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A Whirl of Activity

IEEE ACTIV ITIE S RE LATED TO WIND POWER AND OTHER E ACT IVIT IES RELATED ACTIVITIES RELATED W IND POWER AN D OT HER WIN D POWE WER T HER rnate tech nologies h l i d he pur view i alternate energy technologies were under the purview of the under the pur view of the rgy (EDS) S nerg Energy Development Subcommittee (EDS) of the Ene gy the Energy elopment and Power Generation Com mittee (EDPG) lopment Power Generation Com mitte (EDPG) o ttee Development and Power Generation Committee ( EDPG) m h interest these e ese from the 1970s to the early 1990s. As the interest in these the interest in thes cs d wit renewabl ith newable topics grew, a working group concerned with renewable with renewable ources and energy storage was for me urces e 994 resources and energy storage was formed in 1994 with energy storage formed 199 with 1994 ma q entl his worktly, rkRama Ramakumar as chair. Subsequently, this workSubsequently, this work e cha ired by ing group evolved into two groups, one chaired by chaired Ramakumar dealing with renewable technologies that included wind power and the other focused on distributed generation and energy storage and chaired by John Bzura. At every winter and summer meeting up to 2002 and at the annual General Meetings starting in 2003, the EDS and its two working groups organized panel sessions and numerous technical paper sessions dealing with wind energy, photovoltaics, fuel cells, advanced energy storage technologies, and related topics. These technical areas were nurtured by the EDS and were kept active, viable, and visible to the power engineering community, even during periods when there was little interest in renewable technologies. Participation and interest in these areasespecially in wind powerhave grown signicantly in the recent past, culminating in the formation of the Wind Power Coordinating Committee (WPCC) in 2005.

Wind Power Coordinating Committee


Wind power spans the areas of interest of many technical committees within the Power & Energy Society (PES). As such, there was no single focal point for development and coordination of wind-power activities within PES.

By Richard Piwko, Ernst Camm, Abraham Ellis, Eduard Muljadi, Robert Zavadil, Reigh Walling, Mark OMalley, Garth Irwin, and Steven Saylors
Digital Object Identier 10.1109/MPE.2009.934269
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1540-7977/09/$26.002009 IEEE

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Given the exponential growth in wind power during the past decade, PES established the WPCC to provide that focus. As a coordinating committee, the WPCC works with the existing technical committees to: identify relevant and desirable technical projects related to wind power help set priorities among multiple proposals expedite formation of new working groups and task forces within the relevant technical committees nd qualied technical experts to participate in working groups and task forces communicate accomplishments within PES and to other organizations sponsor and/or assist with panel sessions and tutorial courses related to wind power. As of the summer of 2009, there were seven working groups and task forces conducting activities directly related to wind power (see Table 1).

Collector System Design for Wind Plants


The rapid growth in the development of large wind farms in the United States over the last few years has outpaced the development of design guidelines and standards for wind farm collector systems in PES. To address this issue, the WPCC announced the formation of a new working group concerned with wind plant collector system design in July 2007. The main aims of the working group were to serve as a focal point within PES for addressing issues related to the design of collector systems for wind plants; to conduct activities to promote the sharing of knowledge and experience among diverse organizations working on similar issues through the conduct of studies, symposia, workshops, paper or panel sessions, and tutorials; and to publish working group papers to document results of working group activities and to share working group positions on issues related to the design of collector systems for wind plants. Working group members participated in a panel session on large wind plant collector system design at the 2008 Transmission & Distribution Conference & Exposition in Chicago, which attracted more than 100 conference attendees. Since then, the working group has prepared ve technical papers containing general guidelines: Characteristics of Wind Turbine Generators; Collector System Design Considerations; Grounding, Overvoltage Protection, and Insulation Coordination; Reactive Power Compensation; and Substation and Collector System Redundancy, Reliability, and Economics. These papers were presented at the PES general meeting in Calgary, Alberta, Canada, in July 2009. Work is under way in the working group on the development of additional technical papers on topics such as protection and coordination,

Wind Power Initiatives in the IEEE Power & Energy Society

table 1. PES groups with ongoing wind power activities. Group Task Force on Dynamic Performance of Wind Power Generation Capacity Value of Wind Generation Working Group Wind Plant Collector System Design Working Group Working Group on Renewable Technologies Working Group on Short Circuit Contribution from Wind Generators Task Force on Protecting WTGs from Lightning Strikes and Surge Events Task Force on Integration of Wind and Solar Power into Power System Operations Leaders Abraham Ellis, chair Jeff Smith, vice chair Ernst Camm, secretary Mark OMalley, chair Michael Milligan, vice chair Ernst Camm, chair Nader Samaan, vice chair Mitch Bradt, secretary Rama Ramakumar, chair Dean Miller, PSRC Reigh Walling, T&D Ron Harley, EMC Frank Waterer, chair Bill Grant, chair Sponsoring Committee PSDP PSACE PSO ED&PG T&D ED&PG PSRC T&D EMC SPD PSO

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It is up to us, the power system engineers, to understand the technical challenges and develop workable methods for integrating increasing levels of wind generation into power grids.

arc-flash requirements, testing and commissioning, and communications and controls. The working group is continuing to grow and currently has more than 30 active members from all parts of the wind-power industry, including consultants, manufacturers, developers, constructors, and universities. More information on the working group and its current activities is available on the Web at http://grouper.ieee.org/groups/td/wind/.

Wind Plant Model Development


Large-scale power ow and dynamic simulations with positive sequence models are routinely used to test grid reliability and plan expansion, upgrades, and operating procedures required to accommodate growing demand and generation additions. Bulk power system studies typically cover a large footprint involving multiple jurisdictions and operating entities. Well-established reliability standards and procedures require that equipment owners and operators collaborate to develop and maintain well-documented and validated power ow and dynamic simulation models. To ensure that the reliability of the system as a whole is maintained, it is important that models be widely available in the right simulation platforms. In North America, North American Electric Reliability Corporation (NERC) standards address requirements for modeling and model validation at the bulk power level. These standards have not been consistently applied to wind generation, however, due in large measure to lack of model standardization. Due to the recent and projected increase in wind-generation installed capacity, interest in wind power plant dynamic models has increased. Wind-generation technology is still in relatively rapid evolution. It is not surprising that vendor-specic, proprietary, user-written models are commonly used for system planning and generator interconnection studies. These models are generally difcult to use and maintain, especially in the context of regional grid planning activities. It has long been recognized that models need to evolve toward well-recognized, industry-standard models similar to those used for conventional synchronous generators. Over the last few years, the Wind Generation Modeling Group (WGMG) of the Western Electricity Coordinating Council (WECC) has led a comprehensive effort to develop generic positive-sequence dynamic models suitable for grid planning studies. This work has resulted in the implementation of prototype generic models in the General Electric PSLF/PSDS and Siemens-PTI PSS/E simulation software platforms.
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These simulation platforms are industry-standard planning tools widely used in North America and elsewhere. Several other software developers have implemented wind power plant models based on the WECC generic models. Figure 1 describes the four WECC prototype models that have been implemented as standard-library models in PSS/E and PSLF. It should be noted that the models can be used to represent wind power plants as well. For wind power plant representation, WGMG has recommended the use of the equivalent network model shown in Figure 2. While these models are useful and have been widely adopted, it is recognized that more work is required to improve the models in key areas and to add emerging control features. WGMG generic model validation and parameter identication are also areas of intense current activity, as discussed below. There are several coordinated efforts under way in North America, involving the Utility Wind Integration Group (UWIG), IEEE, universities, and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) through Sandia National Laboratories and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL). Similar efforts are taking place in Europe. In North America, most of the technical activities are being coordinated through the WGMG and the IEEE Dynamic Performance of Wind power Generation working group, building on the signicant progress made by WGMG. A recent development is the formation of the IEC WG88 TF27, which seeks to develop model specications and validation procedures. These efforts are expected to result in industry-standard models for wind power plants, similar to models for conventional generators. Standards organizations have a clear role in fostering adoption of standardized models. The recent NERC Integration of Variable Generation Task Force (IVGTF) report recognizes that proper representation of wind power plants is important to maintain system reliability and clearly echoes the need for the adoption of generic, nonproprietary, validated planning models. For more discussion about modeling, see Modeling for Transient Analysis of Wind Plants.

Model Validation
In general, generator dynamic modeling requires some simplication to observe the important characteristics of the model within a specied frequency, voltage range, or time interval of interest. Model validation should therefore consider the limitations and the capabilities of the dynamic model.
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Vterm Shaft Speed Pgen Generator Model WT1G Pgen Qgen Rotor Resistance Control Model WT2E Pgen Rrotor

Vterm

Wind Turbine Model WT1T Pmech

Generator Model

Pgen WT2G Qgen Pgen

Shaft Speed

Turbine Governor Model WT1P (a) Vreg bus WT3E Converter Control Model Power Speed Order Order Ip (p) Command Eq (Q) Command Pgen, Qgen Shaft Speed Vterm

Pseudo Wind Governor Turbine Model Aero-torque Model WT2A WT2T (b)

Generator/ Converter Model WT3G

Pgen, Qgen

Vreg bus

Vterm

Pgen

Pitch Control Blade Pitch Model WT3P (c)

Wind Turbine Model WT3T Model Type Type 1 wt1g

Ip (p) Command Iq (Q) Converter Command Converter Control Model Model Pgen, Qgen WT3E WT3G (d) Type 2 wt2g wt2e wt1t wt1p (e) wt2t wt2p Type 3 wt3g wt3e wt3t wt3p Type 4 wt4g wt4e wt4t

Pgen, Qgen

Generator Excitation/Controller Turbine Pitch Controller/Pseudo Gov.

Generic Model Generator El. Controller Turbine/Shaft Pitch Control Pseudo Gov/: Aerodynamics

WT1 WTIG

WT2 WT2G WT2E

WT3 WT3G WT3E WT3T WT3P

WT4 WT4G WT4E

WT12T WT12A (f)

WT12T WT12A

figure 1. WGMG generic models: (a) Type 1 (induction generator), (b) Type 2 (induction generator with variable rotor resistance), (c) Type 3 (doubly fed asynchronous), (d) Type 4 (asynchronous generator with full converter interface), (e) WGMG prototype generic model modules implemented in the PSLF platform, and (f) WGMG prototype generic model modules implemented in the PSS/E platform.

There are two types of model validations commonly performed: validating the dynamic model against the eld measurement data and validating the software model against a veried model (i.e., generic model performance is compared with the detailed model). Table 2 compares these two methods.
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To validate the dynamic model of a wind power plant using eld measurement data, there are several data sets needed before the validation can be performed. Power network data for where the wind power plant is located is needed (see Figure 2). For a wind power plant,
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Given the exponential growth in wind power during the past decade, PES established the Wind Power Coordinating Committee to provide focus.

Interconnection Transmission Line

Station Transformer(s)

Collector System Equivalent

Pad-Mounted Transformer Equivalent

Wind Turbine Generator Equivalent

POI or Connection to the Transmission System

Plant-Level Reactive Compensation

PF Correction Shunt Capacitors

figure 2. Power system network and single-turbine representation for a wind power plant.

the power network covers the point of interconnection, the substation transformer, the plant-level reactive compensation, the collector system, the pad-mounted transformer, the wind turbine, and the turbine-level reactive compensation. The wind power plant is usually simplied into a single-turbine representation. Thus, the collector system consisting of hundreds of turbines and miles of interconnecting underground cables and overhead wires must be reduced to an equivalent circuit. Power ow data for the prefault condition are needed. Field measurement data taken at a high sampling rate during the transient event are needed (see Figure 3). The dynamic model of wind turbine to be simulated, the input parameters of the corresponding dynamic model of the specic wind turbine installed, and the control settings specic to the wind plant monitored are needed. The reactive power compensation implemented in the wind power plant is needed. Accurate event representation is needed. With hundreds of turbines operating within the wind power

plant, the fault transient may take some of the turbines off-line [see Figure 3(b)]. Thus, in the postfault condition some of the turbines may be off-line, and this event representation must be correct. Two sets of turbine representations are sometimes used: one turbine is used to represent the turbines that remain connected, and another one is used to represent the turbines disconnected from the line in the postfault condition. To validate the generic model of a wind power plant by using a detailed model as a benchmark, the following data are needed: a complete detailed wind turbine generator (WTG) model developed and validated by the turbine manufacturer (this type of data often requires a nondisclosure agreement) power system network data fault event scenarios to test the dynamic model. The fault event scenarios are simulated with both the detailed model and the generic model, and the outputs are compared.

table 2. Comparison of validation methods. Validation Method Field data measurement Detailed model as a benchmark model Description Compares the output of the generic model simulation to the field measurement data Compares the output of the generic model to detailed model for a given power system network and a set of prescribed faults Drawbacks Field data hard to get; inaccuracy in measurements Access to the detailed model requires nondisclosure agreement

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Modeling for Transient Analysis of Wind Plants


Some wind interconnections may require the use of more detailed analysis methods (compared to transient stability programs which are used for most studies). Systems (such as those illustrated in Figure S1) with very weak fault current levels, series compensation, complex protection requirements, or wind plants to be installed near large power electronic equipment are challenging with traditional analysis methods. Detailed electromagnetic transientbased (EMT-based) simulation studies have played a major role in almost all facets of wind power generation. Wind turbine manufacturers already have developed detailed EMT models of their turbines (often using the actual controller C code) to study: turbine power electronic design and controller optimization the design of filters and protection systems interactions between numerous turbines on a feeder. Wind developers and utilities also use EMT analysis to: aid in resolving grid-integration issues, such as problems with wind farms connected to series-compensated systems or weak short-circuit ratio systems and interactions with nearby static var compensators (SVCs) or customer loads compare and select doubly fed asynchronous generators (DFAGs), full converter, and induction generator wind turbines ensure compliance with grid regulations and standards, including sizing SVCs or STATCOMs to meet voltage control and reactive power requirements, low-voltage fault ride-through requirements, and power quality issues, including voltage flicker perform transient overvoltage, energization, switching, and insulation coordination studies resolve subsynchronous resonance issues due to interaction of the electric network with the complex shaft and gear system of the wind turbine design and verify the operation of protection systems, including studies related to islanding of wind farms.

SVC or Statcom Nearby (Harmonics and Control Interactions, Dynamics)

Protection Issues Islanding Energization Transients Weak Electrical System Series Capacitor (SSR and SSI Concerns)

L Complex Load Variable Speed Drive Shunt Capacitor

~ ~
Transformer or Shunt Capacitor Insertion Transients

Wind Plant A (DFIG) Wind Plant B (Full Converter)

figure S1. Challenging wind farm configurations studied with EMT analysis.

At present, major efforts are focused in two areas:


Model revalidation and renement: Generic dy-

namic models are developed based on the realization that the wind-generation technology is changing quickly. As the technology improves and new grid codes are implemented (e.g., with respect to the reactive power requirement, data acquisition and control, voltage ride-through capabilities, and so on), the turnovember/december 2009

bine manufacturers will include new components and control algorithms. The models must evolve to follow the state of the art of wind turbine technology. Identication of generic model parameters for different manufacturers: Presently there are four generic wind turbine models available in both PSS/E and PSLF. Each wind turbine manufacturer needs to populate the database with validated input
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As penetration levels of wind power increase, the contribution that wind generators make to system adequacy is becoming an important reliability issue.

1.2 1
Voltage (p.u.)

V and f

1.15 1.11 1.07


Frequency (p.u.)

0.8 0.6 0.4 0.2 0

Prefault Data 1.03 0.99 0.95 2

parameters for its corresponding turbines. NREL is working with other groups to develop parameter identication programs to derive input parameters for the generic models, based on benchmark simulations derived from each manufacturers proprietary detailed turbine models. Eventually, input parameters to represent a wide variety of specic turbines with the generic models will be available in the public domain.

V f 0.5 1 Time (s) (a) Real Power Comparison 1.5

Model Documentation
UWIG recently initiated another important contribution to this modeling effort. While the generic models have been implemented in the two major dynamic simulation platforms, there is a lack of reviewed public documentation available save for the standard user information available to licensees of the two programs. The objective of the UWIG initiative is to develop comprehensive documentation for the generic models and provide technical information and insight beyond what is available in existing documents. The outcome, though, is only the rst small step towards the general application of the models for power system studies. Additional work will be needed to develop enhanced documentation, user support, and application materials that will assist users of these major computer analysis platforms in the evaluation of bulk power system impacts of an ever increasing eet of wind generation. Beyond that, the very difcult but absolutely vital task of validating commercial turbine-specic implementations of the generic models must be undertaken. Validation of any model against actual performance data from the eld is necessary and will become mandatory as more-stringent interconnection standards are established. The key objective here must be developing model-by-model comparisons to detailed vendor-specic models, transient models, and eld measurements. As always, the acquisition of measurement data will be a major challenge.

140 120 Real Power (MW) 100 80 60 40 20 0 0 P-Sim-1wtg (MW) P-Measured (MW) P-Sim-136WTG 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 Time (s) (b) Reactive Power Comparison 80 Reactive Power (MVAR) 60 40 20 0 20 40 60 Prefault Data Time (s) (c) 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4 Q-Sim-1wtg (MVAR) Q-Measured (MVAR) Q-Sim-136WTG 3 3.5 4 Prefault Data Postfault Event 9% Drop in Generation

Short-Circuit Contribution from Wind Generators


Prior to the recent emergence of wind power as a major form of generation, virtually all signicant generation has been via synchronous generators. Thus, the tools and methodologies used by the industry for short-circuit analysis have been based on the assumption that synchronous generators are the source of virtually all fault current.
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figure 3. Measured data from dynamic event.


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The level of interest and activity in wind power has increased dramatically, and PES has responded with more working groups, task forces, panel sessions, and tutorials.

To maximize energy capture and minimize mechanical loads due to wind turbulence, generators with some degree of speed variability are necessary for wind generation. Various wind-generator technologies are in use, and these are generally classied into four types: squirrel-cage induction generators (type 1), wound-rotor induction generators with variable rotor resistance (type 2), doubly fed generators (type 3), and generators asynchronously interconnected to the grid via power electronic converters (type 4). These types of generationparticularly the latter twohave substantially different qualitative short-circuit characteristics than synchronous generators. Figure 4 illustrates the current contribution of a typical 100-MW type 4 wind plant into a grid fault, compared with the contribution of a synchronous generator of similar size. Induction generators of types 1 and 2 provide an initial fault contribution similar to that of a synchronous generator, but the current rapidly decays as the ux in the machine collapses. Generators of types 3 and 4 have an inherently high degree of controllability that is typically used to protect the power electronics in these wind turbine systems by limiting fault current. Type 3 doubly fed generators exhibit further complexity because the characteristics can change discontinuously during the course of a fault if a crowbar switch is closed to protectively short the rotor circuit. Short-circuit analysis is a routine part of power grid planning, design, and operations. There are several objectives for this analysis, including determination of the maximum currents that components must endure and switching devices must interrupt and coordination of circuit protection. As wind power has grown, it has become the dominant source of generation in some areas of the transmission grid. Within wind plant collection systems, the importance of wind generation to short-circuit analysis is even greater. The unconventional short-circuit characteristics of wind generators, however, are not well represented by existing tools and methodologies used by the industry. Furthermore, these characteristics are little understood by the utility industrys engineers, who must design the electrical grid to be reliable and secure. To address these issues, the PES Power Systems Relaying, T&D, and Electrical Machinery committees have jointly commissioned a joint working group (JWG) concerned with the short-circuit contribution from wind generators. At this time, the scope of this JWG is investigatory and educational. The initial goal is to develop a
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1,500 1,000 Amperes 500 0 500 1,000 1,500 0.02 0.04 0.06 0.08 Seconds (a) 0.1 0.12

1,500 1,000 Amperes 500 0 500 1,000 1,500 0.02 0.04 0.06 0.08 Seconds (b) 0.1 0.12

figure 4. Comparison of currents supplied to a grid fault by (a) a wind plant and (b) conventional synchronous generator of equal size.

working group report that describes modeling of the various types of wind turbine generators for the purposes of short-circuit analysis. The initial gathering of the JWG was at the January 2009 PES Joint Technical Committee meeting (JTCM). This meeting was very heavily attended and included presentations by a major wind turbine manufacturer and a consulting rm heavily engaged in wind projects. To accommodate the different technical committees participating in the JWG, which do not concurrently meet at any of the PES meetings, a schedule of three meetings per year coinciding with the winter JTCM, the summer PES general meeting, and the autumn Power Systems Relaying Committee meeting has been established. Further presentations by manufacturers, software vendors, and other knowledgeable parties are planned for meetings in the immediate future as the JWG accumulates the information needed to produce its report. Participation from all involved segments of the industry is welcome, particularly wind turbine manufacturers and vendors of short-circuit analysis software.
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We invite you to get involved. Join a task force or working group. Make a contribution. Its a great time to be a power system engineer.

0.4 0.35 0.3 Capacity Value 0.25 0.2 0.15 0.1 0.05 0 0 1,000 2,000 3,000 4,000 5,000 Installed Wind Capacity (MW) 6,000

figure 5. Capacity value of wind power as a function of installed capacity for Ireland. Based on historical data gathered from 1 GW of installed wind power.

Capacity Value of Wind Generation


The IEEE PES Task Force on Capacity Value of Wind Power was established in 2007. It is cosponsored by the Power Systems Analysis Computing and Economics Committee and the Power System Operations Committee. As penetration levels of wind power increase, the contribution that wind generators make to system adequacy is becoming an important reliability issue. This contribution is known as the capacity value or capacity credit of wind and is the contribution made to the load-carrying capability, i.e., how much additional load can be served by the additional wind capacity while maintaining system reliability standards. This is often a controversial issue due to the characteristics of wind power, in particular its variable and stochastic nature and its correlation with the underlying resource (i.e., common weather patterns seen by the wind plants). Figure 5 illustrates one of the most interesting consequences of the impact of wind characteristics on the capacity value. As penetration levels increase, the overall capacity value rises in absolute terms but declines in relative terms. This is a direct consequence of the time correlation of wind plant power output across the power system. This is an important issue for power system planners, who must ensure system reliability. It also has signicant
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economic consequences for wind power developers and market operators as contributions to capacity value are often rewarded directly in the electricity market. The task force sponsored a very well attended and vibrant panel session on the subject at the IEEE PES general meeting in Pittsburgh in July 2008. Approximately 100 people attended, and there were six presentations by experts in the eld. The panel session was immensely valuable, as the contributions from the session helped the members rene the scope of the task force and ensure that all pertinent issues are dealt with. The task force also held its inaugural face-to-face meeting after the panel session and set about working to dene the capacity value of wind power; make recommendations on how it should be calculated; highlight data needs, approximations, and pitfalls; and report on the results of a variety of international studies. The task force has drafted a paper titled Capacity Value of Wind Power that was submitted to IEEE Transactions on Power Systems. Nine people from across Europe and the United States contributed to the paper. The task force met at the PES GM in Calgary and plans to meet at upcoming PES conferences to discuss the need for future activities in this area.

Looking Ahead
The level of interest and activity in wind power has increased dramatically over the past few years, and PES has responded with more working groups, task forces, panel sessions, and tutorials related to wind power. This trend is expected to continue for the foreseeable future, with new PES activities in additional technical areas related to wind power (e.g., transformers, power system relaying, surge protection, operations, and market structure). PES is already experiencing a shortage of members who have time to take on new projects, however. This is always a question of priorities. The outlook for the energy industry is clear: renewable energy is essential to our future. Wind generation is rapidly increasing in many regions of the world. Wind plant technology is evolving to meet future needs (see Wind Plant of the Future). Now it is up to us, the power system engineers, to understand the technical challenges and develop workable methods for integrating increasing levels of wind generation into power grids. We invite you to get involved. Join a task force or working group. Make a contribution. Its a great time to be a power system engineer.
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Wind Plant of the Future


As the market for wind energy generation calls for a dramatic increase of installed nameplate capacity over the next ten to 20 years, it will be necessary to move away from the historically developed designs and practices that characterize current wind energy projects. Higher penetration levels of wind-produced electricity will be used to replace older power sources that are less efficient or cost-effective but have desirable system-performance attributes. Power off-takers will thus increasingly demand that wind power plants provide operational characteristics at the grid interconnection point that are at least the equivalent of other conventional power plants on their system. Some of the trends we can expect to see include the following: Global grid codes will by necessity become more standardized and harmonized. The size of wind projects will increase, from tens to hundreds to thousands of megawatts. Wind plant electrical infrastructure will become more standardized and modularized. Transmission interconnection will take place at higher voltage levels (345, 500, and 765 kV). Further development of renewable energy zones and smart grids will take place. WTG design will continue to evolve toward double-fed asynchronous machines and permanent magnet synchronous generators with full-power voltage source converters. WTG-based active and reactive power compensation and regulation techniques, for support of participation in ancillary service markets, will be developed. Performance capabilities that include a governor droop characteristic and an inertial response will be developed. Wind plants will move offshore and into deeper and deeper water, with ac or dc transmission to shore, evolving from radial to network connections.

For Further Reading


NERC IVGTF special report (2009). [Online]. Available: http://www.nerc.com/les/IVGTF_Report_041609.pdf IEEE PES Wind Plant Collector System Design Working Group, Characteristics of wind turbine generators for wind power plants, in Proc. 2009 PES General Meeting, Calgary, Alberta, Canada, July 2630, 2009. IEEE PES Wind Plant Collector System Design Working Group, Wind power plant collector system design considerations, in Proc. 2009 PES General Meeting, Calgary, Alberta, Canada, July 2630, 2009. IEEE PES Wind Plant Collector System Design Working Group, Wind power plant grounding, overvoltage protection, and insulation coordination, in Proc. 2009 PES General Meeting, Calgary, Alberta, Canada, July 2630, 2009. IEEE PES Wind Plant Collector System Design Working Group, Reactive power compensation for wind power plants, in Proc. 2009 PES General Meeting, Calgary, Alberta, Canada, July 2630, 2009. IEEE PES Wind Plant Collector System Design Working Group, Wind power plant substation and collector system redundancy, reliability, and economics, in Proc. 2009 PES General Meeting, Calgary, Alberta, Canada, July 2630, 2009. M. Behnke, A. Ellis, Y. Kazachkov, T. McCoy, E. Muljadi, W. Price, and J. Sanchez-Gasca, Development and validation of WECC variable speed wind turbine dynamic models for grid integration studies, presented at the Wind-

power 2007 Conf. and Exhibition, Los Angeles, CA, June 2428, 2007. R. Zavadil, N. Miller, A. Ellis, E. Muljadi, E. Camm, and B. Kirby, Queuing up, IEEE Power Energy Mag., vol. 5, no. 6, pp. 4758, Nov./Dec. 2007. A. Ellis and E. Muljadi, Wind power plant representation in large-scale power flow simulations in WECC, presented at the IEEE Power Engineering Society General Meeting, Pittsburgh, PA, July 2024, 2008.

Biographies
Richard Piwko is director of energy applications and systems engineering for GE Energy in Schenectady, New York. Ernst Camm is a principal engineer in S&C Electric Companys Power Systems Services Division. Abraham Ellis is principal member of technical staff at Sandia National Laboratories. Eduard Muljadi is with the National Renewable Energy Laboratory. Robert Zavadil is vice president and principal consultant of Enernex Corporation. Reigh Walling is a director of energy applications and systems engineering for GE Energy. Mark OMalley is professor of electrical engineering at University College Dublin, Ireland. Garth Irwin is a cofounder of Electranix Corporation. Steven Saylors is chief electrical engineer for Vestas p&e Americas.

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