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Performance Enhancement of Robust Expectation-Maximization Direction of Arrival Estimation Algorithm for Wideband source Signals
Sandeep Santosh and O.P. Sahu

Abstract-In this paper, we tackle DOA estimation problem based on realistic assumption that the sources are corrupted by spatially nonwhite noise. We explore the limitations of two popular DOA methods to solve this problem – the stepwise concentrated maximum likelihood (SC-ML) and approximately concentrated maximum likelihood (ACML) algorithms and design a novel expectation maximization (EM) algorithm. Through Monte Carlo simulations , it is demonstrated that our proposed EM algorithm outperforms the SC-ML and AC-ML methods in terms of DOA estimation accuracy and computational complexity. Index Terms- Direction of Arrival(DOA) Estimation, expectation maximization(EM) algorithm, maximum likelihood. Sandeep Santosh,Astt. Prof., Department of Electronics and Communication Engineering, O.P.Sahu,Prof., Department of Electronics and Communication Engineering, National Institute of Technology ,Kurukshetra, INDIA

1. INTRODUCTION Direction of arrival using low cost low complexity sensor arrays has been an active research area in radar, sonar, geophysics, wireless systems and acoustic tracking for years[1]-[4]. Recently, wideband DOA estimation in the far field has drawn much interest in signal processing applications[5][8].The maximum-likelihood (ML) approach in [9] is regarded as the optimal and robust scheme for coherent source signals .The following two DOA calculation algorithms were presented for multiple wideband sources. 1) Step-wise-concentrated maximum likelihood (SC-ML) estimator and 2) Approximately concentrated maximumlikelihood(AC-ML) algorithm. We employ the Expectation –Maximization (EM) algorithm to tackle the general multiple source DOA estimation problem when the wideband sources are present in the far field

.Our proposed algorithm is shown to be more robust than the existing SC-ML and AC-ML methods in [5].The set of all real and complex numbers are denoted by R and C. A vector is denoted by A and a matrix is denoted by Ã. The statistical expectation operation is expressed as E { }. In addition , ÃT , Ã* , ÃH , det (Ã), Æ and trace(Ã) stand for transpose ,conjugate , Hermitian adjoint, determinant, pseudoinverse, and trace of matrix Ã, ║ ║ stands for Euclidean norm. 2. SIGNAL MODEL For M wideband sources in the far field and P element arbitrarily distributed sensor array (M<P) in the same plane, let θm denote the DOA of the mth sourcewith respect to the centroid of this array ,m= 1,2,3…M. The collection of these angles can form a vector θ = [θm]m=1,2,…M. The number of sources is assumed to be known or has correctly been estimated[5]. Without loss of generality ,we

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set the array centroid at the origin and the coordinate of sensor p is expressed as , As shown in fig1, the angle between the pth sensor coordinate vector and the horizontal axis is φp and the angle between the mth source coordinate vector and the horizontal axis is θm. According to [9], for randomly distributed array of P sensors for collecting data from M sources,the signal that was collected by the pth sensor at a discrete time instant n is given by, Consists of M steering vectors each given by ,

Where ,

(5)

(1)

Consists of M individual source signal spectra each given by Sm(k) where Sm(k) is the kth DFT point of sm(n),m=1,2,…M. In reality ,the source signal spectral vector S (k)is unknown and deterministic .The noise spectral vector U(k) ε Cpx1 is a complex valued zero mean spatially uncorrelated Gaussian process with following covariance matrix,

Taking the N-point discrete Fourier transform(DFT) of both sides in (1) and reserving half of the DFTs due to symmetry property, we have,

(8) 3 MAXIMUM LIKELIHOOD DIRECTION OF ARRIVAL ESTIMATION We will introduce the modified ML DOA estimation formulation according to the recent literature [5],[13] for realistic SNWN model. Let θ ,S q be the parameters to be ̃, estimated. (9)
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Where, (2) (3) And Xp(k) is the kth DFT point of xp(n), p=1,2,..,P. The symbols at the right hand side of (2) are clarified as follows :

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Thus the likelihood function of (θ ,S q) is ̃, expressed as,

We have the following log –likelihood function L (θ ,S q) by taking the logarithm ̃, of (10) and neglecting all the constant terms :

4 . EXPECTATION MAXIMIZATION WIDEBAND DIRECTION OF ARRIVAL ESTIMATION ALGORITHM FOR DIRECT SPATIAL NOISE VARIANCES. The EM algorithm is a commonly used iterative method for ML estimation. The complicated nonlinear optimization problem in (15) and (20) can greatly be simplified using the EM procedure incorporated with the augmented (complete) data that correspond to the individual incident source signals . First we denote the received signal spectrum as Xpm(k),1≤p≤P, 0≤k≤N/2 -1 from the mth source to the pth sensor.Then we define the augmented data as , {Xm(k); 1≤m≤M, 0 ≤ k ≤N-1},Where,

We can obtain ML estimates for (θ ,S q) as ̃, ,

According to [5], we can obtain the estimate of the pth element in q as,

In addition , the relationship between the observed (incomplete) data X(k) and the complete data is established as ,

According to (2) ,(5) ,(7) and (22) , for a single source (the mth source),we have ,

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T he details of our proposed EM algorithm are introduced as follows because our proposed algorithm can be decoupled across different sources in each iteration ,we only need to address the steps for the source m , and it can similarly be run for other sources and in parallel. Initialization Initialize [θˆm]0. Set the initial values for entries in [qˆm]0and [qˆ]0 as , Maximization step(M-step) Now ,let

Input (given) parameters at iteration i : [qˆm]i1 , [θˆm]i-1 Output variables at iteration i : [qˆm]i, [θˆm]i Given the input parameters ,the EM algorithm for the ith iteration is stated as follows : Expectation step(E-step)

Where θm is the mth DOA variable ,it has to be estimated in this step .Next, follow (5),(6),and (31) to facilitate dm(k), k=0,1,…,N/2 -1 , which involves the variable θm. Then according to dm(k),construct the following parameters:

Where diag{ } converts the vector inside the associated braces into a diagonal matrix that contains the vector’s entries as the diagonal elements in the same order .Compute,

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5 SIMULATION In the simulation ,we focus on two-source case .The angles for two sources are r1=120 and r2= 180 . The sampling frequency is 100kHz.The propagation speed is 345m/s. A real acoustic signal With significant spectral content of about 50 Hz bandwidth centered at a nominal frequency of 100 Hz is considered .The data are simulated for an array of 5 sensors with a radius of=0.35m.and it was acquired from [14]. The sample size is L=200 and DFT size is N=256. The additive noises in all experiments are randomly generated by a Gaussian process using the computer , and the signal to noise ratio (SNR)is defined according to [5] and [13] . Because the direct search method is more computationally efficient than the exhaustive grid search scheme [9] ,first the proposed EM method and the conventional SC-ML/ACML algorithms, the direct search method is adopted to carry out the optimization. Also, because the direct search method is sensitive to initial condition [9], we investigate the performance of 3 algorithms for properly and randomly chosen initial conditions [θˆm]0, m=1,…,M For AC-ML method in[5] ,no more than one iteration is necessary for reliable estimation wheras for SC-ML method in [5] and our proposed EM scheme ,only two iterations are employed for satisfactory performance .The average DOA estimation accuracies in terms of rms error (in radian) are depicted in fig 2. In fig3. ,

average rms DOA estimation errors are showm and the initial DOA estimates are randomly drawn from a uniform process. Direct search method is adopted here. We observe that for all these three schemes ,the rms errors become much larger when the initial DOA estimates are randomly chosen .Our proposed EM algorithm is still superior to SC-ML and AC-ML methods. In fig4, Average rms DOA estimation errors versus SNR is plotted. The Grid search method is adopted here, The results of our method outperforms the conventional AC-ML and SC-ML methods.

Fig1

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6. REFERENCES [1] K.Yan , H.C. Wu and S.S.Iyengar, “ Robustness analysis and new hybrid algorithm of wideband source localization ,” IEEE Trans. Wireless Communication ,vol9,no. 6,pp 2033-2043, June 2010. [2] K.K.Mada , H.C.Wu and S.S.Iyengar, “ Efficient and robust EM algorithm for multiple wideband source localization ,” IEEE Transactions in Vehicular Technology,vol. 58, no. 6, pp 3071-3075, July 2009. [3] X.F.Zhang ,X.Gao and D.Z.Xu, “ Multiinvariant ESPIRIT based blind DOA estimation for MC-CDMA with an antenna array,” IEEE Transactions in Vehicular Technology,vol. 58,no. 8, pp4686-4690, Oct 2009. [4] A.Kuchar,M.Tangemann and E.Bonek, “ A real time DOA based smart antenna processor,” IEEE Transactions in Vehicular Technology,vol. 51, no. 6,pp 1279-1293, Nov 2002. [5] C.E.Chen, F.Lorenzelli,R.E.Hudson,and K.Yao, “ Maximum likelihood DOA estimation of multiple wideband sources in presence of nonuniform sensor noise,” EURASIP Journal of Advances in Signal Processing, vol 2008, January 2008. [6] B.Friedlander A.J.Weiss, “ Direction finding using noise covariance modeling ,”IEEE Transactions in Signal Processing vol 43, no. 7, pp 1557-1567, July 1995. [7] A.A.Amico and M.Morelli, “ Joint channel and DOA estimation for multicarrier CDMA uplink transmission,” IEEE Transactions in Vehicular Technology,vol. 58,no.1, pp116-125,Jan 2009. [8]J.Lee ,J.G.Joung,and J.D.Kim , “ A method for direction of arrival estimation of incoherently distributed sources ,” IEEE Transactions in Vehicular Technology,vol. 57,no.5, pp 2885-2893,Sep. 2010.

Fig2.

Fig3.

Performance Enhancement of Robust Expectation- Maximization Direction of Arrival estimation algorithm for Wideband Source Signals is done and simulation associated with Wideband DOA estimation is performed .

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[9] J.C.Chen, R.E.Hudson and K.Yao , “ Maximum likelihood source localization and unknown sensor location estimation for wideband signals in the near field,” IEEE Transactions in Signal Processing vol 50, no. 8, pp 1843-1854 ,Aug. 2002. [10]J.P.Cadre , “ Parametric methods for spatial signal processing in the presence of unknown coloured noise fields ,” IEEE Transactions in Acoustic ,Speech and Signal Processing,vol. 37, no. 7, pp 965-983, July 1989. [11]M.Wax, J.Sheinvald, and A.J.Weiss, “ Detection and localization in coloured noise via generalized least squares,” IEEE Transactions in Signal Processing vol 44, no. 7, pp 1734-1743,July 1996. [12] M.I.M iller and D.R. Fuhrmann, “ Maximum likelihood narrowband direction finding and the EM algorithm,” IEEE Transactions in Acoustic ,Speech and Signal Processing,vol. 38, no. 9, pp 1560-1577,Sep. 1990. [13]M.Pesavento and A.B.Gershman , “ Maximum likelihood direction of arrival estimation in presence of unknown nonuniform noise,” IEEE Transactions in Signal Processing vol 49no.7,pp 1310-1324, July 2001. [14] L.Lu, H.C.Wu and K.Yan, “ Robust novel EM based direction of arrival estimation technique for wideband source signals,” in proc int. conf. CMC,April 2010vol .3, pp72-76. [15] D.Karlis and E.Xekalaki, “Choosing initial values for the EM algorithm for finite mixtures,” Computational ,Statistical ,Data analysis, vol. 41, no. ¾, pp577-590,Jan 2003. [16]C.Biernackia,G.Celeuxb and G.Govaertc, “ Choosing starting values for EM algorithm for getting the highest likelihood in multivariate Gaussian mixture models ,” Computational ,Statistical ,Data analysis, vol. 41,no3/4, ,pp577-590, Jan 2003.

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