK t/dK ;k;soK dk frnksk j'Dk,

nkgD/ o"irko d/ ;kXB pzd j'D dk ysok j't/. ;dhnK s'A jh g[ikoh

tZv/ nj[d/ s/ j'Dk, Gh T[jBK B{z roe j'D' puk BjhA ;edk. i/ T[j fpBk

b'N{ N'b/, w B[ysk B{z w{oy pDk e/, b[ZNd/ nk oj/ jB. T[jBK dh w/jBs

tiQk d{finK dk p[ok ;'ud/ jB. ojkT[..

B{z veko oj/ jB. nDikD rohp tor dk vheK bke/ y{B gh oj/ jB.

j/ GkJh ` nfij/ b[N/o/ g[ikohnK dk jkb t/y'. G'b/ Gkb/ ;/te

fizdrh dhnK ;kohnK ;[y ;j{bsK G'r oj/ jB. fpBQK vZek d{jok

(iiwkB) sK pjsk dkB d/ e/, g{ik wkBsk eod/ jB. go t/y' g[ioh

ehfsnK, fpBK ;oho B{z skn fdfsnK, pr?o g;hB/ dh fJe p{zd

;G e[M b? e/ Gh T[jBK dk XzBtkd BjhA eod/. dkB dZSDk b? e/ Gh

pjkfJnK ik fpBK ;oho w?bk ehfsnK, feosh fJB;kB s'A nkgDhnk

fJjh ikjo eod/ jB fe n;hA sK ;/teK dk gqb'e ;ztko oj/ jK. go

ukbkehnK Bkb XB gdkoE b[ZN fbnk iKdk j?. fJ; M{m/ ftPtkP Bkb

n? g[ikoh b[N/o/ ` fJjBK wzd ekfonK Bkb s{z nkgD/ ;wki B{z popkd

fe s[jkB{z nrb/ iBw ftu eJh r[DK eoe/ fdZsk ikt/rk. s[jkvh

eo fojk j?A. :kd oZyh, fJjBK rohpK B{z b[ZNe/ yKdk, s{z y[d Gh spkj

G?VhnK i{BK s'A Gh pzd ybk;h eotk fdZsh ikt/rh. p/ukok Bk;wM

j' ikt/Ark. s?B{z nzs gSskDk gt/rk.

PoXkb{, y[Ph ftu c[fZ bnk BjhA ;wMkT[Adk, gJh Xow w[yh B/ w/o/ T[go

j/ GkJh ` T[AR sK fJj g[ikoh (pqkjwD, ;kX ;zs s/ f;yK d/

fesBk tZvk T[geko ehsk j?. fezBh w[;hps MZb e/ w/o/ ;ko/ gkg r[Bkj

g[ikoh) nkgD/ nkg B{z Xow g[;seK d/ wkfjo gqrN eod/ jB. go

w[nkc eotk fdZs/. fJ;/ mZrh B{z p/god eoB tkbk fJe Ppd gV' ^

fJjBK d/ wBK ftu b'G bkbu mkmK wkodk j?. fJj sK tk;BktK ftu

dkB[ d/fJ efo g{ik eoBk.. b?s d/s T[B[ w{efo goBk..

jbe/ j'J/ (jbe/ e[s/ tKr) x[zw oj/ jB. nkgD/ nkgB{z ftdtkB Gh

fis[ dfo s[w j? pqkjwD ikDk.. fss[ dfo s{ jh j? gS[skDk..

ikjo eod/ jB. d{finK B{z frnkB d/D i'r/ BjhA jB. go d{finK dh

n?;/ pqkjwD v{p/ GkJh.. fBokgokX fustfj p[fonkJh.. ojkT[..

fBzdk dk Gko f;o s/ io{o u[Zeh fcod/ jB.

nzsfo b'G[ fcofj jbekJ/.. fBzdk eofj f;fo Gko[ T[mkJ/..

j/ GkJh ` wkfJnk d/ w'j ftu v[Zp e/ fJj g[ikoh b'e nkgD/

wkfJnk w{mk u/s? Bkjh.. Gow/ G{bk pj[sh okjh..

ihtB dh nkswe g{zih b[Nk p?m/ jB. fJjBK bkbuhnK B{z oZp sK G[b

pkjfo G/y eofj xB/o/.. nzsfo fpfynk T[soh x/o/..

jh frnk j?. wkfJnk ftu nzBk j'e/ fJj g[ikoh N'bk, y[d e[okj/ g?

nto T[gd/;? nkfg Bk p[M.
? . n?;k pqkjwD[ ejh B ;hM?..

u[Zfenk j?, s/ nkw b'eK B{z e[okj/ gk fojk j?.

w{oy pkjwD gqG{ ;wkfb.. d/ys ;[Bs s/o? j? Bkfb..

j/ GkJh ` nfij/ g[ikohnK d/ nzdo wkfJnk dk bkbu v/ok

ej[ BkBe i/ j'th Gkr[.. wkB[ S'fv r[ouoBh bkr{.. (372)

iwkJh p?mk j?. pkjo'A b'eK B{z GowkT[D tk;s/, Xkowe nkr{ j'D dk

[7]

[8]

ftyktk eoB bJh eJh soQK d/ fdbeP Xkowe gfjokt/ (G/y) gfjBdk j?. ns/ p[ZX Xow nktkrtD B{z ;theko BjhA eod/. id'A fJjBK ;ko/
j/ GkJh ` nfijk gkyzvh Xkowe ftnesh, d{finK B{z sK pj[s XowK B{z wzBD tkfbnK dk ‘‘i{Bh uZeo” s'A fpBK pVk ;'jDk tes
Xow T[gd/P eodk j?, y[d T[; Xow d/ n;{bK B{z Bk ;wMdk j? s/ Bk r[io fojk j?. jIkoK ;kb s'A fJjBK B{z e'Jh n"eV BjhA nkJh. fco
ewkT[Adk j?. nfijk gkyzvh g[ikoh g{oh wB[ysk bJh Gko j?.

f;ZyK dh e/jVh wip{oh j? fe nktkrtD B{z f;o s/ u[Zeh fcoB < ykb;/

j/ BkBe ` fJj w{oy pqkjwD (g[ikoh tor)_ gqwkswk B{z sK dh nZvoh ;[szso j;sh T[ikro eoB bJh, pqkjwDh rqzEK ftubk ;kok
:kd eodk BjhA wkfJnk fJeZmh eoB bJh mZrhnK wkodk j?. :kd oZy ` e{Vk euok j{zM e/ f;Zy wBK ftu'A eZYDK nsh io{oh j?. i/ f;Zy ;wki
gqwkswk s/o/ ;ko/ ehs/ ezwK B{z t/ydk j?. j"bh j"bh b'eh (r[o{ dh wZs T[jh ;BksB ohsK o;wK ftu rofenk fojk, fco fBnko/ j'D dh vhAr
b? e/) ;wMdko pD oj/ jB s/ g[ikohnK d/ ikb ftu'A fBeb oj/ jB. Bk wkoh ikt/. fJ; ftP/ Bkb ;pzXs ft;Eko ;fjs ikDekoh b?Dh ukj'
s{z nkgDh T[uh iks ns/ pj[sh gVQkJh dk jzeko SZv d/j. ni/ Gh ;jh sK s/oh g[;se ‘‘r[opkDh dh e;tZNh s/ g"okDe eEktK dk nzs”,
okj s/ nk ik, wkD jzeko fsnkr e/, r[o{ dh PoBh Y?j gT[. s/ok gV b?Dh.
ihtB ;zto ikt/rk.

;fsr[o{ ;kfjp ih B/ r[opkDh T[gd/P okjhA, rZi tZie/ pqkjwDh

T[go tofDs Ppd ftu'A gkmeK B/ gVfbnk j?, g[ikoh bkDk gqzgoktK B{z fJe tZfvUA oZd ehsk j?. fJjBK gkyzv eowK d/ w{b ;q's
fet/A b'ekJh B{z mZrdk j? s/ y[d d[ZX X'sk s/ Xow dh gftso w{os Gh t/dK B{z w{b'A Bekfonk j?. okwkfJD s/ wjKGkos B{z go/ ;[ZN fdZsk j?.
fXCkD/ pD yb'Adk j?. fJE/ :kd oj/ fJ;bkw Xow ftu, fjzd{nK tkbk rhsk ns/ nmkoK g[okDk, fBezw/ f;ZX ehs/ jB. wzB{ f;fwqsh dhnK iVK
nktkrtD BjhA j?. wB[Zy w"s s'A pkd epo ftu dZp fdZsk frnk. g[ZN fdZshnK jB. GowK ftu gke/, b[ZNe/ ykD tkb/ g[ikoh N'b/ B{z v{zx/
T[;dh o{j (iK nkswk) efEs s"o s/ epo T[go p?mh ‘‘fenkws’’ N'J/ ftu dcB ehsk j?. fco fJjBK tZbA' fbyhnK s/ gqukohnK ejkDhnK,
(gob'Of;qPNh dk ykswk) dh T[vhe eodh j?. fJ; soQK bZyK eo'VK r[ows ftu gqtkB fet/A j' ;edhnK jB< r[opkDh B/ fJ;/ w"i{dk ihtB
o{jK, epoK s/ p?mhnK G[Zy s/j, rowh ;odh podkPs eo ojhnK B{z, pzXB w[es s/ ;[yh pDkT[Dk b'funk j?, Bkfe e'Jh nrb/ iBwK d/
jB. id'A fenkws nkt/rh sK w[jzwd ;kfjp pfjPs (;tor) ftu'A bko/ bkJ/ jB. e[M Ppdktbh r[opkDh ftu ni/jh tosh rJh j? fe
Xosh s/ nkT[Dr/. ;kohnK o{jK B{z ehs/ eowK w[skpe ;tor iK v{x
z h y'i s'A pr?o, fe;/ n;{b pko/ c?;bk ;[Dk d/Dk tkip BjhA. i/ fJe
Boe ftu G/iDr/. fiBK B/ w[jzwd s/ ftPtk; ehsk T[j ;ko/ ;tor Ekt/A gkme B{z r[opkDh ftu'A nktkrtD dh gq'Vsk j[zdh wfj;{; j' ojh
ftu ikD d/ jZedko j'Dr/. pkehnK B{z d'iy dh nZr ftu ;VBk gt/ j? sK fe;/ j'o Ekt/A nktkrtD dk ;g;N fto'X fbfynk fwb ikt/rk.
rk. fJ;/ soQK fJ;kJh ns/ :j{dh Xow tkfbnK dk ftPtkP j?, feT[Afe r[o{ ;kfjp nkgD/ ftukoK dh y[d jh ekN eo ;eDr/< BjhA ih ` fJj
fJjBK ;kfonK dk w{b ;o's Xow :j{dh Xow jh j?. fjzd{nK dk e'Jh ;kvh ;wM dh ewh j?.fe;/ j'o EK tkb/ r[opkDh gqwkD B{z ftukoe/ e'Jh
gZek fB:w BjhA j?. fJjBK d/ Xow rqzEK d/ tZy' tZyo/ ftuko jB. i?B e/Adoh fBoDk fbnk ikDk ukjhdk j?. nkU j[D fJe fJe eoe/
[9]

[10]

g"okDe b[ZN ftXhnK dh uho ckV eohJ/ ns/ t/yhJ/ ;kv/ f;Zy b/ye,

B{z G'bhnK ;zrsK d/ nzsPeoD ftu Xe/bh ik oj/ jB.

g[ikoh (iZEd
/ koK) s/ gqukoe, feBk nDj'JhnK iK wB'ebfgs ejkDhnK

fBjezNe[ fBje/tb[ ejhn?..XBzi? ifb Efb j? wjhn?..

B{z f;ZyK d/ wZE/ wVQ oj/ jB. Bkb jh gktB r[opkDh d/ ‘‘j[ewBkw/’’

fwos b'e gfJnkb ;whgs n;fEo EkB[ fi;[ j? nGrk.. (1083)

dh T[bzxDk Gh eo oj/ jB.

nktkrtD O nktkr"D^ fJ; dk Ppdh noE j?, nktkikJh,

b'e L “b'e dk noE j? ;z;ko dk fjZ;k iK Gkr. fJ; B[z GtB Gh fejk

nkDk ikDk. Xkowe y/so ftu fJ;dk noE j?, eowK d/ cb nB[;ko

frnk j?. g[okD ;kfjs ftu ;kXkoD s"o s/ b"eK dh frDsh fszB wzBh

;z;ko ftu iBw b?Dk ns/ woBk. fJ; wkBsk dk w{b, ‘‘eow’’ j?.

iKdh j? ^ ;torb'e, fgqEth b'e s/ gkskb b'e. eJh jkbsK ftu

eow (ehs/ j'J/ uzr/ wzd/ ezw) dk cb, fjzd{ ws nB[;ko, ntZP G'rDk

fJjBK dh frDsh u"dK ehsh rJh j?. fJjBK ftu'A ;s b'e T[go s/ ;s

g?Adk j?. fJ;B{z eow pzXB fejk iKdk j?. fJ; ftu'A fBebDk ;"yk

j/mK wzB/ rJ/ jB. u"dK b'e fJj jB ^ G{b'e, G[tb'e, ;tor b'e,

BjhA, feT[Afe fJ;dk gqGkt nBkfd j?.

wjb'e, iBb'e, sg'b'e, s/ ;s:b'e, j/mK tkb/ ;Zsb'e fJj dZ;/ jB

;t/sk ;toso T[gfBPd (5’7) ftu dZf;nk frnk j? fe

^ nsb b'e, ftsb b'e, ;[sb b'e, o;ksb b'e, sbksb b'e, wjksb

ihtnkswk r[DK Bkb pzfBnk j'fJnk cb^dkfJe ezw eodk j?. T[;

b'e ns/ gkskb b'e.
fJ; s'A fJbktk fPt g[okD w[skpe b'e j'o jB ^ fgqEth b'e,
;{oi b'e, uzdob'e, BSZso b'e, ;[Zeo b'e, p[ZX b'e, G'w b'e,
pqj;gsh b'e, SfBZuo b'e nkfd. fJjBK s'A T[go eowtko fJj b'e
jB = ;gs foPh b'e, Xo[tb'e, wj b'e, iB b'e, sg b'e ns/ ;fsn
b'e. f;Zy Xow ftu b"e dh gozgokrs ns/ g"okDe wkBsktK B{z
gqtkBrh BjhA j?. go ;wki ftu ;tor s/ gskb dhnK rbK gqubs
jB. ( f;Zy gzE ftPt e'P^oH;H iZrh gzBk 1565)

ftuko L gkme iB' ` fJjBK ;ko/ “b"eK” dh j'Ad pko/ e'Jh

d/ ehs/ j'J/ eowK dk G'r eoB bJh, tZy^tZy soQK d/ o{gK tkbhnK i{BK
ftu rwB eodk j?. fJe eow s'A d{i/ eow dh bVh nN[ZN j?.
eow^cb B{z G'rD bJh iht nkswk dk d/j Bkb ;pzXs j'Dk AiBw j?.
fJe fB;fus ;w/A T[s/ gzi G{se d/j iK ;oho dk BPN j'Dk w"s j?.
iBw woB B{z gqkgs j'D tkbhnK T[sw ns/ Bhu, e[b
Z 84 bZy i{BK jB.
fJjBK ;kohnK i{BK ftu'A wB[y
Z i{B T[sw j?. uzr/ ezwK okjhA iht T[sw
i{B ftu s/ p[o/ ezwK okjhA BhthA i{B ftu iBw b?Adk j?. fJj ;oho
pdbD dh fefonk, ;dk ubdh ofjzdh j?. fJ;/ B{z “nktkrtD” fejk

;p{s BjhA fJe tZfvT[A M{m d/ nzpko jB. e'Jh ;wMdko fJB;kB

iKdk j?. fJ;kJh ws s/ fJ;bkw nkfd XowK tkb/ fJ; nktkrtD tkb/

fJjBK rg"VK s/ ftPtkP feT[A eo/rk< pqkjwD fbykohnK tb'A fJjBK

f;XKs B{z BjhA wzBd/. *f;Zy gzE ftPt e'P vkH oH;H iZrh gzBk 123)

pZsh “b'eK” dh nr'A pVh nB[gw ftnkfynk ehsh j'Jh j?. id'A fe

ftukoL T[go toBD ehs/ rJ/ r'oy Xzd/ B{z gkmeK B/ gVQ fbnk j?.

fJj jtk ftu sbtkoK wkoB tkbh rZb j?. y[d nzB/ wB[y
Z , ny"sh Xow

fJjBK e[co ejkDhnK dk e'Jh f;ok BjhA bGdk. r[ows Bkb fJjBK

g[;seK okjhA, ;wki B{z d/t b'e dk okj d; oj/ jB. g[okDe pqkjwDh

dk d{o dk Gh e'Jh brkT[ BjhA j?. r[opkDh ftu nDfrDs tkoh fJjBK

;'u ftu Yb/' b/ye s/ gqukoe, p/ y"c r[o{ dh jkioh ftu fJ; e[co

M{mhnK wkBsktK B{z oZd ehsk frnk j?. go f;ZyK dk pj[frDsh gqukoe

[11]

[12]

bkDk ‘‘eKPh ftubh fpgoh ftfdnk dk dhtkBk’’ j' e/ f;Zy Xow

i/ j'o pj[s ;ko/ ezwK B{z Xow w[yhnK B/ ‘‘p[o/ ezw’’ n?bkfBnk j'fJnk

dhnK ‘‘pzXB w[es” ;[zdo wkBsktK B{z eZy'A j"bhnK eo fojk j?.

j?, sK eh M{m p'bDk, f;ZX/ ;kd/ b'eK B{z r[wokj eoBk, Gowk ftu gk

efjzd/ jB fe fJB;kB B{z p[o/ ezwK s'A toi e/ uzr/ gk;/ bkT[d bJh, i/

e/ b[ZN e/ ykDk, gkg eow BjhA< y[d jZEh feos Bk eoBh, BoeK d/

G?VhnK i{BK iK Boe nkfd dk vo fdZsk ikt/ sK eh p[okJh j?< ‘‘gqsZy

vokt/ d/ e/ d{finK dh ewkJh B{z veko ikDk, gkg eow BjhA < y[d

B{z gqwkD dh b'V BjhAA’’ dh ejkts w[skpe fJj i{BK dk G? ;[Xko tk;s/

B{z wjK Xowh ns/ T[u/ dZ;Dk, go d{finK B{z gkgh s/ Bht/ rodkBDk,

BjhA, ;r'A b[ZN e/ ykD bJh j?. fi; Gkos d/P ftu fJj ejkDhnK E'e

eh gkg eow BjhA j?< fco i/ e'Jh j'o Boe fes/ (efEs) j? sK T[;

ftu gqubs jB, T[;/ d/P ftu ;G s'A tZX X'y/ b[ZNK esb, pbkseko

Boe ftu fJjBK jh e[eowhnK B{z BjhA ;[fNnk ikDk ukjhdk < nkgD/

s/ foPtsK uZb ojhnK jB. f;sw fJj fe nkw b'e jh BjhA oki B/

nkg B{z oZp dk o{g, pqjwfrnkBh 108, ftfdnk wkoszv nytkT[D

sk jh BjhA, ;r'A Xow d/ wy"fNnK tkb/, uwed/ Xkowe u"fbnK tkb/,

tkfbnK bJh jh 84 bZy i{BK BjhA T[vhe ojhnK < nkw fJB;kB

tZv/ Xow n;EkBK d/ w[yh BoeK dk dfjb gkT[D tkb/, y[d nsh

nfij/ pZio gkg eo jh BjhA ;edk, fizB/ tZv/ r[Bkj fJj ny"sh Xowh

PowBke eko/ eod/ nk oj/ jB.

b'e eod/ jB.

i/ fJe ;fezN bJh ;theko eo bJhJ/ fe i{Bh uZeo d/ vo

nkohnB b'eK B/ gzi e[ jiko ;kb gfjbK Gkos s/ jwb/

ekoB, wB[Zy wzd/ ezw BjhA eo/rk sK ehV/ ekY/, vZv{ wZShnK, rK wZM,

eoB/ P[o{ ehs/. fJZEA' d/ S'N/ oki/ T[jBK dhnK wekohnK, gb gb dhnK

y'sk, P/o uhsk nkfd ed'A ‘‘uzr/ ezw eod/ jB<” iK nZi sZe fJjBK

p/JhwkBhnK nZr/ jkod/ ub/ rJ/. nkjw' ;kjwD/ dh izr ftu i' esb'

ihtK B{z fe;/ B/ Grsh sgZf;nk iK dkB g[zB eod/ t/fynk j? < ubhj/

rkos j[zdh j?, T[;s'A brgr ;ko/ tkec jh jB. jkohnK j'JhnK e"wK

eNfdnK, wzso ikg eofdnK, ;wkXhnK bkT[AfdnK iK f;woD eofdnK

s/ i/s{ dfozd,/ i' nEkj i[bw eod/ jB, T[j fpnkB BjhA ehs/ ik ;ed/.

fe;/ iht B{[z t/fynk j? < fco fJjBK gkyzvh gqukoeK s'A Go/ fJeZmK

fJE'A dh g{oh doktV ;fGnsk, fwZNh ftu fwbk fdZsh rJh. Xow

ftu i[nkp sbph eoe/ feT[A Bk g[ZfSnk ikt/ < dZ;' fJj gP{ gzSh

n;EkB spkj eo fdZs/ rJ/. phphnK pZfunK B{z r[bkw pDk fbnk

wB[Zyk i{B tb fet/A gj[zud/ jB < ;kohnK i{BK ftu'A BhthA i{B fejVh

frnk. ;G soQK dh ikfJdks y'j bJh rJh. jko/ j'J/ b'eK dh

j? < eowtko T[; s'A T[gobh uzrh i{B fet/A gqkgs j[zdh j? < fJ; soQK

‘‘fe;ws’’ ftu ;dk bJh G[Zyk Bzrk (P{do) ofjDk fby fdZsk frnk.

dk fBoDk eoB bJh eh g?wkBk fwfEnk iKdkj?< fco eh fBozeko s'A

i' nZi Gh pkd;s{o ikoh j?. i/ ;Zu wzB bJhJ/ fe p[o/ ezwK s'A pkd

rbsh j' rJh fe T[; B/ p/ns
z ‘‘BfyZX” i{BK g?dk eo fdshnK < oZp

wB[Zy 84 bZy i{BK G'rdk j?. iK fco BoeK d/ s;hj/ Mbdk j?. fco

B/ fJjBK g[ikohnK B{z e'Jh nfijk nfXeko gZso fdZsk j?. fi; dh

r"o c[owkU. T[j fGnkBe ePN ns/ e[zGh Boe nkohnB b'eK B{z

pd"bs fJj b'e, fi; B{z fdb ukj/ ‘‘BoeK dk ehVk” x'fPs eo d/

feT[A Bk fwb/ < Gkos dk pqkjwD, n;b ftu pd/P ftu'A nkfJnk

D< id'A fdb eo/ fe;/ B{z “;tor dk okik” j'D dk n?bkB eo d/D<

nkohnB B;b tkbk j?. fjzd[;skB d/ jo fJe g[oksB rqzE ftu

[13]

[14]

fJjBK B{z ‘‘nkohnB’’ fbfynk j'fJnk j?. fJj pqkjwD (nkohnB)

s[jkvh ‘‘fe;ws’’ ftu fbyh j'Jh j?. feT[Afe s[;hA fgSb/ iBwK

nZi se y[d ;ko/ ‘‘gkgK’’ s'A gke jB. fJjBK tZb'A fbskV/ gSkV/ rJ/

ftu ‘‘gkg‘‘ ehs/ ;B. fJ; iBw ftu ehs/ ‘‘gkgK’’ dh ;ik sK

b'e, ni/ Gh ‘‘gkgh’’ jB< tkj fenk bki[nkp fJB;kc j? <

s[jkB[z ;theko eoBh jh gt/rh. s[jkvh fizdrh ftu e'Jh pdbkU

r"fonK B/ fJzrb?Av s'A T[m e/ nwqhek B{z nkgDh p;sh pDk

BjhA nk ;edk.’’ r[o{ ;kfjpkB B/ fdB oks w/jBs ehsh. f;ZyK B/

fbnk. T[EA' d/ n;b t;Bhe ‘‘o?v fJzvhnBI” B{z nkgD/ r[bkw pDk

w"s B{z ‘‘wy"bK’’ ehshnK. f;nkDg ns/ db/oh Bkb, bzwh izr bVh, sK

fbnk. j"bh j"bh T[jBK dh B;b yksw/ d/ B/V/ g[uk fdZsh rJh. nZi

feXo/ fszB ;" ;kb wro'A, f;ZyK dh ‘‘fe;ws’’ ftu'A r[bkwh eZYh ik

T[j b'e r'fonK bJh e/tb wB'oziB dk ;kXB jB. d{o p;shnK ftu

;eh. BjhA sK ‘‘fgSb/ iBwK’’ dhnK rbshnK dh ;ik G[rs oj/

XZe fdZs/ rJ/ jB. r'fonK B[z fJ; i[bw dk e'Jh gkg BjhA bZfrnk.

;B.

e?B/vk T[s/ r'fonK B/ epik eo fbnk. T[E'A dh jo ehwsh t;s{

j[D nrb/ fjZ;/ ftu n;hA r[opkDh ftu'A gqwkDK dh nrtkJh

r'fonK d/ g?oK EZb/ j?. e?Bv
/ k dh n;b ;fGnsk ysw eo fdZsh rJh.

ftu ikBD dh e'fPP eoKr/ fe ‘‘nktkrtD’’ dk e[uZeo eh j? < eow

r'fonK B{z fco Gh e'Jh gkg BjhA fuzpfVnk. nk;Nqb
/ hnk ns/ fBT[ihb?Av

f;XKs B{z wzBD tkb/ fJ; rb dk i[nkp BjhA d/ ;e/ *Bk d/ ;eDr/) fe

s/ epik eoe/, T[E'A dh n;bh t;Bhe fizdrh B{z, B/;s' Bkp{d eo

id'A f;qPNh ;kih rJh ;h, T[; ;w/A ;G s'A gfjbK uzrk wzdk Bk ezw ;h,

fdZsk frnk. nzr/qiK B{z sd'A Gh e'Jh gkg Bk bZfrnk. fszB ;" ;kb sZe

Bk e'Jh iht ;h. gfjbh tkoh fezBQK r[DK B{z t/ye/, fBozeko B/ wB[yk

Gkos B{z b[ZN e/ r'fonK yk fbnk. fJE/ ehs/ rJ/ nfsnkukoK dk

d/jh fdZsh< fejV/ gkg eowK dh ;ik d/D bJh o[y fpoy ehV/, ekY/, gP{

fJjBK B{z gkg Bk bZrk. ncohek ftu'A ekfbnK B[z fbnk e/, wzvhnK

gzSh, fJjBK wzdhnK i{BK ftu gk fdZs/ < nfijh ‘‘p/fJB;kch’’ oZp ih

ftu t/funk frnk. ikBtoK tKr T[jBK s'A ezw eotkfJnk frnk.

B/ fe; nXko s/ ehsh<

sd'A Gh fe;/ gkg B/ nzrq/iK dh bZs Bk GzBh. nop w[beK dk ;'Bk (s/

ip eS[ B ;hUA sp fenk eosk etB eow efo nkfJnk..

b) r'fonK B/ y{p b[ZfNnk. i/ fJoke B/ iok nZyK ftykJhnK sK c"iK

ngBk y/b[ nkfg efo d/y,? mke[fo ouB oukfJn..(748)

ukjV e/ ;g[od/ yke eo fdZsk. fJokB s/ jwb/ dh fsnkoh j' ojh j?.

;fsr[o{ ;gPN nky oj/ jB fe ;G e[M ‘‘;[zB’’ ftu'A g?dk

fJjBK r[zvk rodhnK dk r'fonK B{z edh gkg BjhA bZrk. fJj gkg jw/

j'fJnk j?.

PK ewi'oK B{z brdk j?. ewi'o fXoK fJ;/ ihtB ftu, ns/ nkT[D

;[zBj[ ykDh ;[zBj[ pkDh.. ;[zBj[ T[gih ;[zB ;wkDh..

tkbhnK B;bK d/ GftZy ftu (fi;B{z nrbk iBw efj ;ed/ jKA) ;dk

T[sG[i[ ubs[ ehnk f;fo eos? fp;wkd[ ;pfd d/ykfJdk.. (1037)

r[bkwh d/ d[Zy ;fjzdhnK jB.

ub' ;fsr[o{ ih s'A fJj g[ShJ/ fe ;z;ko pfDnk fco fet/A j?<

y[dk Bk yk;sk i/ fes/ r[o{ BkBe ;kfjp ih fJj ;'u b?Ad/ ‘‘n?
Gkos tk;hU ` nDgVsk, rohph fpwkohnK, iks gks, s/ r[bkwh
[15]

;u/ s/ gtBk GfJnk, gtB? s/ ib j'fJ..
ib s/ fsqGtD ;kfink, xfN xfN i'fs ;w'fJ..(19)
[16]

j/ GkJh ` fBozeko d/ fBnw w[skpe, T[;/ s'A jtk (r?;K) g?dk

ihn ikB Bkb ;/tk eo'. g[ikohnK d/ dZ;/ YzrK w[skpe e[ZM gkm ikg

j'Jh. jtk s'A tksktoD pfDnk, gkDh g?dk j'fJnk. gkDh s'A fszB/ soQK

wzso wkbk ubhj/ eo'. fJ;d/ Bkb tZX s'A tZX ‘‘dkB’’ eo'. fJ; dkB

d/ iht nkgD/ ftek; eow w[skpe g?dk j'J/. gkDh d/ iht, Xosh s/

ftu j'o t;s{nK d/ Bkb nkgDh i[nkB s/ ;z[do gsBh, G?D s/ p/Nh Gh

uZbD tkb/ iht ns/ T[vD tkb/ gzSh nkfde.

‘‘dkB’’ eo fdU. j' ;edk j?. g[ikoh gq;zB j'e/, gow/;o nZr/

fco oZp ih dh feogk sK okyth j? jh. go iht d/ g?dk j'D

s[jkvh f;cko; eo d/t/. T[; f;cko; Bkb nrb/ iBwK ftu s[jkv/
‘‘gkg’’ pyP/ ikD. w[V s[jkv/ s' e'Jh w[;hps Bk nkt/’’HHH. nkj

dh ftXh eh j? <
;kes fBor[D nkfonk nkgDk w{b gSkD[..

ehwsh wB[yk iBw sK p/eko jh ubk frnk.

oes[ fpzd[ ek fJj[ sB' nrBh gkf; fgokD[..
gtB? e? tf; d/j[oh w;sfe ;u[ Bh;kD[..

ejk s/ nkfJnk ejK J/j ikD[..
(63)

ihts wos oj? gotkD[..(1289)

j/ Bk ;wM iht. nkgD/ n;b/ B{z gSkD fe s{z ;kro ns/ pz{d

;fsr[o{ ih sK ;wMk oj/ jB fe eh gsk fJj iht feE'A

tkb/ fo;s/ tKr fBozeko dh nz; j?. s/ok ;oho fgsk d/ phi s'A ns/

nkfJnk < eh gsk woB s'A pkd fJ;B/ feE/ ub/ ikDk j?< fJ; iht

wksk d/ y{B s'A fsnko j'fJnk j?. fJ; ;oho d/ nzdo nrBh j? i'

dk ;jh we;d ;h, iBw s'A b? e/ woB se ‘‘Gb/ ezw’’ eofdnK, fJ;/

fJ;B{z ubdk oZyD ftu ;jkfJsk eodh j?. go :kd oZyhA s{z w"s d/

ihtB B{z ;cb eoBk. pDk fdZsk frnk j? fJj fe ihtB ftu ;[Xko

pj[s eohp j?. s/o/ ;oho B{z ;[nk; o{gh jtk ubk ojh j?. nekb

dh e'Jh r[zikfJP BjhA j?. xZN' xZN nrb/ iBw se T[vhe sK eoBh

g[oy dk nNZb fBnw (;oho d/ uZbD dh ftXh) s/o/ s/ ;dk bkr{ oj/

jh gt/rh.

rk. fJ; ;Zu/ n;{b B{z ;wM e/ ihtB p;o eohA.
wB[yk ihtB dk n;bh we;d ;h ;z;ko ftu fizwt
/ kohnK uzr/

g[fS B ;ki/, g[fS B Ykj/ g[fS B d/t? b/fJ..
nkgDh e[dofs nkg/ ikD?, nkg/ eoD[ eo/fJ.. (53)

o/ Yzr Bkb fBGkJhnK ikD. ;wki ftu'A t?o fto'X, b[ZN y;[ZN

j/ GkJh ` eh gsk fJj f;b;bk fet/A ubdk j?< gow/;o ihtK

(fJB;kBhns fto'Xh ;ko/ ezw) nkfd ysw eoB ftu :'rdkB gkT[Dk.

B{z g[ZS e/ sK e'Jh ezw eodk BjhA. T[;B/ g[ZS e/ ;oho fsnko BjhA

j'fJnk fJj fe r[opkDh dh ;'Mh s'A fpBk, ‘‘eZu/ fgZb/’’ b/yeK s/

ehsk. g[ZS e/ ysw BjhA eoBk. fJ; nNZb ekB{zB B{z T[j y[d jh

gqukoeK B/ ‘‘nrb/ fgSb/’’ iBw dk nfijk skDk pkDk T[;kfonk fe

ikDdk j?. ;koh Pesh T[;/ d/ t; ftu j?.

nkw ftnesh v'o G"o fijk j'fJnk ;'udk jh ofj iKdk j? fe nkj

gzu ss[ fwfb d/jh ek nkekok..

ihtB sK fco ci{b jh j?< i/ rohph j?, fpwkoh j?, nDgVsk j? r[bkwh

xfN tfX e' eo? phukok.. (1128)

j?, feT[A j?< g[ikoh d;dk j? s[jkv/ fgSb/ iBwK ftu ehs/ gkgK ekoB

j/ GkJh ` fBozeko d/ pDkJ/ n;{bK w[skpe gziK sZsK (fwZNh,

s[;hA d[Zy G'r oj/ j'. fJ; iBw ftu g[ikoh (Xow w[yh ;kX ;zs) dh

gkDh, nZr, jtk s/ nekP) s'A ;oho dh ouBk j'Jh j?. ;ko/ ;ohoK

[17]

[18]

ftu fJjh fBnw ezw eo fojk j?. ftuko eoe/ t/y bU, e'Jh xkN

eJh iBw gzyh ;og j'fJU.. eJh iBw j?to fpoy i'fJU..

tkX BjhA fwb/rh.

fwb[ irdh; fwbB eh pohnk.. fuozekb fJj d/j ;ziohnk.. ojkT[..

efo ;zi'r pBkJh ekS..

eJh iBw ;?b frfo efonk.. eJh iBw roG fjfo yfonk..

fs;[ ;zfr ofjU fJnkBk okfu.. (890)

eJh iBw ;ky efo T[gkfJnk.. by uT[ok;hj i'fB GqwkfJnk..

j/ GkJh ` oZp B/ tZy' tyo/ sZsK B{z fwbk e/ ;oho dh f;oiDk ehsh j?.

;kX ;zfr GfJU iBw[ gokgfs.. efo ;/tk Gi[ jfo jfo r[owfs..

fJ; d/jh d[nkok uzr/ ezw eoB bJh g?dk ehsk j?. t/y' wB[Zy dh Bk

fsnkfr wkB[ M[m nfGwkB[.. ihts wofj dorj gotkB[..

;wMh. ykD ghD gfjBD t/yD ;[DB nkfde d/ ;ohoe ;[nkdK ftu

i' feS[ j'nk ;[ s[M s/ j'r[.. nto[ B d{ik eoD? i'r[..

T[bM e/ ofj frnk. nkgDhnK fizw/tkohnK ft;ko fdZshnK.

sK fwbhn? iK b?fj fwbkfJ.. ej[ BkBe jfo jfo r[D rkfJ.. (176)

r[o ;/tk s/ Grs ewkJh.. sp fJj wkB; d/jh gkJh..

j/ GkJh.. (gfjbK ojkT[ tkbk pzd ftukoKr/) fJj wB[Zyk

fJ; d/jh eT[ f;wofj d/t.. ;' d/jh Gi[ jfo eh ;/t..

iBw gqG{ B{z :kd oZyD bJh j?, ihtB ;ztkoB bJh j?. bzw/ ;w/A dh

Gij[ r'fpzd G{fb ws ikj[.. wkB; iBw ek J/jh bkj[.. ojkT[.. (1159)

GNeD s'A pkd s?Bz{ r[o{ dh uzrh wZs fwbh j?, ftnoE Bk rztk d/thA . ojkT[..

j/ GkJh ` r[o{ d/ pyP/ T[gd/P w[skpe (Grsh) fteko ofjs

s{z sK ehfVnK gszfrnK tork ;?A. s{z jkEh tork w;s, wZSh tork

;tZS ihtB pshs ehsk. r[o{ dh wZs b? e/ jh n;bh fJB;kB j'D dh

uzub, s/ fjoB tork Bkd (nktkiOokr) s/ ikB rtk d/D tkbk ;?A.

;'Mh gqkgs j'Jh. ;oho eoe/ Gkt/A gfjbK fJB;kB ;K. go nkuoD

s{z gzShnK tork, ;ZgK tork, ysoBke ;h. s{z bzw/ ;w/A se x'V/ tork

gZy'A fJB;kBhns s'A pj[s BhtK, fBok gP{ tork ;K. nfijk r[DtkB

s/i d"Vke fojk. s/ fco wkB' fpoy[ tKr iV t;s{ pD e/ yb' jh

j'Dk jh d/tsk j'Dk j?. i/ ;jh wkfjfBnK ftu d/ts/ pDBk ukj[zd/ j' sK

frnk. s{z sK j/ GkJh ` fBok gZEo p[ZXh tkbk jh pfDnk fojk. gjkV

r[D XkoB eo'. feT[Afe wB[yk i'Bh d[nkok jh nB/e goT[geko ehs/

dh fBnkJh fJe EK fpBK ftek; s'A o[fenk fojk . eJh tkoh MZN gZN

ik ;ed/ jB. j'o i{BK tkb/ gP{ gzShnK, vZvK wZShnK B{z r[DtkB pDB

v'b iKdk fojk, fit/A wK d/ roG ftu jh pZuk ysw j' iKdk j?. s/o/

dh ;'Mh BjhA j?. fJ; bJh ;dk fBozeko B{z :kd oZyDk. wB[y
Z k iBw dk

ftu edh edh johnK NkjDhnK fizBh e[ y[;h jfonkbh nkJh. fJ;

fJjh tZvk bkG j?. fJ; B{z n?t/ Bk r[nk d/Dk.

soQK bZyK ihtK tork s/ok ;[Gk pdbdk fojk. nfrnkBsk d/ ekoD

fJjh s/ok nT[;o[ fJj s/oh pko..

GNeDk ftu fgnkl fojk. id'A r[o{ dh ;zrs ehsh. GoktK G?DK B{z

xN Ghsfo s{ d/y[ fpukfo.. (1159)

fgnko rbteVh ftu fbnk. r[o{ s'A ihtB ;[XkoB tkbk T[gd/P gqkgs

fi; fJe Ppd dhnK nX{ohnK gzeshnK d/ jtkb/ d/ e/ i{Bh

ehsk sK ;wM' r[o{ d/ xo BtK iBw j' frnk. wsbp fe ftekoK tZb'A

uZeo B{z wkBsk d/D dk jm ehsk ik fojk j?, nkT[ T[; dh ftuko eo bJhJ/

w'Ve/, gP{nK tor/ BfyX ;[Gk s'A jNke/, r[DtkB j'D dk n;bh

eJh iBw GJ/ ehN gszrk.. eJh iBw ri whB e[ozrk..
[19]

frnkB pyP fdZsk. j[D s?B{z fJB;kBh r[Dk dh ;wM nk rJh j?.
[20]

r[DtkB pDe/ g{o/ ;wki dh ;/tk eo . r[o{ dhwZs xo xo g[uk d/j.
gP{nK tor/ ;[Gk tkb/ b'eK B{z mhe fJB;kB j'D dk tZb ;wMk d/j.
jo soQK dk M{m co/p jzeko wB ftu'A fsnkr d/j. i/ ngD/
ftekoK B{z wko bt/ sK oZph ‘‘dorkj’’ ftu gotkB j'tA/ rk. j/ wB[y `
i' e[M ;ztkoBk j? s{z y[d ;ztkoBk j?. fe;/ j'o dh e{Vh nk; Bk bkJh
oZyh. s/oh EK fJj B/e ezw fe;/ j'o B/ BjhA eoBk. ngDh fvT{Nh
mhe sohe/ fBGk. fJzBk e[M eoe/ Gh i/ gow/Po B{z Gkt/A sK nkgD/
ftu ;wk bt/. j/ BkBe ` fJ; soQK fBozso joh d/ r[D rkT[Ad/ ofjDk.
feT[Afe fJjh tXhnk w"ek j?, goT[geko eoB dk. oZp B{z :kd eoB
dk.
;kv/ pj[ frDsh b/yeK$gqukoeK B/ fJ; Ppd B{z 84 bZy i{BK
ftu pdb e/ pZio r[Bkj ehsk j?. nkw PoXktkB f;Zy B{z brksko d/
y"c ftu v'p fdZsk j?. i{BK dk r/V fJzBk jkth j' frnk j? fe r[opkDh
d/ nBw'b puB, wkB' ft;o jh rJ/ jB. i/ pZuk (iK wksk) roG ftu
jh o'r rq;s j' ikt/, sK ftfrnkBe ekoB bZGD dh Ekt/A “fgSb/
iBwK ftu ehs/ wkV/ eow nZr/ nk rJ/”, efj e/ ;ukJh s'A w[Beo
j'fJnk iKdk j?. gkbD g'PD ftubh ewh ekoB i/ wB ns/ ;oho B/
nkw sohe/ ftek; Bk ehsk sK ‘‘fgSb/ iBwK d/ gkg’’ ftykJh d/
D brd/ jB. rohph fpwkoh tgko ftu xkNk, foPfsnK ftu ftrkV
jVQ ;'ek G[ukb s[ckB nkfd ;kfonK B{z fgSb/ iBwK ftu ehs/ r[BkjK
Bkb i'V fbnk iKdk j?. fJ;/ bJh Gkostk;h, d[BhnK ftu nsh gSV/
j'J/ jB. fJE/ sK ;kXkoD fijh rbsh ekoB, rZvh jdk;k rq;s j' ikt/
sK T[; u"Ae iK w'V s/ okwfJD gkm, nyzv gkm iK gho ih dh epo
nkfde T[;ko e/ g{ik tr?ok eo bJh iKdh j?. n?e;hv?AN fe; dh
bkgqtkjh ekoB j'fJnk, e"D fizwt
/ ko j?.T[; ftrkV B{z d{o Bk eoe/,
[21]

;r'A ;VeK d/ yskBK ftu , jo ;kb nyzv gkm oZy fdZs/ iKd/ jB.
ftSVh nkswk dh w[esh, eoB bJh jo ;kb nodk;K ehshnK
iKdhnK jB. g[ikohnK B{z uzrh u'yh nkwdDh j' iKdh j?. ;zrsK d/
wBK B{z rfjohnK jB/ohnK yZvK ftu ;[N
Z fdZsk iKdk j?. T[j p/p; j'J,/
BoeK d/ s;hfjnK s'A vod/, iwK dh wko s'A puD bJh, gP{ gzSh s/ ehV/
w"feVnK dhnK i{BK s'A puD bJh g[ikohnK nZr/ nkgDk ;G e[ZM
“dkB” eoB bJh okih j' iKd/ jB. p; e'Jh u"ok;h d/ r/V ftu'A
eZYD dk :ehB d[nk d/t/. fJ;/ GktBk dk fJe Ppd r[o{ rqzE ih ftu
Grs sob'uB ih dk j?. fJ; Ppd dh GktBk Bkb Gh pj[s nBoE
ehsk frnk j?. id'A fe fJ; okjhA wB[Zyh wB dh uzubsk dk fieo
ehsk frnk j?. gJh id'A wB[y
Z nzsbh ;hwk se, fe;/ nkds dk fPeko
j' ikt/. bZy ;wMkT[D s/ Gh wB B{z p[okJh tb'A o'e Bk ;e/. ;ohoe
ns/ wkBf;e B[e;kB T[mk e/ Gh, ftekoK tb d"Vdk oj/. T[; ;fEsh
B{z fJ; Ppd ftu fpnkB ehsk frnk j?. nkU doPB eohJ/^
nzfs ekfb i' bSwh f;wo?, n?;h fuzsk wfj i/ wo?..
;og i'fB tfb tfb nT[so?..
noh pkJh r'fpzd Bkw wfs ph;o?.. ojkT[..
nzfs ekfb i' fJ;soh f;wo?, n?;h fuzsk wfj i/ wo?.
p/;tk i'fB tfb tfb nT[so?..
nzfs ekfb i' bfVe/ f;wo/, n?;h fuzsk wfji/ wo?.
;{eo i'fB tfb tfb T[;so/
nzs ekfb i' wzdo f;wo?, n?;h fuzsk wfji/ wo?.
gq/s i'fB tfb tkfb nT[so?.
nzfs ekfb BkokfJD[ f;wo?, n?;h fuzsk wfj i/ wo?..
pdfs fsb'uB[ s/ Bo w[esk ghszpo tk e/ fod? p;?..(526)
[22]

Grs fsb'uB ih d[Bhnkth w'j ftu c;/ j'J/ ns/ ftekoK ftu

gqkgsh dh ykso fe;/ soQK dk gkg eoB B{z Gh fsno j' iKdk j?.

yfus j'J/ wB[w[yK dk BePk gkmeK ;Bw[y oyd/ jB. fij' fij/ ezw

nfij/ wzd/ ezwK ekoD, ;dk d[yK gq/PkBhnK ftu fxfonk ofjzdk j?.

nkdwh eodk j?, T[;/ soQK dk T[;dk ;[Gk pDdk ubk iKdk j?. ;wK gk

nkswe gZy'A fBsfdB eJh tkoh wodk j? eJh tkoh izwdk j?. fJ;

e/ T[j G?V/ ezw Gh T[; B{z uzr/ bZrD brd/ jB. fJ;/ bJh w[V w[V T[jBK

soQK T[;d/ wzd/ uzr/ ftukoK dk ns/ uzr/ wzd/ ihtB dk nktDk ikDk

ftekoK tb o[fus j[zdk j'fJnk, g{oh soQK gkgk eowK ftu roe j'

(nktkrtD) pfDnk ofjzdk j?. nfij/ wB[y dhnK gqP
/ kBhnK edh ysw

iKdk j?.

BjhA j[d
z hnK. wkB' fJj sK fBok rzdrh dk ehVk j?, t/yD B{z Gkt/A wB[y
Z Bio

j/ wK ` fe;/ fJB;kB B{z gow/Po G[b Bk ikt/. ojkT[..

nkT[Adk j?. fi; ftnesh s/ fBozeko dh feogk j' ikt/ T[;B{z r[o{ dh T[sw

fBozeko dk G[ZbDk jh ;ko/ d[ZyK dk w{b ekoD j?. fJB;kB

f;Zfynk ;[DB dk ;[Gkr gqkgs j' iKdk j?. T[j fco r[o{ dh T[sw wZs B{z ;dk

e[okj/ g? e/, nkgD/ coIK s'A w{zj w'V b?Ad/ jB. nw'be wB[yk ihtB

u/s/ ftu oZye/, ihtB B{z ftekoK tZbA' w'V b?Adk j?. ;G s'A f;yobh skes

nkgDk sK p/eko ftu frnk jh ;h. ;r'A fiBQK fgnkfonK GkJhnK Bkb

fJj r[o{ dk T[gd/P jh j? i' ftekoK ns/ pzXBk s'A w[es eotk ;edk j?.

tk;sk fgnk, T[jBK B{z Gh e[okj/ gkT[D tZb e'Jh e;o Bk SZvh. fJ;/

fJ;/ bJh fsb'uB ih nky oj/ jB ^ j/ wK ` fBozeko dh :kd

edh ft;o Bk ikt/. ojkT[. i' fJB;kB g?;/ ekoD Xow fJwkB t/u

GktBk dk Ppd gV'^
nzsfo egN[ wBw[y nfrnkBh o;Bk M{m[ p'bkfJ..

d/t/. tkfjr[o{ B[z :kd oZyD dh Ekt/A wkfJnk dk jh ‘‘f;woD’’ eo/.

egfN ehs? jfo g[oy[ B Ghi? fBs t/y? ;[D? ;[GkfJ..

‘‘uwVh ikJ/ go dwVh Bk ikJ/‘‘, tkbh jkbs j't/. XB ;zgsh fJeZmh

d{i/ GkfJ ikfJ ir[gop'X?, fpy[ wkfJnk w'j ;[nkfJ..

eoB ftu jh ihtB dk nzs eo b?Adk j?. T[j wB[y BjhA ;wMDk

fJs[ ewkD? ;dk d[y[ gkt? ‘izw? wo?’ fcfo nkt? ikfJ..

ukjhdk. T[j sK wB[yk d/jh ftu Ifjoh ;Zg j?. id'A Gh dkn bZr,/ g?;

;j;k w{fb B u[eJh ftu ft;Nk gu? gukfJ..

ekoD jofJe B{z vzr wkodk j?. X'yk fdzdk j?. X'yk yk frnk pzdk

fi;B' feogk eo/ w/ok ;[nkwh, fs;[ r[o eh f;y ;[DkfJ..

T[wo Go o'D i'rk ofj iKdk j?.

jfo Bkw[ fXnkt? jfo Bkw' rkt?, jfo Bkw' nzfs SvkfJ.. (512)

fizdrh dh nzsbh nt;Ek se i' wB[Zy tkPBk ftu v[Zfpnk

j/ GkJh ` fi;d/ wB nzdo p/JhwkBh j't/, T[j wBw[y j?

fojk, ezXK e'm/ Ngdk fojk, gokJ/ o{g s/ wB v[bkT[Adk fojk. ;dk

nfrnkBh j?, M{mk j?, fBs fdB M{m dh yZNh yKdk j?. fJ; soQK dh

fJjh c[oB/ wB ftu c[od/ ofjD gJh fet/A fe;/ gokJh n"os B{z nkgD

wekoh Goh fizdrh okjhA fBozeko y[P BjhA j[zdk. fJj fBs tos'A

ekw ikb ftu c;ktK. r[otke jB^

ftjko dhnK ftukoK jB. fgnko j? BjhA nzdo y'N j?, go b'eK B{z

gkgh jhn? w? ekw[ p;kfJ..

co/p okjhA gfsnkT[Dk ukj[zdk j?.

wB[ uzub[ :k s/ rfjU Bk ikfJ.. (1186)

nfijk ftnesh fBok Ifjo Bkb Gfonk j[zdk j?. wkfJnk
[23]

j/ GkJh. wB pVk uzub j?. wB ftu ;dk ekw tk;Bk T[;b tZN/ b?Adh
[24]

ofjzdh j?. pj[s ukbke j'D eoe/ eJh tkoh gkg eow sK eo iKdk

fco Gh fJzBhnK y[PhnK j'D ekoB fes/ w?A fBozeko B{z G[Zb Bk iktK.

j? go cfVnk BjhA iKdk. id'A gefVnk iKdk j? fco fe;/ EK w{zj

r[o{ (fBozeko) dh f;Zfynk J/j' jh j? fe oZp ih B{z G[ZbDk BjhA j?.

ftykD i'rk BjhA ofjzdk. Gkt/A t/Ptk dh fizdrh ;wki B/ nsh fBzdD

i' wB[Zy nkgD/ xo e'mh se ;hws j' frnk. fizw/tkohnK

:'r pDk Xoh j?. goekwh wB[Zy y[d jh t/Ptk j?. nfijk t/Ptk i'Bh

ft;ko fdZshnK. ;wM' T[j “gq/s i'Bh” ftu jh ihtB fpsk fojk j?.

tkbk ihtB T[; wB[y s/ jkth ofjzdk j?.

g[okD/ ;fwnK s'A gqubs XkoBk ;h fe tZv/ wfjbK d/ yzvoK ftu gq/s

i' wB[y
Z fizdrh d/ coi G[bk e/ e/tb n"bkd se ;hws j' ikt/, sK

t;d/ jB. nfij/ wB[Zy B{z gq/s jh ;wM'.

T[;dh fizdrh ;wM' p/eko ubh rJh. pZu/ g?dk eoB/ s/ gkbD/, fJj sK

fizdrh Go nzsbh nt;Ek se fezBhnK n"eVK w[;ebK Gh

gP{g[Dk j?. wB[Zy nkgD/ fBZi gqtko se ;hws Bk j'e/, ;wki gqsh

feT[A Bk nk ikD. wB[Zy ;Zu Xow d/ wkor s/ gfjok fdzfdnK ihtB

nkgD/ coi Gh fBGkt/. toBk nfij/ wB[Zy B{z ;{o Bk nkyhJ/ sK j'o

;cbk eo/. Gkt/A uoyVhnK s/ uVQ ikt/, Gkt/A pzd pzd eZN/ ikD, Gkt/

eh nkyhn?< i' pZfunK d/ w'j fuZeV ftu c;e/, ;ko/ coi ft;ko

A izrbh tk; j't/. nv'b ofje/ ;Zu d/ wkor s/ ubdk ikt/. i/ w"s Gh

fdzdkj?. ;z;ko ftu gkg j'D, ;oekoh i[bw j'D, nfrnkBsk j't/ d/

nkT[Adh j? sK gqtkj BjhA eoBh. w"s B{z rbteVh gk b?Dh j?, ngDk

P r[bkw j't/. XhnK G?DK dh p/gsh j't/. i' wB[y nfijh dPk ftu Gh

okj BjhA fsnkrDk. nfijh T[uh nt;Ek tkbh fizdrh pshs eo/.

nZyK Bk y'jb/. ;{o tKr{ g/N Gfonk pZu/ g?dk ehs/ s/ o{Vh d/ Y/o s/

fsb'uB ;Zu nkydkj?, T[j wB[Zy jo goeko d/ pzXBK s'A w[es j' ikt/

;"A frnk. nfijk wB[y fJ;/ ihtB ftu ;{o BjhA sK j'o eh j? <

rk. ;wkie pzXB, okiBhse pzXB, gotkfoe pzXB, T[; B{z o'e BjhA

i' wB[Zy XB gdkoE fJeZmk eodk j?, (BkikfJi sohe/) T[;

;eDr/. T[;d/ fjod/ ftu fBozeko dk tk;k j?, fJ;/ ekoB T[j v'bdk

B{z b/y/ bkT[D tk;s/, ;[y ;j{bsK gqkgs eoB tk;s/, fco ‘‘;'B/ d/

BjhA. fizdrh dh uow;hwk se T[j nv'b n;{bK s/ gfjok fdzdk j?.

wfjb’’ T[;kodk j?. fJe d' uko e'mhnK gkT[Adk, T[wo Go tXhnk

fJ; ;ko/ Ppd ftu woB s'A pkd i{BK ftu g?D dh rb BjhA, ;r'A

wfjzrhnK e'mhnK T[;kodk ubk iKdk j?. T[; d/ nzdob/ ;ki' ;wkB,

fJ;/ wB[y
Z k ;oho ftu p?m/ ikBtoK B{z pkjo eZYDk j?. fJ;/ ;oho ftu

dohnK rbhu/ ;"c/, NhHthH J/H;hH nkfd ftu jh r[nku iKdk j?. r[o{

;Zg jB, t/;tktK jB. ;{o jB.gq/s jB. fJjBK ;GBK s/ ekp{ gkT[Dk

BkBe ;kfjp sK ;kc efj oj/ jB^

j?, sK jh wB[Zy ‘‘w[esk’’ nytk ;edk j?. toBk nrb/ fgSb/ iBw

w'sh s wzdo T{;ofj osBh s j'fj iVkT[..

dhnK ejkDhnK pj[s gk bJhnK. i' fJ; iBw ftu ;kvk e[M BjhA

e;s{fo e[zr{ nrfo uzdfB bhfg nkt? ukT{..

;ztkoBrhnK. jK f;Zy ;zrsK B{z G? Ghs eoe/, g[ikohnK ns/ ny"sh

ws[ d/fy G[bK th;o? s/ok fufs B nkt? BkT[.. (14)

gqukoeK B/ fgSb/ bzw/ ;w/A d'jhA jZEhA b[ZN e/ y{p ykXk j?.

j/ GkJh ` w'shnK d/ wfjb j'D, jhfonK Bkb ;ikJ/ j'D uzdB s/ e/;o

;fsr[o{ ih B/ i' T[geko tkb/ nBzs ekoi ehs/, T[j ;ko/

nkfd Bkb y[Pp{dko pDkJ/ j'D. nzdo jo soQK d/ ;ki' ;kwkB j'tD.

wB[yK d/jh d[nkok jh ehs/ ;B. ipkBh T[gd/P ehsk, uzrh wZs fdZsh

[25]

[26]

sK Gh ;oho okjhA, ;dht ekb tk;s/ wB[Zy wkso dh nrtkJh tk;s/ bJh BjhA ;h. nZi Gh i' eoBk j? fJ; ;oho okjhA eoBk j?. ;oho
r[opkDh fbyh s/ ;zGkbh, fJj ekoi Gh ;oho okjhA j'fJnk. ;fsr[o{ d/ fJe fJe nzr dh r[opkDh ftu nfjwhns do;kJh rJh j?.
ih B/ iB efbnkD d/ bk;kBh g{oB/ gkJ/. ;/tk ehsh izr bV/, f;ybkJh

nkT[ d/jh dh ftP/Psk pko/ e[ZM r[opkDh d/ j[ew ftukohJ/^

fdZsh, fJj ;G wB[yh ikw/ ftu nke/ jh ;zGt j'fJnk. fe;/ j'o i{Bh

o?fD rktJh ;'fJ e? fdt;[ rtkfJnk ykfJ..

tkbk iht nfij/ efbnkDekoh ekoi BjhA eo ;edk. b'eh ‘‘gqb'e’’

jho/ i?;k iBw j? eT[vh pdb/ ikfJ..

d/ ;[ZyK dh bkb;k nXhB ;oho B{z rkb oj/ ;B. e'Jh X{DhnK skgdk

xfN t;? ouBk ofpzd o;Bk ig? r'gkb ..

j?, e'Jh ibXko/ eo fojk j?. fJe g[Zmk bNe fojk j?, e'Jh j'o nfjb

BkBe ;' gqG f;wohn? fs; d/jh e' gkb..

f;ZXk yb'sk j'fJnk j?. eJh r[cktK ftu tV/ jB, e'Jh wZmK ftu dV/

ekw[ e'qX b'G[ S'vhn? dhi? nrfB ibkfJ..

jB, s/ e[M fjwkbk s/ uV/ jB. e[M shoE tk;h jB, eJh eKPh d/ nko/

“ihtfdnK” fBs ikghn? BkBe ;kuk BkT[.. (519)

j/m f;o d/ e/ ;tor dk fNeN yqhd oj/ jB. w'Bh, BKr/, iNkXkoh,

nto i'fB s/oh gfBjkoh.. fJ;[ Xosh wfj s/oh f;edkoh.. (374)

x'B w'B ezBgkN/, ish ;sh nkfde pDe/, ;oho B{z p/wkfjB/ ePN fdZs/

GJh gqkgfs wkB[y d/j[ohnk..

ik oj/ ;B. sK fe nrb/ iBw ftu ‘‘w[esh’’ iK ‘‘;tor’’ io{o

r'fpzd fwbD eh fJj s/oh pohnk.. (12)

gqkgs j' ikt/. ‘‘np d[y nkr/ ;[Zy’’.

T[go e[M T[j gqwkD fdZs/ rJ/ jB i' wB[y
Z k d/jh B{z oZp dh fJe

(156)
(554)

;fsr[o{ ih B/ wB[yk ;oho dh ehws ;wMkJh. d/P Xow dh ftP/P dks iK s'jck do;kT[Ad/ jB. d{i/ gk;/ r[opkDh fJj ;tkb Gh
;/tk tkb/ gk;/ w'Vk gkT[D d/ Yzr sohe/ f;ykJ/. y[d sZshnK sthnK pko pko ;Bw[y oydh j? fe ;'jDh wB[yk d/jh tkfbnk, fJ; d/jh s'A
s/ ;oho B{z fgxbkfJnk. uKdBh u"e ftu ;h; eNtkfJnk. ;tor e'Jh Gbk ekoi Gh eotkfJnk j? < edh oZp ih B{z :kd ehsk j?< edh
bJh BjhA. ;r'A Xosh s'A “BoeK” dk ykswk eoe/, fJE/ jh “;tor” B/eh iK goT[geko Gh ehs/ jB< r[otke tZb stZi' fdU^
(p/rwg[ok) pDkT[D bJh. d;w gkfs;kj B/ nkgD/ g[ZsoK B{z ;tor G/

J/ ;ohok w/fonk fJ;[ ir wfj nkfJ e? fenk s[X[ eow ewkfJnk..

iD bJh Pjhd eotkfJnk ;h< ih BjhA, T[j sK ;dk jh w[es ;B.

fe eow ewkfJnk s[X[ ;ohok ik s{ ir wfj nkfJnk..HHH

d/jh d/ w'j s'A Gh w[es ;B. go Xosh d/ pf;zfdnK B[z w[es eoBk

ej? BkBe J/j[ ;oho gotkD[ j'nk,

b'ud/ ;B. Xosh B{z jh ‘‘XowPkb’’ pDkBk ukj[zd/ ;B. pkpk pzdk

fifB ;fsr[o f;T[ fus[ bkfJnk.. (922)

f;zx ;jkdo wZm ftu p?me/ w[esh dk okj bZG fojk ;h. d;w

i/eo r[o{ dh wZs b? e/ r[DtkB fJB;kB pDe/, ihtB pshs

gkfsPkj ji{o B/ jZE ftu s/r cVke/, f;zxK dk fsnko pofsnko iZEk Bk ehsk fco wB[Zy ns/ gP{ gzSh ftu e'Jh G/d BjhA. fJe' tor/ jB,
d/e/, gzikp B{z w[es eotkD d/ okj N'fonk. fwPbK dk fGnkBe ;wK, gP{nK dh ;'u e/tb nkgD/ fBZi se ;hws j?. wB[y
Z B/ fBi se ;hws
;uw[u jh gzikp d/P dh w[esh tk;s/ ;h. fe;/ fJeb/ pzd/ dh w[esh BjhA ofjDk.
[27]

[28]

;r'A t; brd/ d{finK d/ d[y d{o eoB/ jB.

fXnkB Bkb ;[fDnk, ;wfMnk s/ efbnkDekoh ikDe/ gqtkD ehsk.

gP{ gqs
/ w[rX s/ p[oh.. fs;fj B p{M? fiB fJj f;oh.. (890)

T[j r[ow[yK dh gdth B{z gokgs j'J/. T[j ftdtkB pD rJ/. fBZih

j/ GkJh ` fJj d/jh gP{nK s'A Gh p[oh j?. w{oyK d/ ;ohoK Bkb'A

ihtB s'A T[go T[me/ e[Zb wB[Zysk bJh bkGekoh pD rJ/. T[j r[o{ d/

Gh G?Vh j? G{s gq/s s'A Gh fBezwh j?. nro g?dk eoB tkb/ fBozeko B{z

fJe fJPko/ s/, ;h; tkoB/ eod/ oj/. uoyVhnK s/ uVQ rJ/ iK Xow

ft;ko e/ ftekoK d/ okj g? iKdh j?.

d'yhnK B{z ;pe f;ykT[Ad/ oj/. fiBQK B{z r[o{ d[nkok (r[od[nko/ dk

fwose eT[ gkfJU sB ;k;k, fpS[os nkfB fwbkfJnk..

noE jh fJj j? ‘‘r[o{ dh f;Zfynk d[nkok) ;'Mh nk rJh, T[j gP{ g[Dk

gP{ gq/s w[rX GJ/ ;q's/ jfoBkwk w[fy rkfJnk..(614)

fsnkr rJ/. iBw gbN frnk, r[o{ s'A BtK iBw fwb frnk. r[otke

j/ GkJh ` fJj ;oho w[ofdnK ;wkB ;h. fJ; ftu r[o{ B/

jB.

frnkB o{gh gqkD gk fdZs/. r[o{ B/ feogk eoe/ fBozeko dh ;'Mh eotk

;fsr[o e? iBw/ rtB[ fwNkfJnk.

fdZsh. fJ; T[sw T[gd/P ekoB, gP{ p[X
Z h tkb/ wB[y
Z Gh n;bh fJB;kB

nBjfs oks/ fJj[ wB[ bkfJnk.. (940)

pD rJ/. gq/s p[ZXh tkb/ wB[Zy, ftekoK B{z fsnkr e/, r[DtkB fJB;kB

r[o{ BkBe ;kfjp d/ xo ;ZiD ih (gqubs mZr) dk ‘‘iBw

pD rJ/. r[o{ dh wZs b? e/ wjK w{oy Gh f;nkD/ pD rJ/. fJ; bJh

j'fJnk. e"vk ih dk BtK ‘‘iBw’’ j'fJnk, j'o nB/eK, ;w/s GkJh

j[D T[j ;dk joh d/ r[D rke/ nBzd ftu jB.

bfjDk ih dk iBw r[o{ BkBe ;kfjp d/ xo j'fJnk. r[o{ BkBe ih

P[eo ;[nkB roXG wzikok..

d/ g[Zso ;qh uzd ns/ bywh dk; y{B dh ;KM s'A Gkt/A g[Zso ;B. go

gP{ wb/S Bhu uzvkbk..

r[opkDh ftukoXkok B/ T[jBK B{z r[o{ BkBe ;kfjp ih d/ g[Zso BjhA

r[o s/ w[j[ c/o/ fsfB i'fB GtkJhn?..

wzfBnk. nkeh s/ pkrh fbfynk j?. ni skJh T[jBK d/ ;/te tZyo/,

pzXfB pkfXnk nkJhn? ikJhn?..

(832)

w'o dh g{Sb tkb/ Mzv/ bkJh, t/y/ ik ;ed/ jB. f;zxK tkbk e/;oh (iK

j/ GkJh ` r[o{ tb'A pyPh T[sw wZs b? e/ i/ s{z r[DtkB wB[y

Bhbk) fBPkB T[jBK B{z gqtkB BjhA. T[jBK dk ‘‘iBw’’ BjhA pdfbnk.

Bk pfDnk, fco pkeh s/o/ nzdo eh ofj ikt/rk< ;{o tkbh G?Vh wZs,

fJ; soQK Gh fbfynk gqukfonk frnk j? fe gP{ gzSh ehVh

e[Zs/ tkbh bkbuh fposh, y's/ torh w{oysk, fpZb/ torh ekfJosk.

ekY/ gkg eow ehs/ dh ;ik d/D bJh nfijhnK ‘‘BfyZX’’ i'BhnK ftu

fJjBK n"r[DK dk ;zrqj Bk pD, ;r'A fJB;kBhns tkb/ P[G r[D XkoB

G/i/ iKd/ jB. i/ oZp ih B/ rbshnK dh ;ik d/D bJh jh fJj ;ko/ iht

eo. fJ;/ ftu s/ok nkgDk s/ g{o/ ;wki dk Gbk j?.

izs{ tB;gsh nkfd pDkJ/ jB sK T[;B{z fJzBh Gh ;wM BjhA ;h fe wB[y
Z

t?;/ sK r[opkDh ftu wB[Zy dh T{uh BhthA fposh ekoB T[;B{z

dk ;[Gk nfijk f;oi fdzdk fe rbsh eodk jh Bk. pzdk gfjbK

uzrk wzdk o[spk gqdkB ehsk frnk j?. p/ns
z ;zpX
' BK Bkb g[eko g[eko

‘‘gkg’’ eodk j?, oZp T[;B{z o'eD s'A ‘‘p/p;’’ j?. fco fJzBh Pesh oZp

e/ irkT[D dh e'fPP ehsh rJh j?. fiBQK B/ ;fsr[o{ ih d/ T[gd/P B{z

ftu feZEA' nk iKdh j? fe wB[y
Z B{z ‘‘gkg’’ dh ;ik d/ d/t<
/ ehs/ dh ;ik

[29]

[30]

G[rskT[D bJh fBozeko B{z 84 bZy i'BhnK g?dk eoBhnK gJhnK. fJj

wo/ izw/ iK ftnkj j't.
/ g[ikohnK (gkmh, ehosBhJ/, eEk tkue,

oZp dh wip{oh ;h < i/ b'eh ‘‘gkg’’ eoB/ pzd eo d/D, sK eh fJj

gqpX
z e, iK pqkjwD s/ ;kX{) dk sK e/tb ‘‘gqr
' okw p[Ze’’ j[d
z k j?.

BfyZX i'BhnK tkb/ iht ysw j' ikDr/< i/ fgSb/ iBwK ftu ehs/ gkgK

T[jBK B{z fe;/ d/ d[y ;[y Bkb e'Jh ;o'eko BjhA. f;oc nkgDh

ekoB, gP{ i'Bh fwb rJh j't/ sK rK, wZM, x'Vk y'sk e[Zsk nkgDh i'Bh

‘‘ewkJh’’ Bkb ;o'eko j?.

B{z fgnko feT[A eo/< ikB pukT[D dh e'fPP feT[A eo/< T[j sK ‘‘;ik’’

r[opkDh d/ gktB T[gd/PK B/ f;ZyK B{z ‘‘ihtB w[es iK pzXB

G[rsD tk;s/ nkJ/ jB. fJ; ;oho ftu'A S/sh fBebD dh e'fPP eoBh

w[es ehsk j??. u"ok;h bZy i{BK d/ Gowikb ’u' w[es ehsk j?. tfjwK

ukjhdh j?. id'A r[o{ ;kfjp fPeko eofdnK ikBtoK B{z wkofdnK

GowK eoweKvK s'A nkikd ehsk j?. g[ikoh d/ s/Ad{nk ieV s'A w[es

eod/ ;B. v/o/dkoK tb'A gqukfonk frnk j? fe ;fsr[o{ ih ihtK B{z

eotkfJnk j?. iks gks d/ ebze s'A SvkfJnk j?. jikoK ;kb dh

‘‘w[es’’ eod/ ;B. nZi id'A e'Jh f;Zy fPeko (MNek) eodk j? sK

oki;h r[bkwh d/ ;zrb s'V e/, ;[ss
z osk pyPh j?. wzBz{ (pqkjwDh Xow)

gqukfonk iKdk j? ‘‘iht jZfsnk gkg j?.’’ f;Zy Gh sK fPeko eoe/

tb'A fsnko ehs/ PeshPkbh ftXkB wzBz{ f;fwqsh dh niroh ieV ftu'A

iht B{z w[es jh eodk j?, sK fto'X feT[A< nZi sZe fe;/ iht B{z fJj

X{j e/ pkjo eZY fbnk j?. n"os d/ rb gJ/ r[bkwh d/ ;zrbK B{z u{o

gsk BjhA bZfrnk fe w?A fgSb/ iBw ftu eh ;K< T[; tes w?A fejVk

u{o ehsk j?. jo fJe soQK dh r[bkwh s'A nkIkdh gqkgs eoB tk;s/

gkg ehsk ;h< fJ; ‘‘gkg’’ pdb/ fezB/ iBw BfyX i{BK G'rDhnK

, r[opkDh o{gh, frnkB yVr d/ Bkb Bkb, fpibh tKr uwedh

g?DrhnK< fJ; r[zwP[dk b/y/ dk g{ok tjh yksk, e/tb g[ikohnK e'b

PwPho p\P fdZsh j?. fiE/ fes/ e'Jh b[N/ok b[ZNDk ukj//, gfjbK

j?. j'o fe;/ B{z fJj r[gs d;skt/i ftykT[Ad/ BjhA. fJ; w"i{dk iBw

frnkB d[nkok, i/ Bk ;wM/ fco s/r dh skes okjhA ‘‘okj f;o’’

dh fJjBK g[ikohnK B{z e'Jh ;wM BjhA j[d
z h. fizB/ woih e'Jh i[bw eo/

fbnKdk ikt/. f;ZyK B{z fe;/ goeko d/ pzXB ;theko BjhA jB. t/d

, nkw izsK ftbedh oj/. g[ikoh dh ikD/ pbk. okiBhse T[gdo j'D,

s/ pqkjwD fiE'A fJj jEeVhnK p/VhnK nkJhnK jB. r[opkDh B/ fJe

wB[Zysk dk xkD j't/. ekb g? ikt/. fpwkohnK nk ikD. g[ikohnK B/

tZfYT[A oZd eo fdZshnK jB. r[otke jB

o{g tNk tNk e/ T[E/ jh ‘‘nkswk d/ efbnkD tk;s/ s/ 84 dk r/V

p/d gVfj jfoBkw[ Bk p{Mfj.. wkfJnk ekofD gfV gfV b{Mfj..

eZND bJh ‘‘gkm ikg g{ik nodk;K eoB bJh gj[zu ikDk j?.

nzsfo w?b[ nkfrnkBh nzXk, feT[ efo d[so[ sohi? j/..

;ZEo ftfSnK ftu'A gh, d[jEZVh gfNfdnK s'A Gh, o' o' e/ jkb'A p/

p/d pkd ;fG nkfy tykDfj.. B nzso[ Ghi? B ;pd[ gSkDfj..

jkb j' u[Zfenk s'A Gh, nkgDh g{ik G/Nk b? jh b?Dh j?. fe;/ xo

g[B
z [ gkg[ ;G[ p/fd fdqVkfJnk, r[ow[fy nzfwqs ghi? j/.. (1050)

pZuk wo/, p[ZYk r[io/, fBZe/ pZfunK B{z e[obKd/ SZve/ e'Jh itkB

j/ GkJh ` t/d nkfde Xow rozEK dk gkm pVk eod/ jB.

phph ubkDk eo ikt/. iK xo dk ewkT{ rGo{ g[Zso uVkJh eo

fBozeko d/ fBnw B{z BjhA ;wMd/. wkfJnk ewkT[D bJh, ftykt/ wkso

ikt/. ;ko/ EKJh g{ikoh b'e ‘‘ewkJh’’ eoB gj[u
z d/ jB. fe;/ dk

gkm eoh iKd/ jB. fdB oks nyzv gkm j' oj/ jB. fJj fefonk

[31]

[32]

fdwkr B{z gq/PkB s/ ;oho B{z EekT[D tkbh j?. j'o e'Jh fJ; ftu'A

j/ GkJh ` ;fsr[o{ ih dh ;Zuh nrtkJh ftu ubfdnK, ihtB

gqkgsh BjhA j' ;edh. fJj gkmh (iK pqkjwDOGkJh) nzdo'A ftekoK fiT[D dh ;jh ;'Mh nkT[Adh j?. ;ko/ GowK s'A w[es j'e/, gqtko ns/
Bkb bpo/i jB. frnkB s'A ;ZyD/ jB, nzfBnK tKr ihtB fiT[ oj/ ;wki dhnK ;kohnK fizw/tkohnK fBGkT[AfdnK, fizdrh pshs eoBh
jB. ;z;ko ;w[zdo B{z ;cbsk ;fjs fet/A gko eoBr/< p/dK ftu eh j?. j'o tZyoh e'Jh w[esh BjhA j?. j;fdnK y/bfdnK yKfdnK g?jBfdnK
j? < e/tb tkd fttkd tkX{ d/ MrV/ s/ fto'X dhnK ci{b rZbK. fJjBK B/e ihtB pshs eo', fJjh w[esh j?.
tkX{ rZbK Bkb fizdrh bJh ;jh ;/X BjhA fwbdh. nzdo fNekT[ BjhA

;fsr[o Bk ;/tfj w{oy nzXrtkok..

nkT[Adk. ;jh f;fynk sK ;fsr[o{ d/ Ppd (pkDh) okjhA fwbdh j?.

fcfo UfJ feEj[ gkfJfB w"y d[nkok..(115)

‘‘g[zB eoe/, gkg eZND/, ‘‘fJj p/dK dh b[ZN f;Zfynk j?. fJ;/ b[ZN okjhA

j/ GkJh ` Bk ;wM b'e ;fsr[o{ dh f;Zfynk s/ sK N[od/ BjhA.

g[ikoh nkw izsK dk bj{ gh oj/ jB. ;fsr[o{ ih B/ f;ZyK B{z r[opkDh j'o j'o gkyzv eow eoe/, w[es j'Dk b'ud/ jB. fJ; soQK T[j pzXBK
o{gh nzfwqs fgnkb fdZsk j?. fJ; bJh f;Zy jo goeko d/ pzXBK s'A s'A S[Nekok BjhA gk ;eDr/.
nkbktzsh fJj[ Gqw[ i' j? w[M T[gfo ;G e'fgbk..

w[es j' rJ/ jB.
r[o{ BkBe ;kfjp dh p/ fw;kb f;Zfynk d[nkok, f;ZyK d/ wB

;{d[ ;{d[ efo wkfo T[mkfJU, ejk eoT[ pkg phmbk..

frnkB Bkb Gog{o j' rJ/. ;oho fo;N g[;N ns/ skesto pD rJ/.

w{J/ j{J/ iT[ w[efs d/j[r/, w[efs Bk ikB? e'fJbk..

nkgD/ ftekoK d/ pzXB s'V fdZs/. d{finK B{z pzXB w[es eoB bJh

J/ gzvhnk w' eT[ Y/Y ejs s/oh g?i gSkT[Avh j'fJbk.. (1292)

nkgD/ ;[y nkokw ;G fsnkr fdZs.
/ ;{owrsh dh f;yo B{z gj[u
z D tkb/

j/ GkJh ` fJj g[ikoh b'e nkgD/ nkg B{z T{uh iks tkbk j'D

wjkB :'fXnK B{z d;w gkfsPkj ji{o B/ w[es/ dk bep fdZsk ;h. fJj dk jzeko u[eh fcod/ jB. w?A (Bkwd/t iK ny"sh BhthnK iksK tkb/
uwe"o tkb/ ;B, ukj/ w[es;o tkb/ ;B. Gkt/A nBzdg[o tkb/ ;B s/ b'e) iks gZyA' Shgk jK, fJjBK dh Bio ftu nsh BhtK jK. fJ;/ bJh
ukj/ uKdBh u"Ae iK bj"o Byk; u"e ftub/ Pjhd ;B. fJjh ;B n;b fpBK tikj w/oh p/fJZish eod/ ofjzd/ jB. fiE/ fes/ d' pzfdnK ftu
w[es/. ;oho b/y/ br ikt/ p/PZe, go r[bkwh rb BjhA g?D d/Dh.. yVk p?mk j'tK ;{do ;{do nky e/ XZe/ wkod/ jB. ;Gk ftu'A eZY fdzd/
;oho d/ ;[nkdk s'A Gh w[es. bzw/ ihtB ekb (T[wo) dh bkb;k s'A Gh jB. fJ; soQK d/ G?V/ fBikw ftu w?A ehjd/ nZr/ fJB;kc bJh g[eko
w[es. P{ed/ shoK ftu fbPedhnK s/rK ftu todhnK r'bhnK dh eoK< ;[fDnk j? fe ‘‘f;woB’’ eoB tkfbnK B[z woB s'A pkd w[esh
gqtkj Bk eofdnK, nZr/ jh nZr/ tXd/ ikDk j?. r[bkwh rb BjhA g?D fwbdh j?. e"D ikD/ fwbdh j? fe BjhA, ehjB/ t/yh j? < w?B{z nfijh
d/Dh. nkT[ ihtB w[es pko/ e[ZM r[opkDh gowkD ftuko bJhJ/^
BkBe ;fsr[fo G/fNn? g{oh j't? i[rfs..

w[esh dh b'V BjhA, i' woB s'A wro'A fwb/. w?B{z sK fJE/ jh fJ;/ ihtB
ftu jo soQK dhnK gkpzdhnK s'A ybk;h ukjhdh j?. fJj g[ikoh

j;zfdnK y/bfz dnK g?bd
z nK yktzfdnK ftu/ j't/ w[efs..(522) pqkjwD b'e, w?B{z nsh xNhnk sohe/ ngwkBs eod/ jB. ‘‘Y/v’’
[33]

[34]

efj e/ p[bkT[Ad/ jB. fi;dk wsbp j? nsh BhtK s/ ‘‘jokwh’’. j/

j/ GkJh ` e"D d; ;edk j? fe wB[y
Z feE'A nkfJnk j?< eh gsk

gow feogkb{ fgsk ih ` gow/Po ih w? Gh s/ok jh g?dk ehsk, s/ok

feZE/ ubk ikt/rk< n;b sZs t;s{ fJj j? fe iBw s'A b? e/ woB se

jh g[Zso jK. fJj id'A w?B{z Bhu s/ jokwh efjzd/ jB, sK w/oh jh BjhA,

fisBh T[wo gqkgs j'Jh j?, Gb/ ezw eoe/ T[;B{z ;ekoEh eo bt/.

s/oh p/fJZish j[zdh j?. feT[Afe w?A s?B{z fgsk ;theko ehsk j?.

nekb g[oy d/ pDkJ/ ekB{zB (n;{b) B{z ;wM bt/. mhe eh j? rbs

;' w[esk ;z;kfo fi r[fo T[gd/fPnk..

eh j?, fJ; dh goy eo bt/. fJj go;kd, ihtB ;cbk eoB tkbh

fs;eh rJh pbkfJ fwN/ nzd/f;nk..

wZs, ;fsr[o{ s'A fwbdh j?. fJE/ nkgDh jzeko fposh tkb/ ftekoK d/

fs;ek doPB[ d/fy irs[ fBjkb[ j'fJ..

ekp{ nk iKd/ jB. feT[Afe T[jBK B{z nkgDh S'Nh wZs Gh tZvh gqshs

iB e? ;zfr fBjkb[ gkgK w?b[ X'fJ..HHHH

j[d
z h j?. fJ;/ bJh r[o{ dh f;Zfynk s'A tKM/ ofj iKd/ jB. fJj rZb ;dk

fi; xfN tf;nk BkT[ fs;[ pzXB ekNhn?..

fXnkB ftu oj/ fe jT[w? fsnkr e/, fBwosk XkoB eoe/ oj/. fJ;

r[o gq;kfd feB? ftob? jfo XB[ ykNhn?..

(519)

fgZS/ n;hA fizdrh d/ eJh gfjb{nK pko/ ftuko eo u[Ze/ jK.

soQK wB, gP{ fposhnK s'A pfunk oj/rk.
g[fS B ;ki/ g[fS Bk Ykj/ g[fS B d/t? b/fJ..

nkT[ nrb/ fjZ;/ ftu j[D r[opkDh d/ T[jBK gowkDK pko/ f;XKse

nkgDh e[dofs nkg/ ikD? nkg/ eoD[ eo/fJ.. (53)

ikDekoh bJhJ/, fiBQK ftu'A nktkrtD iK 84 bZy i{Bk pko/ ;/X fwbdh

fBozeko fe;/ B{z g[ZSe/ ihtK dh f;oiDk BjhA eodk. Bk jh

j't/^

fe;/ dh ;bkj Bkb ftBk; eodk j?. ihtK nzdobh i'fs Gh nkgD/
;[fD wB fwsq fgnkfonk, fwb[ t/bk j? J/j..

n;{b w[skpe pyPdk j?. fe;/ j'o dk fJ; ezw ftu e'Jh :'rdkB BjhA

ip br[ i'pfB ;k;[ j?, sp br[ fJj[ sB[ d/j..

j?. fJ; f;XKs B{z fpnkB BjhA ehsk ik ;edk. feT[Afe e[dos d/

fpB[ r[D ekfw B nktjh, Yfj Y/oh sB[ y/j.. (20)

wjkB g;ko/ B{z wB[Zy g{oh soQK ;wM jh BjhA ;edk. fJ;/ bJh fco

j/ fgnko/ wBk ` gow/Po B{z :kd eoB dk fJjh mhe ;wK j?.

fpnkB Gh BjhA eo ;edk. fJ; pko/ sK jo e'Jh j?okB j? fe fJj

id'A se ;oho ftu skes j?, ;[nk; ub oj/ jB, fJj d/j iK sB T[dA'

;G fet/A j' frnk <

sZe jh j?. i/ s{z r[D XkoB Bk ehs/, r[o{ dh f;Zfynk b? e/ B/e okj s/

ik fs;[ GkDk sk irs[ T[gkfJnk..

Bk N[fonk, fco fJj ;'jDk, ;oho fe; ezw < ;w/A Bkb fJ; d/jh B/

pkM[ ebk nkvkD[ ojkfJnk..HHHH

fwZNh ftu fwb ikDk j?, fJ; s'A uzr/o/ ekoi eotk b?.

ftob/ eT[ r[o ;pd[ ;[DkfJnk..

ejK s/ nkfJnk ejK J/j ikD[.. ihts wos oj? gotkD[..

efo efo d/y? j[ew[ ;pkfJnk..

j[ew/ p[M? ss[ gSkD?.. fJj[ go;kd[ r[o{ s/ ikD?..

yzv pqjwzv gkskb nozG/ r[gsj[ gorNh nkfJdk..

j'Adk cVhnr[ BkBe ikD[.. Bk jT[ Bk w? i{Bh gkD[.. (1289)

sk ek nzs[ B ikD? e'Jh.. g{o/ r[o s/ ;'Mh j'Jh..

[35]

[36]

BkBe ;kfu oj/ fp;wkdh, fp;wkd GJ/ r[D rkfJdk.. (1036)

;wM' fJj b'e ftekoK tkb/ iwd{sK B/ ieV/ j'J/ jB. fe;/ B{z eh d'P<

j/ GkJh ` id'A fBozeko dh fJZSk j'Jh, sK T[;B/ ekfJBks dh

y[d jh wB s/ ekp{ Bk oZfynk, r[o{ dh uzrh wZs Bk bJh. fJjBK B{z ;dk

ouBk eo fdZsh. Xosh ;{oi uzd s/ j'o ;kok g[bkV fpBK fe;/ pkjoh

d[y x/ok gkJh oyd/ jB. j/ BkBe ` eosko d/ fBnw B{z ft;ko e/,

;jko/ s'A eosko d/ ;{s (fBnw) ftu pzfBnk yb'sk j?. fe;/ ftob/

;[y BjhA fwb/rk. T[jBK bJh jo ;wK jo w";w wzdk jh wzdk j?.

wB[Zy B{z r[o{ s'A fJjBK T[uhnK owiK dh ;wM g?Adh j?. eosk g[oy

nfBe o;k ykJ/ i?;/ Y'o.. w'j eh i/toh pKfXU u'o..

ngD/ ehs/ B{z y[d jh ekp{ ftu oydk j?. Xosh ftub/ G{yzv, pqjwzv,

fwose d/j ;kX ;zfr fpj{Bk..nkts iks i'Bh d[y yhBk.. (190)

nkekP gkskb ;G pDk fdZs/. fJ; soQK fBozeko nkgDh ;koh e[dos

j/ GkJh ` oZp ih tZb'A fdZs/ nB/e ;[nkdb/ gdkoE yke/,

okjhA nkeko (;or[D ;o{g) ftu nke/ fdykJh d/D bZrk. eos/ dh

ikBto Bk pD ik. fBozeko dk P[eokBk eo s/ fteko fsnkr e/ B/

n;uoi e[dos dk e'Jh nzs BjhA j?. p; ;woZE r[o{ (r[o{ BkBe

e ekoi eo. fit/A u'o B{z cV e/ p/VhnK jEeVhnK ftu ieV fbnk

;kfjp) dh wjkB ftuko Xkok okjhA, ekdo ns/ e[dos pko/ ;wM

iKdk j?. s{z fJ;/ soQK w'j dhnK szdK ftu pZM u[fenk j?. fJj ;oho

nkT[Adh j?. nky, j/ BkBe ` T[; ;Zu/ d/ e"se t/y e/ ft;wkd ftu nk

w[odk bkP dh fBnkJh j?, nro GkJhuko/ Bkb fwbe/ frnkB jk;b

ikJhdk j?. p; w?A id'A Gh fJ; ;G B{z ;wMdk t/ydk jK, j?okB j'e/

eoe/ wB[ysk dk Gbk BjhA eodk. nfij/ wzd/ ezwK eoe/ s{z fJB;kB

T[; d/ r[D rkT[D br iKdk jK. T[j nEkj j? p/nzs j?. id'A ;koh

BjhA nytk ;edk. fJj sK gP{ i'BhnK tkb/ ezw jB.

f;q;Nh dk gqrNk jh n;uoi iBe j?, sK wB[Zy fet/A g?dk j'fJnk<

d/fB d[nkJh ;/ wofj fiB eT[ d/fB f; ikfj..

feE/ ubk ikt/rk, e"D ikD ;edk j?<

BkBe j[ew[ B ikgJh feE? ikfJ ;wkfj.. (1286)

X'j B ubh y;w Bkfb bfp w'fj ftr{s/..

j/ GkJh ` fJj i' b[N/o/ b'e r[o{ gho ;zs pDe/ ;/teK B{z

eosp eoB Gb/fonk, wfd wkfJnk ;[s/..

n;hotkdK d/Ad/ jB. T[jBK dh bzwh T[wo dhnK nodkPK eod/ jB.

fcfo fcfo i{fB GtkJhnfB iw wkor w[s/..

T[j ;ko/ nodk;K eoB tkb/ Gh, ;w/A w[skpe wo iKd/ jB. fiBQK dh

ehsk gkfJfB nkgDk d[y ;/sh i[s/

tZvh T[wo bJh d[nktK fdZshnK iKdhnK jB, T[j Gh wo iKd/ jB. fBozeko

BkBe BkfJ ft;kfon? ;G wzdh o[s/.. (321)

d/ fBnw B{z fJj b'e BjhA ikDd/. eh gsk fBozeko B/ nkgDk f;XKs fet/

j/ GkJh ` eosko Bkb mZrh ubkeh BjhA ubdh. i' wB[Zy b'G

A pzfBnk j'fJnk j?< woBk izwDk T[; d/ pDkJ/ ekB{B
z w[skpe j?.

w'j nkfd ftekoK ftu roe j' ikD, s/ T[sA' Xowh j'D dk gkyzv eoB,

i' B ;[Bfj i;[ gowkBzdk..

T[jBK dk ihtB p/eko frnk. pkjoh s"o s/ uzr/ j'D dk Sbktk eod/

gP[ gzyh fsqrd i'fB s/ wzdk..

jB. nzdo'A wkfJnk d/ BP/ ftu ;[Zs/ j[zd/ jB. nfij/ b'e wB dh T[uh

ej[ BkBe r[fo wzsq fdqVkfJn..

Bhth jkbs w[skpe T[uhnK BhthnK i{BK ftu jh fiT[A oj/ j[zd/ jB.

e/tb Bkw fod wkfj ;wkfJn.. (118)

[37]

[38]

j/ GkJh` i' wB[Zy gow/Po dh f;cs ;bkj BjhA ;[Ddk. r[o{

fJj[ sT[ ouB[ ofunk eoskfo..

s'A was BjhA b?Adk. wkB' T[j sK fBok gP{ j?. gzShnK ;wkB j?. j'o

nkts ikts j[efw ngkfo..

nDfrDs wzdhnK i{BhnK dk ;wM' rzdk ehVk j?. T[;B{z fJB;kB fet/

Bj e' w{nk B woD? i'r[.. Bj fpB;? nfpBk;h j'r[..

efj ;ed/ jK< j/ BkBe ` nky r[o{ B/ fJe nfijk B[esk

ej[ BkBe r[fo Gow[ u[ekfJnk..

(r[oOftXhOsohek) ;wMk fdZsk, gZek eoe/ fjod/ ftu p;k fdZsk.

Bk e'Jh wo? B nkt? ikfJnk.. (885)

f;oc oZp ih s/ ftPtk; fbnkT[Dk j?. j'o e'Jh Gow BjhA eoBk.

j/ GkJh ` eT[D wfonk j? d;' sK ;jh< T{u/ wkB;e wzvb tkb/

wK eh oes[ fgsk fpzd{ Xkok.. w{ofs ;{ofs efo nkgkok..

f;nkD/ g[oyK s'A g[S
Z t/y.
' fJj f;b;bk ;dhnK s'A fJ;/ soQK ubdk nk

i'fs dkfs i/sh ;G s/oh, s{ eosk ;G mkJh j/.. (1022)

fojk j?. fJE/ wodk e'Jh BjhA, e/tb o{g tN iKdk j?. ojkT[..

j/ GkJh ` wB[Zy d/ g?dk j'D dh fBozeko B/ fJe ftXh pDkJh

rfjokJh Bkb goy eoe/ t/y', id'A wB[Zy wo frnk wzB fbnk

j'Jh j?. fJ; bJh wksk dk y{B s/ fgsk dk phi id'A nkg; ftu fwbd/

iKdk j?, sK nzdo ub ojh ;[nk; o{gh jtk nzdo ikD s'A o[e rJh.

jB, sK pZu/ dh BhAj fNe iKdh j?. ;oho d/ ftek; eow w[skpe pZuk

pkjo dh pkjo ofj rJh. ikBh fe jtk ftu jtk ;wk rJh. fJj uZb

tXDk P[o{ j' iKdk j?. wksk fgsk tor/ nzr, ozr ;[Gk, r[D n"r[D ;ko/

ojh gT[D feXo/ Gh BjhA rJh. fJ;/ soQK i' Pesh ;oho B{z ubk ojh

Bkb b?e/ g?dk j[d
z k j?. fJ; ;oho ftub/ sZs ns/ i's s/o/ tb'A jh pyP/

;h. fi; B{z Xkowe p'bh ftu oZph i's efj fbnk iKdk j?. nkw p'bh

j'J/ jB. fJj pVh n;uoi fefonk j?. j/ fBozeko s{z i'fs o{g ftu

ftu (fizd) “ikB” nky fdZsk iKdk j?. ftfrnkBe p'bh ftu nkekP

jo Ekt/A y[d w"i{d j?A.

dZf;nk frnk j?. fJj i's tkg; nkgD/ n;b/ ftu ubh rJh. wfonk

fJj ;oho eosko tb'A f;oi/ gzi szsK dk pfDnk j'fJnk j?.

e'Jh BjhA. fwZNh ftZu fwZNh ob rJh. feT[Afe ;oho fwZNh dk jh sK

id'A gzi sZs fJe ‘‘fBozekoh f;XKs’’ ftu fwbe/ ezw eod/ jB, sK

g[sbk j?. fco wB[Zy o'Adk feT[A j?< feT[Afe Bk ;wM j?, T[;B{z v{zxk

fJj iht fiT[Adk j?. j;dk p'bdk y/bdk j?. id'A fJj gzi/ sZs fwb

frnkB BjhAj?.

uZbD s'A fJBekoh j' ikD, e'Jh ftxB g? ikt/ sK ‘‘w"s j' rJh’’

fJj ;oho fJe ftXh B{z g{fonK eoe/ pfDnk j?. fw;kb

;theko eo bJh iKdh j?. iBwdk wodk e[M BjhA, e/tb sZs nkgDk

tk;s/ efj ;ed/ jK fe b'jk gbk;fNe, nZr, gkDh gNo'b, jtk nkfd

o{g tNk b?Ad/ jB. r[opkDh fJ; dh rtkjh Go ojh j?^

fJe ftXkB ftu pzBe/ ftfrnkBhnK B/ ;z;ko ;kjwD/ b? nKdhnK.

gtB? wfj gtB[ ;wkfJnk.. i'sh wfj i'fs ofb ikfJnk..

fJ; fwZNh dh Y/oh fijh B{z eko efj bT[, NoZe iK pZ; wzB bT[. jtkJh

wkNh wkNh j'Jh J/e.. o'tBjko/ eh etB N/e..

ijki efj bT[. fJj e[ZM sZs nkg;h skbw/b ftu ofje/, ;kbK pZXh

eT[B[ w{nk o/ eT[B[ w{nk..

ezw eod/ jB. fJe' coe j? fe fJjBK wPhBK ftu ‘‘wB iK fizdikB’’

pqjw frnkBh fwfb eoj[ phukok fJj[ sT[ ubs[ GfJnk.. ojkT[..
[39]

BjhA j[d
z h. fizdikB fJ; B{z ubkT[D tkb/ d/ e'b j?. T[j fit/A ukj/ tos
[40]

;edk j?.

jtk ftu fwb iKdk j?. e[M gkDh ftu e[ZM fwZNh ftu fJ;/ soQK ;oho

ebk; ftu gVk oj/ wk;No B/ pZfunK B{z g[ZfSnk fe dZ;' gJh

d/ sZs jB. sZs wod/ izwd/ BjhA, e/tb o{g pdbd/ jB. j/ BkBe,

nKv/ ftu'A u{uk pkjo fet/A fBebdk j?< pZu/ wri ygkJh eod/ oj/.

nky ` r[o{ B/ T[sw wZs d/ e/ ;koh y/Y ;wMk fdZsh. GowK d/ ;ko/ gVd/

e'Jh nky/ ih nkgDh u[zi Bkb nzv/ d/ y'b B{z s'V fdzdk j?. d{ik nky/

eZN fdZs/. e[dos dh ;koh n;bhns ;wM nk rJh j?. fJE/ Bk e'Jh

y'b nkg/ jh ewi'o j' iKdk j?. shik nky/ e[ZeVh nzv/ dk y'b s'Ve/

wodk j?. Bk fes'A e'Jh nkT[Adk j?. Bk fes/ wo e/ iKdk j?. e/tb sZsK

u{u/ B{z eZYdh j?. fJe pZuk jkbh u[Zg p?mk j'fJnk ;h. wk;No ih B/

tZb'A fwbe/ ezw eoB dh soshp fpyo iKdh j?. j'o t/y' ^

T[; B{z g[ZfSnk ^ ‘‘ekek ` s{z e[ZM BjhA p'fbnk, s/ok eh ftuko j?‘‘<

gT[D? gkDh nrBh ek w/b[.. uzub ugb p[fX ek y/b[..

ftfdnoEh B/ i[nkp d/D dh EKt/A BtK ;tkb eo fdZsk. ‘‘wk;No ih ` feogk

BT[ dotki/ d;tk d[nko[.. p{M[ o/ frnkBh J/j[ phuko[..HH

eoe/ gfjbK fJj dZf;nk ikt/ fe u{uk nzv/ ftu tVdk fet/A j?< pkjo

d/jh wkNh p'b? gT[D.
[ . p{M[ o/ frnkBh w{nk j? eT[D.
[ . (152)

fBebD dh y'i sK wro'A eoKr/. gfjbK nzdo ikD dh y'i eo bJhJ/.‘‘ fJ;

j/ GkJh ` fJj ;oho eh j? fet/A pfDnk j? fet/A ezw eodk j?<

rZb dk wk;No ih e'b e'Jh T[so BjhA ;h. fJ;/ soQK n;hA dhtk

;'u ;wM e/ j?okB ofj ikJhdk j?. jtk gkDh nrBh nkfd gzi sZs

w'wpZsh irkT[Ad/ jK. irdh pZsh B{z id'A p[Mk d/JhJ/ sK nZr feE/ ubh

fwbe/ id'A ezw eod/ jB sK fJ; nzdo uzub p[Xh Gh w"i{d j[zdh j?.

iKdh j?< fco T[jh ;tkb yVk j[zdk j? fe nZr nkT[Adh feE'A j?< fNT[p

i' fJ; fwZNh gkDh d/ ;oho B{z n?Xo T[Xo ezw bkJh oydh j?. BT[

pZbp n;hA jo o'i xoK ftu irkT[Ad/ jK. o'PBh feE'A nkT[Adh j?< pzd

dotki/ ;oho d/ pkjobh d[BhnK Bkb ;pzX pDkT[D bJh jB. fJe

eoB s/ feE/ ubh iKdh j?< n;b ftu fe;/ t;s{ d/ gqrN j'D bJh

frnkB o{g pzd dotkik nzdo j?. T[; nzdob/ frnkB okjhA, oZp pko/

;kirko tksktoD g?dk eo d/JhJ/. T[; jkbks ftu'A t;s{ nkgD/ nkg

, f;q;Nh pko/ ;oho pko/ n;bhns gsk brdh j?. j/ frnkBtkB

g?dk j' ikt/rh. T[; jkbks B{z fpy/o d/JhJ/ sK T[j t;s{ nb'g j' ikt/

fJB;kB fJ; v{zxh owi B{z ;wM b?. uZbD fcoB tkbh, p'bD ;[DB

rh. fJ;/ soQK fJB;kB d/ g?dkj'D iK wo ikD dh fefonk j?.

tkbh, d/jh eh j?< e/tb fwZNh nkfd sZsK dh g[sbh. id'A p'bdh j?

eoskg[oy ih B/ fJe gqpzX T[;ko fdZskj?. T[; d/ nXhB nkgD/ nkg

ekoi eodh j? sK fJ; B[z iht efj fdZsk iKdk j?. sK fJj ftuko eo'

;kohnK fefonktK j' ojhnK jB.

fe n;b ftu wfonk eT[D j?< Bk e'Jh wodk j? Bk iBwdk j?.

j/ GkJh ` fJj sK eosko dh fJe y/Y j?, T[;B/ nfijh ouBk

e[dos d/ fBnw ftu sZsK dk y/b ub fojk j?. i' fBozso ikoh j?.

ehsh j?, fe iht ‘‘iBwd/ jB wod/ jB.’’ gorN j[zd/ jB nb'g j'

nktB ikB[ fJe[ y/b[ pBkfJnk..

iKd/ jB. T[; dk nNZb fBnw brksko uZb fojk j?. fJE/ e'Jh BjhA

nkfrnk ekoh ehBh wkfJnk..

wodk. feT[Afe woD tkbh e'Jh rb jh BjhA j?. fJj ;ko/ sZs (gzi

nkfrnk nkt? nkfrnk ikfJ..

sZs) BkP ofjs jB. fit/A beVh B{z ibk d/JhJ/ sK T[;dk e[ZM fjZ;k

BkBe ik Gkt? sK bJ/ ;wkfJ.. (294)

[41]

[42]

j'o t/y'

*

ikT[ s[w[ w'eT[ d{fo eos, jT[ sT[ s[w w[efs psktj[..
J/e nB/e j'fJ ofjU ;rb wfj, np e?;/ Gowktj[..

nktD ikD oj/, ;[y ;ko/.. (191)
*

okw, w'eT[ skfo ejK b? ikJh j?..
;'XT[ w[efs ejk d/T[ e?;h, efo gq;kd[ w'fj gkJh j?.. ojkT[..

efb eb/; r[o ;pfd fBtko/..
;'r joy wfj nktD ikDk..
fsfB ;[y[ gkfJnk i' gqG GkDk..(192)

*

fJj wkD; iBw[ d[bzG[ j? Bkw fpBk fpoEk ;G ikJ/..

skoB soB sp? br ejhn?, ip br[ ss[ Bk ikfBnk..

j[D ts? jfo Bkw[ B phfiU, nr? G[yk fenk ykJ/..

np sT[ fpwb GJ/ xN jh wfj, efj epho wB[ wkfBnk.. (1104)

wBw[yk B' fcfo iBw[ j?, BkBe jfo GkJ/..

j/ gow feogkb{ gow/;o ih ` i/ s[;hA w?B{z sko fdT[, w[efs

*
*
*
*

ekw eq'X b'G w'j w{m/, ;dk nktkrtD..
gqG gqw
/ Grfs r[gkb f;woD, fwNs i'Bh GtD.. (502)

j?, w?A T[;/ dk fJe fjZ;k iK nzr jK. w?A w[esh tkb/ Gow uZeo ftu
feT[A gtK< ‘‘oZp skoB jko j?, s/ iht soB tkbk, fJj Gow T[d'A sZe

nkgBV/ wfB fufs, ejfB uzr/fonk..
iwoki? fBs fBs, wBw[y j/fonk.. (143)

j/ oZp ih ` i/ s[;hA w?B[z nkgD/ s'A tZy eo fdU fco ekjdh
w[esh j?< T[j ;[nkwh i's o{g j'e/ id'A ;kfonK ftu ofwnk j'fJnk

fJeBk woD[ B fufs, nk; xD/fonk..
wfo wfo izwfj fBs, fe;? B e/fonk..

s'A f;tkJ/ j'o fes/ w[esh j? jh BjhA. e'Jh w?B{z d;/ sK ;jh, gqG{ dh
:kd s'A pr?o w[esh feE/ j?< ojkT[..

r[o wzsq jhD t; i' gqkDh fXqrzs iBw fGq;NDj..
e{eoj ;{eoj roXpj ekej ;ogBj s[fb ybj (1357)

eo fdU sK eh w?B{z nkgD/ s'A tZy eo fdUr/< w?A s[jkvh feogk ;dek
s[jkvh B/Vsk jk;b eo bJh j?. fJjh w/oh n;bh w[esh j?. s[jkv/

(450)

*

pj[fo jw ekj/ nktfjr/..

pfDnk ofjzdk j?, id'A se ;jh ;'Mh BjhA nkJh. j[D sK fjod/ ftu

nktB ikBk j[ew[ fs;? ek j[ew? p{fM ;wktfjr/..(1103)

jh p?mk pqjw gqsZy wfj;{; j' frnk j?. epho dk wB g{oh soQK fJ;

r[opkDh d[nkok f;Zy B{z nkw eoe/ ihtB d/ jo gfjb{ dk

ftPtkP dk XkoBh pD frnk j?. j[D j'o fe;/ w[esh dh ukjBk jh

frnkB fwb fojk j?. g[okD/ pD/ e{V d/ feb/ iK o/s d/ wfjb P[pd dh

ysw j' rJh j?.

PeshPkbh u'N Bkb G;wkG{s eo fdZs/ jB. fi; B/ r[opkDh B{z ;wM

r[opkDh sK g[eko g[eko e/ nky ojh j? fe fJ; wB[y ihtB

e/ gfVnk, T[;d/ fdwkr tkb/ pzd dotki/ u"cN
Z y[b
Z Q rJ/. izwDk woBk,

ftu jh ;ko/ gP{ gzShnK, ehV/ ekfYnK d/ ;[Gk nzdo w"id
{ jB. T[jBK

uT[ok;h bZy i'BK, Xow oki fuZso r[gs nkfd tkb/ ;ko/ Gow ekc{o

B{z d{o eoBk j?, i' nzdo p?m/ ikBto jB. gV' c[owkB^

j' rJ/. r[o{ ;kfjp B/ wB[y
Z B{z uT[ok;h dk ehVk BjhA pDkfJnk, pbfe

*

i' B ;[Bfj i;[ gowk Bzdk..

fBozeko dk yk; o{g gow/Po dh T[sw feos nkye/ tfvnkfJnk j?.

g;[ gzyh fsqrd i'fB s/ wzdk (118)

;koh Xosh dk pkdPkj n?bkfBnk j?. swkw ihtK izsK s'A ;q'wDh j'D

[43]

[44]

dk wkD pyfPnk j?. pkopko fJj Gh ;wMkfJnk j? fe s{z y[d oZp dh

A ;KM j?. nkgD/ pDkJ/ fBnw w[skpe, eoskg[oy ;oho d/ nzdo y[d

nzP j?. j/ wB[Zy s{z jh oZp dk gZ[so j?A. fe;/ yk; fwPB d/ nXhB s?B{z

w"i{d j?. ykD/ B{z jiw eoBk, ;ko/ ;oho dhnK b'VK w[skpe T[;B{z

fJ; Xosh s/ G/fink frnk j?. fJj Xow oki, fJj pqjwk ftPBz{ s/

pdb d/Dk, fJe j?okB eoB tkbh y/Y j?. nzdo/ nzdo GzB s'V i' j[zdh

fPt s/o/ nZr/ wkw{bh fyvkT[D/ fij/ jB. s{z ;fsr[o{ s'A wZs b? e/, nkgD/

j?, ;oho s/ iyw j[zd/ jB. T[BQK ;GBK dh w[ozws fpBK nky/ nkgD/

ihtB B{z ;ekoEk eo b?. gVQ'^

nkg j' ojh j?. n;b ekfJnk T[j j? fi;B[z r[o{ B/ wZs d/ e/, nekb

ekfJnk nzdfo pqjwk fp;B wj/;k, ;G Ugfs fis[ ;z;kok..

g[oy pko/ frnkB d/ fdZsk. T[j ;oho fco ftekoK s'A gke j' iKdk

;u? ngDk y/b[ oukfJnk, nktkrT[D g;kok..

j?. n"r[DK B[z fsnkr d/Adk j?. gqw/Po dh :kd s'A fpBK fes/ Y'Jh BjhA

ekfJnk nzdfo ;G{ feS[ t;?, yzv wzvb gkskbk..

fwb/rh. gqG{ B[z fjod/ ftu p;kJ/ s'A fpBK, fteko o{gh iw nk v/ok

ekfJnk nzdfo irihtB dksk t;?, ;GBk eo/ fgqsgkbk..

bkT[Ad/ jB. pj[s y[nko eod/ jB.

;k ekfJnk i' ;fsr[o ;/t/ ;u? nkfg ;tkoh..
ftD[ Bkt? dfo Y'Jh Bkjh, sk iw[ eo/ y[nkoh.. (754)

r[opkDh sK ;gPN ;wMk ojh j?^
*

G/d B ikDj[ w{fb, ;KJh i/fjnk..

j/ GkJh ` fJ; d/jh nzdo jh, pqjwk ftPB{z fPt tkbh dZ;h
iKdh ;koh fefonk fBozeko d/ fBnw ftu j' ojh j?. pqjwk tkbh

fiBQK B ft;o? Bkw[, ;/ feB/fjnk..

*

(397)

;/Jh ;[zdo ;'jD/.. ;kX ;zfr fifB p?jD/. (132)

T[sgsh (;oho d/ ;?b pDB/ tXD/) brksko j' ojhj?. ;oho dh gkuB

np sT[ ikfJ uY/ f;zxk;fB, fwb? j? ;kfozrgkBh..

fefonk y{B G/iD dk gqpzX, jtk gkDh s/ rowkjN gj[zukD dh ftXh,

okw ephok J/e GJ/ j?, e'fJ B ;e? gSkBh..

brksko uZb ojh j?. wkB'A ftPB{z ;oho d/ nzdo p?mk ;ko/ ;oho dh

r[opkDh ftu'A fJe j'o Ppd dh d[ots'A ehsh iKdh Gh nkw

;zGkb eo fojk j?. fPt dk ezw j? ftBk; eoBk. ;oho d/ nzdo jh

;[Dh t/yh iKdh j?. fJ; dh ojkT[ tkbh gzesh B{z SZve/, pkehnK B{z

GzB s'V j' ojh j?. ;?b wo oj/ jB, fpwkohnK g?dk j' ojhnK jB.

gqwy
[ sk d/ fdZsh iKdh j? i' fe fBzdBh ezw j?. ojkT[ tkb/ pzd B{z ;Bw[y

p[Ykgk i'o gk fojk j?. fJ; ;oho B/ ewi'o j'e/ nzs B{z ysw j' ikDk

oZye/ pkeh ;ko/ Ppd dh ftuko j'Dh ukjhdh j?. ojkT[ dk pzd gV'^

(969)

j?. fJjh ezw d;/ rJ/ fPt tkbk, ;oho d/ nzdo fBozeko dh pDkJh

jfo fpB p?b fpokB/ j[Jh j?..

ftXh w[skpe j' fojk j?. j'o fejV/ fPt dh rb eod/ j'< ;ko/ ;z;ko

ckN/ BkeB N{N/ ekXB e' dT[ e' G[;[ yJh j?.. (524)

dh T[sgsh, gkbDk ns/ gob? (ykswk) fJ;/ ftXh Bkb j' fojk j?.

j/ GkJh ` B/e ihtB s'A fpBk s{z e/tb fJe pbd dh fBnkJh

fJjh j? n;b ftu nzdo/ nzdo ub fojk woBk izwDk nkfd dk

j?A fBok ikBto tkbk ihtB. fit/A gP{ B{z e'Jh ;wM BjhA, T[;/ soQK

‘‘nktkrT[D’’ i' e[M pqfjwzv ftu j?, T[jh sZs yzv ftu jB. Gkt

s{z Bk;wMh ftu ihtB fpnkoE rztk fojk j?. fit/A wkbe dh r[bkwh

;oho ftu Gh T[jh sZs jB. gkDh d/ fJe s[ge/ ns/ ;w[zdo ftu fit/

ekoD pbd dk BZe cfNnk j'fJnk. ezX/ T[s/ Gko bZdD ekoD y{B

[45]

[46]

trdk ofjzdk j?. ykD bJh e/tb s{Vh nkfd fBezwk ykDk. ;'u ` i/ s{z fe; soQK dk toskT j't/rk. Boe fezB/ fe;w d/ j[zd/ jB. T[E/ fezB/
wB[yk ihtB dk bkjk Bk fbnk fco fJ; pbd ns/ s/o/ ftu eh coe soQK d/ d[Zy s;hj/ fdZs/ iKd/ jB. iK ;tor dhnK wBw'jDhnK gohnK
d/ o{g ozr dk ft;Eko BjhA j?. T[E'A dhnK n?; gq;sh dhnK ejkDhnK

j?<
d[y ;[y eos wjk Gqfw p{v', nfBe i'fB GowJh j?..

Gh r[opkDh ftu BjhA jB. Xow oki d/ ezw eoB dh goy eoe/,

osB iBw[ y'fJU gqG[ fp;foU fJj[ nT[;o[ es gJh j?.. (524)

e'Jh ftP/P fog'oN fsnko BjhA ehsh rJh. ;r'A ny"sh Xow oki B{z

j/ GkJh ` edh d[yK ftu edh ;[yK ftu, nB/e Gow o{g ezwK rZi tZi e/ nDfrDs tkoh, r[opkDh ftu oZd ehsk frnk j?. go
ftu s{z ihtB popkd eo fbnk j?. nB/e gP{ i'BK tork s/ok jkb y[droi g[ikoh N'fbnK B/, fJjBK gZyK B[z nZr/ BjhA nkT[D fdZsk.
j?. jho/ tork nw'be wB[yh ihtB, s{z Bk;wMh ekoB n?t/ rtkfbnk. ;fsr[o{ ih B/ fJ;/ Xosh s/ ofj oj/ wB[yh ;wki B{z, r[DtkB pDkT[D
fBozeko B{z ft;ko fdZsk. r[o{ dh ws b? e/ fizdrh ;ztkoB dk fJjh dk T[gd/P ehsk j?.
nkU fJe Ppd d/ doPB eohJ/^
nt;o ;h. fco nfijk w"ek edh fwb/ fe Bk fwb/ eh gsk. r[o{
BkBe ;kfjp nkswe w"s woB tkb/ gqkDh dk fuZso fJT[ ;kv/ ;Bw[y

fis[ ;/ftn? ;[y[ gkJhn?, ;' ;kfjp ;dk ;wkbhn?..

oZy oj/ jB^

fis[ ehsk gkJhn? nkgDk, ;k xkb p[oh feT[ xkbhn?..

fJeBk woD[ Bk fufs nk; xD/fonk..

wzdk w{fb B ehuJh, d/ bzwh Bdfo fBjkbhn?..

“wfo wfo izwfj fBs”, fe;/ B e/fonk..

fiT[ ;kfjp Bkfb B jkohn?, s/t/jk gk;k Ykbhn?..

nkgBV? wfB fufs efjB uzr/fonk..

feS[ bkj/ T[gfo xkbhn?.. (474)

iw oki? fBs fBs wBw[y j/fonk..

(143)

j/ GkJh ` fi; fBozeko B{z :kd ehfsnK jo gqeko d/ ;[y

j/ GkJh ` pj[s ;ko/ b'e w"s B{z G[b jh iKd/ jB. fJ; bJh pj[shnK fwbd/ jB. T[; oZp ih B{z jw/Pk fjod/ ftu p;k e/ oZyDk ukjhdk j?.
nk;K bkJh oyd/ jB. pj[s ;kok XB, r?otkip sohe/ jfEnkT[Ad/ fi; p[o/ ezw ekoB B[e;kB jh j't/, xkNk jh gt/, nfijk xkN/ tkbk
jb. bzwh T[wo dh ukjBk eod/ jB. nfij/ wB[y ;oho eoe/ Gkt/A ;"dk (ezw) feT[A ehsk ikt/ < nkgD/ ihtB ;co dhnK w[PebK n"eVK
fiT[Ad/ jB. go nkswe w"s/ fdB ftu eJh eJh tko wod/ jB. rbs B{z fXnkB ftu oyhJ/. nkT[D tkb/ ;w/A dh gbkfBzr pDk e/, fizdrh
;wM's/ eod/ jB, iwho t/ud/ jB. nfij/ b'e nzdo'A PowPko j[zd/ pshs eohJ/. nkgD/ se jh BjhA, nkT[D tkbhnK B;bK pko/ Gh wB[Zy
jB. pkjo'A uzr/ j'D dk Sb eod/ jB. nfij/ nkswe w"s/ wo/ pzd/ B{z frnkB j't/, fe w/o/ fe; ezw Bkb T[jBK B{z ckfJdk s/ fe; ezw Bkb
sK wkB' iwK d/ fPezi/ ftu ;dk jh c;/ j'J/ jB. fJj wBw[y jB, i/ B[e;kB j' ;edk j?. fizdrh dh ‘‘pkih’’ nfij/ f;nkDg tkb/ Yzr Bkb
y/YhJ/ fe fJE'A fiZse/ ikJhJ/. tkfjr[o{ ih nZr/ PowPko Bk j'Dk gt/.
r[ows ;wM b?D sK nkswe w"s BjhA woBr/.
/ xkN/
gktB r[opkDh dk we;d woB s'A wro'A feE/ ikDk j?, T[E/ ihtB dhnK edoK ehwsK B{z ekfJw oyfdnK, jo gb bkj/ tkbk j't.
[47]

[48]

tkb/ ezw eoe/ gSskDk Bk gJ/. ihtB pVk ehwsh j? n?t/A Bk rtk

10H

bJhJ/.

fJB;kc o{g oZp, wB[Zy d/ nzdo j?
BkBe ihn T[gkfJ e?, fbfy Bkt? ‘‘Xow’’ pjkfbnk..

fuZso r[gs iwd{s ns/ Xow oki pko/ nZr/ ft;Eko Bkb
ikDekoh fdZsh ik ojh j?. gfjbK fJe j'o yk; B[esk ;wM bJhJ/.

UE? ;u/ jh ;fu fBEV?, u[fD tfy eY/ iiwkfbnk.. (463)
11H

B/e ihtB bJh^

fe r[opkDh ftu “Xow iK, Xowoki”, feBQK noEK ftu nkfJnk j?<

‘‘Xow’’ ;/sh tkgko[ B ehs', eow[ B ehs' fws[..

1H

Xow fJe fBnw ^

ej[ BkBe shi? gjo? gqkDh, XB i'pB f;T[ fus[.. (75)

X"b[ ‘‘Xow[’’ dfJnk ek g{s[..

r'fJzdtkb fty/ r[o{ xo dh uVQs t/ye/ iks nfGwkBh b'eK B/

;zs'y[ Ekfg ofynk fifB ;{fs.. (ig[^3)
2H

o;sk ^ wzB? wr[ B ub? gzE.
[ . wzB/ Xow ;/sh ;BpzX.
[ (ig[^3)

3H

fJB;kc
nw[b[ ‘‘Xow[’’ nw[b[ dhpkD[..
nw[b[ s[b[ nw[b[ gotkD[.. (ig[^5)

4H

fJe Xowoki d/ts/ bJh ^
rktfj s[jB' gT[D[ gkDh p?;s
z o[, rkt? okik ‘Xow’ d[nko/.. (ig[^6)

5H

Xkowe ftuko bJh^
rktfj fus[ r[gs[ fbfy ikDfj fbfy fbfy “Xow[” thuko/.. (ig[^6)

6H

7H
8H

9H

Xow ewkT[D dh EK^

eJh ;ko/ YzrK Bkb fto'X ehsk. fJE'A dk fJe f;o eZYtK sgk r[o{ xo
Bkb pj[s Jhoyk eoB bZrk. fgzv d/ b'eK B{z c[;bk e/ M{mhnK PekfJsK
fsnko eoe/, pkdPkj nepo se Gh gj[zu ehsh rJh. nepo B/
fJjBK dh PekfJs B{z rzGhosk Bkb Bk fbnk s/ ykoi eo fdZsh.
nfijhnK j'o Gh fJ; sg/ B/ ukbK uZbhnK. fJ; d/ j"bh j"bh gkg Bzr/
j[d
z / rJ/ r'fJzdtkb d/ b'e Gh fJ; B[z Bcos eoB br gJ/. ;KMk bzro
tosk e/, ;fsr[o{ nwodk; ih B/ iks gks ysw eoB tk;s/ Gog{o
T[gokb/ ehs/. fJjBK iks d/ jzekoh b'eK B{z Gh bzro SeD bJh ;Zdk
fdZsk. go fJj Bk nkJ/. r[o{ ih B/ nkyoh nghb ftu fJj Gh n?bkB

oksh o[sh fEsh tko.. gtD gkDh nrBh gkskb..

eo fdZsk fe i' ftnesh gzrs ftu p?me/, ;KMk bzro Se/rk, T[;B{z

fs;[ ftfu Xosh Ekfg oyh ‘‘Xow ;kb’’.. (ig[^7)

Bedh o[g? g?;/ Gh fdZs/ ikDr/. fJ; sg/ dk wB bkbu ftu nkfrnk.

Xow dk okj^

nkgD/ p/N/ B{z fgStkfVU bzro SeD bJh nzdo G/i fdZsk. ;fsr[o{ ih

Xow yzv ek J/j' ‘‘Xow[..’’ frnkB yzv ek nkyj[ eow.. (ig[^7)

B/ r'fJzdtkb d/ w[yh ftneshnK B{z fJeZm/ eoe/, ;koh tkosk ;[DkJh.

ihtB iku ^

gZf[ Snk fe s[;hA ;ko/ f;nkD/ wB[y
Z d;' fe fJj sgk Xowh j?< fizB/ fJj

;op ‘‘Xow’’ wfj ;q/;N ‘‘Xow’’..

o'jp fdyk fojk j? fJ; ftu e'Jh r[D j?< fJ; ftuko B{z r[o{ okw dk;

jfo e' Bkw[ ifg fBowb eow[.. (266)

;kfjp B/, fJe ;b'e ftu fJT[A ebwpzd ehsk j?^

fJB;kc eoBtkbk oZp ^

sgk B j't? nzdj
q [ b'Gh, fBs wkfJnk B' fco? iiwkfbnk..

uzfrnkJhnk p[fonkJhnk tku? “Xow[” jd{fo.. (ig[^8)

nr'A d/ ;fdnK ;s? dh fGfynk bJ/ Bkjh,

[49]

[50]

B'NL

fgS'A d/ gS[skfJ e?, nkfD sg? g[s[ ftu pjkfbnk..

;fsr[o{ ih B/ d[oeko fdZsk j?. gow/Po ih B{z fJ;/ soQK GkT[Adk ;h.

gzu b'r ;fG j;D br/, sgk b'fG bjfo j? rkfbnk..

i' fBozeko tZb'A fJ;B{z ;ik fwbDh ;h, T[j fwb rJh j?. fBozeko d/

fiE? E'Vk XB[ t/y? fsE? sgk fGN? Bkjh,

n;{b dhnK r[ZMhnK ftukoK s[jkB{z ;fsr[o{ ;wMk fojk j?. fJjBK

XfB pj[s? fvm? sg? “Xow[” jkfonk..

v{zxhnK owiK B{z T[jh wB[Zy ;wM ;ed/ jB fiBQK T[go eosko dh

GkJh J/j[ sgk B j'th pr[bk j? pfj ;kX iBk thukfonk..

ngko pyfPP j[zdh j?.

;s g[oy eh sgk fBzdk eo?,

yk; fXnkB:'r^ fJ; Ppd ftu ‘‘Xow okfJ‘‘ iwezeoK B" nkfy

;z;ko? eh T[;ssh ftfu j't,? J/s[ d'y? sgk df: wkfonk..

SfvnkHHH.’’ Xowoki T[; tes eh r'fJzdtkb p?mk j'fJnk ;h< T[;

wjK g[oyK eh fBzdk ek t/y[ fi sg/ B' cb[ brk,

d/ ;/te ‘‘iwd{s’’ Gh Bkb jh nk rJ/ ;B< ekotkJh sK ;koh ;fsr[o{

;G[ rfJnk sg/ ek xkfbnk..

y[d fBGk oj/ ;B. iwezeo e'Jh j'o BjhA ;B. fgzv r'fJzdtkb tk;h

pjfo pfj gzuk ftfu sgk ;dkJ/..

ns/ f;Zy ;B. fiBQK B/ ;fsr[o{ dk j[ew wzB e/, fJ; gkyzvh sg/ B{z

nzdfo pj? sgk gkg ewkJ/..

d[oeko fdZsk. ;fsr[o{ B/ fJ; ;koh ;wkie ekotkJh B[z ‘‘jfo e? dfo

jfo nzdobk gkg[ gzuk B' T[xk efo t/fykfbnk..

tofsnkHH’’ nkye/ Xkowesk dh w'jo bkJh j?. Gkt i' fJB;kc r[o{

‘‘Xow okfJ’’, iwezeok B' nkfy Sfvnk,

eodk j?, ;wM' T[jh oZp dk fJB;kc j?. fe;/ T[gob/ ‘‘Xowoki’’ B/

J/;[ sg/ B' fsE? yfV gkfJj[, fiE? wjKwjK jfsnkfonk..

T[go p?me/ fJj c?;bk BjhA ehsk. ;r'A Xosh r'fJzdtkb dh,

fcfo J/;[ sg/ d? w[fz j e'Jh brj[ Bkjh, J/j ;fsr[fo j? fcNekfonk..

‘‘Xowoki’’ ;fsr[o{ y[d, ;ik dk Gkrhdko sgk. Xow dh w{os

jfo e? dfo tofsnk ;[ BkBfe nkfy ;[DkfJnk..

r[o{ dk j[ew bkr{ eotkT[D tkb/ ;/te f;Zy. fJ; nB'yh owi dh

;' p{M? i[ df: ;tkfonk..

fe;/ neb tkb/ ftnesh B{z ;wM g?Adh j?. fiBQK s/ eosk g[oy dh

(315)

fJ; Ppd dk ;zy/g ;ko T[go fdZsk ik u[Zek j?. j[D
e/tb ‘‘Xow okfJ’’ tkbh gzesh s'A jh ftuko ehsh ikt/rh.
j/ GkJh ` fJB;kc g;zd (Xowh ;y;hns) ;fsr[o{ ih B/ (r[o{

yk; w/jo j't/.
r[o{ dh ws b? e/ ihtB p;o eoB tkb/ eosko B{z :kd oyD
tkfbnK s'A ‘‘Xowoki’’ (g"okDe eEktkbk) Eo Eo ezpdk j?.

nwodk; ih tZb ;ze/s j?) ;/teK (f;ZyK) B{z j[ew fdZsk fe J/; gkyzvh

wE[ok Gfb Gkr Gb/ T[B e/, wB fJSs jh cb gkts j?..

sg/ B{z T[E/ ;[ZNDk fiZE/ wjK gkghnK s/ eksbK B{z ;[ZfNnk iKdk j?. fJ;

oft e/ ;[s e' fsB, sqk;[ ejk, i[ uoB r[o{ fus[ bkts j?.. (1404)

B{z ;ko/ fsnkr fdU, e'Jh ftjko Bk oy' fJ; Bkb. feT[Afe fJ; B/

j/ GkJh ` T[j tZv/ GkrK tkb/ jB, i' r[o{ dh wZs w[skpe ubd/

;fsr[o{ ih fto[X ewhDhnK ukbK uZbhnK ;B. T[j ;kohnK ;kfiPk

jB. T[j ;kohnK y[PhnK gqkgs eo b?Ad/ jB. ;{oi d/ g[Zso (g"okDe

s[jkv/ ;kjwD/ T[xkV fdZshnK jB. fJ; gkgh fJB;kB (sg/) B{z

eEk w[skpe) Xow oki dk T[jBK B[z e'Jh vo BjhA ofjzdk, i' r[o{

[51]

[52]

uoBK ftu wB i'Ve/ oydk j?. Gkt fi;B{z r[o{ dk frnkB ;wM nk

bJh ekfJ;p ;zfrnk j'Jh. s/ok ezw ihtK d/ eow fbyDk

iKdk j?.

j't/rk. ekfJ;p b'e wzBd/ jB fe ;kvk tv/ok fJjh j?. ro[V g[okD

fBf; pk;[o J/e ;wkB fXnkB, ;[ Bkw[ ;[B/ ;[s[ GkB voQT.
[ .HHH

w[skpe fuso r[gs dh ‘‘g[oh’’ i[dh j?. Xow oki dh g[oh d/ gk; j?.

okwdk;[ r[o{ jfo ;fs eh:T[, ;woE r[o{ f;fo jE XoQT.
[ . (1400)

fJ;bkw Xow ftu fuso r[gs BjhA j?. T[jBK ftu fJ; dh EK cfoPs/

j/ GkJh ` fiBQK ftneshnK B/ fdB oks nekb g[oy B{z fjod/ ftu

wzB/ rJ/ jB (wjkB e'P gzBk ^ 468, fjzd{ fwfEjk; e'P ^ 241)

p;kfJnk j?. ;{oi dk g[Zso (g"okDe) Xow oki T[jBK dk Bkw ;[De/

ftuko L^ T[go tofDs ejkDh T[jBK ekbgfBe g[okDK ftu'A bJh

jh Eo Eo ezpD br iKdk j?. fJ; bJh ny"sh Xowoki s'A voB dh

rJh j?. fi;d/ fbykoh dk e'Jh gsk Bjh. xNBK dk e'Jh ftfrnkBe

b'V BjhA j?. ;fsr[o{ okwdk; ih B/ ;ukJh dk wkor ;wMk fdZsk j?.

nkXko Bjh. nZi dh fizdrh ftub/ wBZ[y wkso dk ;ztoBk e[M Bjh.

;kohnK ofjwsK poesK d/ wkbe ;fsr[o{ ih B/ feogk eoe/ ;/teK

Xow oki B/ nkgD/ dcso pDkJ/ j'J/ jB, fit/A fJE/ Xosh s/ ;oekoh

d/ f;o s/ w/jo Gfonk jE Xo fdsk j?. frnkB pyP fdZsk j?.

iK r?o ;oekoh dcso< ;{oi uzd sko/, nZr, jtk, gkDh, Xosh nkfd

fij ekNh f;be d:kb gqfG, ;/fJ iB br/ Grs/..

B{z ubkT[D bJh Gh fco eboe oZy/ j'Dr/ oZp B/< Xosh fezB/ feb'

jfo r[o{ BkBe[ fiB gof;U s/ fJj T[s ‘‘;dk w[es/’’.. (1387)

whNo uZb u[Zeh j?< j'o fezB/ ;kb se fJj ubdh oj/rh fJjBK rZbK

j/ GkJh ` eosko B/ fi; ftnesh d/ wkfJnk tkb/ czd/ eZN

dk fj;kp oZyD tkb/ eboe pDkJ/ j'Dr/< ;{oi dh ;ghv rowkfJP,

fdZs/. T[j ;/te gqG{ dh Grsh eoB br iKd/ jB. fiBQK B/ r[o{ BkBe

T[wo, phsh ns/ pkeh ofjzdh T[wo, fJjBK uhiK dk fj;kp Gh oZfynk

;kfjp dh f;fynk okjhA, fBozeko B[z ikD fbnk j?, T[j fJE/ T[E/

j'Dk fuso r[gs B/< Xosh d/ gdkoE, nZr gkDh, jtk tr?ok gfjbK

(toswkB s/ Gfty) ;dk jh pzXB w[es ihtB pshs eod/ jB.

j'o soK ezw eod/ ;B. j[D ftfrnkBhnK B/ j'o ezw b?D/ P[o{ eo fdZs/

fuZso r[gs L^ g[okDk w[skpe Xow oki dk fJZe w[D;h, i' ;ko/

jB. fJjBK B/ oZp e'b o'; BjhA gqrN ehsk j't/rk< fe ;kB{z pukU

ihtK d/ eow r[gs ohs Bkb fbydk j?. ;ezd g[okD ftu b/y j? fe

ih, nkj wB[Zy pj[s gq/PkB eod/ jB< ;kv/ s'A fej' fij/ n"y/ s/

fJZe fuso BkT[ dk okik, fj;kp ftu pVk fBg[zB ;h. :woki B/

Pow;ko eoB tkb/ ezw b?D/ P[o{ eo fdZs/ jB<

nkgD/ dcso dk fj;kp mhe oZyD tk;s/, nkgD/ e'b wzrtk fbnk.

r[gs og'NK fbyD tkbk gsk BjhA fezB/ jZEK ezBK nZyK tkbk

(fJj okik fi; tes Bdh s/ fJPBkB eoB frnk ;h) nkgD/ dcso

j't/rk< feT[Afe fJ; Gkosh b'eK dh nkpkdh, fJe nop d; eo'V s'A

dk fj;kp T[;d/ ;g[od ehsk. GftZys g[okD ftu fbfynk j? fe id'A

tX u[Zeh j?, fet/A fJzB/ b'eK dk b/yk j[zdk j't/rk< fJE'A d/ wzdoK ftu

pqjwk, f;qPNh ouBk eoe/ fXnkB wrB j' frnk, sd T[; d/ ;oho

p?m/ wjK g[ikoh, fezBhnK ;owBke eos{sK eod/ jB eh edh T[jBK

ftu'A fJZe fuso (ozr pozrk) g[oP gqrN j'fJnk, fi;d/ jZE ftu ebw

B{z y[d fuso r[gs s'A vo BjhA brdk< fJj fuso r[gs GkJh Gkosh

dtks ;h. pqjwk dh nZy y[bD s/ fJ; B/ gZf[ Snk fe w/ok Bkw ns/ ezw

g[bh; tKr f;o/ dk foPts y'o sK BjhA< i' fJjBK ny"sh XowhnK dh

dZ;'. pqjwk B/ fejk fe s{z w/oh ek:k (;oho) s'A gqrN j'fJnk j?, fJ;

;Zu' ;Zu fpnkB eodh vkfJoh, Xow oki dh w/i s/ oZy/ s/ Gkos ftu

[53]

tos oj/ tosko/ dh n;bhns fpnkB eo d/t/. Gkosh oki;h szso
[54]

ftu f;o/ dh foPts y'oh j?. GkJh Gshik tkd j?. tZvhnK fvrohnK
tkb/ XZe/ yKd/ fco oj/ jB. ewhD/ p/JhwkB, bZmwko, vke{ s/ eksb
b'e, pj[s tZvhnK oki;h rZdhnK s/ fpokiwkB jB. fJe S'N/ ;oekoh
eowukoh s'A b? e/, gqXkB wzsoh d/ dcso sZe, fJj ;ko/ ‘‘y{p d'jh
jZEhA’’ b'eK dh ‘‘;/tk’’ eod/ jB. ;oekoh B"eohnK Bhbkw j[zdhnK
B/. ;VeK g[b fJwkosK, pZ;K, o/bK ijkiK ns/ s'gK N?AeK dh yohd
ftu tZv/ tZv/ x[Nkb/ j' uZ[e/ jB. ekB{zB sK fBZe/ ewI'o b'eK tk;s/ j?.
fJj tZv/ jkEh wro wZS ik ;koeK (fJe pj[s skesto wZSh) ;G soK
d/ ekB{B
z h ikb s'Ve/ pu iKd/ jB. p; yqhddko seVk ukjhdk j?, g{oh
Gkosh gkobhw?AN ftekT{ j?. gkobhw?AN w?Apo fteoh bJh fsnko
jB. iBtoh 2006 ftu frnkoK gkobhw?N w?ApoK B{z foPts b?Ad/ ozr/
jZEhA cfVnk frnk s/ w?Apoh s'A poyk;s ehs/ rJ/. id'A fe T[jBK B{z
;yas e?d j'Dh ukjhdh ;h. bVe/, dki pdb/ fteD bJh fsnko jB.
bVehnK t/uhnK ik ojhnK jB.
ftdtkB b'e ftekT{ jB. Xow w[yh Xow B{z t/uD bJh ekjb/
jB. ftT[gkoh, d[ekBdko, w[bkiw m/e/dko E'e ftu t/u/ yqhd/ ik oj/
jB. fJE/ iwhoK fJZisK ;o/nkw ftedhnK jB HHHH. fJE' d/ fuso
r[gs Gh yqhd/ ik u[Ze/ jB. T[j Gh p/JhwkBK d/ d/P ftu ofje/ g{oB
‘Gkosh w[Zy Xkok’ ftu Pkwb j' rJ/ jB. nro fuso r[gs ih b/tk
d/th eoe/ nkgD/ nkg B{z jkbks nB[;ko BK Ykbd/ fco T[jBK s'A fJj
gdth y'je/, fe;/ j'o B{z Gh fdZsh ik ;edh ;h. T[j t?;/ sK mhe
fog'oN fbyd/ jh BjhA. i/ edh jhnk eoe/ fby b?D sK Xowoki dh
eufjoh sZe gZ[ifdnK, eJh n"yhnK xkNhnK ftu'A dh bzxfdnK eJh
ckJhbK pdb iKdhnK jB. fiBQK dh gj[u
z jh f;ZXh Xowoki sZe j't,/
T[jBK dk sK e'Jh tkb ftzrk BjhA eo ;edk. ‘‘;" ftu'A BfVBt/A b'e
p/JhwkB. fco Gh w/ok Gkos wjkB.’’
[55]

pqkjwD B/ pVk vokfJnk j? b'eK B{z fJjBK fuso/ fwso/
pDktNh gksoK okjhA. i/ fJj ;Zu w[Zu j[zd/ sK nzB/Q j'J/ ;h fiBQK nZi
sZe fJjBK T[Zgo toDB ehs/ b'eK dh ;jh ekotkJh w[Zy dcso sZe
g[uke/, ;Ik feT[A BjhA dtkJh< ;dhnK s'A f;ZyK dk ikBh d[PwD rzr{
ykBdkB, nZi sZe fJ; d/P dk wkbe ufbnk nk fojk j?. ;zB 1984
ftu d' tkoh f;ZyK d/ y{B dh j'bh y/Yh rJh. fuso r[gs B/ Xowoki
sZe e'Jh ypo BjhA g[ukJh, fe fJjBK d'PhnK B{z ;Ik fdU. :kd oj/
rzr{ dk g[Zso ;h oki e"b, T[;dk bePwh BkokfJD, T[;dk rzrkXo,
T[;dk w'sh bkb Bfjo{, s/ w'sh bkb dk p/Nk itkjo bkb Bfjo{HHHHH
fJzdok rKXh. w[rbK t/b/ s'A b? e/, nzrq/iK sZe fJj gotko pj[s tZv/
;oekoh nj[fdnK s/ fojk. nEkj XB ewkfJnk, nkgD/ b'eK B{z cK;h
brtkfJnk. nIkd Gkos ftu Gh oki Gkr dk wkbe, fJjh gotko<
fJE'A d/ n;b t;Bhe u{jV/ uwko BkJh X'ph fMT[o ns/ j'o nB/e ezwh
b'e, jikoK ;kbK s'A, ftbed/ sVgd/ jT[e/ God/, fJZis r[nkT[Ad/,
gP{nK tKr esb j[zd/ nk oj/ jB. T[jBK dhnK uheK fuso r[gs B{z
edh BK ;[DhnK< Xow oki sZe T[jBK dk dod edh Bk gj[zfunk<
n"os iksh s/ ;dhnK s'A ;koh d[Bhnk ftu i' bZyK goeko d/, n;fj
i[bw j[d
z / nk oj/ jB, fJj Gh iBw s'A nzB/Q fuso r[gs B{,z Bk fdZ;<
/ i/ fuso
r[gs j[d
z / sK io{o n;bhns Xow oki e'b g[ukT[Ad/. i/ fes/ Xowoki
j[zdk sK fuso r[gs dhnK M{mhnK fog'NK dh edh gVskb eotk e/,
fJjBK B{z ekb e'mVh ftu ;[ZN fdzdk. wfjew/ ftu ;[Xko eodk.
Gkosh oki B/sk uzrh soK ikDdk j? fe fuso r[gs e'Jh BjhA
j?. fJ;/ bJh T[j brksko ;e?Avb s/ ;e?Avb fBvo j' e/ eoh ik fojk
j?. Gkosh g[ikoh N'bk ;kX ;zs uzrh soK ikDdk j?, fe b'eK tk;s/
voktk j?, toBk fuso r[gs i/ fes/ j[zdk sK fJjBK ny"sh XowhnK
B{z Gh edh BZE g? iKdh. i/ fuso r[gs dh f;ckoP Bkb Xow oki B/
[56]

fJB;kc eoBk j?. fco Gkosh g[bh; ndkbsK i/jbK s/ feT[A yopK

epho ih c[owkB eod/ jB ^ j/ GkJh ! fJj d/jh wkB' fJZe

o[fgnk popkd ehsk ik fojk j?< gkghnK B{z Xow oki ih, nkg/ pDdh

fgzv j?, fJ; fgzv dk wkbe u"Xoh wB j?. wB nDikD j'D eoe/,

;ik d/ d/Dr/. :'oghB w[beK ftu ;ysh Bkb ekB{zB bkr{ eoe/,

fj;kp mhe BjhA oZy ;fenk. fiBK B{z iwhB tkj[D phiD bJh fdZsh

fGqPNkuko s/ 99 gqshPs ekp{ gk fbnk frnk j?. fuso r[gs d/ ;jko/

;h, ;koh y/sh dh T[gi b? e/ T[j fe;kB BZ; rJ/ jB. Gkt wB B{z ekw

T[jBK B/ Bjh SZfvnk, p/JhwkBk dk N'bk. nZi pj[ frDsh gqpzXe, r[o{

eq'X b'G w'j jzeko nkfd nkgD/ fgZS/ bkJh fcod/ jB. ;ko/ r[D roe

ehnK r'beK b[ZN oj/ jB, d[otos'A eo oj/ jB, feZE/ rJ/ fuso

j' rJ/, n"r[D tX rJ/. j/ GkJh w?A fJjBK ftekoK ftu j[D BjhA

r[gs< feE/ j? Xow oki<

ojKrk. fJjBK s'A T[Zgo TZ[m iktKrk. feT[Afe tkfjr[o{ ih B/ w?B{z

jfo do[ ;/t/, nby nG/t/, fBjub[ nk;D[ gkfJnk..

;'jDk ihtB fdZsk j?. T[; tZb'A fdZsk frnk fJZe fJZe gb pVk ehwsh

sj iBw, B woD[, B nktD ikDk, ;z;k d{y fwNkfJnk

j?. w?A T[;B{z p/eko BjhA ikD d/Dk ukj[zdk. fJj fj;kp oZyD tkbk

fusq r[gs ek ekrd[ ckfonk, iwd{sK eS{ B ubh..

fuso r[gs (ekfJp u/s{) w?E'A b/yk BjhA wzr ;e/rk.

BkBe f;y d/fJ wB gqhsw, jfo bd/ y/g ;tZbh..(79)

b'fG w'fj pkXh d/j.. fpB[ GiB j'ts y/j..

j/ GkJh ! gqG{ B{z jkio Bkio ikD e/, ;tZS fizdrh fiT[D tkbk

iwd{s wjk GfJnkB.. fus r[gs eowfj ikB.. (838)

fJB;kB, nv'b j' iKdk j?. T[jB{z gsk j? fe w?A gkg eow eo jh BjhA

j/ GkJh` fJj ;oho b'G w'j nkfd ftekoK ftu pzfBnk j'fJnk

fojk voK feT[A< nfijk ftnesh iBw woB d/ G? s'A w[es j' ikdk

j?. fJ; d/ o;k e;K s'A pkjo BjhA fBeb fojk. oZph :kd ns/ r[o{

j?. ;ko/ soK d/ vo, ;z;/ fceo ysw j' iKd/ jB. fuso r[gs T[;B{z

dh TZ[sw f;Zfynk s'A fpBK, fJj fBoh fwZNh dh Y/oh j?. iwd{sK dk vo

vok BjhA ;ed/. ny"sh fuso r[gs dk, fBvo fJB;kB ekri gkV d/

pVk fGnkBe ;[Dhdk j?. s/o/ ehs/ ezw s/o/ nzso nksw/ (fuso ^

D dh fjzws eo b?Adk j?. feT[Afe fuso r[gs okjhA fJj Xowh BjhA

ne;, c'N', r[gs i' BIo BjhA nkT[Adh) uzrk wzdk ;G e[M fbyh ik

pfDnk. p/JhwkBhnK s'A Bjh Nfbnk, Xow d/ BK s/ esb' rkos eoB'A

oj/ jB. fe;/ pkjob/ B{z p/PZe X'yk d/ d/t/A. nzdob/ ;Zu/ sys s/ p?m/

BjhA jfNnk. fJj gZygksh fuso r[gs j?. fJ;dh rbs fsnko ehsh

oZp B{z fet/A X'yk d/ ;e/Ark< fJ; bJh wzd/ ezw fsnkr d/j fIzdrh B{z

fog'N gkV jh d/Dh ukjhdh j?. iwd{s nkgDk ;kok skD bk b?D, ;kvk

Gb/ ezwK bJh fBSkto eo d/j.

e[M BjhA ftrkV ;eDr/. ;kB{z ;Zu/ ;fsr[o{ ih B/ uzr/oh wZs d/ e/, ;Zu
wkor s/ N'o fdsk j?. ;kvh fizdrh ;kdh ns/ ;"yh j' rJh j?.

;' fuso r[gs nkfde fpgo fbykohnK dh eg'b ebgDk j?.
fBozeko ih B/ nkgD/ e'Jh dcso BjhA y'jb/ j'J/. feXo/ w[bkIwK

d/jh rktk ihT[ Xo wjsT[ p;fj gzu feo;kBk..

dhnK XkVK BjhA oZyhnK j'JhnK. T[;d/ pZMt/A fBozso j[ew ftu ;koh

B?B{ BeN{, ;qtB{ o;gfs, fJzdqh efjnk Bk wkBk..

eko j' ojh j?.

pkpk np B p;T[ fJj rkT[..

jfo e/ ;/te ;/ jfo fgnko/ fiB ifgU jfo puBkeh..

xoh xoh ek b/yk wkr? ekfJE u/s{ BkT[.. (1104)

b/yk fuso r[gs i' fbfynk ;G S{Nh iw eh pkeh.. (668)

[57]

[58]

j/ GkJh ` gow/;o d/ fgnko/ ;dk joh B{z wB s/ puBk eoe/

xV e/ b'eK ftu dfjPs gkJh j'Jh j?. fJ;/ soQK y"cidk eoB bJh

wzBd/ jB. fJ; bJh fuso r[gs d/ b/y/ T[jBK d/ gkV fds/. i' fj;kp

fJj Gh iwd{s o{gh pbk nkw pzd/ d/ f;o s/ fpmk fdZsh. n;b ftZu

fbyd/ ;B, ;G xkN/ tkX/, joh fgnko tkfbnK d/, w[Ze rJ/ jB. ;koh

w"s jh y[d iwd{s j? j'o e'Jh tZyok iwd{s BjhA j?. r[opkDh ftu

ekfJBks T[; tkfjr[o{ ih d/ pDkJ/ j[ew (n;{b) ftu ub ojh j?. gV'

gqufbZs b'e w[jkto/ dh tos'A eofdnK iwd{s Ppd nkfJnk j?. Bkb

fJj Ppd ^

jh rZb B{z ;gPN eofdnK ;fsr[o{ ih B/ iwd{s B{z g{oh soQK oZd eo

e'fN d/th ik eT[ ;/tfj, bfywh nfBe GKfs..

fdZsk j?.

r[gs gqrN ik eT[ nkokXfj gT[D gkDh fdB;[ okfs..

1H

Bfynsq ;;hno ;{o fXnktfj p;[X rrBk rktJ/..
;rb ykDh, ;rb pkDh, ;dk ;dk fXnktJ/.. (456)

wjkB e'P d/ gzBk 506^7 s/ iw pko/ e/tb fJj doI j? ^
‘‘ekb, gqkD eZYD tkbk d/tsk’’.

2H

fjzd{nK ftZu ohs j? GkJh d{i dh fEs B{z iw ns/ fuso r[gs

j/ GkJh ` eo'VK d/th d/ts/ bZSwhnK nB/e sohe/ T[; d/ j[ew

dk g{iB ehsk iKdk j?. ezfBnK tos oZydh j?. nkgD/ Gok

nZr/ ;h; M[ekT[Ad/ jB. gsk BjhA fezBhnK fdZ;dhnK nDfdZ;dhnK

d/ wZE/ fNZek bkT[Adh j?. fuZso r[gs B{z nkgDk tv/ok wzBDk

skesK, jtk gkDh fdB oks T[;/ dh ;/tk ftu ezw eod/ jB. nkekP

tkb/ ekfJ;p fJ; fdB tZvk g[op wzBd/ jB. fJ; fdB ebw

ftub/ BSZso uzd ;{oi Xosh s/ ;kok pqfjwzv T[;/ d/ pZM/ fBnw ftu

dtks nkg; ftZu tzvd/ jB.

uZb fojk j?. ;ko/ soQK d/ iht, t/b p{N/, T[; pZMt/A j[ew ftu uZb oj/

3H

jB. fJjBK B{z fe;/ fuso r[gs dh e'Jh Io{os BjhA j?.

iwd{s ^ ;kv/ Xkofwe gqukoeK v/o/dkoK B/ iwd{s pVk fGnkBe,

(911 wjkB e'P)

T[j nBkVh jehw s/ vkeNo i' wB[Zy d/ G/; ftZu iwd{sK dk
ezw eod/ jB. (1007^wLe'L)

4H

i'fsP rzqEK ftZu fbfynk j? fe :wd{i B{z :ksok eoB tkbk

p/ofjw tkbQK s'A cVQ e/ x;hND tkbk fpnkB ehsk j'fJnk j?.

wo iKdk j?. fJ; fdB ftZfdnk gVQBh ns/ gVkT[Dh th

fbykohnK B/ nkgDh neb d/ y{p x'V/ d"VkJ/ jB. nc;'; fe GkJh

tofis j?. (1007^wLe'L)

ekBQ f;zx BkGk tZb'A fbfynk tZv nkekoh ftdtsk Gog{o rqzE wjkB

gkme iB t/y ;ed/ jB fe pj[s :sB eoB d/ pkti{d Gh

e'P ftZu iwd{sK dk nZXh gzesh ftu jh fieo ehsk j?. fjzd{ wfEjk;

iwd{s ih dk y[ok BjhA bZGdk. ;kv/ b/yeK s/ gqukoeK dh fwjopkBh

e'P tko^tko gfVnk. T[; ftZu iwd{s dk fieo sZe BjhA fwbdk.

;deK fJ; B{z ;kv/ ;kjwD/ pVh fGnkBe j;sh d/ o{g ftZu w{oshwkB

jK nkw b'eK ftZu oZp d/ d{s, w"s d/ d{s, nkfd gqufbZs ;h. w"s pVh

eo fdZsk j?. ft;Eko ftZu Bk iKd/ j'J/ iwd{s pko/ r[opkDh ftu'A

vokT[Dh j?, T[; vo B{z j'o tXkT[D bJh fJ; Bkb j'o pj[s e[M i[Vdk

;gPN ;/X gqkgs eohJ/. gVQ' L^

ubk frnk. Peb fGnkBe pD rJh f;o s/ f;zr tZv/ tZv/ fsZy/ dzd

okw Bkfw wB[ bkrk.. iw[ bikfJ efo Gkrk.. (626)

pkjo fBeb/ j'J/ ekbk Bzrk XV, jZEK ftZu fsZy/ jfEnko cV/ j'J.
/ fJj

j/ GkJh` fi; ftnesh dk wB gow/Po ftu i[V frnk T[; B{z

ftrV/ wB[Zy dk jh ekbgfBe fuZso j?. T[go fe;/ EK nfij/ iwd{s

sK d/yfdnK jh iwd{s (i/ coi eo bJhJ/) Pow dk wkok BZ; frnk.

BjhA jB. fit/A fjzd{ ;kXK, pqkjwDK B/ j'o p/nzs wB'ebfgs ejkDhnK
[59]

[60]

jfo ihT[ eh j? ;G f;oekok..

fiB iw ehsk ;' ;/thn? r[ow[fy d{y[ B j'fJ..

J/j[ iw fenk eo/ ftukok.. (1054)

BkBe r[ow[fy iw[ ;/tk eo/, fiB wfB ;uk ;'fJ.. (588)

j/ GkJh` jo EK tkfjr[o{ dh ;oeko j? Gkt T[;d/ nkgD/ pDkJ/ fB:w

j/ GkJh r[of;Zy'` i' gow/Po iwK s'A Gh T[Zgo j?, T[; dh

jB, fco fJj ftukok iw eh ftrkV ;edk j?< feT[A fJ; s'A vod/ j'<

nkokXBk eo'. r[o{ dh ws bT[r/ sK edh d[yh BjhA jt'r/. iwd{s

;fsr[fo skg[ rtkfJnk GkJh mKfY gVh ;z;kfo..

r[ow[yK dh ;/tk ftu jkio j' iKdk j?. T[j ftrkV e[M BjhA ;edk

ngD/ ihn izs nkg/ oky/ iwfj ehU jNskfo.. (620)

feT[Afe joh gow/;o fjod/ ftu t;dk j?.

j/ GkJh` ;fsr[o{ ih B/ ;z;ko dh sgP (go/PkBhnK) fwNk fdZsh

iwd{sK dh nkgDh e'Jh j;sh BjhA j?, e/tb w"s dk gqshe jh

j?. ;ko/ gk;/ ;[Zy PKsh tkbh mzY tos rJh j?. iwd{sK B{z jNe e/

iw j?. iK fJT[A efj bt' fe w"s dk Bkw jh iwd{s j?, j'o tZyok e'Jh

(fMVe d/ e/) gk;/ fpmk fdZsk j?.

iwd{s BjhA j?. Bk ;wMh ekoB f;Zy PebK tkb/ r[opkDh dhnK

;fsr[o{ nkr? nodkf; efo ;kiB d/fJ fwbkfJ..

nkX{ohnK gzeshnK b? e/, gfjbK s'A pD/ pqkjwDh ftukoK ekoB

;kifB fwfbn? ;[y[ gkfJnk. iwd{s w{J/ fpy[ ykfJ.. (55)

iwd{sK dh jwkfJs eoh ik oj/ jB. id'A fe Bk sK ftfrnkBe

j/ GkJh` ;fsr[o{ nZr/ p/Bsh eo fe s?Bz{ fBozeko d/ uoBK Bkb

BiohJ/ s'A fJjBK dh e'Jh j'Ad j?. BK iwd{sK B{z r[opkDh wzBdh j?.

i'V d/t.
/ id'A gqG{ d/ fB:w dh gSkD j' rJh, s{z jo jkbs ftZu ;[yh

b'V j? r[opkDh B{z ;wM e/ ftukoB dh. g[okD/ ;w/A s'A wBK nzdo fNe/

oj/ A rk. iwd{ s K dk vo w[ Z e ikt/ r k. s? B { z n;bhns ;wM nk

j'J/ vo G? eZYD dh.

ikt/ rh fe n;b ftZu fJj j? jh BjhA ;B. j[D uzrh soQK ikD b? fe

Xowoki iK :woki L^ w"s dk d/tsk (T[AR fPt B{z Gh w"s dk d/tsk

iwd{sK B/ Ifjo yk e/ nksw jZfsnk eo bJh j?. ysw j' rJ/ jB

wzBd/ jB) fJj ;{oi dk g[Zso j?. ;G s'A gfjbK :woki dh fwqs{ j'Jh,

pDktNh iwd{s.

s/ ;tor ftu ubk frnk. fJ;/ B/ ;tor dk okj bZfGnk ;h. fJ;

iw e/ ckj/ ;fsr[fo s'V/ r[ow[fy ss[ phukok j/.. (1029)

dhnK uko nZyK jB. u"VhnK Bk;K (BZe) jB. d' G[ZyV e[Zs/ jB i'

j/ GkJh ` iwk d/ G? o{g pzXB ;fsr[o{ s'V fdzdk j?. r[o{ dh

fwqse B{z s/i d"VB bJh wip{o eod/ jB. fJj :[fXPNo dk fgsk ;h.

wZs b?D tkfbnK B{z fizdrh dh n;bhns ;wM nk iKdh j?. fJjBK iwK

fuZso r[gs fJ; dk fj;kp eoB tkbk w[Bhw j?. uzr/ ezw eoB

s'A vo bZrD' jN iKdk j?.

tkfbnK B{z T[j fgso b'e ftu G/i fdzdk j?. G?fVnK B{z j/mK, fJZeh

ncfoU iw[ wkfonk B ikJh.. r[o e? ;pd/ B/fV B nkJh..

BoeK ftu'A, fe;/ fJZe ftu G/i fdzdk j?. iK Xosh go iBw b?D bJh

;pd[ ;[D/ sk d{oj[ Gkr?, ws[ wko/ jfo ihT[ t/gotkjk j/.. (1054)

G/i fdzdk j?. Xowoki jo/ ozr dk j? s/ bkb eZgV/ gfjBdk j?. fJj

j/ GkJh ` iwK dk dfjb pj[s finkdk Gko{ j?, fJ; B{z wkoBk

M'N/ dh ;tkoh eodk j?. ngqkXhnK B{z ekp{ eoB bJh, fJ; e'b fJe

;"yk BjhA j?. fJj iwk d/ G? r[o{ dh gktB nktki ;[De/ BZ; iKd/ jB.

GZbk iK poSk j[zdk j?. fgsk dh fJZe dk;h SkfJnk d/ bZs wkoB eoe/

fJjBK B{z gsk j? fe r[of;ZyK d/ B/V/ iktKr/ sK wko pVh gt/rh.

fgsk ;{oi B/ ;okg d/ fdZsk. fJj gkg eoB eoe/ fJ; d/ fJZe g?o

[61]

[62]

ftu ehV/ g? rJ/ ;B. Xow oki d/ fgsk B/ fJZe e[ZeV fbnk e/ fdZsk. fbnk s/ nkgDk dcso Gh bZG fbnk, nkgDh g[oh Gh bZG bJh s/ nkg/
e[e
Z V B/ ehV/ yk bJ/, s/ szdo[;s j' frnk. wjK uzd s/ ekb g[oP fJ; jh p?m frnk izwe/ c?;b/ eoB. fJ;dh Peb pVh fGnkBe j? .
d/ d[nko gkb jB. (fjzd{ fwfEjk; e'P 442)

fJZ e tkoh sK fJ;dh Gkt/ A ‘‘w" s ’’ j' rJh go j[ D d[ p kok edh

2H Xowoki s/ :w oki n;b ftu fJZe' j?. ;z;feqs rqzEK wo/ rk jh BjhA<
w[skpe fJ; dk iBw ;zfrnk d/ roG s'A, ;{oi d[nkok fbfynk j?.

gkme tho' G?DA' ` fJj Xowoki T[g
Z o j'o fes/ BjhA p?mk, fJ;/

:w s/ :wh i'V/ G?D Gok ;B. Xow oki dh g[oh dk Bkw ;z:wBh j?. Xosh s/ brgr gzi jiko ;kb s'A sys s/ p?mk, izsk iBkodB dh
T[;d/ wfjb dk Bkw ekbhuh j?. T[;d/ f;zxk;D dk Bkw ftjko G[ j?. fizdrh d/ c?;b/ eodk nk fojk j?. fJj c?;b/ jw/PK gZygksh ns/
fJ;d/ fj;kp tkb/ tZv/ ofi;No dk Bkw nro ;zXkBh j?. Pow/: Bkw p/JhwkBh tkb/ j[zd/ jB. fJj e'Jh j'o BjhA n;b ftu ‘‘pqkjwD y[d
tkb/ fJ; e'b d' e[Zs/ jB, fiBK dhnK uko uko nZyK jB. i' fJ; dh jh Xowoki’’ j? s/ y[d jh ‘‘:woki’’ j?. Gkos d/ eo'VK b'eK dk
okyh eod/ jB s/ fwqse B{z s/i d"VB bJh wip{o ed/ jB. (wL e'P ‘‘Gkr ftXksk’’ pfDnk p?mk j?. j? fe;/ dh wikb fe fJ; d/ pDkJ/
^ gzBk ^ 663)

‘‘Xow’’ dh gkbDk BK eo/< fi;B{z ukj/ fJB;kB s'A pKdo (jB{zwkB)

ftukoL^ Xow oki ihtK d/ ehs/ ezwK w[skpe c?;b/ eoB tkbk pDk d/t/. fi;B{z ukj/ wk; y'ok gzSh froM (iNk:{) pDk Xo/. i/ ih
wzfBnk frnk j?. T[go nkekP ftu fes/ nfij/ EK, wfjb iK Broh eo/ sK fe;/ ftnesh B{z brksko S/ wjhB/ bJh (e[zG eoD) BhAd ftu
/ i/ fdb ukj/ sK fJe pZu/ B{z pkoK ;kb se roG ftu
BjhA j?, fiE/ fJj Xow oki eufjoh bke/ p?mdk j't/. fBozeko dk jh bzwk gkJh oZy.
fJj Pohe g?dk ehsk frnk j?. feZvh nihp s/ jk;'jhDh fe;/ soe oy/. (P[ed/t) fdb ukj/ wK d/ roG s'A eZd{ (;ro dh gsBh) g?dk eo
/ fJ; eZd{ ftub/ phiK s'A ;Zm jiko bVe/ pDk Xo/. fJe ftnesh
s'A ofjs rb j? fe fJj ‘‘;{oi dk g[s
Z o j?’’. eh fJj ;zGt j? fe ;{oi d/t.
wBZ[yh ;oho Xko e/ nkt/ ns/ fe;/ n"os Bkb ;zi'r eo/< eJh eo'V s'A fe;/ e"w dhnK (go;[okw) fJZeh e[bK dk ykswk eotk d/t/, s/ fco
feb'whNo dh d{oh s'A ;{oi dh sg; ;fjDh n"yh j[zdh j?. fe;/ gkyzvh Gh T[;B{z tZvk ntskoh g[oy goukodk oj/. feqPB s'A r'ghnK d/ eZgV/
co/ph s/ M{m/ fbykoh dh fbys efj ojh j? fe ;{oi B/ ;zfrnk Bkwh u'oh eotkT[Adk oj/, iK okw B{z ;hsk ekoD ftbQedk sVgdk o'Adk ftykT[Adk
n"os Bkb ;zi'r ehsk sK Xowoki dk iBw j'fJnk. rZb fJZE/ jh w[Ze oj/, s/ T[; B{z GrtkB Gh dZ;dk oj/. fJj wB[yK B{z ikBtoK Bkb'A Gh
BjhA rJh. Xosh T[Zs/ nk e/ fJ;B/ eh ehsk< fJ; dh fbys T[gd/P pdso (P{do nkye/) ihtB fiT[D bJh wip{o eo d/t/, ukj/ ikBtoK
e'Jh j't,/ ih BjhA e[M BjhA fwb/rk. Xosh s/ woB tkfbnK ftu'A w"s dh g{ik eotk bt/. pqkjwD ‘‘GrtkB’’ ih ukj/ sK fJ; Xosh B{z jh
Gh Xow oki dh ;G s'A gfjbK j'Jh. ;tor Boe dk okj Gh fJ;/ Boe pDk d/t,/ i/ ukj/ sK nkekP ftu BthnK eb'BhnK g[ohnK ;tor
B/ bZG e/ fdZsk. tkj ih tkj ` fpgo fbykoh ih, s[;hA ewkb eo T[;ko d/t/. f;oc pqkjwD e'b jh ‘‘Xow’’ j?, pkeh ;kfonK TZ[go
ftykJh. fJ; dk wsbp fe ;[or Boe Xow oki d/ izwD s'A gfjbK fJ;dk ;dhnK s'A B'u B'u e/ wk; yk ikD tkbk gkgh ‘‘oki’’ j?. fe;/
jh pDk ;ztko ;ik e/ fsnko ehs/ j'J/ ;B. o;sk Xow oki B/ bZG B{z ihtkb/ ik wko/, ;kohnK skesK fJ;/ jZE jB. fe;/ B{z BoeK dh fumh
[63]

[64]

cVkt/ iK ;tor dk gotkBk, ;G fJ;/ dh fJZSk ftu j[d
z k j?. fdb ukj/
sK ny"sh Xow oki B{z Gh gkgh rodkB ;edk j?. Xow oki d/ g?oK
ftu ehV/ g[nk ;edk j? s/ e[ZeV s'A T[jBK ehfVnK dk ykswk eotk
;edk j? HHHH. pfbjko ikJhJ/ fpgo dhnK bk i[nkp ebkpkihnK s'A.
n?t/A BjhA fJ; B/ Gkostk;h b'eK B{z nkgD/ nZr/ bzw/ gkfJnk. ;uw[u
fJ;dh y'gVh pVh bk i[nkp j?. fJzBk e[co s'b e/, fJzB/ i[bw eoe/, fJzB/
g[nkV/ gk e/, fJj fco Gh TZ[uk j? g{iD:'r j?<
Gkt/A Xowoki ;tor dk fJzukoi j?, xkVQs sK pqkjwD dh jh
j?. fJ; d/ fujo/ dk r{VQk jok ozr, s/ eZgV/ bkb ;{j/, Bk;K u"VhnK,
uko nZyK tkbk, M'N/ s/ ;tko, jZE ftu poSkHHHH. j? Bk ewkb dh ebk
feqsh< Xow eow eoB tkb/ dk j[bhnk fej' fijk g/P ehsk frnk j?,
t/fynk< Xow oki B/ nkgDh nksw eEk y[d BjhA fbyh. ;{oi B/
ngDh iK nkgD/ ‘‘p/N/’’ Xow oki T[oc :woki dh ihtBh fpbe[b
BjhA fbyh. fco fJj ;kok rg"V ;zy fe;B/ fbfynk j?< fw;o ih
B/, fpgo ih B/, gzfvs ih B/. wdkoh nZr/ foZS BZuD s'A nVh eo ;edk
j?, ;{oi gZSw tZbA' uV ;edk j?, rzrk T[bN/ gk;/ tr ;edh j?. Xosh
g[Zmh j' ;edh j?. go HHHHH HHHHH go pqjwD i' ukj/ ;'Jh eo ;edk j?,
fJ; dk nkfynk BjhA w[V ;edk. nZi Gh Gkos dh ;oeko B{z pqkjwD
jh ubk oj/ jB. iok nzeV/ gVQe/ t/y' fe pqkjwDK dh n";s nkpkdh
Gkos ftu 4 gqshPs j?. id'A fe ;kohnK tZvhnK ;oekoh B"eohnK
fJjBK e'b 90 gqshPs jB. fwT[A;gb ew/NhnK s'A b? e/, gkobhw?AN
se, ;ko/ tZv/ oki;h nj[d/ 90 gqshPs pqkjwDK e'b jh jB. nZr'A S/
sh ehs/ fJj ;fEsh pdbD dh e'Jh ;zGktBk Bio BjhA nkT[Adh.
feT[Afe fgqzN whvhnk ns/ fJb?efNqe whvhnk Gh fJjBK d/ jh epi/
ftu j?. ;e{b ekbi s/ :{Bhtof;NhnK s/ fJjBK dh bzpVdkoh j?.
;kv/ f;Zy b/ye (ftofbnK B{z SZve/) pqkjwDh ;'u w[skpe ;'ud/ jB.
[65]

T[;/ soi s/ fbyd/ jB, r[opkDh B{z‘‘t/dK dk ;ko’’ rodkBd/ jB.
r[ows fcbk;ch B{z pqkjwDh u"yN/ ftu fcZN eoe/, ftdtsk ftykT[Ad/
jB. f;Zy fJfsjk; ns/ r[o fJfsjk; B{z pqkjwDh g"okDe ozrD ftu
fbye/, f;ZyK B{z pqkjwD nZr/ vzv"s eoB, bzw/ g?D bJh nky oj/ jB.
Bkb jh ‘‘ykb;k gzE fBnkok j?’’ dk p/;[ok okr Gh nbkg oj/ jB.
nkgD/ xoK ftu r[odtkfonK ftu, iBw s'A b? e/ woB se, d/P ftu,
ftd/P ftu, ;ko/ pqkjwDh eow eofdnK, f;ZyK B{z jo ;w/A t/fynk ik
;edk j?. vhArK ykb;/ j'D s/ ykfb;skB pDkT[D dhnK wkoBr/. r[o{
;kfjpkB B/ fJj' fijk ykb;k pDkT[D pko/ BjhA ;'funk ;h, fij' fijk
fwbr'Gk, dpV{ x[;V{, tfjw Gow ftu rofenk, nkw b'eK B{z b[ZNe/
ykD tkbk fJj ykb;k jh j?<
Xow oki B/ d' e[Zs/ gkb/ j'J/ jB, i' fe jo w[od/ fgZS/ d"Vd/
jB, sK fe fJj w[odk ftnesh o;s/ ftu d/o Bk bk d/t/. fe;/ j'o
gk;/ jh Bk d"V ikt/. ftuko/ fijV/ p[Y
Z / pZu/ fpwko wo iKd/ jB. fiBQK
B/ fIzdrh Go p[ok ezw Gh e'Jh BjhA ehsk, T[jBK dk eh jkb j[zdk
j'tr
/ k, id'A d' d' tZYykD/ Ikbw e[s
Z ,/ wro BZ;/ nk oj/ j'D< PkfJd gV/
fby/ e[Zs/ jB, T[jBK B{z p/ e;{o ftnesh e'Jh fuZmh tr?ok ftyk fdzd/
j'Dr/< fJe pzB/ sK e[Zs/ pV/ GkrPkbh jB fe jo tes Xowoki e'b
ofj e/, ;torh gdkoE Se e/, vBbZg d/ rZfdnK s/ bzw/ g? e/, n?P
T[vKT[Ad/ jB. fJB;kB ftuko/ fJE/ Xosh s/ Gh, T[go Gh Boe jh G'r
d/ ub/ nk oj/ jB. tkj w/o/ Xowoki T[oc :woki ih tkj. T[go
ikD tkbh ioB?bh ;Ve pzd/ B{z woB s'A pkd jh Bio nkT[Adh j?. fJ;/
Xosh s/ nZyK j[fz dnK ;[fz[ dnK Gkt/A e'Jh fizdrh Go m'eoK yKdk fco/.
;koh T[wo fizdrh dk okj Bk bZG/, Xow oki dk okj io{o bZG iKdk
j?. i/ pjkBk eo'r/ sK Xow oki d/ p{bh e[Zs/ sK j?r/ Jh Bk.

[66]

T[AR P"e gkbD tk;s/ fJzdo d/ts/ B/ Gh fJe e[Zsh gkbh

wb w{s w{V fi w[xd j's/ ;fG br/ soh ;t/.. ojkT[..

j'Jh j?. pVk fgnkok Bkw j? T[;dk ‘‘Powk’’. fJj fJzdo

s{ nkfg eosk, ;G f;q;fN Xosk, ;G wfj ofjnk ;wkfJ..

GrtkB ih d/ Bkb jh fJzdog[oh dk nBzd wkDdh j?. fijV/ d' e[Zs/

Xowokik fp;wkd[ j'nk ;G gJh g?oh nkfJ.. (406)

Xowoki B/ oZy/ j'J/ jB, T[jBK d/ Bkw Gh ‘‘Pow/ iK Powk’’ jB.

j// GkJh ` b'eh efjzd/ ;B ebi[r pj[s p[ok j?, r[o{ BkBe ;kfjp

fJzdo tkbh fJj e[Zsh, T[jBK d'tK dh wK j?. e[Zs/ B[z ‘‘Powk

ih B/, PZG
[ wZs d/ e/, ebi[rh ihtK dk efbnkD jh eo fdsk. ftekoK

gsh’’ Gh efjzd/ jB, Gkt eZ[sh dk gsh e[Zsk. i/ sK jo e[Zs/ B{z

dh w?b Bkb Go/ rzd/ ezw eoB tkb/, nDgVQ w{oy ikjb, r[o{ dh wZs

Powk efjDk j't/ sK mhe j?, toBk e'fPP eoB d/ pkti{d Gh fes'A

b? e/, fBozeko d/ ;/te pD rJ/. j/ tkfjr[o{ s{z wjkB j?l s{z IZo/ IZo/

fJ; e[Zsh (Powk d/th) dk gsh BjhA bZfGnk e"D ;h< (Powk pko/

ftu ;koh ekfJBks ftu, fpokiwkB j?, s{z jh ;koh f;q;Nh pDkJh j?.

wL e'P gzBk ^ 168)

s/o/ ;/teK dh ;'Gk ;[De/ goT[geko t/ye/, Xowoki Gh j?okB j'
frnk. T[j Gh wip{o j' frnk fe r[o{ wjkB j? T[;B/ Gh r[o{ d/ uoBK

fJ; ftP/ pko/ r[opkDh^

s/ Bw;eko ehsh.

Xow okfJ B' j[ew[ j? pfj ;uk Xow[ phukfo..

fJj ekofi s/o/ ikfj fpeko.. f;wos okw Bkjh iw wko..

d{i? GkfJ d[PN[ nkswk Uj s/oh ;oeko..

Xow okfJ e/ d{s B i'j?.. wkfJnk wrB B eS{n? w'j?.. (185)

nfXnswh jfo r[D sk; wfB igfj J/e[ w[okfo..
fsB eh ;/tk Xow okfJ eo? XzB[ ;ztkoD jko[.. (38)

j/ GkJh r[of;Zy'` bkbu ns/ vo ftu s{z i' ezw eodk j? (ig dkB
nkfd) fJj ;ko/ sK p/eko ub/ rJ/. joh Bkw f;wo sK jh iwK

j/ GkJh ` Xow dk eh noE j?, ;Zu/ wkor s/ uZbDk. i/ s{z Xosh dk

(ftekoK) dh p[oh wko s'A pu ;e/Ark. fBozeko Bkb i[fVnK Xowoki

pkdPkj pDBk b'Vdk j? sK ;Zu d/ okj s/ fizdrh N'o. ftuko eoe/

d/ d{s nkfde e[ZM BjhA ftrkV ;ed/. i/ s{z wkfJnk t/jfVnk p[o/ ezw

t/y, fe w/ok ihtB ;Zu s/ nXkos j?< i' p[o/ ezw eoB tkb/ d[PN b'e

eodk fojk, fco ;wM b?, fJj fteko jh s/o/ bJh iwd{s jB.

jB, T[j Xowoki dhnK pj[shnK rZbK eod/ jB. nzdo'A vod/ Gh

;zsB w'eT[ g{zih ;T[gh sT[ T[sfonk wB ek X'yk..

pj[s jB, p[o/ ezw i' ehs/ j[zd/ jB. nfij/ gkgh b'eK B{z eokoh ;Ik

XowokfJ np ejk eo?r' iT[ ckfNU ;rb' b/yk.. (614)

d/D tk;s/ s/oh ;oeko ezw eodh j?. Gb/ g[oyK B{z ekjdk vo, ekjdh

j/ GkJh ` w?Bz{ ;fsr[o{ B/ Bkw dh dks pyP fdZsh. PZG
[ f;Zfynk

g/qPkBh< B/e fJB;kB r[Dk Bkb Gog{o jB, fJZe' fBozeko s/ Go';k

Bkb w/o/ wB s'A ;ko/ vo d{o j' rJ/. j[D Xowoki ;kvk eh ftrkV

oZyd/ jB. Xowoki ftukok r[ow[yK dh ;/tk ftu jkio j' iKdk j?.

;edk j?< n;hA T[;d/ ;ko/ fj;kp tkb/ ekri jh gkV fdZs/. fj;kp jh

nke/ g[ZSdk j? e'Jh ezw j? tho' w/o/ r'uok eoB tkbk< e'NkB e'N

pkeh BjhA fojk.

XzBtkd tkfjr[o{ dk fiBK B/ ;kB{z fJj wZs d/ fdZsh, r[o{ fwbk fdZsk.
efbi[r[ T[Xkfonk r[od/t..
[67]

pjsfo xo fJe[ g[oy[ ;wkfJnk T[fB dhnk Bkw[ fbykJh..
Xow okfJ ek dcso[ ;'fXnk pkeh foiw B ekJh..
[68]

X"b[ Xow[ dfJnk ek g{s.
[ . ;zsy
' [ Ekfg ofynk fifB ;{fs..

;zsk eT[ wfs e'Jh fBzdj[ ;zs okw j? J/e'..

i' e' p[M? j't? ;funko[.. Xtb? T[gfo e/sk Gko[..

ej[ epho w? ;' r[o{ gkfJnk ik ek BkT[ fpp/e'.. (793)

Xosh j'o[ go? j'o[ j'o.
[ . fs; s/ Gko[ sb? etD[ i'o.
[ . (3)

j/ GkJh` w?A nkgD/ ;oho d/ dcso ykfBnK ftu fJZe fBozeko
B{z gkfbnk j?. w/o/ or o/P/ ftu T[;/ dk Bkw j?. id'A Xowoki d/
dcso dh gVskb ehsh rJh sK ;kv/ tZb okJh wkso pekfJnk BjhA
fBefbnk. oZp d/ fgnko/ (epho tor/) B{z BKj fBzd'. T[j e'Jh ny"sh
Xow eow BjhA efonk eod/, feT[Afe oZp ftu s/ GrsK ftu e'Jh
nzso BjhA j?. epho nkydk j?, w?A pqkjwD B{z fsnkr fdZsk j?.
Xowoki nkfd Sv fds/ jB. e/tb fBozeko B{z wB ftu p;k fbnk j?.
f;wos Bkw[ febfpy ;fG ekN/.. Xow okfJ e/ ekro ckN/..
;kX ;zrfs fwfb jfo o;[ gkfJnk..
gopqjw[ fod wkfj ;wkfJnk.. (1348)

nyho ftu :kd oZy bJhJ/ fe Xow iK T[;dk oki TZg
[ o fes/
BjhA j?. fJE/ jh fJ;/ Xosh s/ ‘‘jb/wh oki, iK p/rw g[ok’’ f;oiDk
j?. i/ T[gob/ ;tor dh e{Vh nk; bkJh p?m/ oj/ sK fJ; Xosh s/ edh
‘‘Xow dk oki’’ BjhA pD ;e/rk. fJZE/ b[No
/ / b[N
Z K, foPtsK, ubkehnK,
Bkb ewI'oK bJh Boe pDk oj/ jB. y[d fJE/ jh ;kohnK ;[y ;j{bsK
Bkb ;[yh ihtB pshs eo oj/ jB. feT[Afe T[j ikDd/ B/ fe fJjBK
nDikDk B{z, M{m/ bko/ bkJh oZy'. T[bMkJh oZy', ngDk ‘‘Xow’’
ewkJh uZb'. r[o{ BkBe ;kfjp ih Xosh B{z jh Xow;kb pDkDk b'ud/
jB. fJE'A ;G p[okJhnK fwNk e/, B/eh d/ okj N'oe/. gV'Q ^
oksh o[sh fEsh tko.. gtD gkDh nrBh gkskb..

j/ r[of;Zy' ` tkfjr[o{ ih dh gftZso :kd d[nkok ;ko/ n"rD

fs;[ ftfu Xosh Ekfg oyh Xow ;kb.. (ig[ ^ 7)

BZ; iKd/ jB. id'A wB[Zy p[ok ezw jh BjhA eo/rk, vo ekjdk< ;wM'

epho wB ;hsb GfJnk gkfJnk pqjw frnkB..

T[;B/ Xowoki d/ ;ko/ ekri pjh yks/ gkV fdZs/. T[;dk T[E/ Bkw jh

fifB i[nkbk ir[ ikfonk ;[ iBe? T[de ;wkB.. (1373)

BjhA j?. ;kX ;zrs okjhA r[o{ dh wZs b? e/, johi; rkfJnk. gkopqjw
fBozeko fjod/ ftu jh fd; fgnk.
n;b ftu Xow fJZe oZph ekB{zB j?, fBnw j?, fi; d/ sfjs
;koh ekfJBks uZb ojh j?. wBZy
[ h ;oho fJZe pZMt/A f;;Nw ftu uZbdk
j?, fJ; fBnw dk Bkw jh Xow j?. id'A b'eh fJZe fBnw B{z nkgDk
b?d/ jB T[j Xow pD iKdk j?. g[okD/ ;w/A ftu Xosh j/mK fJZe pbd
dh ebgDk ehsh rJh, fi;B/ Xosh B{z u[Zfenk j'fJnk j?. r[o{ BkBe
;kfjp ih B/ ;gPZN ;wMkfJnk, fe GkJh Xosh pbd B/ BjhA u[Zeh
j'Jh. ;r'A tkfjr[o{ d/ pDkJ/ Xow ekB{zB w[skpe fNeh j'Jh j?. gV'Q
gktB puB ^

r[ows ftu Xow oki, iw oki, fuso r[gs, iK iwd{sK dh
e'Jh wkBsk BjhA j?. fjzd{ g"okDe rozEK ftu'A ;wMkT[D bJh e/tb
jtkb/ jB T[dkjoDK jB. fJ; s'A tZX fJjBK dh e'Jh ehws BjhA j?.
fijVk b/ye iK goukoe f;ZyK B{z fJjBK nDj'J/ s/ nDizfwnK d/ fgZS/
bkT[Adk j? iK sK T[j e'Jh ;kfiPh pzdk j? iK w{oy j?. fJ; dk ;gZPN
wsbp j? fe r[opkDh s'A ;ZyDk j? T[j wB[y. ;fsr[o{ ofjws eo/,
;kfonk B{z r[opkDh dk T[Zsw frnkB pyP d/t/. Xow oki sK ftukok
y[d jh o'rh j?, fgsk d/ ;okg ekoB T[; d/ g?oK ftu ehV/ gJ/ j'J/ jB.
fijVk nkgDh jh fe;ws dk wkfonk j'fJnk j? T[j b'eK d/ eh c?;b/
eo/rk<

[69]

[70]

fJe g"okDe ejkDh w[skpe whAve foPh B/ Xowoki B{z

j[D fJj Gh ;g;N eo bJhJ/ fe i{BK j[zdhnK Gh jB fe

g[ZfSnk fe w?B{z ehs/ r[Bkj pdb/ cK;h fdZsh rJh ;h. r[Bkj fJj ;h

BjhA,< ih jK j[zdhnK jB. n?j i' nDfrDs iht (84 bZy dh frDsh

fe w?A fJe fpzvk (S'Nk iht) sVck sVck e/ wko fdZsk ;h. T[; tes

edh BjhA j' ;eh) eoskg[oy B/ ;ki/ j'J/ jB, fJj ;ko/ i'BhnK jh sK

w/oh T[wo pkoK ;kb s'A xZN ;h. fJzB/ S'N/ pZu/ B{z r[Bkj w[nkc j[d
z / jB,

jB. fBZe/ p?eNhohnk iK ;?b s'A b? e/ jkEh s/ t/b (tZvk wZS) sZe

feT[Afe fJ; B[z jkbh gkg g[zB dh ;wM BjhA j[zdh.’’

;konK i'BhnK jh sK jB. o[ZyK gjkVK pB;gsh s'A b? e/ Xosh uzd

Xowoki p'fbnk ^ ‘‘jK tkfenk jh wkwbk rzGho j?, rbsh j' rJh.’’

sko/ ;{oi nZr/ ftPkb pqfjwzv i' g?dk j'J/, fiBQK ed/ fpB; ikDk j?.

whAve ^ ‘‘rbsh S'Nh BjhA, fpBK m'; ekoB fJe ftnesh B{z cK;h

fJj ;ko/ th nkg' nkgDh i'Bh ftu jh sK jB.

bNek fdZsk frnk. j[D w?A s?B{z Pokg okjhA ;ik fdnKrk.’’

eh fJB;kB dk g[Bo iBw j[zdk j? < ih jK j[zdk j?. id'A Bo

Xow oki frVfrVkfJnk ^’’ t/fyU whAve ih ` Bow fijh ;ik d/Dh.

tb'A phi gqkgs eodk j? wkdk(wdhB)^ tZb'A nzvk fwb e/ gqc[bs j'D

fJjBK uko fe;w dhnK fGnkBe ;iktK dk Pokg d/D s'A puk b?Dk.

dh fefonk P[o{ j' iKdh j?. fBPfus ;wK g{ok eoe/ pkbe iBw b?Adk

e[Zsk pDe/ iBw b?Dk. dk;h (t/;tk g[Zso iK jokwh) g[Zso Bk

j?. rfjokJh Bkb goy eoBh, pZu/ d/ B?D BeP, eZd ekm, p'b pkDh,

pDk d/Dk. fe;/ v/o/ iK wZm dk w[yh ‘‘;zs’’ Bk pDk d/Dk, feT[A

;[Gk ns/ nkdsK wksk fgsk tor/ jh j[zd/ jB. pj[s ;ko/ r[D ns/

fe fJj v/o/dko nkgD/ ;/teK dh feos ewkJh vekod/ ioK Pow

n"r[D th pZfunk ftu T[jh d/yD B{z fwbd/ jB i' wK pkg ftu d/yD B{z

BjhA eod/. nkgD/ ;wki bJh fBok e'jV jB. fJj wZmkXh;. w?Bz{

fwbd/ jB. eJh r[M
Z hnK pwkohnK eJh ghVhQnK fgZSk BjhA SZvdhnK.

fes/ ebi[r dk okik Gh Bk pDk d/th. ebi[r d/ oki/ n?pK

BkBk^gVBkBk, BkBh gVBkBh, dkdk^dkdh, BZeV dkdk^BZeV dkdh th

pdekohnK, p[okJhnK Bkb Bek Be Go/ j[zd/ jB. nkgD/ b'eK dk

nkgDh B;b d/ ihtB s/ n;o nzdki j[zd/ t/y/ rJ/ jB. i' fpwkohnK

p/nzs B[e;kB jh eod/ jB fJj ebi[r d/ oki/.’’

tv/fonK B{z ;B T[jh nZr/ s'A nZr/ ykBdkBh gozgok ftu ubdhnK

whAve s[os
z p'fbnk^ ‘‘uzr/ tes :kd eotk fdZsk Xowoki.

ofjzdhnK jB. fJjh j? n;b ftu d[pkok iBw iK g[Bo iBw. thoi

w/ok ;okg j? s?B{z. s{z e[Zsk Gh pD/rk, t/Ptk dk g[Zso pDe/ iBw bt/

ns/ nzv/ d/ ;[w/b s'A pZu/ d/ g?dk j'Dk. ;wM' Bo ns/ wkdk y[d jh Bt/

Ark. v/o/ dk ;zs Gh pD/rk s/ ebi[r dk okik Gh j't/rk. uko/ ;iktK

A ;oho ftu iBw b? oj/ jB. fJ; B{z ftfrnkB g{oh wkBsk fdzdk j?.

G[rs/Ark.’’ Xowoki XkjK wko e/ o'fJnk. uko/ fe;w dhnK ;iktK

i' r[opkDh ftu nkT[Adk j? fe nkswk wodh BjhA nwo j?. T[; dk

G'rhnK. gkme y[d fBoDk eoB fe Xowoki fezBh e[ wjkB j;sh j?<

f;ZXk fijk Gkt fJjh j? fe ;oho d/ sZs fpyo e/ o{g tNk b?Ad/ jB.

fBu'V sK fJj j?^

j'o wodk iK ysw e[M BjhA j[zdk. gzi sZs (wkdkOfi; s'A ;koh

fi;[ r[o[ fwb? fs;[ gkfo T[sko?..

ekJhBks pDh j?) nwo jB. i' e[M fJZE/ Bio nkT[Adk j?, iK n;hA

ntrD w/N? r[fD fB;sko?..

frnkB Bkb ikD ;ed/ jK. fJj ;kok jh wkdk iK sZsK dk ;[w/b j?.

‘‘w[efs’’ wjk ;[y r[o ;pd[ phukfo..

fJjh j? g[Bo iBw.

r[ow[fy ed/ B nkt? jkfo.. (942)
[71]

[72]

E'VQh d/o bJh ebgBk eoe/ d/y' nro e'Jh ;Zg, feobk, ;{o
iK G/v fgSb/ iBw dh ;ik g{oh eoe/ uzr/ ‘‘eowK’’ Bkb wB[Zyh i{B
ftu nk ikt/ T[; B{z nkgDh fgSbh i{B feT[A G[b iKdh j?< fe;/ wB[Zy
B/ n?bkB BjhA ehsk fe w?A fgSb/ iBw ftu ;{o iK e[Zsk ;K. i/ p[o/
ezwK ekoB e'Jh fJB;kB, eK, frZdV, froi nkfd pD e/ iBw b? bt/. T[;
B{z th nkgDk fgSbk iBw ft;o iKdk j? feT[A< i/ feXo/ ikBto B{z
fgSbk ikwk :kd j't/ T[j nkgD/ gfjb/ xo nk e/ e[o;h s/ p?m e/
;kfonK B{z e'b p[bk e/ nky/ nkU pZfuU w?A s[jkv/ fgSb/ iBw dh wK
jK, iK fgsk jK. w/oh ;/tk eo', ykDk y[nkU, p?v ftSkU . eh j'fJnk
w?A gP{ jK fgSb/ iBw ftu s[jkvk fgU dkdk iK wK s/ dkdh ;K. eh
fJj ;zGt j?< e'Jh fJ; B{z ;theko eo bt/rk. ;oho XkoB eoB dh
ftfrnkBe fefonk B{z r[opkDh B/ Bekfonk BjhA nkT[ gowkD gV'L^
oes fpzd{ ek fJj[ sB' nrBh gkf; fXokD[..
gtD? e? tf; d/j[oh w;sfe ;u[ Bh;kD[.. (63)
j/ GkJh ` fJj ;oho fgsk d/ phi ns/ wksk d/ y{B s'A pfDnk
j?. roG dh nrBh ftu fJ;dh gkbDk j'Jh j?. ;[nk;K Bkb d/jh
ubdh j?. nzs;eoD ftu b[eth fBozekoh i's ;oho B[z ubk ojh j?.
wks fgsk ;zi'fr T[gkJ/, oes[ fpzd[ fwfb fgzv[ eo/..
nzsfo roG T[ofX fbt bkrh, ;' gqG{ ;ko/ dkfs eo/.. (1013)
j/ GkJh ` wksk fgsk d/ w/b s'A pkd fgsk dk phoi s/ wK dk y{B b? e/
pZu/ dk ;oho pfDnk j?. wK d/ roG ftu fBozeko dh pDkJh ftXh
w[skpe pZuk Bhw p/j'Ph dh jkbs ftu gbdk fojk. fbt i[VB dk
noE nZi se fJjh ehsk iKdk j?. roG ftu pzu/ dh fJjh nt;Ek
j[zdh j?. fco fJ; roG tkbh nt;Ek B{z Gh fbt i[Vh efj d/Dk tkip
jh wzfBnk ikDk ukjhdk j?.
[73]

uoBK ftu fBtk; <
wo rJ/ ftnesh tk;s/ fizBhnK nodk;K ehshnK iKdhnK
jB. fizB/ b'e PoXKibhnK G/N eoB dh wBwsh fefonk eod/ jB.
T[j ;G fJe rb efjDh BjhA G[bd/ “ftSVh nkswk B{z nktkrtD s'A
w[es eo d/dk. ;dhtekb tk;s/ nkgD/ uoBK ftu fBtk;
pyPDk.’’ fJE/ i' B[esk ftukoB i'r j? T[j j? fe oZp ih d/ uoB
feE/ jB, fej' fij/ jB s/ fezB/ e[ tZv/ jB< i' gow/Po neko ofjs
j?. i{BK ftu BjhA nkT[Adk T[;d/ uoB fco fet/A gqrN j' rJ/< r[o{
c[owkB sK fJT[ d; gk oj/ jB^
nby ngko nrzw nr'uo Bk fs;[ ekb[ B eowk..
ikfs nikfs ni'Bh ;zGT[ Bk fs;[ GkT[ B Gowk..
;ku/ ;funko ftNj[ e[opkD[..
Bk fs;[ o{g toB[ BjhA o/fynk ;ku? ;pfd Bh;kD[.. ojkT[..
Bk fs;[ wks fgsk ;[s pzXg Bk fs;[ ekw[ B Bkoh..
ne[b fBoziB ngo gozgo[ ;rbh i'fs s[wkoh..
xN xN nzsfo pqjw[ b[ekfJnk xfN xfN i'fs ;EkJh..
pio egkN w[es/ r[owsh fBoG? skVh bkJh.. (597)
n;b ftu ‘‘uoD’’ iK s/ fBwosk dk gqshe j?, iK oZp dk
Bkw j?. e[M EktK s/ r[o{ d/ Ppd (T[gd/P) B{z Gh uoD fejk j?. gV'^
‘‘Bkw b?s ;G d{yj Bk;[.. Bkw igs “jfo uoD” fBtk;.. (1150)
jfo e/ ‘‘uoB’’ fjod/ rkfJ..
;hsbk ;[y ;kfs w{ofs f;wfo f;wfo fBs fXnkfJ.. (1300)
gkopqjw gqG s/oh ;oBk..
febfpy ekN? Gi[ r[o e/ ‘‘uoBk’’.. (804)
BkBe pkfoe[ do;[ gqG ukj?, w'fj fjqd? p;fj fBs‘‘uoBk’’.. (1266)
fjod/ “uoD” ;pd[ ;fsr[o e', BkBe pKfXU gkfb.. (680)
[74]

T[go fdZs/ r[opkDh gowkDk ftu ;fsr[o{ d/ T[gd/;a B{z jh r[o{
uoB iK joh uoB fejk frnk j?. ;oho eoe/ sK fBozeko d/ feXo/
Gh uoB BjhA jB. ;akfJd fJjh efjDk tkip oj/rk ^
;{oi feofD fwb/, ib ek ib[ j{nk okw..
i'sh i'fs obh, ;zg{oB Ehnk okw..
pqjw[ dh;?, pqjw[ ;[Dhn?, J/e[ J/e[ tykDhn?..
nksw g;kok eoDjkok, gqG fpBk Bjh ikDhn?.. (846)
*

fdB[ o?fD Bkw[ fXnkfJdk, fcfo gkfJ Bk w'nk..
fi; s/ T[gfink BkBek, ;'Jh fcfo j'nk..
feEj[ T[gi? ej oj?, ej wkfj ;wkt?..
ihn ihs ;fG y;w e/, eT[D[ ehwfs gkt?.. (1193)
T[go fes/ ;Zu yzv pfDnk j'fJnk BjhA j?. fJj wB dhnK jh

nt;EktK jB. fBozekoh i's ;oho d/ nzdo jh w"i{d j?. eD eD
ftu ;[GkfJwkB j?. “;tortk;h” efjD B{z Gh fsnkr fdsk ikt/.
fJ; ekoB ;tor dh bkb;k T[sgzB j[zdh j?. wo rJ/ ftnesh bJh
“woj{w” ;apd tosDk finkdk mhe oj/rk.. “ftdtkB ;ZiD” fJ;
gZy tb edh fXnkB e/Ados eoBr/< “f;Zy fJe tZyoh e"w”, iK
“fBnkok ykb;k” T[GkoB bJh f;Zy ;wki B{z ftukoXkoe s"o s/
fBnkok pDkT[D ftu e'Jh ;koEe T[gokb/ eoBr/<
BkBe nT[r[D i/sV/ s/s/ rbh iziho..
i/ r[D j'fB s eNhnfB ;/ GkJh ;/ tho..
nr? rJ/ B wzBhnfB wkfo eYj[ t/gho.. (595)
j/ GkJh nT[rD pzXB jB. r[DtkB j' e/ ftekoK s'A pfunk
ik ;edk j?. fijV/ r[o{ d/ T[gd/;a B{z BjhA ;wMDr/ T[jBK dk GftZy

nkyoh fBu'V
d/fB d[nkJh ;/ wofj, fiB eT[ d/fB f; ikfj..
BkBe j[ew[ B ikgJh, feE? ikfJ ;wkfj.. (1286)
j/ GkJh` i' n;hotkdK d/ oj/ jB T[j sK y[d jh wod/ oj/
jB. fiBK B{z d[nktK d/Ad/ jB T[j Gh wo iKd/ jB. fBozeko d/ ehs/
B{z e'Jh ftnesh g{oh soQK BjhA ;wM ;edk. BK jh fJj d; ;edk
j? fe woB s'A pknd fJB;kB feE/ ubk iKdk j?.
f;Zy ;wki B{z i/ fJe' gzesh d/ noE ;wM nk ikD sK ;ko/
e{V g;ko/ dk ykswk j' ;edk j?. iwd{s, iwoki, Xowoki, fuZso
r[gs, 84 bZy i{BhnK, pkopko iBwDk ns/ Boe ;[or ;G dk ykswk
ehsk ik ;edk j?.
w? w{oy eh e/se pks j? e'fN gokXh sfonk o/..
r[o[ BkBe[ fiB ;[fDnk g/fynk ;/ fco roGkf; B gfonk o/.. (612)
j/ GkJh` w?A Bk ;wM wB[y eh nky ;edk jK. fiBK B/ r[o{
BkBe ;kfjp dh ;zrs wkDh, f;fynk s/ nwb ehsk T[j eo'VK jh b'e
so rJ/. pzXB w[es j' rJ/. w[V edh roG ftu BjhA nkT[Dr/.
u{ek rT[D[ fwfNnk nzfXnko[..r[fo fdybkfJnk w[efs d[nko[..
p?o fpo'X S/d/ G? Gowk.. gqfG g[fz B nksw? ehB/ “Xowk”.. (1348)
j/ GkJh` nktkrtD fwN frnk j?. nfrnkBsk dk jB/ok d{o
j' frnk j?. r[o{ B/ pzXBk s'A g{oh soQK w[es eo fdsk. t?o fto'X,
vo ns/ Gow nkfd ;G dk ykswk eo fdsk. fBozeko B/ wB nkswk
B{z n;bh Xow ;wMk fdsk. nv'b ofj e/ r[o{ dh ws nB[;ko j[D
ihtB pshs eoKr/.
i' B ;[Bfj i;[ gowkBzdk.. “g;[ gzyh fsqrd i'fB s/ wzdk” (188)

spkj j' ikt/rk.
^^0^^
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