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0 INTRODUCTION The electric motors play vital role in sustaining production activities in all types of industries. The motors are working as prime mover to drive process equipments like pumps, mixers, agitators, conveyors, blowers/fans, bowl mills, etc. and engineering manufacturing machineries like lathes, milling machines, boring machines, grinders, drilling machines, etc. Besides industrial applications, the motors have also become an integral part of number of commercial and domestic activities such as pumping, refrigeration, airconditioning, washing, cleaning, etc. 1.2 The characteristics of motors vary widely with the nature of their application and the type of duty they are expected to perform. For example, the applications like constant speed, constant torque, variable speed, continuous/intermittent duty, steep/sudden starts, frequent start/stops, etc. are to be taken into consideration carefully when deciding for the type of motor for that specific application. Moreover, the motors are required to perform quite often under abnormal conditions during their total service life. 1.3 In view of above, incorrect selection of motor always results into a premature failure of the motor causing severe production curtailments. Like one mentioned above, a number of other factors and design features like site conditions, stringent electrical system conditions, abnormal surroundings, hazardous area data, duty cycle, loading conditions, motor efficiency, etc. are also required to be considered while drawing out the technical specifications of the motor for procurement. 1.4 As the motors consume around 70% of total power consumed by the industries, utmost care should be exercised in selection of most appropriate type of motor for specific application considering various technical factors, so that desired performance along with energy conservation could be obtained from the motor. The paper discusses various factors relevant to industrial applications.
ABNORMAL CONDITIONS AND EFFECTS The usual abnormal conditions encountered by the motors are given hereunder. i. Abnormal System Conditions a. Voltage - Under voltage - Over voltage - Unbalance in 3-phase - Single phasing - Voltage surges - Low frequency - High frequency
ii. Abnormal Operating conditions a. Locked rotor or stalled rotor b. Reswitching/Frequent start-stops c. Momentary interruption/Bus transfer d. Overloading e. Improper cable sizing iii. Environmental conditions a. High/low ambient temperature b. High altitude c. High humidity d. Corrosive atmosphere e. Hazardous atmosphere/surroundings f. Exposure to steam/salt-laden air/oil vapour iv. Mechanical problems a. Seized bearings b. Incorrect alignment/Foundation levelling problem c. Incorrect coupling fixing d. High vibration mounting e. External shock loads v. Location conditions a. Poor ventilation b. Dirt accumulation c. Exposure to direct sunlight Though, above mentioned abnormalities may prevail for short or long duration, or may be transient in nature, major impact of the listed abnormal conditions is overheating of the motor along with one or more of the other effects as follows.
Change in the motor performance characteristics like drawl of more power and consequent deterioration in motor efficiency, etc. Increase in mechanical stresses leading to a. Shearing of shafts b. Damage to winding overhang c. Bearing failures d. Insulation failures Increase in stator and rotor winding a. Premature insulation failure temperature leading to b. Increased fire hazard c. Rotor bar/end ring breakage
2.4 All the motors encounter few or several of these abnormalities during the course of their service lives. Consideration of listed abnormal conditions at design stage greatly helps to minimise the effects of abnormal conditions to maintain a consistent performance. 3.0 DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS Following are the most important design factors considered when selecting a motor for any of the diversified industrial applications. 3.1 3.1.1 i. Output in kW/HP There are two limitations for selecting the motor output. Mechanical limitation - The breakdown torque, which is the maximum torque that the motor can produce when operating without stalling. This is a critical design factor in motor applications, particularly for the motors subjected to occasional
extreme load conditions. Another critical factor is the locked-rotor torque, which is the maximum torque that the motor can produce during start-up from steadystate condition, a critical design feature for conveyors drives. Electrical limitation, i.e. insulation system of the motor windings - The electrical load on the motor could be imposed till the winding insulation is able to withstand a prescribed temperature rise over an ambient for that particular class of insulation. Life of the motor greatly depends on the temperature rise in the windings. Anticipated life-span of the motor can be achieved, provided it is operated at its rated output without overloading and the prescribed preventive maintenance practices are followed. Speed of the Motor
3.2.1 Speed of the motor and the driven equipment are normally same, otherwise in order to meet the speed of the driven equipment, the devices like gearbox or belts are required to be introduced. In this case, it may be necessary to manufacture the motor shaft suitable for its attachment with the speed decreasing or increasing device and hence the specification should include such requirement. 3.3
Supply Voltage and Frequency/Unbalance
As the overall performance of the motor depends on the variations in the operating parameters, i.e. supply voltage and frequency. It is vital to specify these parameters with permissible variations in percentage as provided in Indian IS: 325 -1970 or international standard. The permissible voltage variation is ±5 to ±10% for LT/HT supply and 50Hz ± 3% for frequency. The combined variation is permissible up to ±6 %. 3.3.2 The effect of under-voltage is more serious than that of over-voltage. The higher torque, resulting from over-voltage, can handle a little overload without undue heating of the winding, but only for a short duration. Continuous operation with undervoltage condition increases the current at the rate of about 20% for every 5% reduction in the supply voltage, increasing the rated copper loss. This results into heating and prolonged temperature rise, and finally the burning of winding. During a motor start-up, the torque reduces by 10% for each 5% reduction in the supply voltage, causing more starting current and consequently more rapid heating of the winding. 3.3.3 The variation in frequency by +5 % decreases the torque by about 10% and vice-versa at – 5% frequency. It is, therefore, of utmost importance to consider the combined effect of variation in voltage and frequency both when purchasing the motor. 3.3.4 Unbalance in the supply voltage results into a current unbalance of 6 to 10 times the percentage voltage unbalance. This in turn results into generation of negative sequence currents in the rotor causing its overheating. 3.4
Though standard motors are now available with a better efficiency, this factor requires due attention when making a selection of the motor for a specific application in view of substantial quantum of power consumed by the motors in the industries. The motors running continuously should be only high energy efficiency motors to reduce the power consumption. Improvement of even 1% in efficiency results into saving of enormous quantum of power over a life span of the motor as well as the cost of power. 3.4.2 When existing motor, operating for 12 hours or more, is to be replaced, replacement should be with high energy efficiency motor. Similarly, in place of rewound
motors, use of high energy efficiency motors results into significant energy savings and cost savings. 3.5
As per normal standards, the motor output is taken at 40 0 C ambient temperature. If ambient temperature is expected to be high for a longer duration, then the motor is required to be checked for its suitability to maintain the specified output at higher temperature, or otherwise, the deration factor is to be applied to know the actual anticipated output. In order to meet the required output at higher temperature, the motor with a higher frame size for the same rating may be selected. 3.6 Type of Starting and Number of Starts
3.6.1 The starting performance of the motor depends on the method of starting deployed, i.e. direct-on-line, star-delta, high resistance, auto transformer, variable frequency, etc. 3.6.2 The direct-on-line starting is the most common method adopted in which the starting current is 6-7 times the rated full load current of the motor. For high starting torque, the direct-on-line starting is essential. If a motor is started using star-delta starting, the speed may not pick-up affecting the motor acceleration, or may take a very long time to come up to its rated speed under loaded condition inducing severe electrical and mechanical stresses respectively in the winding and core. Where the starting torque requirement is not so critical, the star-delta starting or any other reduced voltage method of starting is used. Where the starting with very heavy load (crane drives) and speed control over a wide range is required, it is an advantageous to consider the slip-ring type (or wound rotor type) motor with a drum controller starter. A variable frequency drive may also be considered for such applications. 3.6.3 It is essential to specify anticipated number of starts per hour or per shift of 8-hrs duration to facilitate the design of motor windings and selection of correct class of insulation to encounter anticipated temperature rise due to number of starts. 3.7 Different Rotor Classes
3.7.1 The different rotor class, i.e. KL7, KL10, KL13, KL16, KlLp, etc. have been developed for the motor to fulfil the functional requirements of the driven equipment. The rotor classes indicate against what quantum of the load torque the motor would start easily. 3.7.2 The motor with KL10 class of rotor, when started direct-on-line, would accelerate safely to its rated speed against the load torque of 100 % of its rated torque. Similarly, the motor with KL16 class of rotor would be capable of starting against the load torque of 160 % of its rated torque. Though, KL10 class rotor could take maximum starting torque up to 180 % of the full load torque, and for KL16 class, it could go up to 200 %, but for very minimum time exerting more stress to the rotor.
The permissible temperature rise for six insulation classes is based on the ambient temperature of 400C as shown in following table for different class of insulating materials.
Class Temp Rise Total of permissible Temp Insulation on 40 0 C 0 C base A E B 60 75 80 100 115 120
Max. Temp Rise permissible 0 C 105 120 130
F H G
100 125 170
140 165 210
155 180 225
Cotton, Silk, Impregnated/Coated paper Synthetic enamel based on polyvinyl acetate Polyurethane, Epoxy on polyamide resin Mica, Glass fibre, Asbestos with suitable Bond, viz. Synthetic resin varnishes, Epoxy Resin shellac, Asphalt or bituminous compounds Mica, Glass fibre, Asbestos with suitable Bond viz. alkyd epoxy resin, add silicon alkyd resin Silicon elastomers, Mica, Glass fibre, etc. with bonding substances like silicon resins Mica porcelain, Other mica class quartz, with bonding materials of silicon resin
CONSTRUCTIONAL FEATURES OF MOTOR Based on the application requirements, the constructional features of the motor are to be selected as follows.
4.1.1 Different types of mounting are Horizontal foot mounted (B3), Horizontal flange mounted (B5), Flange-cum-foot mounted (B3/B5), Vertical flange mounted with shaft downwards (V3), etc and so on. International standards specify mounting arrangement with some different notation.
4.2.1 The frame size of the motor is to be selected considering ambient conditions and environment in surroundings, where it is to be installed. If the ambient temperature is expected to be abnormally high, the motor with one higher frame size for the same rating provides better services due to availability of more cooling surface area due to higher frame size. This factor is thus related to location of the motor.
4.3.1 The enclosures are classified under two categories as follows. It is selected based on the specific application and location of the motor. Open Type Totally Enclosed Type i. Screen protected drip proof (SPDP} i. Totally enclosed fan cooled (TEFC) ii. Splash waterproof ii. Totally enclosed surface cooled iii. Pipe ventilated iii. Totally enclosed pipe ventilated iv. Weather protected iv. Hose and splash proof (IP55) v. Increased safety motor with enclosure “e” for hazardous areas vi. Totally enclosed for marine applications 5.0 MECHANICAL DESIGN FEATURES 5.1 Coupling Arrangement with Load
5.1.1 It is necessary to mention whether the motor is to be directly coupled with the driven equipment, or coupled through a belt/chain drive, or gearbox. For belt-drives, the motor shaft diameter and length depend on the type of belt, as the standard shaft length suitable for flat belt may not be suitable for V-belt drive. 5.2 Type of Driven Equipment
5.2.1 For better selection of motor, it is necessary to specify the type of driven equipment, viz., centrifugal pump, compressor, blower, bowl mill, conveyor drive, etc. The moment of inertia and accelerating torque of the driven equipment along with its duty cycle should also be specified to consider starting time of the motor and anticipated temperature rise during starting. The design of windings would greatly depend on this technical data.
The size of cable with number of cores may be specified so as to enable the motor manufacturer to provide correct type and size of cable terminal box. When number of parallel cables are to be terminated, as in case of star-delta started motor, a special terminal box with larger dimensions may be specified to facilitate the cable termination. If required, the cable splitter box should also be specified along with the terminal box to facilitate splitting of cable cores before termination.
5.4.1 In accordance with the Indian standard specification, two separate and distinct earthing terminals are to be essentially provided on the body of the motors and one terminal on the cable termination box.
LOCATION DATA 6.1 It is essential to include all the possible location details in the technical specification. The motor with a suitable enclosure is selected based on its location,
whether it is indoor, outdoor, semi-outdoor, prone to dust, chemically hazardous/explosive, corrosives, etc. 6.2 Corrosive chemical vapours attacks not only the motor winding insulation, but also housing, stator laminations, rotor, shaft and bearings. For the motors working in the corrosive areas, the winding is given a varnished impregnation treatment and overhangs are applied with epoxy base varnish. Corrosion to metal body is prevented by applying epoxy base resin paint. 7.0 SERVICE FACTOR OR OVERLOAD CAPACITY 7.1 The service factor of a motor indicates how much it could be overloaded without immediately failing. Generally, the motors are designed with 1.15 service factor with the development of high quality insulating materials that can withstand higher temperatures. 7.2 Most of the motors do not operate at maximum efficiency when overloaded. The peak efficiency is obtained from the motors operating at around 65% to 95% load. Although the motors operating between their full load rating and their service factor rating do not fail immediately, their service life certainly becomes shorter. Hence, it is best to avoid designing of motors to operate with overload except for short time duration, even if permitted by the service factor. A high service factor can be used as an indication of a high quality, more reliable motor.
CONCLUSION Effort is made in the paper to cover as many factors as possible for selection of motor, through the subject is vast. The complete technical specification would greatly facilitate the motor vendor to propose a type of motor required for a specific application. 8.2 Operating conditions such as duty cycle, number of starts, ambient conditions, and data for location, environment, driven equipment, etc. are important considerations for the motor efficiency and reliability. It is also imperative to seek advice of the motor manufacturer many a times if motor will be operated under any unusual service conditions to support the selection procedure. 8.3 It can also be seen from the above discussion that most of the technical requirements are interwoven and closely related with each other. Consideration of one factor may affect the other factor and hence it is important to adopt an integrated approach to the total specification. Finally, the highly specific requirements are going to raise the cost of the motor. For example, the initial cost of high efficiency motor will be more, depending on design and specific material aspects, but the consistent lower operating cost due to less drawl of power will prove economically beneficial in a long run. 8.4 Besides considering various general design features as mentioned above, the specific requirements in view of abnormal site conditions and application requirements must be considered and brought out in the purchase specification. The extra cost, required to be incurred for some specific features, would simplify the maintenance to such an extent that the repayment would be in a shortest duration with reduced outage of the motors.
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