( (
( (
( = =
` ` `
( (
University of Florida EML5526 Finite Element Analysis R.T. Haftka
2 2 2
3 3 3
1 1 1 1 1 1 x a x
` ` `
( (
( (
) ) )
3
Interpolation functions Interpolation functions
1 2
3
1 2
3
T
T
x N x x x
u N u u u
=
( (
=
( (
1 2
3
( (
(
( ) ( )
2 2 2
1 1
1
2 2
N
(
= + +
(
(
University of Florida EML5526 Finite Element Analysis R.T. Haftka
4
Strains and stiffness matrix
Because of coordinate transformation taking derivatives Because of coordinate transformation taking derivatives
is more complicated
d d d
h
u
N
d du
`



1
Jacobian
c
d
d
dx
d
dx
d
where
u
u N
dx
d
dx
du
x
=

.

\

= =
3
2
1 1
x x
Hence strain matrix
( ) ( )
1 1
2 2
3 3
1 1
1 2 2 1 2
2 2
x x
dx d
J N x x
d d
x x
(
= = = + +
(
` `
(
) )
Hence strain matrix
( ) ( )
1 1 1 1
1 2 2 1 2
2 2
d
B N
J d J
(
= = + +
( (
(
And stiffness matrix
Jd B AE B Ad B E B k
T
L
T
} }
1
University of Florida EML5526 Finite Element Analysis R.T. Haftka
Jd B AE B Adx B E B k
} }
= =
1 0
5
6.2: Bilinear quadrilateral
We were limited to rectangles because of compatibility
Now both displacement and coordinates are bilinear
functions of
How does that preserve compatibility?
and q
University of Florida EML5526 Finite Element Analysis R.T. Haftka
How does that preserve compatibility?
6
Interpolation
Mapping
 { }  { } d N
v N
u N
v
u
c N
y N
x N
y
x
i i i i
=
)
`
=
)
`
=
)
`
=
)
`
&
v N v y N y
i i i i
)
)
)
)
{ }
=
4 4 3 3 2 2 1 1
y x y x y x y x c
T
{ }
 
(
(
=
=
4 3 2 1
4 4 3 3 2 2 1 1
0 0 0 0 N N N N
N
v u v u v u v u d
T
Interpolation functions
 
(
=
4 3 2 1
0 0 0 0 N N N N
N
1 1
) 1 )( 1 (
1
) 1 )( 1 (
1
) 1 )( 1 (
4
1
) 1 )( 1 (
4
1
2 1
q q + = =
N N
N N
University of Florida EML5526 Finite Element Analysis R.T. Haftka
) 1 )( 1 (
4
) 1 )( 1 (
4
4 3
q q + = + + = N N
7
Derivatives
Chain rule of differentiation
c c
+
c c
=
c y x   
 
)
`
=
)
`
c
c
c
c
+
c
c
c
c
=
c
c
c c
+
c c
=
c
y
x
J or
y x
y x
,
,
,
,




  
q
Jacobian
c c c c c y x q q q
Jacobian
 
(
(
=
(
(
=
i i i i
y N x N
y x
J
, ,
, ,
 
(
=
(
=
i i i i
y N x N
y x
J
q q
q q
, ,
, ,
University of Florida EML5526 Finite Element Analysis R.T. Haftka
8
Derivativescompleted Derivatives completed
Using shape functins g p
 
(
=
(
(
(
(
+ +
+ +
=
12 11 2 2
1 1
) 1 ( ) 1 ( ) 1 ( ) 1 (
) 1 ( ) 1 ( ) 1 ( ) 1 (
4
1
J J
J J
y x
y x
y x
J
q q q q
Then
(
(
+ +
22 21
4 4
3 3
) 1 ( ) 1 ( ) 1 ( ) 1 ( 4 J J
y x
y x
   
(
= = I
)
`
I I
I I
=
)
`
11 21
12 22 1
22 21
12 11
1
,
,
,
,
J J
J J
J
J where
y
x
q




  I
(
(
(
(
=
y
x
y
x
v
u
u
,
,
1 0 0 0
0 0 0 1
c
c
c
Where
(
(
y
x
xy
v
v
,
,
0 1 1 0
(
(
(
(
I I
I I
=
,
,
0 0
0 0
,
,
22 21
12 11
u
u
u
u
y
x
)
`
(
(
I I
I I
)
`
,
,
0 0
0 0
,
,
22 21
12 11
v
v
v
v
y
x
University of Florida EML5526 Finite Element Analysis R.T. Haftka
10
Laboring to obtain B matrix
Finally expressed in terms of nodal displacements
1, 2, 3, 4,
, 0 0 0 0 u N N N N
(
(
{ }
1, 2, 3, 4,
1*8 1, 2, 3, 4,
1, 2, 3, 4,
, 0 0 0 0
, 0 0 0 0
, 0 0 0 0
u N N N N
d
v N N N N
v N N N N
q q q q q
q q q q q
(
(
=
`
(
(
(
)
So B matrix obtained by multiplying these 3x4, 4x4 and
4x8 matrices
, , , , q q q q q
)
Stiffness matrix
           
} } }}
= =
1
1
1
1
8 * 3 3 * 3 3 * 8 8 * 3 3 * 3 3 * 8 8 * 8
q d d J t B E B dy dx t E E B k
T
T
University of Florida EML5526 Finite Element Analysis R.T. Haftka