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CERVICAL CANCER The cervix is another name for the neck of the womb.

The womb and cervix are part of a woman's reproductive system, which is made up of the vagina, womb (including the cervix), and ovaries. There are two ovaries, one on each side of the body. The ovaries produce an egg each month in fertile women. Women are fertile between puberty (when periods start) and the menopause (or change of life, when the periods stop). Each ovary is connected to the womb by a tube called the Fallopian tube. In the middle of each menstrual cycle (mid way between periods), an egg travels down one of the Fallopian tubes and into the womb. The lining of the womb gets thicker and thicker, ready to receive the fertilised egg. If this egg is not fertilised by a man's sperm, the thickened lining of the womb is shed, as a period. Then the whole cycle begins again. Almost 3,400 women are diagnosed with cervical cancer in the UK each year. Overall, 2 out of every 100 cancers diagnosed in women (2%) are cervical cancers. But it is the most common cancer in women under 35 years old. Around 4 million women are invited for cervical screening each year in England. About 3 out of every 200 women screened have a high grade abnormality. Early treatment can prevent these cervical changes developing into cancer. Anything that increases your risk of getting a disease is called a risk factor. Different cancers have different risk factors. Human papilloma virus (HPV) is the major cause of the main types of cervical cancer squamous cell cancer and adenocarcinoma. There are over 100 different types of human papilloma virus (HPV). Up to 8 out of 10 people in the UK are infected with the HPV virus at some time during their lifetime. But for most people the virus causes no harm and goes away without treatment. Almost all women who get cervical cancer have had past infections with HPV. As some types of HPV are passed on from one person to another through sexual contact (including non penetrative sexual activity) this has led to women's sexual behavior being seen as a risk factor for cervical cancer. But, on the other hand, most women infected with these viruses do not develop cervical cancer. So other factors must also be needed. Vaccines to prevent HPV infection have now been licensed for use in the European Union. All girls aged 12 or 13 in the UK are now routinely offered the HPV vaccine at school. These vaccines protect against the strains of HPV that are most likely to cause cervical cancer. But they do not protect against all strains. As it takes between 10 and 20 years for a cervical cancer to develop after HPV infection, it is still important for women to carry on with cervical cancer screening. It will take some years before the introduction of the vaccine has a major effect

on reducing the number of cases of cervical cancer. The cervical screening programme is continuing as before. Smoking is more likely to develop squamous cell cervical cancer. Researchers have found cancer causing chemicals (benzyrene) from cigarette smoke in the cervical mucus of women who smoke. They think that these chemicals damage the cervix. There are cells in the lining of the cervix called Langerhans cells that specifically help fight against disease. These cells do not work so well in smokers. If you have a high risk type of HPV infection and smoke, you are twice as likely to have pre cancerous cells in your cervical screening test, or to get cervical cancer. The Langerhans cells are less able to fight off the virus and protect the cervical cells from the genetic changes that can lead to cancer. If you have a weakened immune system, then your risk of many cancers, including cervical cancer, is higher than average. People with HIV and AIDS, or people taking drugs to suppress their immune systems after an organ transplant, are more at risk of developing cervical cancer if they also have HPV infection. This is because a healthy immune system normally protects you from cells that have become abnormal. Your immune system will kill off the cells and so prevent them from becoming cancerous. There is no evidence at all to say that pregnancy increases the risk of cervical cancer. Abnormalities in the cervix may become more visible during pregnancy and so be more likely to be diagnosed. Some women may have a screening test when they are pregnant. Women who are not up to date with their cervical screening are more likely to be offered a test when they go to the doctor because of their pregnancy. This screening might lead to women being diagnosed with pre cancerous changes or cervical cancer while they are pregnant. But this does not mean that the pregnancy caused the cancer just that this is when it was picked up.

A. Synonyms 1. Diagnosed 2. Common 3. Treatment 4. Developing 5. Major 6. Licensed 7. Routinely 8. Damage 9. Specifically 10. Evidence

: Identify : Usual, Familiar : Cure, Handling : Evolving : Main : Signed : Continuous : Hazard, Risk : Particularly : Proof

: Didiagnosa, Diidentifikasi : Umum, Sering Dijumpai : Perawatan, Pengobatan : Berkembang : Utama : Tercatat, Terdaftar : Secara Rutin, Terus-Menerus : Bahaya : Spesifik, Khusus : Bukti

B. Questions 1. What does the text tell about? Cervical Cancer 2. Almost 3,400 women are diagnosed with cervical cancer. What does the bolded word mean? Identify 3. What is the major cause of Cervical Cancer? Because of Human Papiloma Virus 4. How HPV is spreaded from one person to another person? Through sexual contact 5. 8 out of 10 people in the UK are infected with the HPV virus What is the meaning? 80% people in UK are infected with that virus 6. Who have offered the vaccine of the HPV at school in UK The 12-13 years old girls 7. They think that these chemicals damage the cervix. What the bolded word refers to? The Researchers 8. These cells do not work so well in smokers. What that cells refers to? Langerhans Cells 9. There is no evidence at all to say that pregnancy. What does the bolded word mean? Prove 10. What is the purpose of that text? To inform generally about Cervical cancer