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## Chapter 6: Isoparametric elements Chapter 6: Isoparametric elements

Same shape functions are used to interpolate nodal p p
coordinates and displacements
Shape functions are defined for an idealized mapped
l t ( f d il t l l t) element (e.g. square for any quadrilateral element)
Advantages include more flexible shapes and
compatibility compatibility
We pay the price in complexity and require numerical
integration to calculate stiffness matrices and equivalent
University of Florida EML5526 Finite Element Analysis R.T. Haftka
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Bar element example
Th d b l d l f ill t ti Three-node bar example used only for illustration
Quadratic variation of both coordinate and displacement
in terms of ideal element coordinate
a a

1 4
2 2
2 5
3 6
1 1
a a
x a and u a
a a

( ( = =
` `

) ) 3 6 ) )
1
1 1 1
2
2 2 2
1 1 1 1 1 1
1 0 0 1 1 0 0
x a x
x a hence x x

( (

( (
( = =
` ` `

( (

University of Florida EML5526 Finite Element Analysis R.T. Haftka
2 2 2
3 3 3
1 1 1 1 1 1 x a x
` ` `

( (

( (
) ) )
3
Interpolation functions Interpolation functions
1 2
3
1 2
3
T
T
x N x x x
u N u u u
=
( (

=
( (

1 2
3
( (

(
( ) ( )
2 2 2
1 1
1
2 2
N
(
= + +
(

(

University of Florida EML5526 Finite Element Analysis R.T. Haftka
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Strains and stiffness matrix
Because of coordinate transformation taking derivatives Because of coordinate transformation taking derivatives
is more complicated

d d d
h
u
N
d du

`

|
|

|
1
Jacobian

c
d
d
dx
d
dx
d
where
u
u N
dx
d
dx
du
x
=

|
.
|

\
|
= =
3
2
1 1
x x

Hence strain matrix
( ) ( )
1 1
2 2
3 3
1 1
1 2 2 1 2
2 2
x x
dx d
J N x x
d d
x x

(
= = = + +
(
` `

(

) )
Hence strain matrix
( ) ( )
1 1 1 1
1 2 2 1 2
2 2
d
B N
J d J

(
= = + +
( (

(

And stiffness matrix

Jd B AE B Ad B E B k
T
L
T
} }
1
University of Florida EML5526 Finite Element Analysis R.T. Haftka

Jd B AE B Adx B E B k
} }

= =
1 0
5
We were limited to rectangles because of compatibility
Now both displacement and coordinates are bi-linear
functions of
How does that preserve compatibility?
and q
University of Florida EML5526 Finite Element Analysis R.T. Haftka
How does that preserve compatibility?
6
Interpolation
Mapping
| |{ } | |{ } d N
v N
u N
v
u
c N
y N
x N
y
x
i i i i
=
)
`

=
)
`

=
)
`

=
)
`

&
v N v y N y
i i i i
)
)
)
)
{ }

=
4 4 3 3 2 2 1 1
y x y x y x y x c
T
{ }

| |
(
(

=
=
4 3 2 1
4 4 3 3 2 2 1 1
0 0 0 0 N N N N
N
v u v u v u v u d
T
Interpolation functions
| |
(

=
4 3 2 1
0 0 0 0 N N N N
N
1 1
) 1 )( 1 (
1
) 1 )( 1 (
1
) 1 )( 1 (
4
1
) 1 )( 1 (
4
1
2 1

q q + = =
N N
N N
University of Florida EML5526 Finite Element Analysis R.T. Haftka
) 1 )( 1 (
4
) 1 )( 1 (
4
4 3
q q + = + + = N N
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Derivatives
Chain rule of differentiation
c c
+
c c
=
c y x | | |
| |
)
`

=
)
`

c
c
c
c
+
c
c
c
c
=
c
c
c c
+
c c
=
c
y
x
J or
y x
y x
,
,
,
,
|
|
|
|
| | |

q

Jacobian
c c c c c y x q q q
Jacobian
| |
(
(

=
(
(

=
i i i i
y N x N
y x
J

, ,
, ,
| |
(

=
(

=
i i i i
y N x N
y x
J
q q
q q
, ,
, ,
University of Florida EML5526 Finite Element Analysis R.T. Haftka
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Derivatives-completed Derivatives completed
Using shape functins g p
| |
(

=
(
(
(
(

+ +
+ +
=
12 11 2 2
1 1
) 1 ( ) 1 ( ) 1 ( ) 1 (
) 1 ( ) 1 ( ) 1 ( ) 1 (
4
1
J J
J J
y x
y x
y x
J

q q q q
Then

(
(

+ +
22 21
4 4
3 3
) 1 ( ) 1 ( ) 1 ( ) 1 ( 4 J J
y x
y x
| | | |
(

= = I
)
`

I I
I I
=
)
`

11 21
12 22 1
22 21
12 11
1
,
,
,
,
J J
J J
J
J where
y
x
q

|
|
|
|

| | I

## University of Florida EML5526 Finite Element Analysis R.T. Haftka

9
Strain and stiffness matrices
Strains

(

u,
Strains
{ }

(
(
(
(

=
y
x
y
x
v
u
u
,
,
1 0 0 0
0 0 0 1
c
c
c
Where

(
(

y
x
xy
v
v
,
,
0 1 1 0

(
(
(
(

I I
I I
=

,
,
0 0
0 0
,
,
22 21
12 11
u
u
u
u
y
x

)
`

(
(

I I
I I

)
`

,
,
0 0
0 0
,
,
22 21
12 11
v
v
v
v
y
x
University of Florida EML5526 Finite Element Analysis R.T. Haftka
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Laboring to obtain B matrix
Finally expressed in terms of nodal displacements
1, 2, 3, 4,
, 0 0 0 0 u N N N N

(
(
{ }
1, 2, 3, 4,
1*8 1, 2, 3, 4,
1, 2, 3, 4,
, 0 0 0 0
, 0 0 0 0
, 0 0 0 0
u N N N N
d
v N N N N
v N N N N
q q q q q

q q q q q
(

(
=
`
(

(

(
)
So B matrix obtained by multiplying these 3x4, 4x4 and
4x8 matrices
, , , , q q q q q
)
Stiffness matrix
| | | | | || | | | | || |
} } }}

= =
1
1
1
1
8 * 3 3 * 3 3 * 8 8 * 3 3 * 3 3 * 8 8 * 8
q d d J t B E B dy dx t E E B k
T
T
University of Florida EML5526 Finite Element Analysis R.T. Haftka