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Computer-Aided Analyses of Vehicle Structures ()

Chapter 6: Transient dynamics and ANSYS LS-DYNA 6-1. Introduction


Thomas Jin-Chee Liu () Department of Mechanical Engineering Ming Chi University of Technology Taiwan Feb. 2009
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References:
, . ANSYS. , , 2006. ANSYS training materials ANSYS/LS-DYNA. (). Training Manual Explicit Dynamics with ANSYS LS-DYNA. (ANSYS, Inc.) ANSYS on-line help. , , . ANSYS/LS-DYNA 8.1. , , 2004.

(Taiwan Auto-Design Company)ANSYS LS-DYNA


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Transient dynamics

Time-dependent Dynamics Inertia effects


ANSYS2006 11

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Transient dynamics (cont.)

Equations of motion

Transient dynamics (time-domain) analysis Frequency-domain vibration analysis Static analysis

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Transient dynamics (cont.)


Ford Crown Victoria

Crash simulation. Courtesy of S.W. Kirkpatrick, Applied Research Associates, Inc. http://www.arasvo.com/crown_victoria/crown_vic.htm Department of Mechanical Engineering, Ming Chi University of Technology

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Direct integration
(direct integration) (explicit method)(implicit method) ANSYS MultiphysicsANSYS MechanicalANSYS Structural(1) ANSYS LS-DYNA(1)LS-DYNA

: ANSYS2006 11 p. 509.
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Linear and nonlinear


9.65

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Nonlinear
(geometry nonlinearity) (material nonlinearity) (contact analysis)

Ref: ANSYS training materials ANSYS LS-DYNA (ANSYS, Inc.)


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Implicit vs. explicit


11.1 (Reproduced with permission from ANSYS, Inc.)

,
Ref: ANSYS training materials ANSYS LS-DYNA (ANSYS, Inc.)
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Implicit vs. explicit (cont.)


Implicit Time Integration: Average acceleration - displacements evaluated at time t+t:

{ut + t } = [K ]1 {Ft a t } +
Linear Problems: Unconditionally stable when [K] is linear Large time steps can be taken Nonlinear Problems: Solution obtained using a series of linear approximations (Newton-Raphson) Requires inversion of nonlinear stiffness matrix [K] Small iterative time steps are required to achieve convergence Convergence is not guaranteed for highly nonlinear problems
Ref: ANSYS training materials ANSYS LS-DYNA (ANSYS, Inc.)
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Implicit vs. explicit (cont.)


Explicit Time Integration Central difference method used - accelerations evaluated at time t: where

{a t } = [M ]1 ([Ftext ] [Ftint ])
{Ftext} is the applied external and body force vector, {Ftint} is the internal force vector which is given by:

F int = BT n d + F hg + F contact
Fhg is the hourglass resistance force and Fcont is the contact force. The velocities and displacements are then evaluated:

{vt + t / 2 } = {vt t / 2 } + {at }t t {ut + t } = {ut } + {vt + t / 2 }t t + t / 2

Ref: ANSYS training materials ANSYS LS-DYNA (ANSYS, Inc.)


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Implicit vs. explicit (cont.)


Explicit Time Integration (continued): The geometry is updated by adding the displacement increments to the initial geometry {xo}:

{xt + t } = {xo } + {ut + t }


Nonlinear problems: Lumped mass matrix required for simple inversion Equations become uncoupled and can be solved for directly (explicitly) No inversion of stiffness matrix is required. All nonlinearities (including contact) are included in the internal force vector. Major computational expense is in calculating the internal forces. No convergence checks are needed Very small time steps are required to maintain stability limit (10-6 sec)

Ref: ANSYS training materials ANSYS LS-DYNA (ANSYS, Inc.)


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Implicit vs. explicit (cont.)

Ref: ANSYS training materials ANSYS LS-DYNA (ANSYS, Inc.)


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This course
We use ANSYS LS-DYNA.
ANSYS LS-DYNA combines the LS-DYNA explicit finite element program with the powerful pre- and postprocessing capabilities of the ANSYS program. The explicit method of solution used by LS-DYNA provides fast solutions for short-time, large deformation dynamics, quasi-static problems with large deformations and multiple nonlinearites, and complex contact/impact problems. Using this integrated product, you can model your structure in ANSYS, obtain the explicit dynamic solution via LS-DYNA, and review results using the standard ANSYS postprocessing tools. You can also transfer geometry and results information between ANSYS and ANSYS LS-DYNA to perform sequential implicit-explicit / explicit-implicit analyses, such as those required for droptest, springback and other applications.
(ANSYS on-line help)
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ANSYS LS-DYNA
Crashworthiness analysis ANSYS LS-DYNA well suited to wave propagation applications: Full car crash Car component analyses Nonlinear impact problems

Ref: ANSYS training materials ANSYS LS-DYNA (ANSYS, Inc.)


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ANSYS LS-DYNA (cont.)

crashworthiness analysis
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ANSYS, Inc.
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ANSYS LS-DYNA (cont.)


drop simulation

ANSYS, Inc.
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ANSYS LS-DYNA (cont.)


impact problem

ANSYS, Inc.
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ANSYS LS-DYNA (cont.)

deep drawing

ANSYS, Inc.
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LSTC LS-DYNA
Headquartered in Livermore, California, Livermore Software Technology Corporation (LSTC) develops LS-DYNA and a suite of related and supporting engineering software products. LSTC was founded in 1987 by John O. Hallquist to commercialize as LS-DYNA the public domain code that originated as DYNA3D. DYNA3D was developed at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, by LSTCs founder, John O. Hallquist. http://www.lstc.com ANSYS LS-DYNA is the result of a collaborative effort between ANSYS, Inc. and Livermore Software Technology Corporation.

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Using ANSYS LS-DYNA

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Get into ANSYS LS-DYNA (ANSYS ED 8.0)

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Get into ANSYS LS-DYNA (ANSYS ED 8.0) (cont.)

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Get into ANSYS LS-DYNA (ANSYS Univ.10.0)

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Get into ANSYS LS-DYNA (ANSYS Univ. 10.0) (cont.)

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On-line help

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Limitation
ANSYS ED 8.0, 9.0 - limited ANSYS LS-DYNA (University 10.0) - unlimited

www.ansys.com
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Element types
LINK160 : 3D truss member (axially loaded) BEAM161 : 3D frame (beam) PLANE162 : 2D plane stress, plane strain, axisymmetry SHELL163 : 3D shell (thin shell) SOLID164 : 3D solid (brick element) COMBI165 : 3D spring-damper MASS166 : 3D mass

These elements assume a linear displacement function; higher order elements with a quadratic displacement function are not available. Therefore, the explicit dynamic elements are not available with extra shape functions, midside nodes, or p-elements. Explicit elements with linear displacement functions and one point integration are best suited for nonlinear applications with large deformations and material failure.
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Element types (cont.)

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Element types (cont.)


Three nodes are used to define the element. The 3rd node is for the initial orientation of the beam. Several standard beam cross sections can be defined.

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Element types (cont.)

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Element types (cont.)

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Element types (cont.)

8 (2x2x2) points integration


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SOLID168 element
SOLID168 : 3D 10-node tet solid element
5 points integration

SOLID168 element is a higher order 3-D, 10-node explicit dynamic element. SOLID168 has a quadratic displacement behavior and is well suited to modeling irregular meshes such as those produced from various CAD/CAM systems. SOLID168 can be used with the existing ANSYS Workbench. The element is defined by ten nodes having three degrees of freedom at each node: translations in the nodal x, y, and z directions. Models made up entirely of SOLID168 elements may not be as accurate as hexahedral SOLID164 models.

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Element formulation
element formulations , key options , , . ANSYS LS-DYNA , (reduced integration), . SOLID164 :

reduced integration (constant stress)

fully integration (linear stress, but shear locking and volumetric locking)
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Element formulation (cont.)


SHELL163 :
KEYOPT(1) Element formulation: 1 -- Hughes-Liu 0, 2 -- Belytschko-Tsay (default) 3 -- BCIZ triangular shell 4 -- C0 trianglar shell 5 -- Belytschko-Tsay membrane 6 -- S/R Hughes-Liu 7 -- S/R corotational Hughes-Liu 8 -- Belytschko-Levithan shell 9 -- Fully integrated Belytschko-Tsay membrane 10 -- Belytschko-Wong-Chiang 11 -- Fast (corotational) Hughes-Liu 12 -- Fully integrated Belytschko-Tsay shell

reduced integration

reduced integration

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Reduced integration
ANSYS LS-DYNA , (reduced integration)
4-node plane element (low order)

2x2

Gaussian point node

Reduced integration saves CPU time by minimizing element processing. Therefore, this is the default formulation used in ANSYS LS-DYNA
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Reduced integration (cont.)


(reduced integration)

8-node brick element (low order)

2x2x2

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Hourglassing
zero-energy mode () hourglassing (), . Hourglassing,.

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Hourglassing (cont.)

?!
Ref: ANSYS training materials ANSYS LS-DYNA (ANSYS, Inc.)

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Hourglassing (cont.)
Hourglassing is a zero-energy mode of deformation that oscillates at a frequency much higher than the structures global response. Hourglassing modes result in stable mathematical states that are not physically possible. They typically have no stiffness and give a zigzag deformation appearance to a mesh. Single-point (reduced) integration elements are prone to zero energy modes. The occurrence of hourglass deformations in an analysis can invalidate results and should always be minimized or eliminated. If the overall hourglass energy is more than 10% of the internal energy of a model, there is likely a problem with the analysis. Even 5% can be considered excessive, in some cases.

Ref: ANSYS training materials ANSYS LS-DYNA (ANSYS, Inc.)

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Hourglassing control
Minimizing hourglassing in ANSYS LS-DYNA (A) Avoid single point loads, which are known to excite hourglass modes. Since one excited element transfers the mode to its neighbors, point loads should not be applied. Try to apply loads over several elements as pressures, if possible. (, ) (B) Refining the mesh often reduces hourglass energy, but a larger model corresponds to increased solution time and larger results files. (mesh) (C) Use fully integrated elements, which do not experience hourglassing modes. However, penalties in solution speed, robustness, and even accuracy may result, depending on the application. Full integration is not available for PLANE162 elements and beam elements do not require it. ()

Ref: ANSYS training materials ANSYS LS-DYNA (ANSYS, Inc.)

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Hourglassing control (cont.)


Minimizing hourglassing in ANSYS LS-DYNA (continued) (D) Globally adjust the models bulk viscosity to reduce hourglass deformations. It is possible to increase the bulk viscosity of a model using the linear and quadratic coefficients of the EDBVIS command. () Solution > Analysis Options > Bulk Viscosity Viscous hourglass control is recommended for problems deforming with very high velocities (e.g., shock waves). Applicable elements include PLANE162 and SOLID164.

It is not recommended to dramatically change the default values (1.5 and 0.06) of the EDBVIS command.

Ref: ANSYS training materials ANSYS LS-DYNA (ANSYS, Inc.)

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Hourglassing control (cont.)


Minimizing hourglassing in ANSYS LS-DYNA (continued) (E) Globally add elastic stiffness to reduce hourglass energy. This can be done for the entire model by increasing the hourglassing coefficient (HGCO) of the EDHGLS command. () Solution > Analysis Options > Hourglass Ctrls > Global Stiffness hourglass control is recommended for problems deforming with lower velocities (e.g., metal forming and crash). Applicable elements include PLANE162, SHELL163, and SOLID164. Care should be used when increasing the hourglassing coefficient. Values above 0.15 have been found to over-stiffen the models response during large deformations and cause instabilities.
Ref: ANSYS training materials ANSYS LS-DYNA (ANSYS, Inc.)

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Hourglassing control (cont.)


Minimizing hourglassing in ANSYS LS-DYNA (continued) (F) Locally reduce hourglassing in high risk areas of a model without dramatically changing the models global stiffness. The EDMP, HGLS command is used to apply hourglass control only to a specific material. Define the hourglass control type (viscous or stiffness), hourglass coefficient, bulk viscosity coefficient, and shell bending and shell warping coefficients. (hourglassing) Solution > Analysis Options > Hourglass Ctrls > Local LS-DYNA locally applies hourglass control on a Part ID basis (not on a material basis), so any Part with the specified material will have this hourglass control. VAL1=5 is often used to reduce hourglassing.
Ref: ANSYS training materials ANSYS LS-DYNA (ANSYS, Inc.)

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ANSYS LS-DYNA
Explicit elements with linear displacement functions and one point integration Minimizing hourglassing

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Real constants

LINK160 : cross-sectional area BEAM161 : cross-sectional data PLANE162 : none SHELL163 : thickness data SOLID164 : none

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Material models
* (elastic) * (elasto-plastic) (ductile materials)

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Material models (cont.)

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Material models (cont.)

Popov

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Material models (cont.)


E.P. Popov, Engineering Mechanics of Solids. New Jersey: Prentice Hall, 1990.

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Material models (cont.)

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Material models (cont.)

strain hardening

(a)

(b)
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Material models (cont.)

(a)

(b)(1 2 3 )
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Material models (cont.)


strain hardening

(a) isotropic hardening

(b) kinematic hardening

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Material models (cont.)

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Material models (cont.)


Time-independent plasticity (rate-independent) Time-dependent plasticity (rate-dependent)

E.P. Popov, Engineering Mechanics of Solids. New Jersey: Prentice Hall, 1990.

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Material models (cont.)


ANSYS LS-DYNA :

Elastic Isotropic Orthotropic Anisotropic Fluid Nonlinear Elastic Blatz-Ko rubber Mooney-Rivlin rubber Viscoelastic

Elastoplastic Elastic-plastic hydrodynamic Bamman rate-dependent Zerilli-Armstrong rate-dependent Bilinear isotropic Bilinear kinematic Plastic kinematic Powerlaw plasticity Strain rate-dependent plasticity Rate-sensitive powerlaw plasticity Three-parameter Barlat Barlat anisotropic plasticity Piece-wise linear plasticity Transversely anisotropic elastic plastic
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Material models (cont.)


Foam Closed-cell Low-density Viscous Crushable Honeycomb Damage Composite Concrete Equations of State Johnson-Cook Null Others Rigid Cable Geologic Cap

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Material models (cont.)


Elastoplastic model
bilinear bilinear

(a)-(b) (c)(d)
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Material models (cont.)

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Material models (cont.)


Elastic

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Material models (cont.)


Bi-linear elastoplastic model

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Parts and contact

Part 2 Part 1

Part 2 Part 1 contact


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Parts and contact (cont.)

Part 2

Part 1

contact

Ref: ANSYS training materials ANSYS LS-DYNA (ANSYS, Inc.) Ch 6 65 /87

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Parts and contact (cont.)

Ref: ANSYS training materials ANSYS LS-DYNA (ANSYS, Inc.) Ch 6 66 /87

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Parts and contact (cont.)

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Parts and contact (cont.)


Edge contact is needed when the shell surface normals are orthogonal to the impact direction. Shell edge (SE) contact selects all shell edges automatically.

SE contact is also included in automatic general (AG) contact.

Ref: ANSYS training materials ANSYS LS-DYNA (ANSYS, Inc.)


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Parts and contact (cont.)


Contact types
Single Surface General (Basic) Automatic Rigid Tied Tied with Failure Eroding Edge Drawbead Forming Two-Dimenional ASS2D ESS SE DRAWBEAD FNTS FSTS, FOSS SS ASSC, AG Nodes to Surface NTS ANTS RNTR TDNS TNTS ENTS Surface to Surface STS, OSTS ASTS ROTR TDSS, TSES TSTS ESTS

Ref: ANSYS training materials ANSYS LS-DYNA (ANSYS, Inc.)


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Parts and contact (cont.)


Define parts

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Parts and contact (cont.)


Define contact

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Rigid body
Rigid body Rigid body
deep drawing

contact Rigid bodies

Rigid body

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Rigid body (cont.)

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Initial velocity

V0 Part 2 Part 1

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Initial velocity (cont.)

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Constraints
GUI : Solution > Constraints > Apply > On Nodes (etc.)

The D command can only be used to apply zero displacements (both translational and rotational) to nodes.

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Loading
Unlike an implicit static analysis, an explicit dynamic analysis must have all loads applied as a function of time. The load step concept of general ANSYS does not apply.

FORCE

There is a unique procedure for applying loads in an explicit dynamic analysis using two array parameters. One array is for the time values and the other array is for the loading condition. Damping is used to reduce unwanted dynamic response from the loading.

TIME Because of the time dependence, many standard ANSYS loading commands (e.g., F and SF) are not valid in ANSYS LS-DYNA.
Ref: ANSYS training materials ANSYS LS-DYNA (ANSYS, Inc.)
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Loading (cont.)
y x
end-node (node no. 26)

F(t) APDL
nsel,26,node,... cm, end-node ,node nsel,all

F(t)
100 85 85

*dim,time,,4 *dim,yforce,,4 time(1) = 0, 0.1, 0.25, 0.35 yforce(1) = 0, 85, 85, 100 edload,add, FY, , end-node ,time, yforce

0.1

0.25 0.35

t
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Gravitational acceleration
g(t)
9.81

g=9.81 y x
APDL
nsel, (nodes) cm, ball ,node nsel,all

g=9.81

*dim,time,,2 *dim,grav,,2 time(1) = 0, 2 grav(1) = 9.81, 9.81 edload, add, ACLY, , ball ,time, grav

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Gravitational acceleration (cont.)

nsel,

(nodes)

nsel,

(nodes)

cm, ball ,node nsel,all *dim,time,,2 *dim,grav,,2 time(1) = 0, 2 grav(1) = 9.81, 9.81 edload, add, ACLY, , ball ,time, grav

cm, ball ,node nsel,all *dim,time,,2 *dim,grav,,2 time(1) = 0, 2 grav(1) = -9.81, -9.81 edload, add, AY, , ball ,time, grav

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Gravitational acceleration (cont.)

*dim,time,,2 *dim,grav,,2 time(1) = 0, 2 grav(1) = 9.81, 9.81

*dim,time, array,2,1,1 *dim,grav, array,2,1,1

*SET, time(1,1,1) , 0 *SET, time(2,1,1) , 2 *SET, grav(1,1,1) , 9.81 *SET, grav(2,1,1) , 9.81

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Damping
Damping is needed to minimize unrealistic oscillations in the response of a structure during a transient dynamic analysis. Both mass-weighted (alpha) and stiffness-weighted (beta) damping can be applied in ANSYS LS-DYNA using the EDDAMP command: Preprocessor > Material Props > Damping ... OR a constant damping coefficient

Ref: ANSYS training materials ANSYS LS-DYNA (ANSYS, Inc.)


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Damping (cont.)

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Time step
ANSYS LS-DYNA checks all elements when calculating the required time step. For stability reasons a scale factor of 0.9 (default) is used to decrease the time step: t = 0.9 l c The characteristic length l and the wave propagation velocity c are dependent on element type: Beam Elements: Shell Elements:
l = length of the element c= E

(solid elements)

l=

A 2A , for triangular shells: l= max (L1,L 2 ,L3,L 4 ) max (L1,L 2 ,L3 ) E (1- 2 )
L4 L1 L3 A L2

c=

Ref: ANSYS training materials ANSYS LS-DYNA (ANSYS, Inc.)


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Time step (cont.)


Note: The critical time step size is automatically calculated by LSDYNA. It depends on element lengths and material properties (sonic speed). It rarely needs to be over-ridden by the user. 10-6 sec is typical.

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Files
ANSYS /PREP7 Preprocessing (database) Creates Jobname.DB -mesh, materials, loads, etc. Restart file (d3dump) written at frequency specified by EDDUMP. ANSYS /SOLU LS-DYNA solver task Writes and submits Jobname.K - standard LS-DYNA ASCII input file EDSTART continues analysis from specified d3dump (restart) file.

ANSYS /POST1 General postprocessing Reads Jobname.RST - general binary result data EDRST,Freq

LS-POST (phase 3) & ANSYS /POST26 Postprocess ASCII output files - GLSTAT, MATSUM, SPCFORC, etc. EDOUT,File and EDREAD, ,File

LS-POST (phase 1) Postprocess binary files - d3plot Similar to Jobname.RST EDRST,Freq

ANSYS /POST26 Time history postprocessing Reads Jobname.HIS - selective binary results data EDHIST,Comp and EDHTIME,Freq

LS-POST (phase 2) Postprocess time history binary results files - d3thdt Similar to Jobname.HIS EDHIST,Comp and EDHTIME,Freq

Ref: ANSYS training materials ANSYS LS-DYNA (ANSYS, Inc.)


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Impact Mechanics
: Impact Mechanics. : , . . . , . . LS-DYNA, error.

http://911review.com/coverup/nist.html

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