September 1990

}. R. Wait
Antenna Performance
Influenced by the
Finite Extent and
Conductivity of
Ground Planes:
A Collection of
Reprints by
J. R. Wait, et ale
MARO 41991 .
Approved for public release;
distribution unlimited.

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-May 2011

September 1990
J. R. Wait
DEPT. 085
Approvt'd for public release;
distribution unlimited.
The MITRE Corporation
Bedford, MauaChuMttI
Antenna Performance
Influenced by the
Finite Extent and
Conductivity of
Ground Planes:
A Collection of
Reprints by
J. R. Wait, et ale
Project 91260 "High-Frequency (HF) Antenna Element Modeling" is a MITRE sponsored
research project to develop computer programs and accurate models for predicting the element
pattern, radiation efficiency, and input impedance of HF monopole elements on ground planes of
varioUs forms that rest on or are in close proximity to earth. Aunique aspect of this project has
been the use of a technical advisor group composed of outside interested investiyators to assist
MITRE personnel in the development and evaluation of analytical models.
As a mermer of this group, Dr. Jame. R. Wait has assembled a collection of twenty-two
reprints, authored by himself and his colleagues, on antenna performance influenced by the finite
extent and conductivity of ground planes primarily in the presence of earth. The objective of this
collection is to provide afocus and filter of relevant papers from among the more than 750
refereed papers by Wait and his associates; this paper presents this collection. Also included are
Dr. Wait's discussions of U.S. Navy Electronics Laboratory reports related to reprint 1.11 (Wait and
Walters, 1963) and an annotated listing of selected related publications. Abiography of Wait and
a complete listing of his refereed papers through April 1990 are given in appendices.
Accesion For
- -.. -.. .. - .. .
. _..
Oi, t';0' ,'tia :T ..
. .---.-'.-----4
):;:ty Co:ics
The perfonnance of an antenna is dependent on the environment. In some cases the
effect is minor but very often we need to worry about the structure upon which the antenna is
mounted. It becomes part of the radiating structure! For example, if the system consists of a
vertical wire fed from a perfectly conducting plane sheet of infinite extent, simple image theory
would suffice to predict the radiation pattem and the input impedance. But the ground plane may
be imperfectly conducting and it would always be of limited extent. Over the years, I have had an
abiding interest in this problem, particularly in connection with the design of very low frequency
(VLF), low frequency (LF), mediumfrequency (MF), and HF antennas in situations where the
influence of the finitely conducting earth is significant. In such cases, radial-wire or mesh ground
systems are often employed to mitigate the adverse effect of poorly conducting earth in the low
angle radiation and to improve the overall power efficiency.
My publications, including those coauthored with my colleagues dealing with the topic, are
scattered over many journals, reports and symposia proceedings. Some of these are no longer
accessible. For this reason and because I have received numerous requests to supply copies, I
have felt it is desirable to assemble some of the relevant material in a reprint collection. I have
taken the opportunity to correct typographical errors in of the papers. Also I have added some
extracts from related reports, particularly those from the U.S. Navy"s Ocean System Center in San
Diego where I often visited in the 19605. Finally, I have included a listing of related papers,
pubUshed in the open literature, along with specific comments.
I wish to thank Melvin M. Weiner of The MITRE Corporation In Bedford, MA for getting me to
assemble this collection. I am al$O grateful for his initial support. By way of introduction to this
subject, the reader should consult Melvin Weiner'S monograph, -Monopole Elements on Circular
Ground Planes: (coauthored by S. Cruze, C-C U. and W. Wilson) published by Artech House,
1987. Their analyses deal with the case where the monopole and circular disc are located in free
James R. Wait
Consultant in Electromagnetics
and Electrical Geophysics
2210 East Waverly
Tucson,Arizona 85719
M. M. Weiner, Principal Investigator of Project 91260, wrote the abstract, edited the
manuscript, and motivated the author to assemble the enclosed reprints.
1 Reprints 1-1
1.1 Wait, J. R., and W. J. SUrtees, May 1954, "Impedance of a 1-3
Top-loaded Antenna of Arbitrary length Over a Circular Grounded
SCreen, "Journal of Applied Physics, Vol. 25, pp. 553-556,
(Reprint No. 41)
1.2 Wait, J. R., and W. A. Pope, 954, "The Characteristics of a Vertical 1-7
Antenna with a Radial Conductor Ground System," Applied Scientific
Research, Vol. 4, Sec. B, pp. 1n-195, (The Hague), (Reprint No. 43)
1.3 Wait, J. R., and W. A. Pope, , May 1955, "Input Resistance of lF Unipole 1-27
Aerials," Wireless Engineer, Vol. 32, pp. 131-138, (Reprint No. 59)
1.4 Wait, J. R., April 1956, "Effect of the Ground Screen on the Field 1-37
Radiated from a Monopole," Institute ofRadio Engineers Transactions
onAntennas and Propagation, Vol. AP-4, pp. 179-182, (Reprint No. 70)
1.5 Frood, D. G., and J. R. Wait, Jan. 1956, "An Investigation of Slot 1-41
Radiators in Rectangular Metal Plates," Proceedings ofthe Institution of
Electrical Engineers, Vol. 103, pI. B, pp. 103-109, (Reprint No. 72)
1.6 Wait, J. R., and D. G. Frood, October 1956, "The Radiation Patterns 1-49
and Conductances of Slots Cut in Rectangular Metal Plates," Proceedings
of the Institute ofRadio Engineers,Vol. 44,1467, p.1467, (Reprint No. 85)
1.7 Wait, J. R., October 1957, "Pattern of a Flush-Mounted Microwave 1-51
Antenna," Journal ofResearch ofthe (U.S.) National Bureau ofStandards,
Vol. 59, pp. 255-259, (Reprint No. 107)
1.8 Wait, J. R., August 1958, "A Study of Earth Currents Near a VLF 1-57
Monopole Antenna with a Radial Wire Ground System," Proceedings of
the Institute ofRadio Engineers, Vol. 46, pp. 1539-1541, (Reprint No. 121)
1.9 Wait, J. R., and A. M. Conda, 1958, "The Patterns of a Slot-Array 1-61
Antenna on a Finite and Imperfect Ground Plane," L'Onde Electrique,
Supplement #376, pp. 21-30, (also 1957 Proceedings of the Congres
Inti. Antenna, Vol. 1, pp. 21-29, Paris,) (Reprint No. 128)
1.10 Wait, J. R., 1963, "The Theory of an Antenna Over an Inhomogeneous 1-71
Ground Plane," extracted from Electromagnetic Walle Theory, edited
by E. C. Jordan, pp. 1079-1097, Pergamon Press, Oxford (Reprint
No. 208)
1.11 Wait, J. R., and L. C. Walters, April 1963, "Influence of a Sector 1-91
Ground SCreen on the Field of a Vertical Antenna", U. S. National
BureauofStandords, Monograph 60, pp. 1-11, (Reprint No. 215)
1.12 Wait, J. R., 1967, "Pattern of a Unear Antenna Erected Over a 1-103
Tapered Ground Screen," Canadian Journal ofPhysics, Vol. 45,
pp. 3091-3101, (Reprint No. 327)
1.13 Wait, J. R., Sept. 1967. "On the Theolj of Radiation from a 1-115
Raised Electric Dipole Over an Inhomogeneous Ground Plane."
Radio Science. Vol. 2 (new series), pp. 997-1004, (Reprint
No. 330)
1.14 Wait, J. R., October 1969, "Impedance Characteristics of 1-125
Electric Dipoles Over a Conducting Half-Space, Radio Science,
Vol. 4, NO.1 O. pp. 971-975, (Reprint No. 388)
1.15 Wait, J. R., 30 October 1969, "Surface Wave Effects with Large 1-131
AntennaEarth Screens," Electronics Letters. Vol. 5, pp. 552-553,
(Reprint No. 389)
1.16 Wait. J. R., and K. P. Spies, 2 October 1969, "Fields of Electric 1-135
Dipole on Radially Inhomogeneous Ground Surface," Electronic
Letters, Vol. 5, pp, 478-479, (Reprint No. 394)
1.17 Wait, J. R., November 1969, "Transient Response of a Dipole 1-139
Over a Circular Ground Screen," IEEE Transactions on Antennas
and Propagation, Vol. AP-17. pp. 806-809, (Reprint No. 396)
1.18 Wait, J. R.. and K. P. Spies, January 1970, "Integral Equation 1-145
Approach to the Radiation from a Vertical Antenna Over an
Inhomogenous Ground Plane." Radio Science, Vol. 5, pp. 73-79,
(Reprint No. 397)
1.19 Wait, J. R., and K. P. Spies, July 1970, "On the Radiation from a 1-153
Vertical Dipole with an Inductive Wire-Grid Ground System," IEEE
Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, Vol. AP-18, pp. 558-560,
(and extended report version) AFCRL-69-0404, (Reprint No. 411)
1.20 Hill, D. A., and J. R. Wait, Jan. 1973, "Calculated Pattern of a Vertical 1-177
Antenna with a Finite Radial-Wire Ground System," Radio Science,
Vol. 8, pp. 81-86, (Preprint No. 488)
1.21 Hill, D. A., and J. R. Wait, March 1973, "Effect of Edge Reflections on 1-183
the Performance of Antenna Ground Screens," IEEE Transactions on
Antennas and Propagation, Vol. AP-21 , pp. 230-231, (Reprint No. 503)
1.22 Wait, J. R, September/OCtober 1980, "Low Angle Radiat:on of an 1-187
Antenna Over an Irregular Ground Plane," extracted from Alii
della Fondazione Giorgio Ronchi. Vol. 35, pp. 576-583, (Florence,
Italy), (Reprint No. 689)
Discussion of U.S. Navy Electronics Laboratory Reports Based on
Reprint 1.11
Annotated Usting of Selected Related Publications (1967-1989)
APPENDIX A Biography of James R Wait
APPENDIX B Complete Usting (to April 1990) of Refereed Papers of
lleS R Wait
Note: The reprint number in parentheses corresponds to that in the listing of refereed papers of
appendix B. The reprints in this section are assembled in the order of increasing reprint
1.1 Wait, J. R., and W. J. Surtees, May 1954, "Impedance of a Top-Loaded Antenna of
Arbitrary Length Over a Circular Grounded Screen," Journal ofApplied Physics, Vol. 25,
(Reprint No. 43)
Reprinted with the permission of the American Institute of Physics
Impedance of a Top-Loaded Antenna of Arbitrary Length
over a Circular Grounded Screen·
WALna J. SVUU" r.,....'•. T_. c.......
(Recrivcd 21. 195.1)
The 01 a verlical monnpnle .ilualed o\·,r " circular pnleclly CftftfluetinglCrem Irinl "" a finilel)'
.rnun,1 i. con.i<le,ed. An approsimllie _plo"ed oriIEinan)· 11)' Ahhott tn ,aleubte the
KIf.imped:Ulce i. discussed. Using this Inrmub e",,'icil are drri\-ed ler ",'.impedance "' a
thin. top-loaded Sinll'SOidal curmll distrihution is--.l.
" all.
,. az
aE, aE.
----;""'/11 ,
ap az
"'here ,. and , art the intrinsic propaption constant
and characteristic impedance of the medium, respec-
lively, and defined by
.,- [i,.w(,,+iwf»1
A subscript zero is affi.'lIed to these qu:anl it its in order
that the,' should pertain to the air. That is,
.,.-i(f.,.)""- i2..t>.,
'II'hert A is the free space wavelength in meters and
.'It- (../ •• ohms.
Following the method of Storer,' the difference he-
tween the impedance Z of the antenna over a finite
screen and the impedance Z, for an infinite screen is
denoted by 4Z and is given by
I1Z-Z-Z.- _-.!.- f' (4a)
.,,'1.'. p ap
In this equation HI' is lhe change of the magnetic field
n. for a finite screen from the mllJtl1etic field HI- for an
infinite screen. Thr current on the antenna is 1(a) and
the lJ.,se current is 1•. It then follows th:at
1 -
!It.Z= -- f. B
1.' ,
I iJ fa exp[-,.,(::+;)IJ
H.-(P,O)- --- 1(z)II:.
2.. iJp. (::+;)1
SUALLY the most important factor contributing
to the inefficiency of low.frequency antennas is
to be found in the ground s}"Stem. The ruin for ground
system design are usually empirical and b:astd on re·
suits of ellJlt!riments on existing installations. Recently.
the general problem has been investigated analytic:ally
by Abbott' who has developed a design procedure to
select the optimum number of radi:al conductors speci.
fied given the values of the electrical constants of the
An important related problem is the actual change of
input impedance of the antenna for different sizes of
ground systems. This analysis has been carried out for
a vertical antenna situ:zted centrally a
conducting disk by Leitner and Spence! and more
recentl}' by Storer.' They, hO\\'ever, only considered the
case when the surroundinlt medium was free space. A
more appropri:ate situation is when the disk is lying on
the surface of a homogeneous conducting
'II'hieh corresponds to the ground. It is not surprising
that the solution of this problem is in general very'
With reference to a cylindrical pol:u coonlin:II"
system (p,41,:) the antenna of heiRht " is coincident wilh
the positive z axis. The circular screen of radius a lies
in the plane:=0 which is also the surface of the ground.
The conductivity and dielectric constnnt of the Itfoun,1
nrc denoted by" nntl f. re51'C<"tively, "nd the dielectric
constant of the air by fo. The perme:tlJility of the whole
space is ,. whieh is t:aken to be the S3me as free space.
Due to the ob,'ious pol:ar symmetry in this problem,
Muwell's equations t:ake the following form for time
dependence according to exp(u.:/):
" iJ
) (J)
.., iJp
Tht m:agnetic field in the ground outside the screen
is a solution of the wave equation
...",... • (;) ': )....!... L
bf f }f
• P"per p,...,nted "I Joint In'.,national Scitnlific Radio Cnion-
Institute of Ra<lin Engin.... m"linK io Ottln. October 61h, 1953
1 F. R. Abboll, rroc. Insl Radio Enlf'" 40,846 (1952).
t A. L.itn.r Ind R. : .. Spfnct. ]. Appl. Ph}·s. 21. 1001 (1950)
•J. E. Storer. J Appl Ph)", 22. IOS8 (1951)
554 J. R. WAIT ..'Nil W. J. SURTEES
so that
Now the differential equation for J is liven by
where .,- (A'+.,.')I and the electric field is liven b)'

where II-,.';i- 2,.j).. The muimum currenl ampli·
tude is 1_, and the conditions at the upper end of the
anlenna specify a. For unterminated ends l(h)-O so
that a-If/r and then
1(:)-1, sin8(h-I:)/sin8h.
fnr 47. in F.q. (II) fir.ol Riven in form by
Abbott' ..ho quoted it wilhout I,mur hilt IlOinted out
thaI it ..:as a mlUlt. )..,Ier lIInnleath'
arrh'ed at this same formula from an eXlension or the
compens.'tion tMorem well known in cirnlit theory.
" better approximation to Eq. (III) might be to set
1I.CP,G)-lI.-CP.O)F{p). (12)
"'here F(p) is Sommerfeld's "surface \\,ave allenuation
factor" which is a function of the numerical distance p
"'hich for a good conducting ground (o'»ftoI) is given by
p- (,.p/A)(,..../O').
When p«1 it can be shown or seen from tabulated
numerical values' that F(p) is very close to unity.
Jf p> 1 the magnitude of F(p) drops appreciably belo'\"
unity. HO\\"ever. since H.- varies essentially as c-

and since F(p) is a slowly varying function the contri·
bution from the in Eq. (II) for the cases
"'here p> 1 are negligible. At .low \':ldia-rrequencies
« 1000 kc) and for moderate ground conductivities
(0'> II)-' mhos per meter) the IIp!lroximo'lle fomlula
l:i,"C'n by Eq. (II) is sullicienlly close to the formula in
Eq. (10) to justify its use.
Up to Ihis point no restriction has been placed on the
current on the antenna. For thin antennas
it can usually be assumed that
1(,)-1. (13)
In some instances at low frequencies it is customary to
Io.,d the anlenna near the 101' so that elTecli"el)'
l(h)P'O. It is convenient then to set
a-II(lI+h'), h' specifies the del:reC of top
Employinx the value of 1(,) gil'en by Eq. (13) anti
inserting it into Eq. (ok) the inlegntion with respect
to h can be carried aut to give
·l. c'" ro#,
H.-CP.O)-- -cos(ph-a)--cOStt
2,. p p
---SID ,
p ,
(II) " f- AZ-:::.- [ll.-CP,O)]2,.pdp.
I,' _.
"1- AZ- -: II.-(P,O)H.CP,O)2,.pdp.
I,' _.

ap p ap
and so it readily rollows that, for .-0
E.- -;1[-.,.JI (Ap)e·'p(A)M>.
+ [- (I/2oy)JI (Ap)e·'p(A)A'dA+·· ·1. (8)
The binomial expansion or II is of the form
11-,.(1+"':"+'" ).
and therefore
n.cp,,)- f- JI(Ap)e·'p('A)NlA, (6)
" a 1 a
E.- -"H.-- - --(PH,l
2-y' ap p ap
± terms containing ,...... (9)
The second term is neglil:ible ir the propagation constant
in the ground is sufficiently large and if pH. is not
varying too rapidly "'ith p. That is plI. should not
change appreciabl)' in a distance equal to 1,.-11 in the
radial direction ror points outside the screen. This
approximation is alwa)'s "'ell justified under practical
conditions at low radio.rrequencies.
Employing this result for E. the equation for the
sell-impedance is now given by
To apply this formula to an actual situation it can be
assumed that H• (p,O) is not very differeDt from lI.-CP,O)
in the region or the Rround plane where the losses are
significant, and thererore
An equivalent statement or this approximation is that
the electrical radio''' current density at the surrace of
the grountl is not apl.rccio',lIly affected II)' the (mile
conductivity of the soil. The approximate expression
, F. R. Abboll, 51andard Radial Ground Sr'lrm, 'or 1.1. and
m.f Transmillinc Anlrnnu. U. S. /IInr EIKlronics
1....or3'''''· (San 1MJo), Rrpnrl 219, Orl. 19.;lI
• G. n. F:1...1. .:n.... (I...n<l"n) rl.IV,
• E. A. Notion, Prot. Insl. Radio Enen. 24, 13(,7 (1936)
'.If'''· 611"0·
FIG. 1. The incremental IeIC·impedance 4Z for a "uartCf·...
monopole OYCf • circllbr ,rounded lCfeen.
where r- (p'+h')'. Using this value for 11.- the inte·
gration indicated in Eq. (11) can now be carried out
to yield

211' sin'a (-r
-It' sin'Ul/I-a)11+2ila coso •

-2 cosUlh-a) cosol.- 2ilasii\1
XcosCIJh-a)l,J. (IS)
where I .. I •• I.·· ·1. are integrals which can be ell-
pressed in terms of the exponential integral
Ei(-mN>--! -tis
• s
as follows:
-rIO'. I
/ 1- -;-dp",,-;;E.(-2i/J,,)
_. rep II'
--lr""Ei[- li/J(,,-la»
• r li,,, 1
I,. r -tlp--{E{-ZiP(,,+lrfY'"
J_.,P 2h
• ri't...,) 1
I,-f -dp--Ic'''/:i[-itle,,+I)Jr]
_,p II
-r·Il.... ·'
1.- -dp-Ei(-itfhf)
- p
-Ei(-ifje,,+ l)hJe;f'-Ei(-iae,,-I)h]r'"
1.- -tlp- -41£i(-2i/J(,,+h»)eiU.
_. p
+Ei(- 2i/J(,,-Ir)]rU'1
'.- (0:+11')' and f- [.+(.'+11')1]-.
The exponential integrals occurrinlt in Ihe abnve ex-
all of im.'ll:inaf)· !Ill therefore they
("311 he eSllrcs..qo,I in terms of the sine and cMine in-
tejtrals, Si(z) and Ci(z). respectively, as follows
f:i( -iXl -Ci(Z)+lli-Si(X)1
When the antenna is not terminated such that
Jr' - 0 or a- air the expression for 6Z simplifics to
"-[I-:i[ -lid('.+lrly····
+4 cMIJItIF.i(-i8ht)-I-:i[-idh(r+I)y'"
-1':;(-itJlaCe-I)]r""l (16)
It has Men found that the results for .17. can be Jlut
in a very corl\"enicnt form b}' writing
and then I"otting M as a function of AX for \':l1ues
of the ratio "lla. The cun'cs take the form of spirals
"'hich arc solrle\\"hat similar to the "impedance spirals"
of S,orerl lor rM anrmll4 and disk .itu:uea in
:\5 a specific example thc impcdance '1liml for a
quarter "'ave \"ertkal monopole (i.e. Ia- AI,,) without
top loading is shown in Fig. I. Since the displacement
currents in the sround can be ncslectcd at low radio-
frequencies li.e. ..«_/,) the curves can he conveniently
normalmd by multipl)'ing M and A.X hy (-If)I. It is
interesting to note that M approaches infinity as
,,11r al",roaches zero. This is not surprising .ince the
r;round loss would be infinite if the lower end of the
antenna were in direct contact ,,·ith a homogeneous
semi-infinite conductor.
Further calculations from Eqs. (IS) and (16) ha"e
lJ«n cllrrit<1 OIIt in this laboratory by !\Ir. D. A.
Trvmlilcr. In addition the effect of the Gruun,1 screen
on the radiation field has abo been .tudied. These
results are the IUbjcct of subsequent papen.'-'
The authon "'ould like to thank Mr. H. Page.
G. D. Monteith. and Dr. F. R. Abbau lor their in-
terestinlt and helpful COmment. in connection with
this "·ork.
• W J. lOurtftS. Rnearch Board Rrport on Grant :-".
6:. DfJ>artnmlt of Electrical £osi_rinc. UniVCfsil)" of Toronlo
(Octolwr. 19521.
•J R. Wail and W. A. r..,.... rarer lI:... 42.1. Instilut, of Radio
COlI,,"tion Rccord t9S4).
1.2 Wait, J. R., and W. A. Pope, 1954, "The Characteristics of a Vertical Antenna with a
Radial Conductor Ground System," Applied Scientific Research, Vol. 4, Sec. B,
pp. 177-195, (The Hague)
(Reprint No. 43)
Reprinted with the author's permission
Appl. sci. Res. Section B, Vol"
Radio Phyaics Laboratory. Defence Researcb Board. Ottawa. Onto Canada
Employing an approximate method the input impedance of a ground
based venical radiator is calculated. The ground system consists of a
number of radial conductors buried just below the surface of the soil. The
integrals involved in the solution are evaluated. in part. by graphical
methods. The final results are plotted in a convenient form to illustrate
the dependence of the impedance on number and leDltth of radial conduc-
tors for a specified frequency. antenna height. and Kround conducth·ity.
It is shown that under usual conditions the radiated arc mO<Ji-
fied by only a few percent due to the ptCllCncc: IIf the: Itround
§ I. Introduction. Antenna systems for low radio frequency are
designed. usually, to work in conjunction \\;th a radial wire ground
system buried just below the surface of the earth. The purpose of
this wire grid is to provide a low-loss return path for the antenna
base current and consequently to improve the efficiency of the trans-
The rules for ground system design are usually empirical and based
on the results of experiments on existing installations. The first
systematic study of this problem was carried out by B row n 1) I)
and his associates who were mainly concerned with the operation of
half-wave antennas for the broadcast band. Sometime later A b-
bot t·) developed a procedure to select the optimum number of
radial conductors. gi\'cn the values of the electrical constants of the
ground. An important related problem is the actual change of input
impedance of the antenna for different sizes and types of ground
systems. This analysis has been carried out by Lei t n e rand
-I Work earned out under ProJect 048·95·55·07. Pap<'r p.... at '·.S.A.
Clln"enlion 01 the Institute 01 RadiO III York. \954.
S pen c e ') and more recently by S tor e r i) for a vertical an-
tenna situated over a perfectly conducting disc. However, they only
considered the case where the surrounding medium was free space.
The purpose of this paper is to consider, in some detail, the cha-
racteristics of a vertical antenna of any length situated over a cir-
cular ground screen composed of N radial wires of equal spacing
situated at the interface between the air and a semi-infinite homo-
geneous ground. An approximate method to calculate the input impe-
dance will bl' employed similar to that described by M 0 n tea t h ')
who developed an extension to the compensation theorem of electric-
circuit theory. The current distribution on the antenna is considered
to be sinusoidal.
With reference to a cylindrical polar coordinate system (e. tp, :)
the antenna of height Is is coincident with the positive z-axis as in-
<licat('d in fiJ.:. I. The ground screen is of radius a and lies in the plane
Fig. I. The schematic representation of a vertical antenna situated over a
radial conductor ground system.
== 0 which is also the surface of the ground. The conductivity and
dielectric constant of the ground are denoted by (I and E respectively
and the dielectric constant of the air by EO' The permeability of the
whole space is taken as fl which is taken to be that of free space. The
intrinsic propagation constant" and characteristic impedance '7 of
the ('arth medium are defined by
y = [iilCt/(a + iWE)JI
'] = [ijiw.(a + ;wE):I,
whefe til is the a n ~ u l a r frequency. The propagation constant ;'0 and
characteristic impedance '70 of the air are then defined by
Yo - i(EoP)t w = i2n/). = ifJ
7Jo = (jjjEO)t 377 Q.
where). is the wavelength in air.
The self-impedance at the terminals of the antenna is nowdenoted
by Zr and can be broken into two parts by setting. Zr = Zo + LlZ
where Zo is the self-impedance of the same antenna if the ground
plane were perfectly conducting and infinite in extent. On the other
handLIZr is the difference between the self-impedance of the antenna
over the imperfect and the perfect ground plane. It is called the self-
impedance increment and can be written in terms of a real and
imaginary part as follows:
+ iJX
whc:n: and JX
represent the resistance and reactance incfl'-
ment. If the current at the tcrminal£ of the antenna is 1
• the power
fl'qllired to maintain this current is If the ground w('re per-
f('ctly conducting the input power would be nU
where U
is the
real part of ZOo The additional power required to maintain the same
current 1
at the terminals is JR
It is seen, therefore. that the quantity LlU
represents an impor-
tant parameter of a radio frequency antenna.
§ 2. Tile impeda1tcc calclIlation. It is shown in appendix I that the
impedance increment is given by
where H';'(I]. 0) is the magnetic field of the antenna tangential to a
perfectly conducting ground plane and E,(!!. 0) is the tangential
electric field on the imperfect ground. If the current on the antenna
is / (:). it follows that A
H';' = - 2;- -=- (:2 + 2)" 1(:) d:.
:t c!! w !!'
.) It IS 'h"l 1
"Ih,' rool1ll('3n ,qua... \'alul' ollhe currenI i1lh(' I'0\\('r ,-
tu I", c:cpr("ss...d in "'atb.
For thin antennas it can be usually assumed that the current distri-
bution is sinusoidal. that is
l(z) = 1
sin (a - fJZ)/Sitl a (4)
if the antenna is fed at the base (i.e. a monopole). The quantity a is
determined by the height of the antenna and the top-loading, that
a = fJ(], + II').
The quantity],' specifies the amount of top loading and is usually
obtained from experiment. For a thin antenna without top-loading
(i.e. unterminated case) a = fJh. The integrals of the type indicated
in (3) can be expressed in closed form for a sinusoidal current distri-
bution. The result is given by
i/ [e-
fl";' 0) = - .0 - cos ({lII-I1) -
2n san (1 (!
ill c-'!l' ]
--COsu.---sin(<<.,-PJr) •
e e r .
where r = (!'2 + ],2) Ii•.
Since the electric field E,((}. 0) is an unknown quantity, it is neceS-
sary to make several simplifications at this stage. Since 1,,1 fJ, an
approximate boundary condition (see appendix II) is employed.
expressed by
where H!J (!! , 0) is the tangential magnetic field for the imperfect
system and 'Ie is the surface impedance of the air-ground
interface. If !! is greater than a. the radius of the ground screen, 'I.
can be replaced by '7. If (} is less than a, '7. is the intrinsic impedance
'7, of the ground screen which is in parallel with the impedance '7 of .
the ground. In a previous iD\'estigation 7) ') of this problem it was
assumed that 'I, was zero so the ground system was equivalent to a
perfectly disc of radius a. The limits of the integration
in (2) arc then from!! = a to fJ = 00. A more general case is when '7.
is comparable in magnitude to 'I. in which it follows that
'7'7, f 0
'1, = -,- or <: fJ <: a,
'I -:- 'I.
11. = i110
In ~
A 2"tc
and where 4 is the spacing between the radial conductors and cis the
radius of the wire. The expression for 11. has been derived') for a
wire grid in free space where it was necessary to assume that
iratil ~ 1. Since the grid is l};ng on the ground plane, this restriction
must be replaced by 17'.41 ~ 1where 7'. is the effective propagation
constant for propagation along a thin wire in the interface and is
given by 10)
= ( , , ~ + , , ~ 1:.
". 2·J .
If there are N radial conductors. it can be seen that 4 can be replaced
by 2"t!}IN since N is usually of the order of 100. It is assumed also
that H" (!}. 0) is not very different from H';'(y. 0) in the region of the
ground plane where the losses arc significant. This approximation
has also been discussed previously') I) and it certainly appears to
be valid if 1,,1 ~ (1.
The impedance increment -dZ
is then written in the following

I ~ . 1 Z =:: 11 f[H';'(f!, 0)]2 2."t!,1 <1Q

= -dZ + -dZ,.

I ~ .JZ, =:: ( ~ [H;" (fl, 0)]2 2.!} dg.
• 11 + 11.
The first expression L1Z corresponds to the self-impedance of the
monopole over a perfectly conducting discoid. whereas the second
expression dZ, accounts for the finite surface impedance of the radial
conductor system.
It is instructive to consider L1Z. first in some detail. since the
integrations can be carried out and the result expressed in terms of
the exponential integral defined by

Ei (- ipa) = - - dg.
• g

The procedure outlined previously 7) 8) where an expression for
LJZ was given for any value of the height h and top loading h'. The
special case where the antenna is unterminated (h' == 0) is given by
LJZ == \ {Ei[- 2iP(T
4n: SID tJh
+ Ei [- 2iP(T
- h)] e-
i,!4 + 2 cos
Ph Ei (- 2ipa)
+ 4 cos tJll [Ei (- iPhg) - Ei [- iPIl(g + I)] e
- Ei [- iPh(g - I)] e-i,!4]}, (12)
g == h [a + (a
+ h
)1/2] and TO == (a

This equation may be put in a suitable form for computation by
employing the relation
Ei (- ilia) == Ci (pa) +i - Si (pa)] , (13)
whl'reCi (pa) and Si (pa) are the cosine and sine integrals respectively
as ell'fined and tabulated by J a h n k e and Em dell). The results
of the calculations are presented in a most general form by plotting
471LJZ'1l as a function of a/A for various values of h/A as shown in figs.
2 and 3. It can be seen that the magnitude of LJZ increases without
limit as a approaches zero.. This formulation is not actually valid in
this limiting case since one terminal of the generator would then be
connected directly to the earth medium (or to a disc of vanishing
radius) and would lead to an infinitely resistive path for the antenna
base current.
A slightly more convenient way to i11ustrate these calculations is
to plot (a:/)1 2 JR. wherc iJR is the real part of LJZ, as a function of
a,A as shown in fig. 4 where I is the frequency in Hz. This is only
permissible if displacement currents in the ground are negligible
(note if EW <{ (1, '1::::: ((iiO),a)"'. It is interesting to note that JR
actually assumes negath'e values under certain conditions. In this
case, the input power to obtain a given current /0 at the antenna
terminals is actually less for an imperfect ground than for a perfect
ground. This fact can be reconciled by sho\\ing that the radiated
power is actually reduced if iJR < O. A physical explanation for the
oscillating nature of the cun'c is that a wave is reflccted from the
discontinuity in the surface impedance at f} == a. As the radius tl
increases, the phase lagofthe reflected wave will continually increase.
This viewpoint is substantiated when it is noted that the period of
the oscillations is nearly equal to twice the diameter of the ground
10 t

I \
\ 0


.... , -r--
r Of "
..........,;;:., .._-

:: 0.'
2 3 _ IJ 6 7
Fig. 2. Thl: incremcntal for a \'crtical antl:nna situated ,,\"(Or
an idcaliz"d perfectly conductinl( discoid Iyin/: on a homQr;:cncous r;:rounll.
225' N

'0' lL
o 2 3 5 10
FIC::. J. Thl' phase of the Incremental self-impedancc correspondinr;: to
conditions of fig. 2.
When the ground screen of finite surface impedance is considered
the integrations indicated by (10) must be evaluated. This appears
to be a formidable task for the case when the antenna is of arbitrary
length. However, if the antenna is a quarter-wave monopole, without
top-loading. the integrations can be carried out fairly readily by
graphical means. In this case
which is a special case of (5) with h' = 0 and h = ),14, and hence
the integral in (10) can then be expressed in the following form:

pq cos [:r(1 - 4R) + 3: - tan-I p + qJ dP
LJR = P (15)
, y'2"! [p2 + (I' + P
and. similarly. LJX, with cos (-) replaced by sin (-). The real
dimensionless quantities p. q••': and R arc defined by
p = 120 :rcS/y'2 with 6 = (EoW/a(l.
q =: N In NC with C =: cl),•
.4 = al), and R =: v'p2 + (t)2.

o z s •
Fil.(. 4. The rea) part of the incremental self·impedance corresponding to
the conditions of fig. 2.
It has been assumed in writing (15) in this form that displacement
currents in the ground arc negligible, that is (ewlC1) 1. Csing the
results of the numerical integration for LJR•• values of LJR
(= LJR +
+LJR.) are plotted as a function of A in figs. 5, 6 and 7 for various
values of d and N with C = 0.1 X 10-
• and in fig. 8 for various
values of C for N = 100 and d = 0.1. The value of d can be readily
obtained from fig. 9 when the ground conductivity a and the fre-
quency in kHz are specified.
\ 1.'010

•• 10 f"""oo,..

r\ /'
\ J
00 o-t 0·1 0,' 0,' 0,' 0" I'
1 •

FiK. 5. The incremental self-resistance of a vertical quarter-wave monopole
on a radial conductor ground system for a wir.e radius equal to 10-0 of a
free-space wavelenRth.
It is immediately e\'ident that the oscillations in the cun'es for
have been damped if .v is finite. This can be expected since
there is a smaller change of the surface impedance at !! = a if the
ground conductivity is reasonably high (15 < 0.1). The limiting case
where N = 00 corresponds to the perfectly conducting disc discussed
previously. It is quite apparent from these curves that a ground
screen radius greater than about 1of a wavelength is wasteful. On
the other hand it would be quitc feasible to choose a large number of
radials to reduce the resistance increment to a low value. Although.
in practice, it is usual to employ 8 wire (e = 0.5 :< 10-
at 1
some improvement could be obtained by using larger wire
diameters. From a theoretical standpoint, huwevcr, it would appear
that. for a gi\'en total wcight of wire, it is prefcrable to us\:' a cun-
\ ppJ. ,<'" /<:.,. II 4
186 JAMES R. WAIT .... ND W. A. POPE
ductor of smaller diameter, say No. 22 wire (C = 0.1 X 10-
at 1
MHz) and to employ 150 or more radial conductors.
0.1 o.s 0.4 0.' 0.' 0.7 . 0.' 0.9 . 1.0
\ 1\

\ \

\ ..

0.0 0.1
Fil(. 6. incremental self-resistanCe of a vcrtical quartcr-wavc monopClle
on a radial conductor ground system for a wire radius equal to 10-1> of a.
free-space wavclength.
01 06 01 04 02 oa

1'-.. .....


.......... ./

00 01
.. 24

Fil;. 7. The incremental self-resistance of a vertical quarter-wave monopole
on a radi.11 conductor ground system for a wire radius equal to 10-1> uf a
free-space wavelength.
§ 3. The earth "men/s. It is interesting to examine how the an-
tenna base current is shared by the radial conductcrs and the ground
itself. If the current flowing in the ground is denoted by I, and the
total current in the radial wires by I •. then the ratio 1,/1. is equal
\ ..lOCI

LJ; .......

\ i"::

!\. ./' r---..
w U M U

IlIL.AT1'II UllIUS f11 seMEN
l;ig. 8. The inert-mental seU·resistance as a function of the wire radius with
a fixed number of radial conductors and ground conducti\·ity.
to the ratio of the surface impedance of the grating of the wires com-
posing the earth system to the surface impedance of the ground.
Therefore it follows that
I, 'I, iq
Ie = -;J (1 + i) p'
where pand q have been defined previously. Since the total current
is given by I, = I, + I •. it follows that
I I= II +11/,/'1 I= [p2 + (17)
I t has been assumed here that displacement currents in the ground
are negligible (i.e. EW U I).
Equation (17) is not a function of the height of the antenna and
therefore it would apply also to top-loaded antennas as long as the
circular symmetry is essentially retained. Employing this equation,
curves are plotted in figS'. 10 and 11 to show the dependence of the
current in the radial \\;res on the various parameters. The abcissae
are the lengths of the radial wires in wavelengths measured from the
base of the antenna. It is noted that if the radial wires are increased
beyond a certain length. nearly all the current flows in the ground.
When the ratio ile/I,; is equal to !. the current in the ground is equal
to the total current carried by the radial wires.
.• ...

".... ..I •.,
'-'10 c_""n .,._,.,
Fig. 9. Ground conductivity.
§4. The radialtd power. While the main subject of this paper has
been to e"aluate the input impedance of the antenna. it is also of
some interest to know if the presence of the groundscreen appreciably
changes the radiated power. A simple and approximate analysis is
now carried out which indicates that this change is small.
The power dissipated in an elemental area of the ground is equal
to the real part of It is then evident that the change of power
lost .lIJL in the ground due to the presence of the ground screen is
gi"en by

where JI} is the difference between the surface impedance '1, of the
radial conductor earth system and the surface impedance 'TJ of the
ground. Howe,·cr. the change of input power at the antenna termi-
nals is gi"en by

JP = R,·.r J'IH; 2:T!! d!J.
Now, since there is conservation of power, the change of the total
radiated power .dP, beyond the edge of the earth system is equal
to.dP - .dP

.dP, = Ref .d7J [H; -IH;IJ 27r!> dp. (20)

- -
0.0'.....__a.--'-....I1.o...........I-""'-.....- " " ' - ~
0.0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.' 1.0
. y ~
Fig. 10. The ratio of the current carried by the radial conductors to t h ~
total earth current as a function of the distance from the base of the
For a good ground screen, J'1 =:: - '1 and, if the antenna is a quarter
wa\'e monopole (iJ = ;.;4), the integration can be carried out in
closed form to yield
= Real part of 4: +0.5773
+In"2-Ci + (2,ia)2- n ) + Ci (2"t)
- Ci (\/;r'l + (2,ia)2 -+- :E)] + i [Si +(2,ia)2- n)
- Si (2"f) + Si + (2,ia)2 +;or)]}. (21)
. r;:;;;-
o V7 00.10
- \0,5
- -
0.0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.1 1.0
Fig. II. The ratio of the current by the radial conductors to the
total earth current as a function 01 the distance from the base of the
If the ground screen radius a is small compared with a wavelength,
the change of power radiated is given approximately by
LJP. 2 ' 1 2
Re i'7P a· 2 -'7 -, (fJal. (22)
This is usually a small quantity with the total radiated power so it is
of minor significance at low radio frequencies.
§ 5. The radiation paUern. The effect of the ground screen on the
radiation pattern is also of some interest. For convenience, it is
assumed here that the ground screen is equivalent to a thin, per-
fectly conducting. circular disc laid on a homogeneous ground. The
magnetic field H.(e. z) in the air can be written as the sum of the
field H:"(e. z) for an infinite screen and a secondary field H; (!!. =),
In appe!1dix I it is shown that .
- Yo ffl. I. (le') e-"" JAo' E,«(1', 0) e' de' .i dA, (23)
,'._1.0. '
"0 - (.i
The change of the magnetic field AH" due to the presence of the
screen is now given by
- -
- - YOf)"£,«(1'.0) Q' dQ' I. (1.1/) I. (IJ,!) e-""',,;I.i cli.. (24)
'10 -
The integration with respect to .i can be carried out by the saddle
point method of integration since pf! 1in the radiation zone, The
result is
,'" ,
AH" = ---,r E,('!. 0) I.

R = ve
+:? P= 2-ril = - iyo. and fJ - tan-I =,f!.
The approximate boundary condition. E,(f!'. 0) -7J H.(r,l'. 0). can
no\\' be so that
AH - P'7 e-
,"'H (0' 0)
• " -' I Ii? ' 0)' d '
-- = ----,r- I \#'0 cos 0 o.
H" 7J
.n:. H,,(f!. =) - _.
An approximate expression for .JH<; is now obtained by replacing
H.,(e, z) on the right hand side of (26) by H';'(e, z). If the antenna is
a quarter wave monopole,
-i1 .• _
H-(e' 0) = --e-"" ,"+(A
4)' (27)
.' 2-r(l' '
and for Pe I
- i1. (:r )
-(o -) ,.... --e-i6R cos - sin 8
.. -' - - 2-r(! 2'
so that
r )!!...J- e I. (1' cos 0) dp. (29)
:r. '10
cos 2'sm8 0
The right hand of this equation is of the order of I'1i'1oI which is small
compared with unity. For small screens where a <A the relation
simplifies to
(>-;) ,
cos ism
which is of second order magnitude.
§ 6. Conell/siml. The results of this analysis. while not exhaustivc,
are sufficiently developed to be useful in the design of vertical an-
tennae with radial conductor ground systems. The work has shown
that the input impedance of the type of antenna discussed is depen-
dent mainly on the number and the length of the radial ground con-
ductors and on the conductivity of the ground in which the wires
are buried. The dependence of antenna impedance on ground wire
size is shown to be very slight. It may be concluded, from this dis-
cussion. that a sensible design criterion for an optimum ground
system is attained by a suitable choice of number and length of
ground wire radials so that they \\ill always carry an appreciable
fraction of the total earth current.
Fo,.naulation 0/ the input impedance. An expression is here for-
mulated for the input impedance at the terminals of an antenna
situated over a circular screen. The total flux F of the vector E ;< H
over a surface surrounding the antenna is given by
F =/E X H.nds (31)
where n is the unit outward vector nonnal to S. As is customary in
other problems of this type. S is chosen to be a slender cylindrical
surface of vanishing radius!! concentric with the antenna so that

F == -lim melE,H. dz. (32)
,..0 0
It then follows that

Z == [ - fE. [(:) dzJ.
It is now convenient to let E, == E:' + E:. where E:' is the corre-
sponding value of the electric field for a perfectly conducting ground
plane and E; is the change of the field to account for the finite con-
ductivity !n the soil and the ground The impedance incn'-
is then given by

- [ __[1
rE; 1(:) d:J ...
o. II.
o ,..0

'10 ,10(1 0 J
- ---2 - 1(::) d: .
0 • f! Of! lim
o ,..0
Since is a solution of the wave
z) == I I. e-.... /().) ldi..
for z ;> 0, where JAo == ().2 + •• From Maxwells equations it is
seen that
EII(!!.O) == '10 , I. (i{J) I(l) /Iol dl. (36)
)'0 •
and by applying the Fourier-Bessel theorem it follows that
I(l) == )'0 f I I (Ag') Ell (g'. 0) fl' d!?'. (37)
This equation for I(i.) can then be substituted back into {35) to
obtain an expression for ::) in tenns of E
(!? 0). It is also noted
that II(}.e) can be replaced by Ae/2 as etends to zero so that
-- .
z) = ;;0 ffell (Ae') e-"" p.;1 A
<U E,(e', 0) e' de', (38)
o 0
and introducing Sommerfeld's Integral
Pol Alo dA = (z2 + e-
'("+")''', (39)
the integration in (38) with respect to Acan now be carried out to
a -,..("+,,,)'1,
lim H;(e,:) = 2"1oe ':'""7 e(z2 '2)'1, E,(e', 0) e' de'. (40)
PIa ee + (!
Inserting this expression into (34) leads directly to (2) for the input
impedance ;'lc·ment.
The approximate bOl4ndary condition. The magnetic 'fieid in the
ground outside the screen is a solution of the wave equation
(.::I - y2) H.(e. z) = 0
H.(e. :) = JI. (Ae) cP' peA) i.dA
for: "' 0 and where II = (A
+y2)11l. The electric field is given by
and therefore
E, = _!!- ( J.l eJ" pel) l<U.
The binomial expansion of J.l is of the form
J.l = "1(1 + ;;2 + .... )
so that _ OlD
_!!. { (i' eJ" Pll) ldi. +( II (.'.e) eJ" P(l) l3 di.+.. }.
y . .,; 2y
o 0
the differential equation for II is given by
c 1 C 2)
;;:--;:-!!-l I,().e) = 0,
C!! f] Cf]
so it readily follows that
\0 . 4
E = -flH -----f!H ± termslny-. (45)
• 2y2 of! !! af! "
The second and remaining terms are negligible if the propagation
constant of the ground is sufficiently large and if H" is not varying
too rapidly with fl. That is. !!H., should not change appreciably in a
distance equal to Iy-I! in the radial direction.
Acknou·ledgement. We would like to express our appreciation to
llr. G. D. M0 n tea t h of the British Broadcasting Corporation
and to Dr. F. R. A b bot t of the U.S. Navy Electronics labora-
tory who communicated to us unpublished reports of their work. We
are also indebted to Dr. W. J. Sur tee s and Mr. D. A. T rum p-
I e r who assisted us in the earlier phase of the investigation and to
}Ir. P. A. Fie I d and Dr. W. Pet r i e who read the manuscript.
Note added in prooj. Further calculations for short top-loaded
antennas have been carried out. The results are available in Radio
Physics Lab. Report No. \9-0-7 April. \954 by j. R. W a i t and
W. A. P ope. Good has been obtained with experiment
for a 250 foot mast at \00 kHz.
171h 19$4.

II B r 0 ... n. G. B.• Proc. of the I.R.E. =:1 (193$) 31 \.
2) Brown. G.H.. R. f. l.ewls andJ. Epstein. Proc.ofthe I.R.E.:4119J7)
J) A b bot t. F. R•• Proc. of the I.R.E.• 40 (19521846.
4) l. e ito e r. A. aDd R. D. S pen c e. Appl. Pb),.:U (19$01 1001.
5) Storer. J. F., J.Appl. Pbys.:::l (1951) 1058.
l>\ 0 n tea t b. G. D.. Proc. of the lost. Elect. EOI".••• Pt. IV (1951) 23.
7) Surtees. W.J.andJ.R. Wail. J.AppI.Pbys.:::;(I954)55J.
81 W a i I. J. R.. Radio Pbysics l.ab. Report 19·0.4, 1953. (Call. Defence Research
Board Project D 48.95·55·07).
9) a c Far I a n e. G. G.• Jour. Insl. Elect. EOl!". 83. Pt. III A (1946) 1523.
101 Col e maD, B. L.• Pbil. "I (1950) 276.
II) Jab n k e. E. and F. Em d e. "Tables of Fuoctions". Dover Publications. !'lew
1.3 Wait, J. R.. and W. A. Pope, May 1955. "Input Resistance of LF Unipole Aerials."
Wireless Engineer. Vol. 32, pp. 131·138
(Reprint No. 59)
Reprinted with the author's permission
If/ith. Rf;'dial "--ire Earth Systems
By J. R. Wail, I\I.A-Se.. Ph.D. and W. A. Pope
(Ru", PIJ,.... D,{nec, Rftle,,1J Bo.J. Ott.rc. 0 ......... c.....,.)
SUMMARY.-The input resistance of a low-frequency unipole aerial is calculated. The earth
system consists of a number of radial conductors buried just Ix'lo\\' the surface of the soil. The integrals
involved in the solution are evaluated. in part. by methods. The final results are plotted in
a convenient form to illustrate the dependence of the input resistance on numlx'r and lenl;th of radial
conductors for a specified frequency and earth conducti\·ity. The curves should he USl'ful in the
design of earth systems for low.frequency transmitting aerials. It is pointed out that increasing the
radius of the earth system beyond a certain limit gi\'cs only a slight impro\'ement in radiation efficlt'ncy,
,- anti 8
F and '"
Si (Jr)
Ei (- x)
= -
• Jr
= a quantity whos.· onlt'r "f mal(lIilud.. is
e'lual tl' ,"
mol:.:nitudr and phase' of thr complex
numbE'r l't
d"tin"d in equation [15(h)
\'ariabl" of intt'::rat ill" (= pl:l)
= "f a"rial in wa\'"I"nl:ths
= ma,::nitudr and phas" Ilr th.· comp!<'x
number F,J'" .It·fined in "quation (ISa)
1'. q. ,.,. 8. C
= dim"nsionl,"" quantities tlcfinc·<\
in th" trxt f"lI"win!: equation 115(a)]
= thr input resi .. tancf' "f II... a"rial f"r 11
prrf"clly-condnclill/: "arth planr
= EIJI.·r', numh"r (,- (/'5772 , . ,)
= al'tual height of the unl":III..d arrial

t d
--, I
= - dl
• r
= (':"')1= ground conc1l1t'ti\'ily l'arallll't .. r
: I.-\L systems for 10w-frequl'IKies are
designed. usually, to work in conjunction
with a radial-wire earth s\'stern buried
just lx·low the surface of the ('arth. - The purpose
(If this wire grid is to pro\'ide a low-loss path for
t h(' aerial base current and consequently to im-
pro\'e the radiation .
The rules for earth-system design are usually
('Itlpirical and based on the results of experiments
on existing installations. The first systematic
st\llh' 01 this problem was carried out by Brown
a1111 his associates who were main'" concerned
wilh th(' operation of half-\\'a\'e aerials for the
hwadea,;t band, Sometime later Abhott' develop-
(,J a procedure for selecting the optimum numher
of radial conductors. the values of the
(''''elrical constants of the An important
r('blrt! problem is the actual change of input
1llll'I.'dance of the aerial with diflerent sizes and
E p (P. 0)
("..k.s. ",.ils art mll'l",.,d IhrO"/:hollt,
(P. z) = cylindrical polar co-ordinatrs
h height of an ideally top·loa,hl al'fial
or the equivalent height of an
unloaded aerial
lenl;th of radial wires
= conductivity of ground
= permittivity of ground
= permitti\'ity of air (= 8'85 X 10''''
"" permeability of free space (= 4.. " 10 ')
= intrinsic propallation constant "f I:rollnd
= charactt'ristic impedance of ground
= propagation con'ltant of air
= impc.lance of air 1= I:?H.. ,
= wa\'e number in air (= - lY.)
= angular frequency
= wavelenl!:th in air
= self-impedance at terminals of aerial
"" self·impedance 01 the aerial for a
perfectly-conduct in!: earth plan(
= self-impedance increment (= Z, - Z.l
= real part of AZ,
= imaginaf)' part of AZ,
= current at terminals of at'rial
(= ,/2 ... currrnt)
= the talll("ntial maJ:l\l·tic 'i"I,1 .. r II...
aerial on a p"rf"ctly-conduct inl: ,';art it
plant· of intinitl' extent
the tanJ:ential electric field of the arrlaJ
on the imperfect ground
I(z) >= current .lIon,;: the aerial
H. (P. 0) -= the tanJ:cntial ma,::netic fi ..lcI of thr
aerial on the impl'rft'ct
>= the surface impedance of the air-ground
.., the surface Impedance of the ra.holl
wire grid
.. the spacinJ: between the radial wi""
.., radius of the wires of the grid
= the effective propagation constant or a
wire in the intt'rface
"" number of radial wires in tht' earth
.. self:impedance increment f"r an illt-al
circular ground screen of ratllU' II
.. correction to 4Z to account for till'
losses within the scrren
-= limit of integration for equations (I '.!J
and (13)
---_._--- - '-_.- ----
MS accepted by the Editor. May HIS-l
Vol.32, pages 131-138
t.,. (AIR)
/// /. ///;'
Fig. I. The I.trtical atrial
WIth a radinl'flIlldllctor ,arth
real part of Zo0 The additional power required
to maintain the same r.m.s. current 1
,,- ,12 at the
terminals is I
General Theory
It was shown in the pre\'ious paper' that the
self-impedance increment iJZ/ could be written
in the following form:
I r'"'
iJZt = - I t H; (p,O) E" (Po U) 2rrp dp
• , 0
whl're H; (p, U) is the magnetic field of the 3l'rial
tangential to a perfectly conducting- earth plane
of infinite extent and E" (Po 0) is the tangential
electric field on the impl'rfect l'arth- This
formula also follows immediatl'h' frolll the work
or If the current 'on the aerial is
1(:) amps it follows that
I r' .-1:. p!)I") 1(-) d-
:!" fJp (:1 + pl)I" "
, II
'I'll!' ell'ctric field Ep (p, 0) is l'ssentialh' an
unknown quantity. How('ver. since )' Yo'
an approximate boundary condition call be
E" (p. 0) - "'1e H. (Po 0) (-I)
Whl'Cl' H6 (p. 0) is thl' tang<'ntial fipld
foc thl' imperfel't earth and TJr is the surface
impedance of the air-ground interface.
If p is than a (the radius of thl' earth
serel'n) "'1e can bl' replaced If p is less than
a. "I, is the intrinsic impedance "'1' of the earth
sen'clI in parallel with the impedancl' 7J of the
earth. In a pre"iolls investigationS" of this
pwbll'm it was assumed that "'1' wac; zero, so that
the I'arth was equi"alent to a
types of earth systems. This analysis has been
carried out by Leitner and Spence
and more
recently by Storer', for a vertical aerial situated
over a perfectly-conducting disc. Howe\'er, they
only considered the case where the surrounding
medium was free Sp'lct:.
In a previous paper' the electrical charac-
teristics of a vertical aerial wiih a radial conductor
system was studied. Employing an approximate
method the input impedance was calculated.
To illustrate the nature of the problem a
quarter-wave unipole was considered in detail
since it was the case most easily computed.
Curves were plotted showing- the dependence of
the input base resistance on number and length of
radial conductors for a specified and
ground conductivity. It is the purpose of this
paper to extend the solution and calculations for
shorter aerials with top-loading.
With reference to a cylindrical polar co-
ordinate system (p, .". z) the aerial of height" is
coincident with the posith'e %axis as indicated in
Fig. I. The earth screen is of radius n and lies in
the plane % = 0 which is also the surface of the
ground. The conducti\'ity and pemlitth'ity of
the ground are denoted by C1 and respecth·e1y.
and the permitth'ity of the air is denoted by (0'
The permeability of the whole space is taken as
P-o which is taken to be that of free space. The
intrinsic propagation constant)' and characteristic
impedance "'1 of the earth medium are defined
)' = UP-ow (a + t
and TJ = UP-OW! (a +jW()]l't
where w is the angular The pfopaga-
tion constant )'0 and the characteristic impedann'
"'10 of the air are then defined by
)'0 = j ((oP-o) I 2w = j2rr" = j{J
and "'10 = (P-o' (0)11 :477 ohms :H; (p.O) =
where " is the W3"elength in air.
The self-impedance at the terminals of the
aerial is now denoted h\" Z/ which can be brnk<,n
into two parts by setting. Z/ = Zo .JZ, whece
Zo is the self-impedance of the same aerial if thl'
earth plane were pcrfectly conducting and infinite
in extent. Thus LlZ, is the difference Ilt'tween
the self-impedance of thl' aerial over thl' impt'ffef'(
anG the perfect earth plane. It is called tlie sell·
impedance increment and can be written in tefms
of a real and imaginary part as follow:'>
LlZ/ = LlR/ +jLl.':t (I)
where iJR
and iJ X
represent the resistalll'l' and
reactance increments. If the current amplitnde
at the terminals of the aerial is 1
, thl' J!nWl'f
required to maintain this current is 10:U, :!
If the ground were perfectly tllf'
input power would be I
'2 where U
is the
2 \\'IRELEo;S ENGINf.ER, )I.\\' 1!'l55
Impedance Calculation
From equation (3) it follows that
The impedance increment is thl'1I wriUt'n
in the following form
AZ, = AZ + AZ
where 1
AZ {H; (P. O)JI :!.1TP lip
'and 1
R:S fO -:!l+."I
[H; (p, 0)]1 21Tp dp. (7)
.'" "Is
The first term AZ corresponds to the self-
impedance of the unipole over a perfectly con-
ducting discoid. whereas the second term AZ
accounts for the finite surface impedance of the
radial-conductor earth system.
Assuming a sinusoidal current distribution for
1(:) the magnetic fidd H: (p, 0) can be ('xpr('sscd
in clO!lCd form. The integration indicateu by
equation (6) can then be carried out and the
result expressed in terms of sine and cosine
integrals', Curves of the function AZ fur un-
tcnninated aerials ha\'e been computl.'<! from this
formula'. The integrations indicated in equation
(7). howe\'er, cannot be carried out allal,\·tically.
It is necessary to resort to a numerical procedure
for this case.
conducting disc of radius a. The limits of the
integration in equation (2) are then from p = a
to p =00.
A more general case is when '1$ is comparable
in magnitude to '1. in which if follows that
'1'1$ f
'Ie = -_. or 0< p < a
"I + "Is
, did
where "Is = J"Io A 21TC
and where d is the spacing between the radial
conductors and c is the radius of the wire. The
expression for '1$ has been derived
for a wire
grid in free space where it was necessary to
assume that I 'Yod ' I. Since the grid is lying
on the earth plane, this restriction must be
replaced by I 'Ytd : I where is the effecth'e
propagation constant for propagation along a thin
wire in the interface and is gil'en byll
'Ye = ('Yo
If there are N radial conductors it can be seen
that d can be replaced by 21Tp!N since N is usually
of the order of 100. It is assumed also that
H. (p,O) is not \'ery different from H': (p,O) in the
region of the ground plane where the losses are
significant. This approximation has also been
discussed previously'·' and it certainly appears
to be valid if : 'Y I >i 'Yo·'
......................... -.- -.- .
( 0) = . p- J'. C (pI + + jj3 e.:xp, [-=- jfJ J lz) dz.
• p, 21T (pI + ZI)U pI + Zl
( a) ( b)
Fig. 2. Thr illr,rmr,,' oj II,e
anial ba.'r rr.'i5Ia"rr a.' a j"'''',,,,,
of Ihr of Ihr rarth 5.\"."..,11
(n) j,., ,'a,·icJIIS ,'al"r., ''1 S ./", III'"
,'al"f., "1 & (/,,,1 Ihl Jv, ,.", i .. ".,
m/llrs oJ & for.\" = 7_.
o o240 0'20 0'16 0'12
•\ a-o·1


For top-loaded aerials that are short compared \\;th a wavelength a reasonable approximation is
1(:) AI 1
, over the length of the aerial. Also. exp_ [- jfJ (pi + %1)111] is given to sufficient accuracy
by expo (- jfJp) so that
a:> (0) e -jfJp PIOfli[( I I- 1)0311 + 'Q ( I + I)-IJ d e -jb plo[ 11 jfJ - hJ
p. 0 P - % 111 P % % AI--
;,-- p(pi +lI
)i,! + p tan I p
This can be expanded in a power series in (II/p) as foUows:
H: (p.O) AI -;;:0 + jflp) - (1 + flp) +--..J (10)
and correspondingly.
[H:(p.O)JAI !-o:::;l (1 + jflp)' - (I +jfJp)(1+ 2jflpJ3) + ....J (II)
Ca> (b)
0'24 020
FiR, 3. Tilt iltrrtllltnl of lilt
lurial bast rtsislnlt" as a funrlion
of lilt radifls of lilt tarlh s.VSltm
(al for t'QrioltS l'QllltS ('If N for Iwo
values 01 Ii alld (bl for various
vailUs of Ii for X = 00.
0·0. 0'04 o O'l4 O'lO 0'01 0'04 o 0'12 0-1.
The self-impedance is then gi\'en by a series of integrals as follows:
b lilf'"'
= -'\ [H; (p, 0)JI211'pdp + e°'li'. (I + 2jfJp - (JIpl) p'ldp
• 211' b
- e'
(I + 5jfJpJ3 - 2fIZpl,'3) p'$ dp + ... . (12)
The integration of p has been broken into ranges, from a to band b to 00, The
distance b is chosen sufficiently large so that the series of intl'gTals convergl's rapidly. The integral
with limits a to b is integrated by graphical means, lJsing the exponential integral defined by,
E; (- 2jflb) = - e-
". p-I dp
the impedance is written
= .!!.. fb [H: (p 0))1 2.".p dp + [ I ( .. - + j) e'2"b - Ei (- 2jflb)J
.' 211' {3b '1.fJh
fJI (h
){[( I I ) . (7 fJb)] 2 .( .)} ,.,h
fJ2 (h
- 211' hI 4iPbi + is +J i8jjb -9 r + 9 fJlb
EI - 2JfJb + 211' x 0 ht

_ z-st---I\---f---+---+--+---H
The computed values of JJR, for fixed aerial
heights are plotted as a function of a/A for various
values of 8 and N in Figs. 2 to 4. The wire radius
to wavelength ratio, ciA, is taken to be 10-
corresponds to No.8 B. & S. wire at 183 kc/s. The
curves in Figs. 2(a), 3(a) and 4(a) are for two fixed
values of the ground conductivity parameter 8,
whereas the curves in 2(b), 3(b) and 4(b), for a
perfect ground screen N =00, show a wider range of
8. With the results plotted in this form. values of
JJUt for intermediate \"alues of Nand 8 can be
estimated quickly by interpolation. For purposes
When hl/b
« I, the terms containing higher powers of hllbl can be neglected.
The increment of the input resistance JJR, for purposes of calculation is now written
JJR, == Real part of (JJZ
v'2fA pq FI (HI.P) ( 3Ir _ P+ q)
== 2", 0 [pI +(p + g)'I1I1' cos 21/1 - 4",P +.. - tan I p tiP
.+ ~ 2 J: P (HI. P) p-l cos (21/1 - 4",P +"'/4) tiP + v'2" PHil Y COS (8 +",/4) ..
where F (HI' P) e
== "[1 +~ i J ~ P ) ~ 1 1 1 +j 2",P tan-I (H./P),
- 24Orr1P P
P== 12OIr8/v2, 9 = -W-loge-NC1' 8 == (,
HI = hlA, P == pIA, A == a/A, B. == blA and C
== cIA,
Vej· == 2 [tiJ(1 - ~ b ) e-j2.. - Ei(- 2ill/)] ..
Summarizing, this formula for JJR, should be
accurate to within a few per cent under the
restrictions that HI <0·1 (electrically short
aerial), cwla « 1 (negligible displacement current
~ soil), and (BI/H1)1 == (b/h)1 == 25.
Presentation of Results
It hardly needs to be mentioned that the major
part of this work has to do "ith the e\'aluation
of the integrals in equation (14). A graphical
procedure was adopted employing a conventional
area planimeter. The resulting values of the
integrals, so obtained, are believed to be accurate
to within 1%.
O'ZO ' O'Z4
Fig. 4. Thl' illrrl'II/I'III of
'he al'rial bast rrsisllUlU
as a Ilmciion of Ihe MdillS
ollh, tarlh 5>,s/l'lII (a) lor
l'arious 1'Q11lts 01 N lor 1"'0
valurs 01 6 allti (b)
lor varimlS l'allltS 01 6
for N = co.
O'IZ 0'16
0'04 o 0'01 0'.
O'ZO 0'16
I:ilt. 5. 1'1" inert"""'
tlf tlrt base rtsistanufor
.. quartn-W/JlIe uJlipole.
0'04 o
that the radiation resistance 1<0 can be computed
by cnnsid('ring the curr<'nt on th(' \'<'rtical
portion of the aerial. Th(' contributions fllr the
currents flowing on the loading 'umbrdla' or
'cone' are usually negligible if th(' top-loading
has been adjusted for maximum radiation
resistance. This radiation resistance is ginn by U
160,,1 (hl>.)1
It is possible now to apph' the aOOn r('sults to
a('rials \\;thout top-Iuading an
'('lluh'al('nt' or 'effecth'(" h<,ight II, ""hl<' is
obtained by assuming that the loaded and
It is usually justified in these cases to assume
that the current distribution is constant from the
base of the aerial to its upper end. It has been
shown also by Brown
, Smebyl:, and others
Fig. 6.
001 __ j...:::!l __.......::::iI
• Z S I Z 1
10-' 10-
Tire /HJrflmdtr 8 as a fllllclioll of frtqllency ill kc/s alld
tround condllCtil:i'y.
O'ZO 0"1 0'0'

of comparison, the values of iJR, for a lluarter-
wave unipole (II = >'/4) are shown plotted in Fig.
5(a) and 5(b). The data for these cun'es are
taken from a previous paper'.

It is apparent immediately that
the increase of iJU, with diminishing
earth-screen radius is much more rapid
for the short aerials than for the
quarter-wave unipole. This beha\'iour
is connected with the fact that the
induction and static fields of short o·os
aerials are more significant than those HZ
for a higher aerial, such as a quarter-
wave unipolc.
The appropriate valll<' uf 8 til use in
connection with these cun'es is
obtained conveniently from Fig. 6,
when the ground conductivity and
the frequency are specified.
The effect of changes in wire radius
is slight. This fact is illustrated in
Fig. 7 where AR, is shown plotted as
a function of at>. for various values of the wire
radius/wavelength ratio for a quart('r-wave unipnll·.
For earth screens which are small compared
with the wavelength iJR, varies in a linear
manner with 8. That is, it varies directh' as the
square root of the frequency and as the
square root of the ground conducti\·ity. Howev('r.
for larger values of at>. as is illustrated in Fig. S,
the values of AR, become somewhat less sensiti\"C
to changes in 8.
Up to this point. the discussion has been limit('lI
mainly to vertical aerials with ideal top-loading.
0'12 0'10 0'01 0'01 0'04
"::::J Z1---+--7t------::JIIC---I----±=--""1
; Jt-----r--'+-
unloaded unipoles are electrically equh'alent if abo\'e mentioned approximate proccdure and
their radiation resistances are equal. For thin are also shown in Fig. 9. The encircled points on
unloaded unipoles the current distribution is the dotted curves are obtaint'd from calculations
approximately sinusoidal and if its actual height carried out from e«luation (16) of refert'nce 6,
is denoted by h
' the radiation resistance. R.. The points indicated by x for h>' = 0·2.:; can
is given by be obtained either from equation (16) of reference
sinl fJho R
= ao (C + log 2fJh
- Ci 2fJh.) + 15
+ 15 (C + log fJh. - 2 Ci 2fJh. + Ci o4/Jh.) cos 2fJh. . • • • • • (16)
where C=0·5772. Si and Ci are the sine and cosine················································ ,....... . - _ .
integral functions. R
is just one-half of the self- 5
resistance of a thin, centre-dri'·en. aerial of
length 211
situated in free space·'. When 1,.' A
is small compared with unity, R
40,,2 (ho'A)I.
Using th($e formulae to calculate the ('(Iuh'alent
height h of the unloaded aerials it follows that
for h/A = 0'0'25. 0·050 and 0·10 h.IA = 0'050.
0,095, and 0·175 respectively. In other 'Words.
it is probable that the curves in Figs. 2.3. and 4
for loaded aerials also apply to unloaded aerials
of heights O'050A, 0·095A and 0·175A respecti\·ely.
The accuracy of this procedure can be checkt'd by
comparing the results with more exact pre\'ious
calculations for an unloaded unipole situated
over a circular. perfectly conducting, disc laid on
the ground. Employing the data in Figs. 2, 3
and 4 the function iJR, for the loaded unipole and
N =00 is plotted in Fig. 9 as a function of h'A for
selected value!' of alA. The corresponding cun'es,
for the unloaded unipole are obtained by the
Fig. 7. Tilt t/f,cl n/ chal/.lIl11g u'i" Tat/illS 0" lilt illc""",,'
0/ in/'III "s;sla"ce IJRt.
FiR. tl. A" ill,ulrnliol/ I" sll"u' ht';l' AU, I'Qrics u'ilh
a,o,,"d cond"clivily alld /r(qll(IIc.".
10 r---r---.---"-T""--"T'""1
hI>. AND h. o/ >.
FiR.9. Th,so/i,/ r;
"""5'''' <:;:I
/JU, for all id,al·
'-" /nad,d "ni/,ol,
(If h,it"l". u'lI,r,·
as III, dasll,d
elln"s eorr,sf'Ond
In III, ,sl"nal,d
't" an 'III·
laminnl,d 1111;'
pnl, of ".'
I'll, '''dlCaltd
,....""5 ar, l"oII,d
lrn", mo". , Ifact
8-((::) '/'_0'\
hlA - 0'25
0'04 0'01 O'IZ 0'16


WIR£UlSS ENGIXEEIl, ;\1.,,' 1955
6 or directly from Fig. SIb). The good agreement
between the two methods of calculation for /JR,
is reassuring.
It is also instructive to plot /JR, as a function
OJ hi>" for both loaded and unloaded unipoles for
a finite value of N. The results are shown in
Fig. 10 for N = lUO, 8 = 0'1, CI). = WI em·
ploying data from Figs. 2, 3. 4 and 5. Tht'
encircled points correspond to results, comnlllni·
cated to us privately by Mr. G. D. Monteath of tht'
B.B.C. for unloaded unipoles with heights of o· W,\
and 0·167>". Again the agreement is lk"ltis-
Hoth the curves in Fif.(s. 9 ilnd 10 illustrate tht'
near linear log-log rdationship between iJR, ami
hi>". This beha\'iour is also pre\'alent for otll(.'r
values of Nand 8 and pro... a cOIl\'enient
means of interpolating and extrapolating for
values of hi). other than those shown in Figs.
2 to 6.
No attempt has been made in this paper to
consider the economic factors but ratht'r tht'
emphasis has been on showing the manner in
which the impedance varies with the numbt'r and
length of radial wires. aerial height. and
conductivity. The curves should be useful in the
design of earth systems for low-frequency
transmitting aerials. It would appear that man)"
earth systems are probabl}' more extensh'e than
necessary since the benefits gained by employing
large radius screens are lost if there are not a
sufficient number of radial conductors. This is
particularl)' so if the ground conductivity is
relatively high.
The calculations for the base input-resistance
are deri\'ed on the assumption of uniform current
distribution along the vertical portion of the
aerial. It has been indicated, however. that the
results are also applicable to aerials with non-
uniform current distribution if the quantity h is
regarded as an effective height.
The need for the curves presented in this paper
was pointed out by Dr. T. W. Straker. Further
advice and suggestions were also given by
Dr. F. R. Abbott. Dr. W. J. Surtees. Mr. R S.
Thain and Mr. J. S. Helrose. Appreciation must
also be expressed to Mr. G. D. Monteath of the
British Broadcasting Corporation who com-
municated to us unpublished reports of his
on a 250·ft umbrl'lIa top.load('d unipole
show good with thl' thl'Ory. followin.:
"alul's were supplied to U!i by 1\Ir. ){. S. Thain
of this lahoraton':
l.c.-ngth of Radials, .... 81KI ft.
of Hadials. X = 120
Ground Conducth·it)". f1 ... 2·0 X 10-
I'rN!u('ncy, 97 kc/s
Hadiation H«'!'i!itance 3!i calculat('d frolll fil'hl str('lIl:th
R. = 0·50 ohm
Input m('a!iurl'd on a "ridgl', U, = 0·75 ohm
OI)Sl'n·('() rt'Sistancl' incrl'm('nt, AR, = ()·25 ohm
Thlorl'tical "alue of resistancl' incr('mcnt (for
h;A -= 0·025•• /A = 0·(18. 6 = 0·07). AR, = 0·23 ohm.
I G. H. Bro-n. Cou,.idcrationl of l"o,,·rr Antl'unas for
IIrOoM...... l·...... hoc. huf. RUlo f. 1935. Vol. 23. p. :111.
• Ci. H. bro.-n. R. 1....;1./. Erslt°in. ·'t'found S\·"'r... a".l I:,,('tor
in Anl"",n.. rftiri.....r)··. l'rflt . ..." HUltJ ,..",. •. 191:17, '"ul. I'.
-.- N. Abht.It. ftr lIuri,... M. I: .• ;,n",..1S'.trm.··.'·,tw.'"".
II..., tt5::. '· 411, I'. '1411.
• .0\ nnrr .lad R. U. S,N·nl"f'. o••1 l i,.·uta, l'l.uu- 011
.4nlrnn.. lC..di..'i....... } ••,.,.'.I·..... IlSU. '''1.21, r. I'M'I.
• J. t·, StOffOf. "Impnbll('p 0' an ."ntelm;], O\'rr a Lire"
Srr........ } .•,.,.,. ""·s., .951 Vol. 72. p. '0511.
• J. R" \'".ie and \\' .. I'opf'. "CharactrrlSlic:s of '-."fli, .\nl"IIII.l
... ,th kad,.. , londuUOT tilound '-"}'"" \' ,S.A.
.. I'UI,.. ll""",,"lion. In".. nle RadIO Enllrs. Mar<:h 195. lin"" rnb·
..'h.... i .. A,.,.,. SCI. Rrr.• Vol. U· ••.
'Ci. V. ... lh. "Arrliraeioll of Ihf' l"omprn!fo.ltlOn Thf'('lrrm to
(, rrUm f(.-.di",'ion and Pror-".tion P'fK. /"1,,.,1'1".1-."('1.
!!lSt. '·0198. I'.n 1\'. p. 23.
oW. j. SUfi........d j. R. W.i......n.........'e 01 a Top·lo.'d.... An'enn,
01 .',hll'."· Unc'h 0'·... Cirrular l>round«l Sc:reen",) .•,.,.,. l'Ar<.,
)I.. liS•. \·ol. 25. p. 553. .
• J" k. "·.,t. "lu,ped.,,(C" of an Anteonna a
Snl.n R i '.ab. Ie ' II·U· •••9S:l (l.lU. II · .
k_ud. 'Io.ord I·ro' P411·95·!l5·111I.
I. c,;. (i. ·'Surf.act' In1pt"d3f1ct' 01 :11I1 In(mitt' \\'Ir,' (,.;,rld OIt
Ob....u. Ana'os of 'nridm«". ). h .., .. ,IN,. E...... ,.,,1. 93, ".orl
II". p. 1523.
II U. L. (oIC"ntan. "Prnr.1.aliofl 0' F.1f'C'frOf1l,llt"rtac Ill!olurh;wr",
alu..c • Thin "'ur In • Hor.IOI,lalh· Strollll;M Mt''Chum''. "lui . •\,.,.,
1950'. \·..1 41, p. 276. .
II I.. l" Sntf'b,· "Sbort AnlfOnn.1 fh.u.1Ctf"ri'tlrs-
I',ot. 1.. 01 1161.0 .....:-•••9.9. "01. 37. r. 11115.
II <.. L. Sn.. 'b and E. •. john!lOlI. of Shorl Antenn....
I',ot. t .... H6I,o ....p •. It." Vol 35, p. 11126.
II S..,. Sr..... kunoll. "£I«.'On,.,n.'" W.vo.... \·.n SOI'r.nd, ItU.
',"'r III. r..-m' ".""'. G. I\.kof>.lf." J....,. of VIII. 32.
r ...s, hoi' arrhrd " \-"I.Juon.11 I('('hlllqu(' 10 obuln lolulIOI\ _hlch
...'"'" 1,.\ ..."abh· ••'h our t"'1U;\IIOn 03) anti th(' tonnula ot MOlllr"th'
'or Ibf' Idf'.al ClrcuU' around tefftn.
rt--'l--t-+-t'---1 3- 0"
Fig. 10. He '3
,urves for tile
lo.ded ""ipole
."dtlte ,stim.ted
'''rves for tile
""loaded u"ipole
.1" shown by thii
solid ."d d.shed
li"es respectively.
Tile er"ire/ed
poi,,'s represent
fI.'ues ,ompllted
-;;;. zt--t-
1.4 Wait, J. R., April 1956, "Effect of the Ground Screen on the Field Radiated from a
Monopole," Institute ofRadio Engineers Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, Vol. AP-4.
pp. 179-182
(Reprint No. 70)
Reprinted with the permission of the IRE (now IEEE)
Rt'""'td /,.", IRE TRA.""S."crIONS
Volum, AP.... Number Z, April, J956
'.I:<lm 1:< TIn. l'.S.A.
Effect of the Ground Screen on the Field Radiated
from a Monopole*
nate system (P. fI, z) the antenna is considered to be
coincident with the positive z axis and the surface of the
groulld is defined by: =O. Uenoting If.(P, :) as the m:tl!-
nelic field of the antenna in the absence of any ground
scn'en and till.(P. z) as the change due to the presence
of the ground screen. it follo\\'s from an earlier paper.'
where IJ ... 2.,,/),. ), .. ffloe space \\'a\'elength, " ... (jJwll1) II:
(;,/1 (surface impedance of the ground). jJ = 411' XIlI-

to) =anJ'(ular frequency. ",-1201r (intrinsic impedance of
free space). , '"' tan-I zip. and where J
is the Bessel
hlllctilln of the first type. In the abm..e, lJ.- refers to the
field of the antenna over a Oat perfectly conducting
I:roulld. This expression lor the fractional change of the
lIIal!netic field is approximate and neglects terms of
hil:her order in ("/,,.). It also assumes that the attenua-
tion of lhe I:fOund wa\'e hall a dependence with distance
\\ hich is independent of the 5izt' of the ground screen.
till.!J/. can he rt'J'(arded all lhe fractional rh:\nJ'(e of the
t'fTr"li"r ht'iJ'(ht of the :\ntt'nn:\ due to lhl' prl'!'\l'nrl' 01 the
grounrl snet'n.
;\s "n example a quarter-wa\'e monopole antenna is
considered with an assumed sinusoidal currcnt dislrihu-
,j,,". In this case
OME INTEREST has been shown recenth' in the
radiation characteristics of an L.F, \'ertical an-
tenna with a radial wire ground s}·stem. The in-
have beeu primarily concerned with thc
input impedance at the terminals of the antenna. This
was shown to be mainly a function of the nnmhl'r :111(1
length of radials and the J'(ronnd condncth·ity. It W;IS
assumed in most of this work that the ground w,l\-e fit'ld
for a gh'en current on the antenna was not appreriahly
affected by changes in size of the I1round scrcen. Fnder
this assumption. the radiation el1iciency of the an!l:lIl1;!
is determined mainly by the input resistilnce.
In an earlier paper.' an approximate method
given which was suitable for estimating the depelldclll"e
of the ground wave field on the size of the I:rOlllll1
screen. It is the purpose of this note to show that quanti-
tative results can be obtained which support our e.1rlicr
contention that the ground screen has only a small efTcct
on the ground wave field intensity for a specified current
on the antenna,
The ground screen is assumed to be a perfectly con-
ducting disc of radius a lying on a homogeneous flat
ground of conductivity 11, Choosing a cylindrical coorcli·
• Manuscript recei,-ed b)' the pG!\r, Oecen.hcr IS, 1?55.
t l':alio",,1 Rureau nl St"udarrl•. Rnulrler. Cnln.
, F. R. I\hhnll. "P,.i\:" nl buri,d R.F. I:roulld ')"1'111<.- I'.,'C.
IRE, ,·nl. 40. pp. 851; JIII\·, 1952.
1 J, R. \\'ail and W. A. Pope, "The characleri<ric. 01 " <err i,.. 1
anlenna wilh a radial cnnduclor ,round .),.tem," App. .'ici. RtJrtlrrh.
"01. pp. 177-195; l\larch. 1954,
• I. R. Wail and W. 1\. Pope, "Input nIl.. F. unif'nl,
aerial.,· lVi,t/,JS Ell'" "01. .12, pp 131-138; M..... 1955
· 1/ "(p' 0)
. JI(fJp'cos6)p'dp'
,'_, IJ.-(Po :)
The integral, apparently. cannot be evaluated in c1ost.'d
form. It is"not too difficult, however. to evaluate it by a
graphical This has been done for the case 1:" 0
which corresponds to the grollnd wave field. Letlin!:
-il III
H.-(p, I) --rill"'.'" - (." .1. ", (3)
It then follows that the fractional change of the lield is
given by
Cllcu"!'".rnc! o!
), ""'0'1"1""9'"
Ole '-_--'-....;;:::;;...••__.......__ __,""__ __'

cos /I
cosC Sin/l)
. cos /I)dp', (4)
11 -(p' 0) .. --
., 2lfP'
bH.(p, I)
11.(p, I)
and since p»>.;
Fit:. r3(io of th" Iround "';1\'" liel" str"ns:ths or the ,,"Iem,,'
(5) ..·jlh and "'ithout thl! lround ICl'ftn for" antenn" cllrrenl.
Some numerical values of X. nnd X, are Riven in the
following Table I.
Since &has already been considered 5mall, these are
Kiven adequatel)' by
.t I +ax.
with &... 1'1/'1.1. the integrals to consider are

XI". sin (p' + 11"/4)1/1 - 1I'/4)J.(pjdp.
where the amplitude ratio A is !:iven by
.A ... ((1 +ax.)! + (oX,pJII!
and the phase factor is 4> given by
4> .. tan-' --- .
( Ill)
.. ax, (radians).
The factor &can be obtained conveniently from the fol-
lowing relation
a - 0.00;5 (f..../tt)I/'
whereJ- is the frequency in mc and IT is the ground con-
ductivity in mbos/meter. (Since displacement currents
in the ground have been neglected throughout, the for-
mulas are valid only when &:«1.) Usin!: (9), the ampli-
tude ratio A is ,ho,,-n plotted in Fi!:. I as a function of
21raf)., the circumference of the I:round screen in wave-
len!:lhs, for typical valucs of &.
It is interestinJ: to note that for small Kreens the
J:rollnd wave field stren!:th is :lctu:llly slil:htly less th:ln
it would be in the absence of the screen. As the screen
becomes larger, the amplitude ratio increases somewhat.
bllt is still only :l fe'" per e'cnt J:realer than unity for a
Ih:lll a wavelength. Thinking in terms of the rccipro-
2rrtJ/'A XI X,
0.0 0.000 0.000
1.0 -0.130 O.IPI
I.S -0.211 0.-111
2.0 -0.209 0.100
2.S -0.102 09H
3.0 O.OU 1.093
3.5 0.155 \.131
4.0 0.111 \.133
4.5 0.11.1 1.li8
5.0 0.050 1.300
5.5 0.050 \.408
6.0 O. \19 1.612
6.5 0.205 1.614
The ratio of the field with the !:round screen to I he
field H.(p, s) without the ground screen is then gi\'en by
1+----- ..
11.(", :)
1!I1i/i Wait: Effed of 'he Ground on Field &dialed from a Jlonopole JHI
cal situation where the monopole is regarded as are·
ceiving antenna and the transmitter is located at some
distant point on the surface of the ground. the increase
of A above unity is characteristic of a ·recovery" ellect.
Such a phenomenon occurs in ground wave propagation
from land to sea.·
Another interesting feature of the (:urves ill Fig. J is
that the minimum values of A occur approximately
where the input resistance of the antenna is a minimnm.
It can be generally concluded. however. that the de-
pendence of the I..F. ground wave field strength Oil the
• G. Millington. -Ground propagation an inhomo-
leneou••rnooth nrth.· P,tIC.IE.E. vol. 96. pp. January. 19-19.
size of the ground. screen is of minor significance com·
pared to the dependence of the input resistance 011 the
size of the screen. It should be mentioned that Page and
Monteath' have used a similar method to calculate the
radiation pattern of a vertical antenna over an irregular
ground plane.
I would like to thank W. A. Pope who carefully car-
ried out the graphical integration of Xl and X,.
• II. Pace allli G. O. M....teath. "The vrrtic..lI radial ion p.111f'rll'
of ntNium''''a\"r broradc:iulinc aerials.· P,tIC. lEE.. vol. 102. pp. 279-
297; May, 1955.
1.5 Frood, D. G., and J. R. Wait, January 1956. "An Investigation of Slot Radiators in
Rectangular Metal Plates," Proceedings of the Institution ofElectrical Engineers. Vol. 103. pt. B.
pp. 103-109
(Reprint No. 72)
Reprinted with the permission of the lEE
By D. G. FROOD, B.A., M.A., and J. R. WAIT. M.Sc., Ph.D.
Wrilten conlribution, on .ilhoUI bcinl IUd .. __linp are
"'.lIcd (0' coaaide,ahon _llh I "leW 10 pubhullon.
Mr. f,ood an4 Dr. Wail_ere (ormerly a. Ihe De(ence RcwatdtTdeaDmrnunialicMD
Eslabbsbmcnl. Ontl,io. Canida
Ms. frood i1 ia the [)cpltllm'nt or Theoreclw 'h,1fC:J. Uni ..enirr o( L.C't'J'OO'.
Of. Wall it .. lb. Cen"al Propa,llIon Labontot'). NII"oeaJ Buteau of Slao4ard..
CoIOfldo. U.S.A.
. (I)
The radiation from slots cut in conducting surfaces of limited e."ent
is discussed. Equatorial plaoe pattcrns of an axial half-wa\c slot in a
rectangular melal plate are measured in the X band. Thc experimcntal
faults compare favourably with thc calculatcd patterns on thc a«ump-
tion that the plate can be by a thin elliptic cylindcr or
ribbon of infinite length. II is obser\cd thaI, if the Icngth of the platc
is equal to or greater than its width, the pattcrn is within a fcw per ceot
of the corresponding theoretical pattern for a plate of infinite length.
The admittance of the 5101 in Ihe plale was also measured and com-
pared wilh the compuled conductance. The agreement is seen to be
quite good.
(p, t/J, z) - Radial. azimuthal and axial co-ordinalcs of a
cylindrical co-ordinale SYSlcm.
V = Voltage across the centre of the slol.
'10 Intrinsic impedance of free space (=120 ohms).
Ie 2Tr/A.
, - Distance from observer to centre of slot.
'. - Distance from observer to lower end of slot.
'2 Distance from observer to upper end of slot.
w Angular frequency.
8 - Polar angle"" arc tan zip·
S(8) = H-plane pattern of slot on infinite sheel.
Y "" Self-admittance at centre of slot.
Z ... Self-impedance of slot (=11 Y).
cp, cJ>, z) - Cylindrical co-ordinatcs centred at ODe edge of sheet
for principal E-plane.
CP', cJ>', z) - Cylindrical co-ordinates cenlred at second edge of
sheet for principal E-plane.
F(s) ... Fresnel-type integral with upper limit s defined
in eqD. (6).
SI' 52 "" Limits for the integral F(s).
= Axial magnetic ficld of incident plane waye.
K .. Faclor of proportionalily dcpending 00 the geo-
melry of the slol.
v ... Voltage induced al the centre of the slot by the
incident waye.
,(/cd) - Shunt conductance of the slot in the wayeguide
divided by the characteristic admittance of the
waveguide (= fUDction of kd).
Q, b .. Inner dimensions of the broad and narrow faces of
the waycguidc.
-\ ... Effective wavelength in guide.
Slot anteMae are becoming very extensively employed in
microwave radiating systems. Their hislOry of development has
been rapid. It is difficulr to say exactly when they were invented,
but certainly the conlributions from Warson· and Booker
their collaborators were of major importance.
It is surprising thaI lillIe allention has been paid by previous
workers to the effect of cutting the slot in metal surf3ces of finile
elllent. While Ihe de:veloped design procedures assumed thaI the
e:'lterior surf3ce was infinile in extcnt. the: need for a pr3ctical
anlenna system the: ph)'sical of Ihe: mclal surface on
which the slols are cut. 51evenwn,J who de:veloped an cle(;anl
theory for the radiation of resonant slols in a rectangular wave-
guide. assumed for e:onvenience that the exterior region was
equivalent to a half space. He admits that the assumed infinite
dimension of the face of the waveguide for the clIlerior problem
is a severe limitalion to the validity of the CApressions for the
conductance of the slol.
It is the purpose of the paper to investigate in some detail the
significance of the finile CAtent of the metal surface or sheet on
Which the slot is cut.
The: radiation pattern of a thin slot cut in an infinite plane
sheet of perfect conductivilY and thickness can be
obtaincd by an application of an e:lc:ctromagnetic Babinet's
By using this technique. the well-known results. for
the thin-wire antenna can be transformed immediately to the
complementary problem. For a half-wave slot oriellled in the
z-direction of a (p, t/J. z) co-ordinate system and centre-fed by a
\rollage V, the fields are given by
-jV(r:-1l.\ r:-Jl..,).,
H =-- --- +-- £''''
• 2"'1)11'1 'z
jV [ £-1". r:-
H. = --- (z +),/4)-- +(: - ),14)-- r:1""
2'"101' '. 'z
E. = :=..!-(r:-Jl" + r:-ib,)cJ..'
where r2. '. and, are the distances of any point P to the upper,
centre and lower end, rcspeclh'ely, of the slot and where
'?O ,. 120Tr ohms and k = 2Tr/(free-space wavelenglh). Eqns. (I)
refer to the slot cut in an infinite sheet. When the point P is
sulrJciently far away from the slot the equations simplify some-
what to
E. j(2Tr,)-I5(8) exp (-jk, +jwl) l
H. E. sin 8 (2)
H. -
where 9 = arc tan (zip) and where terms containing ,-2, ,-J,
elc.• have been neglected. The factor 5(8) can be defined as
the radiation panern of the slot and is given by
5(8) - V .
Following the method of Carter' for the thin-wire antenna,
, -42
•••• ...L---,,--_-If._-,._.1.'_'
Fie- %.-E·planc pallcm of the slot for "'.. '''':;lltely large sheet.
Fig. 3.-H.plane pallem of t¥ slot for an infinitely larcc shcct.
It would now be ellpectcd. in view of the sh;IJIC of the H·plane
pallem shown in Fig. 3, that the efTect of the finile value of L
would not be pronounced. This is later borne out by
menl. lIo"'1:"er. the finite value of cl can be ellpeeted to lead to
a considerable impairment in the pallern, since the field in the
directic'O of the SiN is very signilic;lI1t. It is possible
to tre:1l the problem of the slnt in the finite plate by an
mate theoretical procedure, if the edges separated by the distance
Ztl arc considered to dilTract the primary field of Ihe slot as if
they were semi-infinite half.planes. The inleraclion between the
edges is neglected, and on physical grounds this would seem
justified if 2d is somewhat 5,eater than the free·space wavelength.
Again, this supposition is bome out by experiment and co.m.
parison with a more rigorous treatment, such as that which
represents the plate by a thin elliptic cylinder.
·' .
To facilitate the discussion it is desirable to conSider Ihe slot
as a receiving element. The vollage induced in the thin slot
from the wave incident on the plate is then proportional to the
tangential magnetic field along the This stalement follows
from Schelltunotr·s equivalence principle.
From FIg. 4 a plane
, (4)
y= -v
The integrations can be carried out to yield the result
Y = 2·06 +jO'97 millimhos
which corresponds to the case when the slot is allowed to radiate
on both sides of the sheet. The centre impedance or the slot is
the self-admittance Y at the centre of the slot can be obtained '00'
z = II Y = 365 - j212 ohms
It should be noted that Begobich
recently gave the value
362'5 +j210'5 ohms, which indicates reasonable agreement
with the above, except for the sign of the reactance. Apparently
he made an error in his derivation. The result derived by the
authors can be checked by comparing it with Booker's statement
of Sabinet's principle, and connecting impedance, Z, of the
slot w '\I the impedance, Z", of the complementary wire antenna,
such " ·t
ZZ.. = TJM4 = 360()Tr2
Using Carter's' value 73· 2 +j42' 5 for Z .. leads back to the
authors' expression for Z. Bc:govich erroneously employed the
c:omplex co!\iugate of Z".
When the slot radiates only on one side of the sheet the con-
ductance G would be one·half the real part of Y given abo\'e,
and hence G .. 1·03 millimhos. The corresponding susceptance
is one-half the imaginary pan of Y plus th:: susceptance of the
feed system.
It should be noted that the pallern of the slot on the infinite
sheet is essentially omni·directional in the azimuthal plane. It
is of interest to consider the etrect of truncating the sheet. For
example, the slot is Cllt in the centre of a reclangular metal "late
of width 2d, and parallel to the other sides of length L,
Fig. I.-Thin half·wa\e slot cut in the centre of a RCtanl\llar melal
sheet and co-ordinate system.
Fig. 4.-End view the sheet showing a plane "'ave incident from
as illustrated in Fig. I. The slot is fed by a waveguide such that
radiation takes place only on one side of the plale.
The ideal £-plane pallem in the equalorial plane. correspond·
ing to a value of d very much greater than the wavelength. would
be as shown in Fig. 2, where the plane of the sheet corresponds
to cJ> - 0·. In other words, the sheet is assumed to be suffi·
ciently wide that difTraction around and by the edges is
negligible. Of course, if the slot were allowed to radiate 00
both sides of the sheet the pallem would be a complete circle.
The corresponding H-plane pallem for the half-wave Slol is
simply the function S(8) shown in Fig. 3, where 8 - O· is in the
plane of the sheet.
wave is shown to be incidenl from below the thin conductiog
plale of width 2d. The incident wave is polarized such that the
magnetic vector H
is parallel to both the slot and the edges.
Clloosing a polar co-ordinale system centred at the left·hand
edge of Fig. 4, the field H. at P of co-ordinatcs (p, cJ>, z) due to
difTraction around this edge is Jiven by the classical Sommerfeld
H• .. + rJlaCOI(---.IF(silJ . (5)
where clio is the angle the incident waves makes with the plane
of the sheet. where
., C
&Z1IIUTM. ".t
'/-'-7"---+---'" --- - ---

Fill. 7.-Behaviour of Ihe £.planc pallem ror dircclions" above and
below lhe plane or the sheel.
V.lue 01 '"' • iftdicaled on 11M' cuncs.
".a.-<,_... _Ied.


Fla. 6.-Principal £·planc paltern of a slot in a shccl of widlh 2d
symmelrical aboul 90'. The plane of the sheet corresponds to 0'.
id- 141
, -to'
... -,.,.
".a.-<'u... II _1Cd.

which apparently docs nol accounl properly fur the energy
diffracted around the edges. The calculations were also carried
out for kd = 94 and 234, and these are shown ploued in Fig. 7
in the inleresling transilion reBion for angles within I S' above
and below Ihe plane or the sheet. II is noted thaI the field OIl Ihe
FIC. '.-SChemalic or Ihe "·3vecuidc·fed slol mounted on lhe lurntable
ror lhe pallcm meaSUf'ffl1CnIS.
• (6)
F(s) - aJft/4w-
/1 J
- ..
Sl .,. (2kp)l/2 sin (I>
s2 = - (2kp)1I2 sin cliO)
Similarly the field H; at P due to diffraction around the olher
or righI-hand edge is idenlical in iarm 10 eqn. (S) if p, <I' and fll
are replaced by p', cII'and tlI
.and H
is replaced by Hoe-J2Mcos •••
The vollage 11 induced in the centrally localed slot 00 the sheet
is then given by
v -= K(H, + H;) for r' r = d and <I> - <1>' -= 0
where K is a conSlant which depends on the dimensions of the
slot. It then follows thaI
Ivl -= KI F[-(2kd)I/2sin(tlI
/2>] + F[ -(2kd) 112 cos (<I>o/2>J1
• (7)
which is applicable in Ihe range clio = 0'-180".
When the incidenl wave is incident on the upper side of the
sheel, sleps muSI be taken to combine Ihe fields. as delermined
by the two knife-cdge problems, in Ihe proJ'Cr manner. It is
convenient to choose a slighlly differenl co-ordinale syslem as
shown in Fig. S, where Ihe angular co·ordinalcs <I> and <1>0 are
now measured from the bOllom of Ihe sheel.
Fig. 5.-End view of the sheet showing a plane wave incidenl from
The magnelic field H, OIl P, regarding the shccl as a semi-
infinile half· plane wilh the edge OIl (0, 0, z). is given by eqn. (S).
and a similar expression is oblained for H;. The voltage "
induced in the slol is Ihen given approximalely by
11 -= K[H, + H; - HoeikdCOSO.] • (8)
The lerm Hoejkdcos4>. is Ihe primary field of Ihe incidenl wave
al Ihe slol and it musl be sublracled from H. + H;. since the
primary field is included bolh in H, and II;.
The slol vohage for the wave incidenl on the upper side of the
sheel is Ihen given by
Ivl ,.. KI F[(2kd)l/2 sin (111
/2)] + F[(2kti)l/2 cos (<1>0/2)]- II
. (9)
for in Ihe range 0'-180'.
As a numerical e:'lample. Ihe £.plane pallern for a Ihin 5101
cuI in Ihe axial dircclion on a melal sheel of widlh 2d is com·
pUled using eCJns. (7) and (9) for kd 141. The pallem plolled
in Fig. 6 is normalized in Ihe broadside dircclion 10 OdB. II is
inlercsling 10 nOle Ihat the field in Ihe direclion tangenlial to
the shccl is 6dB below the maximum value. This is a charac·
terislic which holds consislenlly for all sheet widlhs grcaler Ihan
a few wavelenglhs. It is wOrlh menlioning Ihal Booker has (liven
a value of 3dB ralher Ihan 6dB for Ihe redUClion of Ihe fICld
along Ihe shcct. His argumenl is based on physical grounds,
(61 lui - •• l. - Id '41 boJ - 10. l. • Id
Fla. '.-Principal £·planc pallems ora thin halr._ve slot in the ccnlR or. rec:tanlUlar ShCCI ur Icnllh L and width 211.
-- EAPI'ri_laL
---- nw-tital.
• - 90"
.... - to·
......·7n_.. X-.
rear of the sheet diminishes very slowly with increasing values
of 2d. In fac:t. it is easy to show from the asymplotic: behaviour
of the integral F(s), that the amplitudes of the envelopes of the
back lobes are approltimately inversely proportional to ,jU.
The above approximate method for calc:ulating patterns ofslots
in metal sheets of finite width cannot be expec:ted to yield reliable
results ""hen 2d is of the order of a wavelength or less. A more
rigorous approach is to represent the sheet by a thin eUiplic
cylinder of vanishing minor axis. Computations based on this
model have been c:arried out preViously' for values of led ranging
from 2 to 8. It was shown thaI the double k n i f e ~ d g e approxima-
tion is accurate to within a few decibels if ltd is IJUter than
about 6.
In this Seclion some experimental patterns will be compared
. with the patterns computed both from the double k n i f ~ g e
technique and from the elliptic<ylinder method.
The experimental work was carried out on an antennll nnge
at a of 3·2c;m. A narrow half-wave sial was CUt in
the broad face of an X-band waveguide illustrated in fil. 8,
with the centre of tbe 5101 approltimately tbree-quaners of a
JUide wavelength from the short-circuited end. The slot was
parallel to the axis of the .uide and was offset approximately
0·1 in from the centre of the broad face of the guide. A number
of thin rectangular lIluminium pilites were prepared with led
varyinl from 4 to 141 \\ith lenlth/width ratios from ~ to 20.
These plates were desilned to be easily mounted on the broad
face of the guide. The waveguide assembly was then mounted
on a suiUlble turntable and illuminated by a transmitting dish
antenna which was located at a distance of 100ft. The radiation
was incident normally to the axis of the guide and was hori-
zontally polarized. The outpUt from the waveguide was detecled
and amplified and ils qrying qlues were planed on an ink
Reorder which had a logarithmic scale.
Measured patterns are shown in FilS. 9(a}-9(h) for led '" 4. 6,
8. 10, 12, 16. 28 and 141, for the case where the slot is centrally
located in the plate. Theoretical data are also shown for com-
parison in some of the curves. The theoretical curve for the
case led - 141 is shown in Fig. 6. The vertical sc:ale is arbitrary,
Ind for the sake of convenience the experimental and calculated
c:urves Ire matched in the direction of the maximum field. The
elliplic<ylinder method of cakulation was employed for led
values of up to 10 usin8 eqn. (8) or Refereac:e 8 with 8 - 90",

(.) 1<tl - 12. L - U
150 ZIO Z70 SSO
Fie- 9--t:oll"IIurd
! I'
5 0

(&, 1<tl - 141. L - un
and "0- the anlUlar co-ordinate of the slol. equal to 90°. For
larger values of Jed the double knife-edge technique was used to
oblain the theoretical curves. It should be noted that the
azimuth scale of these filUres are chosen so that the broadside
direction from the slot corresponds to 0·.
The agreement between experiment and theory improves for
the larger sheets. The probable reason for the discrepancy for
small sheets is that the diffraction by the waveguide behind the
sheet is becoming significanl. For Jed co 4 the plate is only
aboul SOy. wider than the broad face of the lUide. and il is
therefore not surprising thaI the pallero differs from thaI cal-
culaled on the basis of a thin elliptic cylinder. 1\ is also inleresl-
ing to observe that the experimental pallem for Jed ~ 4 is
somewhat asymmetrical; this is due. no doubl. to the facI Ihal
while the slol is cenlrally localed in the piaIe. the guide is diS-
placed slighlly. The asymmetry is also seen to occ:ur for Jed - 6.
bUI to a lesser extenl.
To iIIuslrale the effect of the length of the plale. pallems were
recorded for L - d. 4d and 2Od. keeping Jed constant al 6. The
similarity between these curves. shown in Fig. 10. is striking.
and substantiates the earlier supposition that the azimuthal
pallems are detennined mainly by Ihe lateral dimension (i.e. 2d)
of the plate for an axial slol. In facl. it can be seen from the
curves in Fig. 10 that the piaIe can be regarded as infinile in
lenllh so long as L is Ireater than about 4d. The main effect
or finile length seems to be an increase in the level or the
back lobes.
In all the above-mentioned experiments the slot was situated
in the cenlre of the plate. If 1M slot was displaced toward
one edge by an amount d/2. the angular elliptic co-ordinate
fil. IO.-Principal £.plane pallem for lhe shecl of various Icnlths wilh
conslant widlh.
Pon", .......... -I.. -...... -... L - " , ~ . z o , r

o G
0'1-, .. -t,
Fla. bclWftn the experimental and
normalized conductance.
- I
• I
" 00
; I
• I
.. ,
Fie. t 2.-Mcasurrll norm:llimJ conllll\,'1ancc and susecptanc:e or lhe
slot :I, a func:lion of the widlh of lhe sheet.
Slot _ h - Ain
SkM 'h -lin
1- J·ZOan,A•• 4· ......
By 3dapting Stevemon's theory) for longitudinal slots near
rnon:Jnce, cut in the narrow facc of the wavclUide, it is C:Jsy to
show th:Jt the normalized conductance ,(kd), as a function of kd,
in terms of the actual conductance G al the eentre of thc slot,
i\ Ii\-en by
480 Q A, • 'Il'A 1·03
,(lid) iii h 'i 2'\" - G' . (10)
Ste"enson's formula to eqn. (10) when G is repl3ccd
by 1'03; this corresponds to the casc of 3n infinite pl31e
(i.e. I,,: _ co). Employin, the theorelical results for G, men-
tioned abovc, the value of ,(lrd) - ,(co) Jivcn by eqn. (10) is
ploued in Fig. 13 using Q .. 0-90in, b - O'40in, A.. 3'2em,
-\ = 4· 48em, along with the corresponding experimental curve.
There is rcason3ble aarccmenl betweenthe cxperimenlal and the
110 110 Z so
As is c:usl0fIW')' in _wquide measuremenlS. the Ioqitudinal
slot is represenled by an equivalent shunt admiltance across lhe
equivalenl lnnsmission lioe of the _vclUide. EmpIoyin, a
slolled line in conjunction wilh an adjustable .hort-eimJil
tcnninalion in the paidc beyond the 5101, the conduc:tane:e and
susceplance are dctmnincd usin, a standard technique.
values are normalized by dividin, by the c:haracleriltic admittance
of the ,viele, which is real. 1bc normalized conductance
denoted by I, and the norm:alizcd SUSC%ptanc:c denoted by b.,
are plotted in Fi,. 121S a func:tion of kd.
becomes Vo - 60°. The pallcm lhen became quile asymmelrical
IS shown in Fig. II. This Iype of as)'mmelry was also presenl
in the theoretical comput3tions of Ihe offsct !dot or the Ihin
elliptic cylinder.' The olhcr curves in Fig. II corresP<lnd 10 the
pallems for Ihe slot covered with 13)'e",", of pl3Stic eleclric:1I
tape of Ihickness 7· Smils. The number of 13)'ers is indiC3ted
by the value T. It is interesting th3t the 3zimuthOli p311erns arc
essenlially unch3nged in Sh3pe, which is in 3ccord wilh theory
for a thin 5101. II is nOI possiblc 10 dr3w 3ny further conclusions
from this sct of curves, since it W3S not feasible at the lime 10
mc3Sure the change of the v01t3gc: sl3nding.wave r3tio in the
lUide for the difTerent thicknesses of the dielectric co\'Cring.
Furthermore, the dielectric properties of the plastic tape arc
FIa- IJ.-Princ:iflal F.-plane paUern, for Ihe ,101 di,pl:lI:ed loward lhe
ri,hl-hand cd,c by an amounl d/2. (The values of T correspond
10 the number of layers of lape coverin,lhe slOI.)
U -,4.' - 90". Y. - w.
Another important Ch3r3cteristic of a slot cut in a met:J1
surface is its admillance. In the e:Jrlier part of the paper it \\'35
shown Ihal Ihe admillance at the cenlre (If a thin h:lIf.wavc slor
cuI in an infinilely Ihin conducting sheel of infinile e:"enl. w.
2·06 +jO·97millimhos. If the slot is fed by a waveguide,
which is localed on one side of the sheel so that it radi3tes only
inlo one of the half·spaces, the conductance at the centre of lhe
slot is I ·03 millimhos and Ihe susceplance, IS mentioncd earlier,
is dependent on the nature of the evanescent structure of the field
within the guide.
When the sheet is of finite size the conductancc is no 10nICr
1·03millimhos. The variation of G with Ihe width of the sheet
WIS investig:Jled theoretic:Jlly by using a model of a thin :nial
hOllf·wave slot at the centre of the broad facc of a Ihin elliptic
cylinder.' G was obtained C'tplicitly by computing the power
radiated from the slot for a specified voltaIC at the ccntre of the
slot. It was shown that G was an oscillating function of the
width 2d, and it approached I ·03 millimhos IS 2d approached
It is now worth while to examine the admittance using an
experimenlal procedure. The 5101 of width 1/16in 3nd !eolth
5/8 in was cut parallel 10 the narrow face of the X-band wave-
lUide. Means were then taken to mount a scries of plates of
various widlhs flush with the narrow f3ee of the wavelUide in a
similar manner 10 thaI employed for the paltern me3Suremcnts
of the slots. The slot was cut in Ihe narrow facc ralher thOln
Ihe broad face. so lhOlt the effect of plates of small width could
be cumined also.
(I) WATSON, W. H.: "Wave Guide Transmission and Antenna
Systems" (Oxford University Press.. 1947), Ch:Ipter 6.
(2) IklOKEll, H. G.: "Slot Aerials and their Relation to Com·
plementary Wire Aerials," Jounuzl 1.£.£., 1946, 93.
Part iliA, p. 620.
(3) Sn\'E!'o'SON. A. F.: "Theory or Slots in RCCI:tntwlaf Wayc
Guides:' Jour,",1 "1Applktl PII)'sirs, 1948. 19. p. 24.
(4) ScHELItUNOFf, S. A.: "Elcctromal/lCtic Wayes" (Van
Nostrand. 1943).
(5) CAllnll, P. S.: "Circuit Relatiom in Radiating Systems and
Applicacions /0 An/enn.., Problems," Pf//("(wlinrs 0/ tIlt:
Inslilutt' 01 Rml"w &gin"t'fs. 1932. 20. p, 1004,
(6) BEGOVICH, N. A.: "Slot Radiators:' ibiJ., 1950.38, p. 803.
(7) WAlr, J. R.: "Field proouced by an Arbitrary SIC'! on an
Elliptic Cylinder," JoufttOl "1 Appli"tI Physirs, ."5, 26,
(8) WAil, J. R., and WALPUU. R. E.: "Calculated Radiation
Characteristics of Slots in Metal Sheets," C_dilUl
JOluttOlolT,clrnDlOIY, 1955,33. p. 211.
(9) SoMMEllfELD, A. N.: "VorJcsunpm ubcr theoretische
Physik," VoL 4. Optik, Wicsbaden, Dieterich Verla..
(10) SILVEIl, S.: "Microwave Antenna Theory lind Design,"
Vol. 12, M.I.T. Radialion Laboratory Series" (McGraw-
We wish to thank Mr, R. G. Sinclair Who ably assisted with the
pattern measurements and Messrs. R. E. Walpole and W. A.
Pope who carried out most of the computations. Valuable
advice was also received from Dr. A. W. Adey in connection
with the admittane:e measurements.
11 has been demonstrated that the radiation characteristics of
an axial half-wave slot in a rectangular metal plate are mainly a
function of the width, rather than the len,th, of the plate. The
measured pattern and radiation conductance of the slot acreed
quite closely with theory over a wide ranae of plate widths.
The experimental phase of this project i5 continuin8, and par·
ticular attention will be paid to the clfcet of the fillite width
and depth of the slot. It is also hoped to examine the effect
of curvature of the metal plate in which the slot is cut.
computed curves. The disa8reement for the smaller values of kd
can probably be accounted for by the fact that the theory does
, not account for the dilfraction by the wavc8uide behind the plate.
II should also be mentioned that the theoretical value of "
which is found usin8 Stevenson's procedure. assumes that the
susceptane:e is much smaller than the conductance (i.e. the slot
is near resonance). It can be seen from the experimental results
that. althoup b" is small, it is not ne81iaible and would, no
doubt, also be a source of discrepancy.
1.6 Wait, J. R., and D. G. Frood, OCtober 1956, "The Radiation Patterns and Conductances
of Slots Cut in RectangUlar Metal Plates, Proceedings oftile Institute ofRadio Engineers, Vol. 44,
p. 1467
(Reprint No. 85)
Reprinted with the permission of the IRE (now IEEE)
R".;"".! l'u,," fir' PROl-t:EDI:-;C;S OF' TilE J R E.
,"OL. 10. OCTOBER. PJ' 1467
llf '1tll: 1:.5.A.
'J. It \\ ••, ."••, M f-' \\',.11'"'-" -'·al."t..,.., I "-'.1
lin" rh.s••"'f''''''''. trl 1 In ."", ,I .. !t ·I •• I'"t
1. Col •. J 1n\ ..., " "" .. r '0$' ;''In.'
,.'1 II won' U "" c.n-7n: '_n''''''"
• n F'''"'''.rtd f It \\'alt -1\" '''\'''_1' •. 111'''' nf
...,. ,,,,11:,,,,,. ,n , ... ,."cllia' ull"lo1Itt''l .. "'ot '"
.'" Iltt. Itfl. ,nJ-ltn; ., ".
JOil. ,1
II ..."s fOlln,1 lhat the IIIC"""fl'" "11l1
•·..lelllale" .101 C.. "s ... 1"".li.."
..I "lal" "i,lth. :l1I......d dn.rl) •. " "I"
Ih:lt the nK"':'\"lIr'-11 '\t'Il' ;aJ·
... ahoul III per ,..."t lo..·('r Ih"" Ih,..,,,·, ;,",,1
Olles. This di... r"p.,nC')· nt... ha,'" bc'cII
to Iht' f"et lhal "",nir lh" ..1
'"nllih (II :u..! .1"1 "Nllh Cu,) 1.. 1 'Ill'" ,k.,
1,,\:,. ) » I •
Clearl)', thi- ....... Iitinn i. ,"cry h"rd I" I"Ihll
in praclice.
Aftt'r Ih,' I'r(',\I<:II;un nf Ihi. 1\I,,,,r,
lurlht'r reoc:lrch w,,, d,..'C .." Iht' ",..,h'MI 01
"'f'llSU,inllslnl prol'l'rtin. h ...:,. fou"d Ih... 1
lht' lcchniqlll.' uocd abo,'" (lhe qn"'·"
nlrthnd) i" nnt. in CI"nt"'r:t1. :u s:nucl ..,,, :I Itt·"
",«'thuet ".. hid, i" iudC'l'cndl"nl f'r Ihe ,'''",r
and any refleclio". froon the probe ill lht'
sloll..d line. Til.. nsenti:ll' of this work will
be publishl!d shortly. The full
and """rimt'ntal d..tail. of the ft"l "1,,tr
anlen"" di!'CII.....1 here h.,,·e lJe.o"
}. R.
Cenlral Radio Propal!"tion Lab..
N"';OII3I Bureau of SI:lnd:lrd•.
Boulder. Colo.
D.G. F.",,,'.
rl...,ic' Ikpl ..
Ullin",ily or Lin·rpool.
Lh'erpool, F.nlll:lnd.
ApI,I)'illl: silllple ... 1 lUIl"""''''-.
a. were uoro to prroict the radi."i.."
patterlls, it an be .hown that the
alice Itl of a rcso'l3"t slot ill a llal Illt'l"I
pLllC i. " <1"111"'-.1 oscill"linll f""(fi ..,, ••1
I.lal" ... i.lth ( ...) "'ith " 1,,'';•• 1..I "I ••", ..,,,.
frt'(' .,\"T",;","·I"nl:,h, .. ..11.
"00 1ne- ....llrM .... ll<:r". .... I
\"ry clllIel,.. but for lIarrow pI"I... Ih.·..·
-as Sl)me in the pattern!J tn
difT""'Iill" lOfT'octs caullC:d by Ih" ..
behind Ihe plale. For widlh. I:..•... 'er lit.• "
two or lhr"" lrec sp.1\·" ".1,·"Ie"II,h., Ihi-
efreet ..... ""IliCible, hu...e\'er.
- -

l::'rcrimrnl"I"· it ..... 10lln,I Ihe
",.Ii.llion p.,tlrrn .>/ a "ble of "iclth
(111 "'3. indere"denl "I ill Ienglh (LI il:
/. '11" i= I.
fur ."IIi,;enl"· I..nt lhe r.. te"laled
F'I J-,-'.Im"th or .!."I."P fadlallOft p.lU"·M 'Ot
rtl.l ••• i-tlh, wo. 01 at-tull. t, IS a•• In .,."r.."eth
"Is I

_-._-.- ,/.:..1 ..
j -.
the slot (whose axis is perpendicnlar to Ihe
plane of the paper) and let C repr"""nl the
wa\'quide feeding po"'er to the slot.
far aW3l' frOm the wavquide and pIale is
a receivinR antenm P.
When the slot is pointing to"'a,,' P.i .t.•
in the O· direction. a large field slrenglh
results. bUI if the slot points away from /'
(in the • SO· direction) Ihe field strength is
small. its ..ctual value beinl: delermined by
the fraction of the tOlal power r:U.i.lIro
which is difTraclro behind Ihc shet't to r.
In the inlermcdi:lle dirceli"n. 90· and 2iO·
the field stren,lh al P would lie bel..-et'n
the values obtaintd for Ihe O· and 180·
direclions. Thus. in Ihe "b"""", nf f"rlht'r
complications. the ra.Ii.,lion ""lIt'rn 01 Ihe
mel,,1 shet'l 3nlt'nn" ,.,,,,Id rc""",l"le lloe
d3.hed line of FiR. 2("1. ACIu.,lIy i",·
portant fUlure has been overlooked in Ihis
h will be appreci"lro Ih31 Ihe edlles
E. lIn.1 E. of the met:ll shet'r foml a dis·
continuilY tn the field t"weli,,!! oUlw"rd
from the slot and alonR Ihe sheel. R:ldi,,'inC
line sources will. therefore. be induced
near the edlles E, anti Eo of the sheet and
theooe will come in an.1 o,.t of ph"oe ...ilh
e3rh Olht'f a' the anlenna is rol:lll!d. ,.10",.
insle"d of Ihe radialion pallern looking like
the dashl!d line of Fill. 2(al. it "'ill resemble
the full line of the same firure. The number
of inlerference fringes in a complele rOI"lion
01 the plate will be grealer for "'ide sheel,
than for narrow ones si"ce a snl3l1er incre·
menl,,1 rnlalion is required 10 form a gi"en
palh diflerence for a "'ide .heel. The ampli·
lude of Ihe fringes ...ill be .111.,11.., for "'ide
.hftt1 than for nnrrnw ont'S. hn"oeo' ••ince
the strenl:lh of the induced li"e !IOurC'Cs
decrea'eo :IS the "'idth is iner' , ...d
Fron' "'hat h". been ..,id. lhe rndi:llion
p:utcrns Inr n:urnw. I11twtrr:Ht'lv wicl.... "'ilir.
and i.,Ii..ilrh·'" .11('1"" will he- like the'
fullli"t's 01 FiR-. 2(:11. 2(h). 2(d. a"tI 2(d).
The Radiation Patterns and Con-
ductances of Slots Cut on Rectangu-
lar Metal Plates·
It is to predict the form of the prin.
cipal £-plane radiation pattern obtlined
from a slot cut on a long mel31
pbte. for Ihe pl31e of
widlh W. shown in Fig. I. Lei S repre!enl
1.7 Wait, J. R., October 1957, "Pattem of a Flush-Mounted Microwave Antenna," Journal
ofResearch of the (U.S.) National Bureau of Standards, Vol. 59, pp. 2 5 5 ~ 2 5 9
(Reprint NO.1 07)
Reprinted with the author's permission
Journal of Research 0/ Ihe NCllional Bureau of Slandards Vol. 59, No.4, October 1957
Research Peper 2796
Pattern of a Flush-Mounted Microwave Antenna
James R. Wait
Thr nlllll,-riclIl r,.,cllll" for th" Car ZOllr rnclilllion fro... 811 asial 011 Arirt'Ulnr ..,'!i'III,·r
of perfect C:OlldllCth'ity alld illlillilr ll'lIKlh aft' di'"l'lIlOII4od. It ..hown thai lIMo """",,, for
Inr,;c dinmclt'r c:yHllde.... rail be- l'sprt'l'!C{'(1 in a unin.....1 form that ill for It.lIlI,-nl
C:lllclllntioll" for nrrll"" or 011 n II'-nth' l'1If\·c'flllllrfll..... Thp work j,. romlNln'fl ,,'ilh a
rellllrd ditrrlll'lioll (,rohlNlI cOII"idc'r,-d j:OI'k.
,l/(r••) = I.\llr.•)1"""'·'.
rorrt'Spollds to the axis of thl' c'.'"lillclt'r. It b"I'11
shown (91 that tht' el('('tric fi('lcl, whil-h has ollly a III
rompont'nt, is given b,)" •
TIlC' IIll1plitllcll' l.\/(r••)I 111111 tilt' l'Orrl-l-tielll
.llr,.' of thl' ,.\·Iilllll·r 1l1)III'1' flll·tor nrl' !'lhoWII ploU",1
ill lil!lIre'!t 111nl12 fllr .. (nllll n III limo (or,,=ltl, 12,
I;i, IR. nllel21. 1'0 l)rl,\Oe·nt. o\O(·rlllp"illl!.
lh" ordinall'S arC' shiftl'" for ('PI'1r 1'lIrn' I,," n 1'OII!ltllllt
1I1l101lnt. '
':hl' Jlhn!'ll' fUlII'tioll a(r,.) n rOJlilll.'" flllll'-
hon of. for tbl' Inf]:t'r r \·nI1ll'S. I"or it
ill "e'!tinlhl(' to a ill till' ill 1I1l1illll 1,·,1 tl'l!iCIII
(0<'.1<,,/2) as a i"l1l It'rlll pillS I'
rorr('Ctitm fador follows (91
a(r,.)=a(r,O)-r(J-I'tI!l (!ill)
III thl' !'llIltlo\\" (..fl<I.I<11'), il ill tlt'!tirnhlt· til
t'xl!rt'Ssoa all a !,Iull 11
wlm'h IS alllO dt'SJlPnah'el III till' followlI'"

8(6)=1;: 6L" nz}t'tI·"'dz, (2)
AJ(7,1II)=}- i: mill, (:I)
"z ••, Il. V,)
r=!'" sin 6, 1o=2,,/(rt't' spa,l' WI1\·,-I"II/!th, to= I,f.. =
2(",#(1), ancllJo;,"(,,) i!l th(' cll'ri\"llti\'1' of thl' lInllkl·1
fUllt,tioll al)l)rol)rintt· for a till... (111'101' I'X" (icJ).
.:11"11tioll (I) is nlicl for £or !'lill 6» I,
fht' fUIlt'tioll 8(6) i!l tlll' !'lplle'l' flll'lllr of the' !OInt.
or an arnn' of rollilll'or !llots if thl'" W,'I'" ('Ill in 1111
infinilt' 1)111/11' C'olllhlC'tinl: !'lh,·,·I.' The' inn
.\I(r••) ill t'"IIc'CI thl' "t,.,·lilltlc'r j;JIlIf'C' flldor" II!' il
fulh' dl'!!I'ribC'!l thl' I,(fl·,'t. of thl' (illitt· elinnll'l,'!' fir
tilt: ".\·Iincll'r Cln tht' rlltlilllielll pntle'I'n in holh lilt,
clirl·('lion!l. ....lIr 11IIrllt'S"!I IIf e·OIIII'"lnlifln.
It l!'l ",nltt'n
1. Introduction
2. Theoretical Basis
, , .." ...... 1ft Ilnockfo..."'II...'.'.... 'It."'.,,"' ................t I .....n.. '" Ih.. I........
TJIt- radiation f!'Om f1ulIh-lIIl1tllltt'd lIIit'rowa\'"
antennas has arous('d ('onsidt'rahl(· int('rcst in rt'ct'nt
years (1-6}.' From n tht'Oreti('al standpoint, tht'
proble!Jl would lK'('m to ht· simplt' ('nough; tht' surfnt·('
on the antl'nna is 1JI01lntl't1 is considert't! to lit'
adElquatt'h' reprl'S('ntt'd I,,' a spht'r(' or ('\'Iind('r
whose ractius of cur\"atur(' is IIIlltc'hed to thnt of tht'
Jocal of the aC'tunl surfaC't'. Unfortunntt'h'
the solutiou of till' pmhlt'm, in tl'rlllll of
('lasslC'al harmoni,' s,-ri,'S ilwoh'ing integral or 1:1I1f-
inttgral ordt'r U('S.c;l'! flllll'tions, alwn\"S c'on\'t''l!',!!
vt'ry poorly ",ht'n th,' I'ndius of C'urniturt' i!l 111'l!t'
,'olllpar(',{ to tht' wan,lI'lIl:tlr, 'I'ht'r" art' two \\"t'II·
kn,?wn a!t('rnath'" (6, ii, how('\"'r,
wlul'l, CIUI h" us,-d to in c('rlain C'all('!!.
In tht' i1huninatt',1 of tht' aull'nun "','oUlt'ldt'at
• • • • "1:"
optICS IS most sat1sfal'to1'\' , wlul,' dl'('p in tht' shndow
lhl' rigorous hal'moni,' !Ii'rit'll I'IUI ht' cOIl\'('rtl'Cl illio
till' mpitlh" ('OIl\'I'I'J,tillJ,t rNlidut' !It'rit'S.
The c'abllatioll of till' rnelilltioll fie·lel of ft f1I1!Oh-
anttlllla ill tht' tnllg"lIt plullt· (lht' dnssil'ul
houllelnn') is 1I0t re'aclih' lrl'ale'd I,,·
c,ithl'r gC'olllctrit'al or tIlt' rt'!\ithll' III tilt·
(ol'Jllt'r e'allC tilt· fie,ltl ill illell·t,'I·lIIillllllt, alld ill till'
latter cast' the' C'OIl "t'r!!I'III'C' ill t'xtrl'lIIt'h' poor 01111
woule.1 actllall.\· ill till' illumiluitt'cl
Dcspltt' the fart thnt tht' harmemil' lK'ril'!l is ('lImhl'r-
IIOmt', it is valid in thi!l tmll!litioll zont' Ilt't\\"('('1I tht'
shadow of spal't', Tht'rl'-
It IS dt'Sll"ahlt'. to atll'mpt to IlClapl thC' hnrmonil'.
st'rlcs r('prelK'lItatloll to sllrfal'l's of lnrgl' rOllill!l of
(,"rvaturc. This is tht" purpoSt· of thl' prt'sc'1I1 IJI11)t'r.
A thill axial slot, ('ut on a drcular C'\'limlt'r of
illfinite length and pt'r('I't I'onclu('tivit'· is 1'011-
sidered because it gi\"t's rist" to a
radiation ficld. The c.ylilltl('r is takt'n to bt' of rntlill!l
tJ and coaxial with a ('\·tillllriC'ol coordinatt' S\'sh'm
(p,lII,z). The slot that (,':'I:tC'lIcls from £, to £, 1l1'1II=1I
has a voltage clistrihutioll ,. (z) throlll!hollt
1t'lIgth. Tht' racliation pnUt'rn is bt'st uprt'ssc'" ill
tt'rms of spherical coorclillntt's (r,III,6) wht'r(' 6=0
It. \'rrUl'UllOIk' bllhlrtnl Int ........ M.n"f'.
IJI(r,+)I:r I
Dt'rp in till' shatlow, that is 1+1>90° hut Ilot 11"111'
• .lI(r,+) has thr form of a d81l111NI WII\"C',
81111 ("8U be chara("t('rizNI b)O a fUIU·tioll of tilt' form
"'or 1+1<90
but tlot Ilc'or 911
• til\' \'nllll' of til\'
Spll"1' f8("tOf is quilt· W(·l1 appfoximotrcl b," till'
gt'OlIll'lrical-opties approximatioll, That is
.t1(tJ}l::tI'Xp (-iT{1rfl/X)li
with T=0.808 ('xp( -;r/:I). TI:is c'xpou"lllilll f01"l1l
ror .1(+) is tile fir.>t lrnn or a rntlll'r rompli"lltl',1
rMlichl1' Sl'ril'S (iJ, It is onb' vlllici for hi» I. TIll'
ordl'f tl'rmll modl's) urI' ol!'o pOfllllU'lri,'
ill (ru/X)"tJ, wl-rrr tJ is !!Oml' clist!IIIC"·. ] I
is, tlwfc·forl', to c'xpl'c'l M(r,+) to hI' purunlt'lri.,
ill (r/2)"(+- ./2) and (JI2)l'\(:l1ro/2) - +1. In fllc't, if
thc' ril>plrs afr iF:llorc·tI. thc' flllll'tion M{r,t/l) should
hI' R fuurtioll onh' of (r/2) "(t/l- r/2). TIU' dottl'd
clln'C'S ill ligllrrs'l 11llCI 2 orc' h,·1ic"'c'cI til Ill' Ih,'
oppropriotr form of .\/(r.t/l) wlll'lt Ih,·
c'ffl'l't. tlUI' to thl' iute'rfrrill!! WI1W fmlll Ih.,
othc'r !licl,- of thl' (',olillclc'r. i!'l f'·lIIn\·c·,1. Th,'"''
"smnolllt'd" t'un't'S Sf;' tllt'U f'·I,lolt,·,1 liS II flllll'linll
of .Y, wlll'f(' TIll' r..!llllts lire'
51ut\\"II ill til!url' 3n whl'l'C' both tlll' \"l111l"S nf Illllplilllel ..
I:'.«XII olul th,· phlL<;" rorre'I'linll Ai.'" fnl" r= Ill,
12. Hi. 18 ollcl 21 foJl 011 till' S111llC' s,'l IIf C'lIr\"l'S fllr
Ih,' rIlU!!c' of .Y iuclic'ote·d. TIll' IlIlIplilllCI .. is nl!'lo
ShtlWII ill fil!lII'c' :11,. bc·illl! plou"cl 011 11 In:.: !l"nll'.
thl' 51)01'" flwlor fnr 1111' c'ylilllle'I' plnll ... 1
ill IlIlin'rsol f"rlll Ihnl IIIIt' llIn,\" c'x-
Ir"pnlu!c' tilt' rl'l'lIlt!l 10 \"Ilh...s nf r.
C'Olle'c'pl, C'lIIhoclil'd ill till' l'I'!'IlIlls ill I,'nll'"
of n l>lunm,-ll'r X, is not lInTc·IIl"·c\ tn tIll' IIntinll or
(lislom'C' thllt hUll hc'c'lI 1I11""c'!"sflllly c·lIIplnye'.I
ill Ihc' TI'llI'c'!'c'lIlnlioll nf lic·lci of II 11"1111'"
llIill"f III IIIIW' 0\"1'1' " !'plll'ril'lIl c'III'lh II lIl o
I" tIll' Inllc'r i"!lhIllC"', till' clislllllt"· i" el.,-
lill,-,I us till' Ullltic' suhte'lId,·cI nl Ihl' /Tlltt'I' nr lIlt'
l IlI'lwc'l'lI thl' hllriZCIII!l of 111111
allle·UlIIlll. ]11 till' IlfC'!"'1I1 !lilolllllinll, 11°,·
clishllll'" is .-r/2 Filii'" till' !IOIII"'I' 1I111.'lIl1n
is (lit till' C'\"limlc'r nlltl till' is nt inlinil" .
While, IiII' l)r/'S('lIt pmhlc'llI is c'nllc'c·I"II,·,1 clln'''' Iy
wilh IIII' rncliotioll of 1111 oxilll slot 011 n c'ire'ulnr nlill-
c1,.... Ihl'rl' is n clifc'c'l oppli,'otioll IIf till' rc'sllll;; I,; lilt·
",·,'ipnll'1I1 c'osC' wlll'fl' a plolll' wn \.,. is illl'ici/'lli 1111 Ib'
c'.\·lill,Io'r (lhC' E "C'I'lor i!' to b,· P"I'I"'II,li"lIlnr lei lilt'
c'ylill,lt'r IIxi!'). TIll'1I il is Iinssihlc' Iu I"I'l!nnl ,\I (r, 81
11!' h"illl! pfoporlioll"1 10 till' llllffn",' C'1IIT"1I1 ,'x,'il.,c1
1111 till' ",olill,lc'r. III 01111'1' wnrck IIw uxiul !'llIl "1111
I", n'!!nr;I"cl as II rt'I'l,i\Oilll!: (mll'nnll 1111.1 tilt' sUlln'" i"
Ink"11 10 I,,· 01 illlillil\".
I II \'i,'W of till' rC'e,jimw"1 lin Ilin' or Ih' Jlwltle'lIl. i1
i" ,I,'"in,hlo' t" c'nIllJl"fl' till' n',,"II" will. 1111,,,,,
" 6
I r I
• • • •
FIr. no: 1. .."nplit",lt of cy/i",'u .poCt fOclor for norro,I'
uri,1I ./ot.
}'Ir.loRl: 2o Phair 0/ cy/indtr .p"u I"dor lor norro,I' "ri"/ .101.
:-:. 11. ",",ltm_ ,,",If" bI .... l lu, f":H'h nln,".
AIIlplil"tlt tlntl "',,,.r tI/ _,,"et fodn, ill PtJ,u-
",tl,ie /"'1110
3. An Application
;\11 illll'rc'stin!! npplic'lItil1l1 of tilt' fnn':':Clill!! lla-Ilr,'"
is till' c'lIlc'ullltiuu of the' pntll'tIl IIf 1111 "IIlI-lin' IH1'n,",
(If !'lol!' Oil n !!,,"tly c'IIt\'",1 surf"c"', Fn.. ,'XII III pl..
I'CllIsiclc·t t'll' IIrtn.,· of 2S+ 1 plll"llll,·1 111111 :lxilll slClt..:
011 u c""lill,lti,,,,1 of rllllius II illlli...Il"11 ill iil!lIn'
01. Till' 1I11!!1t· 4> ,It·jilll·!' thl' cli,ol·,'linll 11£ ClIt""I"'""
of Fcwk II II fur tIll' c'x"itc'cl UII " c'lIn','cl
fn,'c' hy ItIl illl·ielc,"t IIh1lll' WII\"I'. Fnc'k ii ..;:t
tb' c1ifrralC,ticm of IIhllll' WII'OI' ".'0 II pllnlltului" 1111", ill
Ilnrlic'lIlltr, foc'lIsc'S his IIt1C'1ltiCIII ClII lile' hllll!"lIlilll
In"!!IlC'tic' fiC'leI ill till' pC'1IIllUhrllI r,'!!iun (IIC-1I1" II",
1lIIlIlIclnr," of lil!ht nllci ShllClow), '1'1:"11, Ilf!(,.o 11111'111-
IlIlillJ: tlml thc' surflll'" c'lIrl'c'llls lin' ullly cI"'ll'II,I"1I1
cm tile' Inc',,1 ruclius of C'lIl"\'llllln', h,' II 1'1'111"1'-
sC'lIlaltion for tht' ("tlrrc'lIt clistrihlltioll thllt is 0111\' d('-
I>c'"clc,"t 011 thr pnrnmrtC'r I/tl whc'r,' I is t:1t' clistlll""-
from the' lil!ht-IVlIulow nllci ,1 HII' wiclth
uf tht' IH'lIl1mbrnl r''lrioll, j'oc'" I
le'll tllll I
his rc'Sults arc' rC'nsolluhly "ulicl fUI" nn.'" shllll,'d "odi,·!'
scllun!! liS Ih,' ruelills of "\II"'IlIIll'C' is Illwll.'"s \"t'ry 11I ..!!c'
C'OIU1mrc'cl to till' wln',·I,'"!!lho A!' 1\ c"'IWilll t.'S1 ut
Foe'k's 8,>,>mximAt.· (OI'llJlllal, hilll'l'!'lIlts lit,· plott.,c/ ill
ii!!.....•:111 with till' C'Ulllplll,'.II"ltn, Tit"
RI!I'C"'JIlc'nt is ,·C't\·!!IlOCI. 1'l11'rc' III It" II slil!hl
for lorgc'r positi\"•• .Y \"lIhll'S \\'hi,·11 ig IIllt
c·lItirc".,· ulIl·xp('C·tC'cl hl'c'nusc' smnc' of Fcwk's ""stri,'-
t iOlls IlfC' ' ..'c'omill!! ,'iolll 11'11. l\".'n·I,tllt'lc'ss, c'(llIsid-
"1"""1.' jllsli/i,'lItioll is !!i\"t'1I ICI tl:.- ,ollric/il,'o Clf 1111'
c'xlrllpoillticm of thc' ,',\"Iillllt'r ,'urn's III 1a1l'!!I'I' "'Ihll'S
of I..
.. :II

.'·nll. FClC"k.
., .,

• .......

I- I- -
) -
- - - -
--- .-

IfI ,j





--.·ro.n rtrtular eylin Irr d:U3;



FIr.t;IlE 31>. "".pli/lld, 0/ _",JU 'ndO' in p"'tllllrl,ic fo,m.
•·,...n carnt., . t'ylln....' ".hl.
.',.:1 lit: "'. .'tclt""",i,. tlingrnm n.f ,.",/·firt· f,rr,,!, of ,,,, (I
cur,.,.,1 rond",."", .",.f"r,..
S1) ( S)
nS)=s 1---'----- sill 4>---
24({'II) % 2 (kll)
with rcspt'ct to tht' IIt11'lIlul at 0, tht' t'I'lIlt'r of lhl'
array. The arra\" alld the ohSt'r\"l'r art' lakt'lI to hI'
in the principal plulle (i, t'" the plallt' of the pllp!'r),
, is the distall('c from 0, mt'asurl'd along tht' <,ylilldt'r
surface, to P, tIll' location of UII\' Ollt' of thc ('1('III(·nts.
The field due to the sour('e at Pis thclI proportiollal
" [(11' .) S J[k"J'S .\=- --4' +. .. .
2 {'II 2
whcre is the rt'llIti\"(' of tht' I·II'lIlt'nt, y
is the projc(,tion of, 011 til(' my from 0 to thl' oh!ll'rn'r
and .11(,) is til(' ('tIITI'c:tioll fu(,tor to geometri('111 opt iI'S.
III tt'rms of the Cum'tiOlI lU, .11(,) ill gil'clI h.r
M(X), a for Xs:O,
Whl'lI ka t('nds to illfinit\' lIllI'h that the surfllc'(' is
('fT(·(,th't'I.\' flat, tht' Plltt(.!·,i h"('OIll('S
E ,1 (I'll'll-a,,,!, (!In)
• __
wl:('n' reS) =Ssin. anti Rim't! S="'as,
wht're !(=t:iSlsin
AC'('orclillg to tht' allnlysis IIf Hnllj;('11 11II(1 '''111111-
(12). tht' l11aximum I!uill ill thl' ('lIcl-fir(, ,Iin,(,tillll
(i. t'" is ohtnillt'd wh('11
TIlI'll, tllkillg tI,t' "'I·('tri('nl spllt'illJ! 11I'tw"('1I till'
t'1t'1II"nts as 45
or ;1S=.,,/4, till' nrrn \. haj; li;j 1'1,'-
nlt'lIt!l, J\"=:12 DIUI tilt· totlll 1"II:!t" of th,' Ilrl"ll.'· i" l'
Th,' pntll'rll ill this ij; 11111.,'
(Jc.fint'cl for tilt' rl'l:ioll Tht' IlInill
1011(' nllli till' fir.;t sitl,' Inll(' 1lI'(' shoWII plotlt',1 ill
fil!lIrt· ;) lIormnli7.,·(1 !lllI'h thnt. lilt' IlInXilllUIII fit'lel i"
tI (Ih. t"!lilll! tht' \'nh'l'" IIf :\" 111111 as. tilt' "0'--
!J1I1l('n, 1'11') is plntl"ll fur :WII.
TIll' I11l1in lout' is !lI','1I to lit' !lllIII C'\\" hll t ('hlllll!"c1 ill
Th(' Cactor y is ginll 11\' y=c sin wht'll r:
is thc chord length OP iuul bt'('ausc
it follows that
.) ( )
;;2 Sill <I>-2a
suujt'ct to s<<a,
thut th""t, art' 2X+ I
spacl'd at ill t('n'uls it is S('t'lI thut
Ill' ",. .. ...
• •

.. L-_':'-_..l-_..J-_...L..._-L_-L_--L__

.·IGl·ll& 5. P"'r"" of ntd-firr arrtll/ of ,'or. on G cllrwd 'IIIrfner .
...... I.-.;'---ft;---._-21'.. .1(:\1-1; ......' nllm·
wht'J"e L is the' 1"lIgth or tilt· arm'", Tht' SOIII't't' is
now writtclI .
where r is till.' propngatioll ('onst/lIIt or til(' ('xI'itill!!
wave the arra)'. For the pl'C'Sl'nt purpost'
wlH'rc m is a t'Ollstall t rl'al lIulllh(·r.
The total field oC the o.rrIlY is now proportionul to
E e"'t-1hllA(s)
• --N
where '=1I,t:iS with 11=-1\", -1\"+ I, . , . -I. Il,
I, 2 , , , N-I, N. Illtroducillg dimellsionlt'Ss pu-
ramders, defined by
t:iS=kt:is alld S=lIt:iS
it follows that the Jlllttt·rn T(c1» of thl' army is I!i\"('n
E e
·(-,,-a,"I.A(X), (8a)
Th(' nllthor thllnks "-ill ill III Bri:!l!s fill'
ill th,' l'II1t'ullltioll of th,' JI"tl"rns ill :, nllclli,
5. References
4. Concluding Remarks
It is l\l'1'1I that till' rlltiinti'lII plltt"rJI of n llu!'h-
1II0ullh'd nllt..1I1I8 is iuflul'lIt'l'tl. ttl Il '·'lIIsitl'·l'lIh!t·
I'Xtl'lIt. In' thr ra,lins of 1'III"\'I,tlll·'· of th,· 1II1rfll"" Oil
whi,'h it is mmmt..,\. 111 IIIU!lt I'IIS,'S, th,' mllill III'IUII
is till,',lupWltrtl 8\\'11'- from tlll' !lllrflll"', IIltllCllIJ..:h tilt'
tutlll wi,JtII of th.. b"'1I11l "111I h,· 11rl1l1l1l'1I"tI illto tilt'
5hllluw. Similar ph,'nom"1111 hllli h"I'1I ohs"I"\'",1 ill
th,· c'I\I"III"t4.ocl paU('rlls of !lluts UII n hlllf-
pllIlII' 11:11. It. \\"uultl nl'JI"lIr tJlIlt. nllY nUI'IIlJlI. til
n',ltIt·" 11lC' !lid!' lulu'!! IIf 1111 "IIII-lil'l' 111'1"11" Is,· IL
,Iilfnll'lill;! or surfll"c will 1"1111 to
of thl' mllill h,·nm. Jt ill nlso (1IIil,' IIpplln'lIt thnt
IIII' r"!lllltnut paU,'rll of II f1u!lh mlllllll",1 IIl1t"1I111l is
11111 simply uhtoilll'tI hy lI1ulliplyilll! till' fn',' S)III1'"
Jlultc·rJI hy th,· patlt'rn of n sill:!It, sllli (1/1 Ih,' ,·ul"\·",1
!lUrfll"I', SIIl·h a WCIII ItI 11I',"hll'" 11 plltll'rll
wilh IlIlll'S ill thl' dilfrnl'tioll III' !llllltlflw r"J.!ioll whil'h
,Ill 1I0t l'xist ill rl'l1lih' for Il 1I0Ud(lSl'li slll'fll,·...
I'nrlhl'rmorr. this "Ulllltiplil'ntioll" 1t·('hlli'llIl· wUllltl
1101 pr('tlic·t thl' of th,· h"1I11l ill thl' tnll:!,'lIt
II) C;. :-i'II''''ir. Th,' 1",1l"rll' ..r ,lnll,·,1 :II,It·"":1'.
I'roN'. I. It. E.. 36. I.JS;
(2) C. II. 1':111:". 1t:llli"li,." fru", :I Inlll""'''' .Inl ill :III i",
fillilt, r'\·lilld'·r. J. '1"lh. 11I111 22; (1!I;;IIl.
13\ ('. l'il\"l'r':U1I1 W. K. •. 1t:llli:llinll frnm a Inlll--
\"'r",' ill II t"irr'III:\f .J. '\1'1'1. I'h.,· •. 21.
;·I!I (I!150).
HI l'. l"'II<ipl'r, W. C;. ,u,,1 T. T. ,\ fmllll'r
of Ih,' pl\lI"rt\' IIf .illl:h· ")",, "" ,.jr,·ul:tr C'nll'
dlll'liull 11:11"'1' 1''''''''111,·,1 :It I""'r,
1I:1'inll,,1 .. 1t",1i" I'IIi"" (\'. H. :-. I.l ,,,·..1;111:
1.\I'ril 21.
1:,1 J. H. Wnil ,,11I1 10\ "It:III11, (""k"Ia"·,1 ,,,,It"r,,' IIr "ir,
rnluf"f,oll,i:d !"lut" I'll " dU"III:!r "ulultll"'illJ,: (o.\"Jjlu1t"r,
("III. J. T"l'hlllli. 33. ;; f I!I;".;".
(IiI 1•. I.. n"iIIill, Till' r:"li"tillll lit·hl "rlllh..·,·,1 I,y a ill
I"r!:,' l'irl'lIl"r l'\·lillcl,·r. Trail". 1'. C;. ,\. 1'. (I 11,1 illl'"
IIr Ihuli" I-:lIl1:i,,;,'r<) 3. 1211 (HI;;!;).
171 C:. Th,' dilrr:l ... i,," flf r:"li" wa....' hy Ih.·
,'"rl h. I'rur. IlU\·. l',,,,. 95. !Hli ,l !ll !I).
181 H. Bn'lIlll1c·r. T,·rr,·.lri,,1 r:"li" """"'''. III1'my flf l,r"I"'-
Il,,'ioll. I'h"I''''r 3 (I-:/",'\-i,'r )'ullli"li"l: Co.• A""l"r-
,I"",. 1!1.J!11.
I!'I J. It W'lil. 1l".li,,'i,," r1l11r:II· .. ·ri"lk. "r ",i:ol "fll" fill II
Win·I,·., 311; (1!1!,,!j).
110) K. ,\. :'\orlflll. I', I.. Hil'o'. nllcl I.. E. TIll' """ of
""Il"har ,li.IIU'"'' ill "'li"mtilllC Irllll"",i,..iull I""", I'rUl·.
I. II. 1-:.•3. I.JAA (I!I;..",).
I11I \'. Fu.. k, Thc' fi.·.. 1 uf II 1'11111" \\,:1\'0' IlI'ar tl", "urfa,'o' of II
1',,"t1I1r'lilll: hu,h', J. (I'. IU 10, 3!1!1 (1!I.Jlil.
(12\ W. W. luicl J. H. ,\ III'W "rill..i"", ill
din'l'lionn/ 81111'1111" ,h.,.illll. f'rol'. I. 1(. J-:. %41. 333
( HI381.
(131 J. It. \\""il .. 11I1 H. E. WIIII",I,'. ("1I1l'III:1I"cI radi"tioll
rluu:u"""ri.. tir!4 uf rtll in .. wlnl !"hf·"l!"l, (":tn. J.
T.,.. hll"l. 33. 211 IIH.',:,>.
., .
... I
c ,

... .. ...
[orlll, pllrticuhLl'ly iII tilt' el iI"'" t illllll ""1\ I' ... =!l1l0
which is the tllllltCllt plllll" of thc ""IIlt'I' of till' nrrn.".
The d('ribcl1cv('1 of th(' fit'1I1 ill th(' diffrndioll lOll"
(eI»900) is se('11 to d""I'rnsc lilll'al'l,'" with III IgI I' ,
Thrre nrc 110 10hrs fOl"llll'd ill this fI'gioll, 1t is of
illtl'rcst to know how thc ('lrr"atUl'" of til(' arrn,"
itsrlf wOllld moelih' th(' Pllttl'l"II. Th"rl'fon', fur
sakc of cOlllrarisllll. th,' plltl"rJI 1'{eI» of till' 1'11,1-
firc anny 0 isolntl'd 1'!t'III"IIt!! Oil J) ('in'ulllr arc
(ka=200) is woo plott,·tl ill figufl' 5. Thl'
forlll IIln IlI're ill iell'lI ti"111 to t'(1I1ll1 illII (RII) wit h
.ti(.\') r,·phLl',·(1 hy 1 ,Iilfmdioll ,·If"t·tll
111'1' 110 1ul ...l·r p...·S'·lIt. Th,' pllth'l'lI i!l nllllo!lt i,I"lIti-
('nl to thnt for nil Clld-fir" nfl'ln- wlll'n' ,·I'·III(·lIts arl'
Oil a lim'. Loh,·s. ill ihis "II!lt', an' forll ...d
Oil hoth si,II'lI IIf till' IIIl1ill 1II'IIIIl tlH','" 1\1"1'
1I0t (Iuite SYJIlIIII'tri('nl II11I1Ut it.
Thc \mttl'rJI 1'(4)) is 111'::0 ('III11J1l1t,'cl fOl' ktr= lilli,
alltl is S10WII plott"11 ill (j with th,' ,'urn'
for ka= ... alld thr 1'111"\'1'11 nrm,' of isolllh'd "I"III'·lItS.
It would srrlll that all ('Iul-11...• amn' of slots Oil a
"lIrvI'I1 slIrfa('r has SOliit' rntlH'r proJl('rtil's.
Th,' mnill clfc(,ts of th,' 11I11l-lIl1tll"SlI uf thl' slIrfllc',' is
to tilt thr maximlllll of tlH' IIIl1ill "1'1111I up
111111 to ('xh'llIl t.ll(' totlll width Ilf th,· IIInill h('nm illto
thr shndow Th('I'" is 110 ,',"iel"II('C of IlIh,'s
011 this lIid,' of th" h"11 III , nt Inrg,· nll"!!"s
lei> nppront:hillg HllIO). th.'n· i!l thc pO!l!lihilit.r thnt thc
hnck lobe frolll thr clld-fi ...• nrrny coulll ('n','p nrnlllul
tht' surfa('c in the oth"r din·"tioll nlld forlll loh('s.
This rlTI'I't trolll n prtwti,'nl StlllldJloillt, how('n'r, is
('olllplctcly iIlSigllili"llIIt fOl' kll> lUll.
!o'!CtiRE G. Pallern oj tnd-firt array oj ,101, on a c"rrtd ,.,,/otr.
1•• •• IOO; ---•• -100, A(.l1-J; 1UT3)" nhm· li.,," •. n.:n. CUI.O., I !t:"ii"
1.8 Wait, J. R., August 1958, MA Study of Earth Currents Near a VLF Monopole Antenna
with a Radial Wire Ground System," Proceedings of the Institute ofRadio Engineers, Vol. 46,
pp. 1539-1541
(Reprint No. 121)
Reprinted with the permission of the IRE (now IEEE)
--- C-IO·
---- C-II)'"
p'" F••, '.'"'5 5kc
.... noo "'" IlOt
2-<:omparitoo 01 calculated and o....rvod cu,·
no,. 10 ndl...rir•• I.... N .U. 96. an4 191 rntli..s
froID lOP 10 IIDtlom,
In Fig. 1 the computed current..... normal-
bed to unity al is shown plotted as a
funclion of , in feet for It -100 feet. ).
-63.400 feet (IS.S Icc). N- 192. '-0.03
(,,-1 milli.mho/meter), CS¥IO-' (no. a
It, .. Cal ...
... 1lIt

:. ..
• •• III til ..
, '" Ftt! ,.. 155kc:
.. IIlIO IlOt
.-----.. ----- .-
.. . .. _-...----_.. _-;=:=
. . .. ". ...
'il. I-Decaya/ current 10 ndl.1 wi,... a
''1lKttoa 01 dlllafta: " from bue of aO\ItDD&
__•.1...._....l ..J, .. L-_..,.. .. -:!::---:!_
I, 1 +,liZ.
, -12Oft/V2
24D.'P P

C-c/).. P-p().. The amplitude of the cur-
rent in one radial wire..... is then given by
. _!.!::l_ 2.!-. " X.
I. N 2.N vp'+'"
the total IfOUnd colftnt. 1,. il essenlially
lIumerically equal to H,· and is composed or
two parts. 1. the total earth current and.
1.. the total wire current. We can now wrile.
for pu,..-es of computation.
where .. is the len!:lh of the radial wires, II is
the of the ground X10-'),
w is Ihe a"glliar fr"'luellc)', _ is Ihe ,round
comh'l·ti\,il)' in tnhn.. /mercr•• is the dielec-
tric CUlnal .• nt (If till' ,i. the r..diu. of
the radial •• :Ind 4 is the spacing b....
t\\'een the wires. (If Ihere are N radi..1wires
eqllallr spaced about the base of the an·
The validily of (2) for the composite sur·
face :mped.1nce ",'as not established in the
abo"e mentioned work. The expression used
for ZOo the equivalent shunt impedance for a
wire grid. ",'as t.1ken to be the same as that
for an infinile p.1rallelwire grid in free space.
A recent an..I)·.is indicates thaI the equiva.
lenl shunl impedance for an infinite wire
grid in the plane interface of t"'·o homogene-
ous media is indeed allllost identical to Z. for
the isolated grid if the inter...ire spacing, 4.
is alwol)'s IIlllch less than a wa"eleneth in the
electric..lly denser medium.' In the present
siluation. this restriction is equivalent to
staling that 4 should be some,,·hatle.. th3n
an ek'Ctrical skin depth in the soil. that is
4«(2/__>'''. In n'OSI pracliul cases this
condition is OIet.•-\ question also rises as to
the applicability of the formula for surf. :
impedance of a parallel ""ire grid to a radial
""ire grid srSlem ""here the wire SpaCinl is
not conSlanl. Funhermor.., the wires are not
of infinite length being terminated by rocls
or some other means at a rinite discance from
the base of the antenna. The assumption
that the radial wire behaves locally as a
parallel infinite "'ire grid would seem to be
very difficult to justify on purely theoretical
grounds. It could be expected. however.
that, if the length or the radial wires is large
to a skin depth in tbe soil. the
"'a,'e rellected from the end or Ihe radial
""ires ...ould be highly attenuated,
As a check of the ...ire grid theory for
anlenna ground loss calculations. an operi-
mencal tcst "'as carried out in Cutler. Me.•
""hich is Ihe proposed .ite 01 a high. power
(I-megw) vIC transmitter for the U. S. Navy.
A small test antenna was erected on the site
and radial ",ires ""ere inscalled in the same
manner as in a permanent installation. The
actual currents carried by the ...irCll were
measured using a small loop pickup placed
in proximity to the wires. The average cur-
renlS carried by the Iround were also meas-
ured. f'ow the radio of the tocal current
carried by the wires. I •. 10 the current in
the soil. I .. is equal to the ratio of the ItUr·
face impedance. ". of the soil to the lurface
impedance. Z.. of the grid.' Therefore. luch
a test of the splitting 01 the current between
the radial wires and the ground is a good
check on the validity of the theory.
Before discussing the experimental re-
sulu' calculations of I. are presented for
pertinent values of the parameten. Denot·
ing the effecth'e Intenna height by A. the
l:ln,elltiill ma.:nelic f,e1d. 11,-, on the ground
plane at dillance p from the base is ,iven by
1. It
n--- ---
, = 2. vp' +It'
for ,,«w.1velen,th. AClually. H,·. is the
radial current density in amperes per meter
emanating from the antenna for an idealized
perfeclly conducting ground plane. In the
case of the i'l\l'etfccI conductinl ground
wilh Ihe radi.1 ""ire ground syltem present,
i,.".,d 4
Z. - --In-
2r 2.t
1 f·
AR real part 01- (1I,-)'Z(p)2.pdp (I)
I.' •
where I. is the base: current of the antenna.
H,· is Ihe tangenli,,1 l1lagnetic field 01 Ihe
anlenna assuming a perfectly conducting
ground plane. p is the distance musured
along Ihe ground plane from the base of Ihe
anlenna. and Z(p) is the effective surface
impedance of the actual ground plane. Z(p)
was taken to be equal to the inlrinsic im-
pedance 01 the soil, ", in parallel wilh the
surlace impedance of the radial ""ire grid.
Z•. That is.
• RKeivN by the rRE. M:uch II .•9sa
'F. R. Abbf)tt and C. J. Fisher. ·0..11" of
S"'tm n( R.lJ.,,1 Cf'IIulurlort f,n a VI.F
T,.'ll'Inlllltr,· tl. ll'.1W'y Fln-unn". I•.tb. Mtl" No.
WS. I"fbfU.aty 10. IIJ"".
• J. N, and \V, A. "OOl'. -Thf chuacltrialb
of a vfrtical anlfn":! with a cond"Clor pound
.ySCfm. e Appl. .s'l R.J .. B. vol. 4. pp.
• J. R. Wail and \V. A. -Input of
I. f. unioolc •. - U'i,,,,U CII,., vol. J2. DD. IJI-
IJI. Ma,. 19U.
t J. R. \"au -On theory of rfllc<tioa from a
.... irf .rid to an inCf1'la('t tHe_fleD homoll"-
M'Ou. media. e A'''. SCI. Ittl .. B. Yo1. O. I'D. 2S9-27S:
• \V. G. Hutton and C. E. Smtltt:-Na.", VLF Sile
I..oralton p,ft;«I. - Final Rf'D. Iimlth Elecuoftk. Inc.•
Ck........d. 19J7.
Z(P) - --Z- for p < 41
,,+ •
-" for p > 41 (2)
A Study of Earth Currents Near
a VLF Monopole Antenna with a
Radial Wire Ground System-
The eRicicu.:y of ;luteuuas for very low
radio frequeucics is determined to a large ex-
tent by the ohmic los.<es ill the soil ne.\f the
o( the allfenll.l. Ir is t.'lIstolU.lrv to in..
SI.,11 a r,,,1 wire grollnd s)'slem jllst
below the sllrface 01 the earlh. The purpose
01 this wire grid is to pro"ide a 10""-105s re-
turll (\.\lh lor the i1ntenllil oose cllrrent in an
errort to improve the eflil'iellcy 01 transmis·
The rules for groulld s)'Stem design ill
the past hilve bee.l usuallr empirical and
based on the results 01 experiments on·
illg illstall,1Iions. The first atlemptto design
an optimum s)'stem was carried out by
Al>l>olt.' £xtensive cakul.llions of the input
resistance of a monol>ole with a radial wire
ground srstelll have been cilrried out by
Wait and Pope.·· It should be emphasized
Ihilt in this Iiltler ,""ork no i111empt was
nl."le to e,'aluate the losses associilted with
high"'oltage insulators, tunin.: coils, and
coppcr losses. The attenlion was de"oted to
the ohmic tosses in soil and their dependence
011 numher and le"l:llI of radial wires.
Fllrlhermore. the radial wires were assumed
to be in intimate contaCI wilh the soil being
located just below the air-eanh interface.
The working formula for the component of
Ihe input resislance. ,).R, due 10 ohmic losses
in Ihe soil i. g;"en b)'
wire, awg at IS.S kc). I n Fig. 2, compUled
values of X are showu planed as a funClion
of "f). for N-48, 96, and 192, respeclively.
Various \'ah,es 01 Care indicaled on the
In Ihe experilllenlal selUp. Ihe anlenna
was a monopol" wilh a h"ighl of 100 feel
with a circular capacilY hat Wilh a radius of
aboul 200 feel. In view 01 the difficuhy in
clearing land in the hea\'ily wooded and
rocky terrain of I\I"in", il was nOl feasible to
en. ploy nlany r,ulials emanaling in all di-
rections from th" anlenna. To elleet a com·
promise three radials at azimoth angles of
0·, 180·, and 270· were installed. The seclor
about 60· and 100· "'as then se·
lecled as the region for further teslS. In case
I, this sector was f.lled wilh radials at an
angular separalion of 7.S·, in case 2 il was
3.7S·, and in case 3 it was 1.88·. For these
three separalions the equivalenl value of N
wonl..l 48, 96, and 192 respeclively.
The indicaled poinls in Fill. 1 are meas·
ured current values in t,,·o of the cenlral
"'ires 01 the Ian as a funClion 01 p. The onli·
n,lIes are norm,"i,ecl 10 unily at .. -0. In
Ihis case the lIase currenI 01 Ihe anlenua
was kepI constanl at about 1.0 amper".
There is a general with Ihe calcu.
laled curve. Discrepancies could
to the varying nature of the lOil conductivity
along the radi:ll wires. Measuremenls olooil
conduClh'ity by Ihe melhod indio
cated a randonl vanallon of SO per cent
aboul 1.0 milli-mho/meler. The abnormally
1:I'Ile measnred ,.IIues 01 .. for the smaller
\'alues of .. in Fill I mighl to Ihe
variation 01 Ihe tOlal earth
current re.uhinll Irnnl nsing a fan of
ralher Ih.1n a cumplele array equally spaced
for 360·.
1\ mnre appealing ""periment which
overcom"" 10 lollle exlent the .I)·mmetry of
Ihe experimelll,,1 ..,IUP is carried out al fol·
low•. The r""ei"inK cuil il mO\'ed in a direc·
tion tranS\·e..e to Ihe radial wires at a con·
Slant heighI and constanl dislance ". The
measured n"ll:nelic field i. then essentially
conslanl for Ihe region the wires
and rises 10 falher pronounced n.uima over
Ihe wires. The ralio of the maximum field
10 Ihat the wires is denoled by B
which is ai\'en by Ihe relalion
B 0:><1 r.I/2wl
- 11.I/cI
where J is Ihe height of the recc\vlllg or
coil above Ihe wire and d is Iheir
:\ow. tur",,' i .. 1M wi,.
MlllllIe ,,,"e,,1 i" Ih, I'ou"d by 45·, it follo.os
'X I r. I [ 2.4" JUt
. - r. + r. - 1 +2A +2.• '
... _ '\12., B
d •
Values of .'C calculaled from the experimen-
tal dala are Ihown plotted in Fig. 2, lor
N-.8, 96, and 192 respectively for 1-4 feet
and The agreement the
experimenlal points and the calculaled
curve for C-Io-' (no. 8 wire at IS.S kc) is
quire aoad fur Ihe two cases of N-48 and
96. The departure fur the calC N-I92 can
allribuled to contribulion from Ihe cur·
rent in the wires to the measured field in Ihe
minimal position.
In aenera1, one may say that ulisfactory
agreement theory and experiment
has been reached. Therefore, further juslifi.
cation is given to the validity of the pub-
fished calculatiotll of the (round loss com·
ponent of the base resistance of a monopole
wilh a radial conductor ground system. It
Ihould mentioned. however, thaI Ihe
present atudy has not con.idered losses
wilhin the aperture or near the base of Ihe
antenRa. Recent Itudies by Guslafson,
Devaney, and Smith' indicate Ih;1t these
Iouee may quite large in lpecial .. ntennal
. for high.power vII installation•.
The aUlhor wisba to thank A. D. Watt
and T. E. Devaney for helpful advice. C. E.
Smilh and W. G. Hutton for permission to
quote their experimental results, and Ana·
Murphy for auistance with the calcu·
Nat. Bur. of Slandard.
Boulder, Colo.
Reprirlted /'0"' rhe PROCEEDlXGS OF THE IRE
VOL. 46,1\0 8, Al'GUST, 1958, pp, 1539 - 1541.
pan.-nD 01 TBE V.SA.
, -60
1.9 Wait, J. R., and A. M. Conda, "The Patterns of a Slot-Array Antenna on a Finite and
Imperfect Ground Plane," L'Onde Electrique, Supplement #376, pp. 21-30
(Reprint No. 128)
Reprinted with the author's permission
extracted from: L'Onde Electrigue , Supplement '376, 1958
J. R. W41T • A. M. Co:liDA
N.tio.... Hure.u ../ St.ndard,. Boulder, (U.S.A.)
Thc radialion flo. a .101 apcrauc OD a perfced, coDclucWl' half-plaoe i. di.cussed in _c dellil. 'Thc" 10 eod-rare un,. of .Iou i. alao ueslCd......eriCliI co..putatioo. arc carried our for radialion pu·
tcma. II is .ho.n shal in I"nclal. shc .ain be.... !. tiltcd up ..d •••y fro. lite ed.e of she 1t.ll-plao... 'The
.isuation .hcr.. !he h.lI-pl.oe i. I,i". 00 she .urface 01 a hDmo...neou. llat nrlh i••1.. con.idercd. The rc-
oulu loa we applic.,ion in sh.. de.ill' 01 f1u.h Mounled .nl..nn.. of lit .. COl6-lir.. "pe .hcr... beCllu.e of " ....
lical Iwillti.... she """nd plane i. of fiaise C'"ct1l aod ••, Itc Ioc.led • she ....fac.. of a .10••'. pl."e
The co"ccpt !hal hilhly dit..cli... anleona. ca" be ..ounl..d
nu.h to • MCllllic 1Ur/.CC .uch a. lite 01 • hilh .peed 10.. beeD .uccnsfully uliliud io _n, insllocn itt re-
ccot ,ears. AI"''' shon w••clc"lths. she .ud.ce ••hiclt !he
."'CMa i••ountcd Or _beddcd cao ohen be coasidered llat
.nd infi"ile in cale"l for parposes 01 des ill" Itt some esses.
h_e.el. lite effeci of lite finile Uleal 01 she .r""Dd pl.n...uSI
Itc co".idcred. Aa es...ple i••hcn lite pallcm i. of !he .ea6-
fite. r,pc IUch as a Iiaea. arra, 01 .Iols uciled I., a u ••elliol
w..e. The ..ain lobe in shi. esIC is in lite COl6-lire direclion il
she lrawellinl •••e loa•••eloci" C'Jual 10 or .Iilhll, leu th.n
die .peed of Ii.hl. 'The finile eSICOlI of lite ",...nd pl."e lends
10 .educ. lite diteca.i" .nd produces a lill 01 lite _ia be••
..., boG !he aurface.
. Ano!her i..porllnl ua..ple i••hcn a lhIoellin••••C.nlCOln.
•••ounled on • mCllllic DI finil" eSlenl which ilself i.
I,io. on the .ud.ce 01 lite e.r!h. Anleon.s 01 litis "pe are Dsed
10 obtain a 10-an.l.. Ioea.. 101 aitc.all laodin. de.ices.
It is the purpose DI Ihi. paper ID .Nd, lIti. proble. Ir_ a
lItcorelical .tandpoinr. '110.....odel cho.en fDr lit........d
is an Ihin re"ecdy cDnrlllclin. The
arr.y i. considered ID be lDade up conlinuDu. and , .. dis.
uiloulion. 01 puaHel ..aJllelic .ourc... or sloll mounled on one
( ..... uppcr) side of !he '110.. 101l0.iDI e/f..cII .iII be
' : lit.. dill.nce 01 the .rr., lD lite edl" 01 lit.. h.lf.
,,1.0... Ihe lenllh 01 the .".y. lite weloci" 01 the eaeilinl In'
.ellinl nd the elecuic.1 constanlS 01 lite 00
wbich lite h.ll-plane i. Iyio••
There h••e been. nUDlber of prior in.esliplions .hi ch .r..
c1o.ely relaled 10 !he .ubjrel of this paper. It is d..sitable if
!hue .re ..ention..d .nd pl.ced ia proper per.pecli.e. Ra.
dialion pallera. 01 • 1D.lnelic lin.. lOurce .dj.cenl 10 • pcrleed,
i.ola,..d h.ll-pl..... were co..puled 10,' for ....rie" 01 ca.
.•es. '110.. rnersliution lo.rbirr." .ourc... such .. an .peroare
or finile .1011 10.. Iteen c.rried OUI by T.i' .nd o!hero'••• '110..
raeli.,ion froID. p.r.llel ••rsy of lin.. m."..elic .ourcCl .000nled
on • h.U-plane 10.. been red by flurd•. lie .CIII.U, p_
lIenled co"'puled p.llem••hich iIIusu.'ed !h.. lor.", lilt of
cn6-fite .".,. due '0 lite linil" dislSnc.. of the ....y Irom Ihe
. cd.e of she h.U·plane.
, , " •••",.4 " t t " ",,-,. eN

The inllueace 01 a h_oleneou. 10••, fla, e.rlh on !he r••
di.lion p.llem 01 • we.licalule.... i. included in Ill..
he••i.e .... I,.i. It, NorlDn•• '110.. eflecI of • circular arouad
.cree. on lite ... IICIII of • ar...nd ....ed aonopole .nl..n.......
been .PPlosched 10, • nu",loer of in.e.tip_.'-•• ThCle DIe'
thod••re u.u.lI, ....ed on !he .ssu.ption lIt.1 the influeDce of
lit.. ilDpcdecI ..ou"d beyond lite edp 01 the .c.een CID be u •
ted'" • pcmub.lio...elltod ia conjunclion .ith .n lI!'Prui le
(Leonlo.ich) bounds" C'OtIditi.... A" ca""Plion i. the wOlk of
Bekefi '0 who pro"ide......i.Ii••1 f_.lation lor • ...rlical
cfecltic dipole .1 lite ccnter of • ci.cul•• IDe III di... laid on •
plsne e.nh. It appe.r•• lIt.1 cIoae 10 .n o.ersilDpfified
choice of uial "'"clion 10. die ..., clecuic lield o"er Ihe
.round. lit.. deri ...d re.u Ir. lor !he pror.JllIlion Con....1 of 110..
.urbce •••e is in .eri.... c.... mcl .i!h". ACN.lly lite
.eloci" 01 she IUrl.ce w••e .hould .pprosch the ""loci". c.
01 free .pace .. die relt.cli"e indea II of lite around .pploaches
inlini"••here•• Bc.... fi·•••".ce ........Ioci" is .pplo.chinl
• ..fue less !h.o e/l0. 'Chile lIti. MiPI 1101 arcady !he
impcdance calcul.Ii.... il w..ld It..e • profound cHecl OD Ihe
d..ri.ed radi.tion panelll. It wODld he worthwhile 10
Beke/i·•.ae!hod b, choollilll • aore recondile ltial "'nctioll.
Itt II "e" rece"l p.per C.rwell ••d Fl._c. U h••e c.ICII.
laled lite panCl'll. 01 • "enical clecuic dipole Ioc.,ed on • h.U·
plan...hieh i. on she surface of • h_o,..n..OII. Ilal
e.r!h or hall·.pac... V.i"l .n .rll""'''''' ....ed on Greco'. Ih..o-
lelD !h.., deri.e •• apression lor !he lield itt ler",. 01
!he (••keO.II) clectric tanletlli•• field 0ger the canh· ••urf.ce
oullide lite hall-p1I1De. It i. !hc••ssuMed lItal litis electric field
i. a".odified Ity die presctlce 01 the half·plsne. 51ach .n • s-
....prion "iolsl... Ihe cd,e .i..... lsri" .1 lite ed,e of !he It.U·
plane. It can be .ho.n. howncr. (.ee .ppendi.) th.1 .uch .n
.rrrosch is, ... Iid SIlo. an,le••nd for. Itilhl, condue-
Ii... ear!h.
A ••lhe...lic.U, rill_••rrrollch 10 Ihe rrobleDl of • pl.-
.e ...e inciden. 0" • eonduclinll hall-pl.n...hich i. on •
h_o.ene f1.1 earth ha. be... canied in .n ..Ie,.nl I••hion
loy Cle ow I:r. 'lite .c.llered field i. apreued ...n .nsul.r
.pcCcrulS of pl.lle ...... lor the I""eral cue. 'Chen lite iocidenl
w••e i. doc 10 • line •••oelic ._rce 00 lite, conduc·
lin, fill. c.r!h .nd lit.. is 01 .he
r....oo.ble .pproai••lion. can be _de .nd lhe lin.1 .Dlulio..
Cor 110.../troun6-_lroa..d. field cao be espre••ed in terlll. 01 •
.odified Fresnel inle,rsl.Cle_ow·. i. bolh eSlCa.i.e
and c_plic.,ed. e.eo lItou.h !he solulion. lhem.el.e. reduce
to '1.ile .i"'ple 10.... in _n, of lite es.... of pr.clical
In .i... 01 !hi. I.CI, Senior '" h•• "'IIClI..d • 1II",hod .I,ich i.
• union .1 ray !h. ,ry .nd riIlO..... dillr.cli"" theor,. The p...
senc.. 01 lit.. .....10 i••ccouo.ed lor b, lite inuoduclion
01 ••uil.b1e i_Ie lield .nd lhe proble", lIt.....b' reduced 10 one
in .hieh fWo lield••re incident obliquely apan • pe.fectly con-
duclin. hall-plane in free .pace.Since Senior'. _Ihod i. clo ly
r.l.,ed 10 Ihe one used in the pte. COlI pap... aore .ill 10 id
"boul il is die folio. in, te., .DIII .1.. in th.. appendia.
51.... Stet _ • HaI",I•• (61))
a oil
where '. - 1. 'ro • 2 em 'I 0) ••d J.., 2 ekp) ia • Be...1 ....c-
Iio.. of order ..,2 .nd .,,.._ne kp. l' e .econd i.
A.. =J. .,
!I ..
a .. - (41r pl_)'; .in ./2
.17 .
• !...-.-.! f.... --
../2.. a
2: .'fJ.P. eO'.P...... A.. F(u.)
.hele" I. che Ira"...e,se (cOlllple.) ..oleap .Iont: die "ch
01.1 .. che ph..e referellce .1 r • 0 ."d P • P.' From che
principle of ••perpo.ilion il chb 'oil_a ch.1 die panem of
che ua, in die ....Iorial or principal plane is •
n ......ioa 0' die lac....., to ....m,. ., par.U.1 N
••i.1 .1010 .1 PI' P.. ",p .. , •••p N "- che cd,e 0' dI.
is no. e.rried .n. Th••i li.. In iII••cra.ed ill fi,. 3a .he,e
ch. ....erftl i••••i" _.d to be in Ihe .aloli.1 plalle
(z - 0) d. is che 180" e_pl_e.lof che alli...chal .",Ie
..ed p ioul,. Eacb 0101 ia .1I_ed • ba... a" .rbiuar,. di..
lribali_ 0' ..ola.e I' .nd lurche, Ihe,. ••,. be 0' .rbillary
le••hI2' ... nc ncil.don coemcie"l lor ncb .101 i. defi"cd!ly
•• p •••• F
.here p - (2lrp)2 co, 12). Fo, p,ue.r purpo". che I.ft"
10_ i. deair.ble and it be .rileft i. r_a of Frnul i..
te,rala .a '0110••
.here Jf (,') ia Ihe di.aib.nion of _ eae nlca.e .IOft. ehe
• Ioe aad .bere '} i•• "acti.. of Icp d che ..wuchal .".Ie.
T.o .Ie...ti... ropr•••• ailable fo, Q; d.e lirae ia
Q=i 2: '.. I·" coa (11I .../2) J..'s (2)
Wich "'erean •• co....e..liOft.1 c,.li..drical coo,di... ,e a,..
_(Po <t. a)•••Iae 01 le.,ch 21 is loc.led ... pe,fecd,. condue-
ria. aheee defined b," • 0.2•• The .101 ia ,....lIel
•••d • di•••ce p fr_ che ed.e of che half.pla..e aheer(·).
The .10, Ia .......ed • be ••no••nd radiaeu 0..1, Oft OIIe aide
of che .hue. Tbe eleeeric field ill che far 0' ,adinlio. field i..
che .....rial plane (i.e. a - 0) haa ..I,. .. ee-pone"l .nd ia
....... by
F... [J+I "('')oIa'] eJlP(-alrp. +i.... ')'} (I)
• .1
CCs)" r..,·H,') oil,

s,.) = r IS) oil,

_.I WMft fJ. i. ph..e IaClor .laiell .cmea die lelauft ph..e
0' each 0' die .lolS. For e...ple. che ph••e diffelftcc berwee"
p. and ' .. +1 in p. fJ. - P.. +lfJ••
••di.... la ..h.1 '0"0•••
A i••1...,. re.1 aad fJ. i•• CO"aca"l .hich ia replaced .i....
pl1 by fJ. 1a oilier .ord•• die .1010 are ucieed by • e..... lIin•
....e .ich • phase ..eloci" u/fJ. F.rdlec.ole. che alol••,e
• be -.••11,. apaced .ilb ••eparalioa " beawn. ce.cera. It
che. IoU_. Ibnl
..d che leallb of che .r.,. ia
and ..he,e che .pper +) ai,.. ia 10 be e..plo,ed .beD • in ,.0..
Ii....nd die Io.e, o"n (-) ..he. II ia
,.he ""clion F(· , cha.. cee,i,.. ch. radialio.. paltem 0' •
• ill.le ..inl alol r.d••linll Oft Ofte .ide of • c_"c-
ein. aheee i.. lermo of p che diocance of ch. alor 10 che ed,. and
che azi..ueh.1 Ie 't. Fell) io rcadil, coRlpuled ,,_ .bl•• of
F,.....I i..le la. To ilI.aaace iu propeni•• IF(a>l i. plofted
in fi.a. 2A '0' II >....d in Ii •. 2B fo, a <0. The ph....... defi-
ned b,. ... - - .,. F(II) ia ploned in fiS•• 2C '0' • >°a.nd Ii••
m lor a < •. It can be .een lhae fa, a ••fIiciend,. po.ici.e
IF(II)I i••pp,oachin, .nily indicacin. char Ihe hall-pl••e i. euenei.U,. a••n infini,e plane C..dvClac. AI a - °die
• alue of Fell) i. idenlicall,. O. S. When a bec..... Ia,.e in che
Ilep,i.e direclion. F(a) ..y"'p.o.icall, approache. UICI. The
liRlieill. beha..i., of die IIInceion ia au_.,ized i. che 'oll...i".
L =M
The panem ca" "0. be .,inc. co....eniendy " len.. of d."
diRleoo.le.. paraRleleu ,. X .nd a :
if ... (/J 0 Ir) LI •• X = (2 Ir .in ...d
a. 0/(0 +L)(s)•
(6-) '01.
1- ..
• -I -.'
F(a) I: I +_e__e 2
"'2.. a
(.) S- "._ I.
fS) , ... .._ .... X10 , .."" ••• __.1. I. "1. 11.
'1'1Ie paltera ., a COGlialloua dia"ib,"ion 01 uial alOl. ia
"caiaed by le,cia, N llee_ ilIdeliaitel, lar,e Ian Hepia, L
r,nd ..ell ....1 •
L .. N Jp
a •• l)2]•
• aX -+---
• l-CI N II
T1le _npoodill, palle. I. die inlioile "....01 plaee (ie.
oIiffraeti_ .Ikeu i ....d) i. ailaply
Wilen the plane Ia ilIlilIite ill aleat, die pattera ia ideaucal
to die abne il '(a) ia replaced by ..oil)'.lo thia caae, diffraeuoa
elfeeu due to die edp 01 die ball-piaee are i....r.cL Farth_
_., if A• ••re' corrnpoaclio, • a lIIIilo_ of
ualatioD, the aaiea cu lie __ed • lift
C(lP) • 2 [. 1_ +XI} (...!. .!.)] .1. [(as +Xl) !] (10)
lL ap "'" . l-CI 2 N...[(,. +XI} :N]
2 1 )1 _l-X I.
_ l-a
WI·J[ --'.
. • 1-

r •• (2, ....!...)t
1- a
\ I I
I _
1111 FlIlClion .
---I 1+
lVM .." ..... KalIl


. --
Phase LCI9/
of FW

- -
- -
. 1/ I
- .- -
o ·1 ·Z ·3 ·4 ·5 .. ·1 -. -•

1I 1-++-hr--f---1I--+---1I--+---l--j
0)0 .,
Z 3

pla.e .Dd • ".If-p".e lor I - 0 and q - 0. The
,pecified by the Itt., me .ioor lobe. 10, die IDfullle
p"ne case should be of 1 ••pliNde. For reoa... rhe
.rr., i. c.lled • Tcllcb,.chcff allOy'. lollo••n, che worlr of
Dolph ...d Ribler. UaiD, dacit procedu,e, it is found ch.,
(I) 'h 1 h ,." , 2S •••
Ie i. io,e,earia, I. DOle cha, rhc .iDor lobe, for me half.
p"oe Cue arc 00 -au of ••pliNde.•Dd die -i"!
is ",.."ed •• i, w•• 111 Itte .Dlf•• endoftrc arr.,. A a.ID.lar
elfec, ho. Nee receatl, obaened .., B.rnerrDDd T.i" .ho c.l·
cu",d me pallem of • Tcheb,.chdl .".y of .lecDic currcal
ele_a.. lo die .,ieilli" of. holf-pIoDC.
In rite pre<'edin, calcu..'i.....tceDliOD ha. been confined
elIlirel, ro rlt _ illl.'ioo .here Itt. half-p"ne .heel i, in free
....ce. AD ellICD,i... ia .hen Itt" i. re••
rin, on me ..;I.ce of • h_o.eDe......ound. In Itti, case Ihe
paaem of ,.,,, .rray of .101. for aft ob,ene, io Itte .ir i. obc.ined
b, iocroduclD, aD ••,. _,t. on whe .nder ed,e of .me h.U·
p"ne. The Iuco"h of whe ....'e .rray i••odified by the Frcanel
refleelioo coelfacieor .",.".,e for (.enicall)'-pol.rizcd)
..... locidenl on rite h...o,.neOll' .....nd .r ••r.zin....,Ie
of ". 1'1Ie lormol. 10' rite paacro f•••iD.le el...eor ., di 'ra....
ce p fr_ dac ed,. ia &i.eD by
0.632 •
= 0.67' •
0.881 • .nd
•• (8pIA)T ai"
.,. p .c, "IF F I
,. = e (a) + (••)
where Ie i, che c.pln dieleccric COIIaranlof che "ouDd
'0 free .pace. The .bo.. C'lU.,iOD for I' i•• ,oed .pprOlli/llllliDn
ff" ftlues of" Iro.. 0 ro 111)0 and i, .pin rc'Dicred 10 Ihe
principal 0' ......,ori.1 'The UNre of !he .pprollilDaliOD.
arc di,Aud io che .ppendill.
'The parre,. IPI for ••io.le alor on • h.lf-p"ne i••how"
in fi,. 10 for • IDules, 0' dieleccric llJound lor Ie ronllin. fro'"
I CO 100 .Dd dlrce ..foel of piA. The cue 1( .. I. of course,
eorrftpooda ro 'rft apace belo••• well •••bon che h.If'plane.
A, 1( inc,..... me diffr.crion dfcci. "'e rD whe edl:e of rhe .ppareDd, .re••izcd. When 1( i••1I0wed 10
.pproach infinity .idl " > O. wher. II'I .FJ'roaches uni.y. Phy•
,icall,. dli. correspoad, CO c...plele refleclion frOIll Ihe ,round
plane (If - I) .nd die pallem has die u.u.l oIDDi.direcliDn_1
ch.rocrerisric 0' • ,i••le .Ior on .n infinire ideall, conduclin,
.,...nd p"ne. 11 i. inrcresrin, 10 note rh." for) < " < _, if 'II
i. red.ced CO Zero che parrem II'I i, .1••)', zero. In olher wDrds,
., ID_ .n,Ie, die field of rhe "'.,e _rce ,cncI, 10 c.ncel Ihe
field of Ihe direci '_ce. In ,he Case of Ie .. I Ihe p.nern IPI
i. idenlicaU, 0.5 ., " • 0 ,ince Ihere i. nD ••ICC .ource. On
che ocher h.nd for" I.r,e. che panern II'I i...cilialin, .bDUI
uniry. The.e ripple, ••,lDpIOIically .pproach zero as pI A
proaches iofini" .nd mey .re due 10 die inlerference of Ihe
direci rod.,iDn Ir... Itte .101 and che •••e ,nrrered &DIII che
ed,e of rhe
The picN.e i. nor ch...,cd if !he ,round i. dis•
• ira
• e• (ie. 10ss,I,.heDCe" h.s. nepli.e ...."in.ry ... rt. The
parrem II'I for. cOlaplel dielecuic con.ranl of ••ilh • _
4. 16. 64, 25(,(1) .,e .h_n in fi,. II f. "0 ••Iun of piA.
Apin u 1I bec..... Iar.e Itte _,nirude 01 n (") .ppro.ches
.ni" .nd 11'1 .".rDaches uni".
The pre.cripri.. for calcul.rin, Ittc p.nern 0' .n .rr.y on
which of cou,... ia well IuIown'. huill, a .a''',ude e._I '0
2 aiD III whe,e 1- (,,, + X2)/2.
E.ployin, C'lUa,ioD (101. che paClem Ie ('f)/I LI is pl,,!led
.a • "Dcli.. of che p.,_eICl X iD fi,_ 4 fOI , • 1 and
ftluea of N. Thia ia che .iNolion whele che .11., eOft""a of
N eIi.creIC .1....." fed wich • c••ranl ••plillldc. '1he condi-
cion , • 1 i. the cche,ioa for opli•• piD of ncb .n .11., ••
band b, "ooc1)'ard
• Ir .ean, char the
lenada 1 T. of che .rroy is "rodiana leu rhon fJ T• • here fJ IS rlae of che •••e eacilin. the .rro,. The pallerna in
fi,.' 4 .re ahown for bach po,ilin .nd nepli.e ..Iue. 01 .\'. In
che coae of .101. elDbedded in .n inlinire "ound ...1, po-
.i,i.e ftluea .re phy,iaUy re.liuble. 00 che ocher bond. 'he
ft,ion of neptin X is acceuible if che elelDenu .re loc.,ed
in I,ee .pace. Ie ia .eeD chal •• IV becolDe...earer chao .bo,n
8 che partern doca DOl depcad ... N .1 leUI lor Ixl less chao ,.
10 olher wor-ta. che ..ray of di,crele ,ourcea can be ccp"ced by
conriauoua .,roy (N =_) if IV ia DOl ,_ ._11.
[ (
II 1)]=.[('" +
EJ!) - 2.. i (,e +X') - + - L ') i (12)
iL 1· II 2 \6" +X '2
Uain. C'luolion (2) Ihe influence of ..'yin. , i, iIlualroled
in fa •• , lor die cOllrinuous unifor....rroy. For.\' > 0 chi. corre,.
pond, 10 .n .,roy of len,lh L elDbedded in ... infinile ,round
plane, or if nepri.e ftlue. of )( .re 10 be included. die .rray
ia loared in free 'pace. Here il an be seen dI.r Ihe eflecl of
irIcreoain, , bey...d uDi" i. 10 reduce che -ior (eDd-fire) lobe
'The in fi". 4 and 5 is, of cour.....elllr....14
bul il ia desirable dI., il be pr..eDled here fo, c_paria.. 01 .
•"'U '011_•.
Fr... rhc boaic C'l.ali... (9) for N di.ccc.e elelD.,lI. Oil •
boll-p"ne. 1hz partem IG ('f)/IT.1 ia plorted io 6,. 6 lor che
condilioDa. Aw • 1. IV - 8. a- O. , • O. In 'he ca.e of auch an
cod-fire .nrenu ... a h.lf-p"n". borh po.ili.e and De.ali.e
ftlue, 01 X .rc .cceuible. The corre,poDdiD, pUlerD lor die
COftlinuou, .rray eN =a)••i,h o4
- I. a - O. , - 0 is .1'0
.hown. For Df cOlapariaon die ... rrem of die ".e co...
liD..... ...., on • infallile ,heel i, .1'0,ed in fi,. 6-
Th••"eci of .."in, " ,he .1Icirali... par.IlIeter, for che
.nilona .lIa, (A w - I) on • h.lf.p"ne i. ,ho•• in
6,.7 lor a- O. Con"." 10 !he n,n of .n infinil. pl ... ,hftl
or for .n iaol.,ed .rr." che _in lobe .ppcan 10 be ••r",.UI
lor, • 0 ,.dler dI.n I • I.
When me .ltay i. ",o.ed .w., &0.. che cd•• of the h.lf.
p"ne (a> 9) ch. parrem i, .,.in "'odified. 'Thi. i. iIIu'
in Ii,. • tor 'he a ... of the unifor. coolinuous .rr., on me
halJ-pl.... wilh II • 0 .nd a •• "in. fro'" 0 10 0 .9. In Cue
Itte p.rre,n of Itte .rray on .n infini.e ,r...nd (a- 1.0) i.
aho-n for c_p.ri.oD.
The lore,oin, ha, been r..uicrcd co .niforlD Dci,.,i....he.
reiD Aw • I, 'he efleci of raperin. Itte iIlulDinalion i. shown in
Ii.. 9 for die ca.e of. di.crere .,ray (N • 8) .. 1Iolh ... infiDile

_ .. - L--
Ie f'lO. SA i
2 9';
__ __ ......-!
x• .,I2I'C .... ...-z
u .
rlaURE 6
Ie -
F"IG. 50

$ It
u -
F"IG. "A



• . FIGURE 3b
lyinC on a h.... ,round i. identical 10
rIta, 01.0.&. For .. if C ('1') is 01 the _, on
che isolaced hall-plaa. rhen rhc deairc.J pallem 7; ('1') .. ,i._
• • ,.!. "
F (0) - (l + I) J e 2 Jl
r: C") - r; ('1') + .'1 ('II) • r; (-'!')
To illu.lIlIl. chi., rhe It; t'I')/, LI 'or Ih c.. 01 _i-
for. coalinuGUa arra, 0' a,rh t. wich II - 0 and I - 0
ia ah_n in IiC. n 'or .ariou. re.1 ftlue. it, r. and ia 'i,. U
for che _plu .aluc l()oia.
ia eh e fa..CI;oa prui...I, defined. No. if It - 0 at.-
se"ft i rhe h.lI-p"'e peee ., • di.coace pI... rhe eelac.
Ie Un 101'-. rh.,
a c co•••12
II ia lhu••un dlAe the field". (P, 0) h•• ••me O2illlulh.1
... "'••a the ••di.lion field 0' ••101 elcmeftC .,
(P,0). nis i.,.'•• 01 ehe .eciprocity rheo-
Tlae ..dial c.-poMllc 0' rhe elecrric field i. oLe.ined frolll
polrern 0' • flu." aneuna is .un Co
I.e .arkedl, influenced I.y rfoe auncalion of t;lound
The pneral rendeney .. 'or che lIIain be.1II co M Ii Ired upward
.nd .100 Lro.dened. A. diarance 0' .rra, 'r.... ed,e
of rhe h.lf-plone is incre.. rhe approaches rh., 'or
on pound plane. Such a i. in '"
mene wirh rhe eaperilllenllli re.ulr. 0' F.lIiollsa for CorN,.'eof
.urf.ce and Simon .nd noLieua s. 'or
onCe..... Ie is DOC possible co ••ke • decoiled c_potiaon wieh
cheir work aince the eareri_n.1 condiriona do noe correspood
co che ..odel cho.en in rhia Ie ia in rhe fanate Co che model co include olher 'or..a 0' n_unifor.. eac;'
.,ion", IS auch .s welocity ..odulalion 0' the . eacitin, wne
and ....iou. 'Ollll. 0' ••plieude .odularion.
I: (p .)__. _I_ 3 If, (P, ..)
p' "OIp 3'1>
.nd in rhe piau. - w it foll_. chal
I:p (P.w) - 1:. [e,. aln ••]
TI.i. '111.ariey ftriea •• (I pr} •• I, aPrr.chea aero .here..
for Iorr.c lop ••, ..plOcicyllf Lcc_.
We would like co ch.nk Nr•• P. Nurdock and Nrs. A. NUlph,
(::or their help in rhe prep.rarion 0' paper and Joha C.
II..... 'or dra'eio, rhe m.a, ilIusrr.,iOlls.
••• , •••• [ 1. ,1
e•• 2si••• e • F .(8p/A)2 ai""'.12r
•• w/. • •• p ( 2)1 ••
.c e -- co,-
• Ie p 2
" can be im,.edi.,el, rhor t·: 1/1, has rhe .. Iuc
for •• pl••e wne .e oblique incidence on •
(22) F.
(P••) - E. + e.11 • n
fl. (P, .). H, .. 'I. 1:. (I + R ('1')]
• &lP1·iflp. w/41 [ 3 ]
.. . ._----
e'-.'2 • up I •
V-(2' ,)'12 .i,,' of ., p ,ill' 2·
Ie can reodil, be nrilied ch., '-p (P,O) • 0 which i.
!.-ndary condirion on 01 rhe .I,eee lhe
fielda on chc face 0' pound ••e

lhe qu.nlil' e, i. rhe .eneclecl elecrric 'ield &om edr in
die plane of rhe half-plane as a_.liaed ro ...plieude F-
.f rhe incideae .Iecaic 'ielcl. •
To "ri.riOll 0' rhe _,nilUde 01 die
.r scaaered field frooo che J is plorced in fi,. I' as ..
funceion .1 frp ••• _CliOll 01. (- " •••). When lop > 2.
(or p > A), Ie J i. I... rh.a lIT' for ...,Ies leu eh.n .bOII,
10'. F...rhellDore, the fieLi is .. p 2 indicaein, IhaC
lilde .cliaci•••e. place ia thi, direceion.
When rhe I_er half-. pace (+ w< '" < 2.) i. wilh
homo,eneou•••ceri.1 who.e (c_ples) dielecrric i•
... rel.cin co fru .pocettrhcn the .01udOll •• by
for the _ pecic 'ield (P••) in chc upper h.1f .pace is
I •• p ••• It} [ 1. '" •••J "I
". (p,.) - ".! e • F (8p/Ai' co, -2- +
+ e'" ... .'t.) F[ (8p/A) teo. It I
Tit. Holl-p/o... on ,It. Surfoco 0' 0 Holl-spoco.
The dillr.ceion of a •••e b, • hall-plone shul of
conducri"e, lonred in f,u .p.ce ... sol wed b, Arnold
Sommerfeld in 1899. The correspondin, soluciOll for Ihe silUalioa
.here is loneed in plane bel.een
fWO hOllloacneous media is • much more complicaeed ploblem.
Cle_o_ U p.e a formal solucion co rhi. problelll in 19H bul,
eacepe in apecial caoea, it ••• aol .uicoble 'or C_
pucorion. A••encioned, Senior h.. propooed • lIIechod baoecl On
a c_bined uoe of ray rheory and ri,orou. dilfracrion rheory
,ieldin, ••imple .olulion. 11 i. rhe purpou of chi•• 10
cli...... rhe li.. icolion. in Senior'••olucion .nd i,••pplicability
co rhe reciproc.1 r.di.,ion _hen .ource i. on ehe
compari.on _irh merhod is .1.0 _de.
A h.lf-plone locaeed in MI.Un c.o ho.o,..
i. in Ii;. 1.(. A cylindrical co..dinale
.yscelll (P, ., ,) i. chooen .uc" ,h., half-pl.u i. delined
b, • - 0 (01. - 2.). A .i,h _,neric .ecl.. paraUel
10 rhe ed,e 01 rhe half-plane is inciclenl ., .n .n,le ell.
upper .url.ce 01 incidene 'ield 'or. ci_
'eclor eap (i 01 ,) i. rhu. lina by
H. is rhe 01 incidenl field.
If rhe re,ion (0 < 't < 2.) is lree sp.ce, SOIll18e,.
'eld .ol..rion lor resulrin, lield i.
1 '!! F (M) + If ('1') F (... ) (2S)
which ,. ill wid, tqIt.cion (24) d.",..d ••'''ll 5""'0" •
• elhod.
The " , coincide"ce of the cwo .pr.olli_ce for.... I.. for
._11 ..Iu of the pu;", ."Llle '" lend. confide"ce co cite
proach d .. lhe \aocIy of che ,.pct fo, Cllculatint "ane,ns of
a_. 00. which.rc l,inC on. h.1I .p.ce.
F.. (s', 0) - 1.. h • R (1'») .in .. e" ••' ••• ". (26)
..hich ne,leclS cDlllpleeel, the p...."ce of the hall-pl."e fo'
.11 ".,.ei Iue. of lI. F..,th.,.ore, F.. (s', 0) d.... DOC h•••
the conce, e. of .in,..lari" It •• s'. O. Aft., .o..e .I!:.b••ic
,""la,i_ th. re... hinl ClIp,esaion fo, the ."scnei.1 .acn"
tic field 00 lhe uppe' .",fa... of th. h.lf-pl••• ia
T - 1· co• .!. + (F (II) + R ('1') F (-..)) co.!
2 2
The .....nei" '". (P, 0) .... the ••me function dependence on "'.
•• the ,.diatioe field of ••ioll. oaial .Iot at a di.cance p " .....
the edle of the hal...,lane•
II i. of " ....est '0 c....,.'e "'e ,..e.en••echnique wi.h one
.uUes.ed .ecend, b, Fl._e. for ••imil •• I"oble",. Wi.h .efe-
,.nu co fi•• 14 .nd the c...... ian coo,dinae•• (So ,., .) ehe
incidene field ••h ••n ....Ie of incidence • wieh ehe "el.ei...
s aai. foll ••in..... c1eti..eion of FIa_." die inee,••1 eque;...
for the ."••••ial ••I"e.;c field on the ,,_nd pia". i.
H] -211 e"·' •••• +
• •
Thi. Cln be wrine. io .e.... of the (IInl"._,,) .",e"ei.1 elee-
aic field 1:. (s', 0) b, lIIinl thc ,e...1e
f8 H.,
t-8--] = i , (oJ F.. (s', 0)
1 ,-a
. • [811.]
+!.l "."I(k(s's'») - u'
2_ 81 ,-a
(I) J. II. ".ie, .R.eIi.eion frOftl • Lin. SOIf.ce 10 •
Con....ceina lIall Pia..... ' Jou•. of App. Phy•. , Vol. 24.
"0.12, pp 1'2.1'29. Dec. 1953 (Ll.
(2) C. T. l.i, .R.di.eion fro", Cu"....e r,1_enu .".1 Are'N.eS
in ,he P....ncr ot • Pr.fecll, Conclucei"l: II.1f"
lechftical Report No. 4', Staft'ord !'e....teh Insli...t.,
Stanford, C.lifornia, J.. ly. 1954.
(3) J. R. W.ic and n. E. W.lpolr, .Calc"l.eed n.dialion Ch••
racee.i..ic. of 510.. C..l in .. " C.n. Jou•.
'echnolo!lY. Pc. 1. Vol. H. rr 211'227. M.y. I"'" .nd
Pe. 11. Vol. '4, pp J.n., 19'6 .nd n. G. 1'.00.1 .nd
J. R., ,A" InyeSli,aeion of 5101 R.di.eors in -"elal
PI••r .., P.oc. I••e. E1ece. En!:.s., Vol.103, P•. n, PI' 10l-
110, J••.• 11)5(>.

·z .1 0 I Z
Sin ./2
- L ----
.. = (Sp/A)l .in C'f/2)
- 2" .' ". P ••• '" (,.. (..) + .,: ('1') ,.. (-.. »)

riG. 7D
riG. 7E
H.(p, 0) - ". (p, 0) + ,'r ('.) ". (p, 2.)
LO No'"
15 riG. 7c
14,----- .
:1 7A :J9\f\;\/J



.J ·4
:i! o•

h_aneous " .... nd. Con.eque"tly, die field e, (J - R ('P») don
not utist, the'bo,..,da" conditio" ....e it h.. b..........n that
• t i.....I1 ..cepe close ... the edce .nd "ether_,e fo, • hi.hl,
c._Ctia. ."",nd, R ('1') i. ncar uniry. It ••, ehe.efore be
coacNded that the boundary condition i. only .iolaeed for •
._11 ...ioa of the IIOlI.d ...rI.ce ne.' the cd,. of the "OlI.d
A....mia. th.e this proced.., .. i...lid, the ran,..oei.1 •••
pecic fi.ld on the IIOlInd plan. becomes
" IS

.. 0 1 L
• ·0
'4 • J
.·CZ'LJ"" ....1t'21
I'llTTDlN f7 lH'IlRM DCl·RIE
. 11

u'r-..........,,.....,"""T......,.-.-................, r·................... ......

• U.... r-
.i ..
(..) L. B. Felsen. oRadiarion frOID Slou on a Perfectlr Condu.,.
UD, Wed,e ". popel prennred ar WescoD. Lo.
Au....' 1956; also ne DO. H fr_ Elecrrophrsics
Group. Polrtechnic lnsuN,e of BrooklrD, ....r. 19'6.
(,) R. A. Hurd. oRadiauoo Parrems of • Dielecuic Coored
AaiaUy-SloCled Crliadero. Con. Jour. Pbrs.. Vol. 3-4.
P' 638. JIIlr. 19'6.
(6) It. A. NORon••The Propaprion of Radio \r....e. Ooer rhe
Sorface of che £Srllu. Proc. IRE. Vol. pp
Sepr.. 1937.
(7) J. R. Waie, oThe Chsracreris'ics of a Vertical Anrenna
.idl a Radial Cooncror Ground Srsre.l. lnsr. aadio
Eo,rs .. 195«. Aloo Appl. Sci. lies•• D•• Vol.... pp 177-

• • • •

-- ,'0
--- .-,.
_.- •• 16
-- .·6<:
-- .·256
(8) J. R. Wair••Effecr of die Gr....nd Screen on die Field no-
diared fr_ a •• IRE Traasacrions 00 Anrennas
Dod Propoprion. Vol. AP.... No.2. pp 1790181. April.
-- ..,
---- 1It-'
-- tc-.,
-- "·20
-- "-100
, .

• II • • 1I •
(9) H. and G. D. Monceach••Tb" V"ccical R.diation
P.uems 01 M..dill....W.... Rro-dcascia,. Aeri.I••, Proc.
I.E.E•• Vol. 102. pp 279-297, N.y. 1955.
(10) G. Bek"fi, .The "pedaace 01.0 Anrenna A.....e .Circul.r
Ground Plare Laid Upon. Eardu. Cu. Jour. Phys.
Vo'. 32, pp 20)0222. Warch. 195".
(11) I. Cu.well .nd C. .Ground I.nrenna Phase
Beha.ior in • Differenrial Phase Neasurin, Sysr"....
Con.enrion Record 01 1.R.E., Vol. 5. P.n .. pp
(12) P. C. CleMenow••R.dio Propaprion O...r • Flu E.nh
Across .. Boundary Sep.racin, Two Pilfercnr Medi••• Phil.
Trans. Roy. Soc. (London) Vol. 246. pp 1'55. JlIne.
(13) T. B. A. Senior••R.dio Prop.ll.rion • Discoacinlliry
in rhe E.rrh·. Elecuical Properrie... Inst. 01 F.leccrical
Ea,rs. Mano,rsph No. 192R, pp 1·11. All'" 1956.
(17) J. Nciucr, •Thc Deha.ior 01 Elecu_.,ncric Field••c
Ed,...., R"PDcc 91·72 lasr. of Scieacea, New York
U.i.erairy • Dec•• I"'.
(18) R. S. Ellioc••00 che Theory of Corl\lllSled P lane Surf.·
c..... Trans. I.R.c.., Vol. AP·2. pp 71·81, April, 19,...
(19) J. C. Simon .nd J. Rol>icas, .R.di.rion Perlorlll.acl' of
End-Fir" Surf.ce W.... Ancenna... Fi.1 Repocc on AF .._ Compepie de
T.s.F., P.ri•• No••, 1956.
(20) A. S. Thom•••nd F. J. 7ud"c, .R.di.cion fro..
Surface w.... Scruel\lle••, Pr. I. Connnri. Recocd of
IRE. Vol. 5. pp 15H60.
(21) R. L. Pease, .R.di.rion frOlll Nodal.ced Surf.ce W....
••, Pr. U. C_.eDrion Record of IRE. Vol. "
pp 161·165,
16 -
, I
' .
14 I
, I
; I
: I
: I
! /

01 -

:/ 1\
.1/ \
, ,
0 5' Ill' 35'
••8,192 •• tl\
. >--
·U /' -',
i .'0 '.
• x·,12 .......... .<2..
1.1. /' i/,)".. '\
1 / 1// \":\
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1.4 • I ,f't.....•
1 I 11:'--..-16 \.
I I t' .\
1.2 ,1 it'
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00 --Ill'.1-----l--..,:...l--..:...--.L...--JJ:\.
(14) R. W. P. king, .Theory 01 Line.c Anrenn.... Han.rd
Uni.ersiry Press. 1956.
(15) ':1. W. H.nsen .nd J. R. Woodyard••A New Pcincipl" in
Dircccion.1 Ancenaa Dcsi,n t. Proc. IRE, Vol. 26. p. 3.
M.rch. 1938.
(16) R. I. B.raccc .nd C. T. T.i •• Effccr 01. " Shuc
Upon chc R..disrion P.ceccn 01 • Dolrh-Tchcbysch,,1f Ar-
ray', Rcporr 678-4 Irom chc Anrenns L.bor.cory 01 chc
Ohio Uni.ccsiry Rcsearch Foundarion on AF 19
(604H7n. No•., 1956.
"'GURE 14
ul""'::-,·-.:;::--- ...,
1.,1 ..' .......;E.
- ·-1
".GUllt IS
... -7'---.. ..
1.10 Wait. J. R., 1963. "The Theory of an Antenna Over an Inhomogeneous Ground
Plane," extracted from Electromagnetic Wave Theory, edited by E. C. Jordan,
pp. 1079-1097, Pergamon Press. Oxford.
(Reprint No. 208)
Reprinted with the permission of Pergamon Press PLC
extracted from : Electromaanetic Wave Theory edited by
E.C. Jordan, Pergamon Press, Oxford , 1963
National Bureau of Standards, Boulder, Colorado, U.S.A.
We consider an antenna over a lIat ground plane which is characterized by a variable
surfacc imped'lDCC as in a radial-wire screen. The problem is formulated in terms of the
mutual impedance ~ t w c c n two venical dipoles, one which is raised. and the other is
located on the Il"ound plane. The IPlund screen is taken to be in the combined form of
a circular disc and a concentric sector. An approximate solution of the problem is
obtained and the results are compared with previous invcstiptions of closely related
The influence of the ground plane in antenna radiation is a subject which
has not received the attention it deserves. In many cases it is assumed that
the ground behaves as a flat perfectly conducting surface. Unfortunately,
the principal characteristics of the antenna are influenced-in general. in an
adverse way-by the finite ground conductivity. At broadcast frequencies.
it has been common practice for many years to improve the situation by the
use of a radial-wire ground system. Typically, the approach has been empirical.
Apparently the first systematic study was carried out by Brown and his
associates (Gihring and Brown. 1935; Brown et al.• 1937). More recent
investigations have been focused mainly on the influence of the ground system
on the impedance of the antenna (Abbott. 1952; Monteath. 1951; Wait and
Su"ees. 1954; Wait and Pope. 1954. 1955). It has been assumed usually that
the radiated field for a given current on the antenna was not appreciably
affected by the presence of the ground screen.
In an earlier paper (Wait and Pope. 1954) an approximate method was
given which is suitable for estimating the dependence of the ground wave
on the size of the screen. Calculations (Wait. 1956) based on this work
SUPPO" the contention that the ground screen has only a small effect on the
radiated field for screens with a radius of the order of a wavelength or less.
Very similar conclusions have been amved at by Monteath (Page and Mon-
teath. 1955; Monteath. 1958).
t This work was carried out while the author .. as on a visit to the Technical University
of Denmark. Copenhagen. in the faU of 1960.
In this paper the theory is extended to ground screens which may be
large in tenns of wavelength. The problem now bears some similarity to
previous investigations of propagation across a land-sea boundary (Bremmer.
1958; Wait, 1956, 1957). While the literature on this subject is quite extensive,
the results are not sufficiently general to be applied without modification.
Thus it seems worthwhile to refonnulate the problem in a fairly general way.
It-------- d
FlO. 1. Side and plan views of the dipOles and the lround plane.
(Note that tan ." - hI' and tan l(IO - hid.)
The problem to be considered is illustrated in Fig. 1. Two vertical electric
dipole antennas are located at P and Q which are located at height hand
height zero, respectively. over a fiat earth. The effective lengths of these
dinoles are II and 12. respectively. The surface of the ground is characterized
b, a surface impedance Z everywhere except at a ground screen about Q.
This ground screen is made up of a circular disc of radius a which is lying
on the surface of the ground. Furthennore. a sector of radial wires emanates
from this circular disc in the manner shown in Fig. I. The tangential fields
over the ground screen are also assumed to be related by an effective surface
impedance Z'. Over the disc (i.e. p < a) this is denoted and over the sector
(i.e. b > P > a• .::12 > t/> > -.::1 1) it is denoted
The mutual impedance: between dipoles P and Q is written
== =0 A:
where zo is the mutual impedance between dipole P and Q when no ground
plane was present. Thus is the change of the impedance resulting from the
presence of the ground plane. Having the problem formulated in this way
allows the compensation theorem from network theory to be used to express
in terms of a surface integral over the area of the ground screen S. Thus
(Monteath, 1951)
Az = kI I (Z' - Z) H
. dS (2)
where Hpc is the tangential magnetic field on the ground plane, with no
ground screen, resulting from a current 10 impressed on terminals of dipole P
and where is the tangential magnetic field on the ground plane, with
the ground screen present.
Equation (2) is an exact formulation of the problem provided that the
tangential electric and magnetic fields may be related by a surface impedance.
Essentially it is a two-dimensional integral equation since the integrand
contains the unknown field It has been shown in a previous paper
(Wait, 1956) th:u such an equation can be reduced to a one-dimensional
integral equation by employing a stationary-phase principle. Such a method
is particularly appropriate for studying propagation over land-sea boundaries.
Here: a somewhat different approach is used since the two-dimensional nature
of the problem must be preserved.
The mutual impedance zoo in the absence of the screen is easily obtained
from the known solution (Norton. 1957; Wait, 1957) of a dipole over a flat
conducting plane of surface impedance Z. Thus
illow!dz .
Zo = --e-
• cosz.po W(Ro, Z) (3)
W(Ro. Z) = I - i(fTpO)1I2 e-
• erfc(iwo1/2), (4)
wo = (I +Zfpo,
Po = - ik:
k = 2fT/wavelength.
'10 = 120fT and p.o = 4fT X 10-

This result is valid subject to the approximation that I and !z/'1ol
It should be noted that W(Ro. Z) can be written in the form (Nonon. 1957;
Wait, 1957)
W(Ro. Z) = W, ;- W,
W, == 1 +R(I/Io)
is the radiation or space field and W, is the Norton surface wave, and R(I/Io)
is a Fresnel reflection coefficient. Provided 1/10 is not near zero, and if
Ipo I I, W, is the principal part of W. By definition, the antenna pattern
of dipole Qin the absence of the ground screen is the function W,. Now at
near-grazing conditions where 1/1 approaches zero W, becomes the principal
part of W since W, tends to zero. This is an important point to keep in mind
when discussing the effects of the ground on the radiation from the antenna
at low angles,
Another quantity required is the tangential magnetic field Hp , resulting
from a current /0 in dipole P. It is a vector with amplitude given by
, == -'_1 e-,kR cos 1/1 W(r, Z)
W(r,Z):; I - i("p)t/'!. c-
'!.), (7)
W - P(I +i.;f,
p == _ ikR and R == (rl +
2 '10
This result is valid subject to kr:> 1 and IZI'1O 1
Now the tangential magnetic field on the ground plane in the presence
of the screen may be written in the form
H' == iJclo!z (1 + .!.) e-ctp W'( Z' Z)
I' 2 iJc p, , ,
"p p
where W' is an unknown function of the radial distance p and the surface
impedances Z and Z' of the screen and of the ground Equation (8) is nor-
malized so that W' would approach unity if Z' == Z = O.
In a similar manner the mutual impedance:: in the presence of the screen
is written
z = ilAG",111z e-,tRo cosz ./. W'(R Z Z')
2"Ro '1'0 0"
where W' is an unknown function which is also normalized such tbat it
becomes unity for Z =Z' == O.
Using (3), (6), (8), and (9), it readily fOllows that (2) may be expressed
by the equivaJent form
W'(Ro, Z, Z') = W(Ro, Z)
+2" ::5 +0 JJ(Z';;: Z) e-
e-fk(R-RoI (i . it) (Ro) COS '"
P R cos "'0
X (1 + W(R,Z) W'(p,Z',Z)d'dp,
where the variables of integration are p and., the polar coordinates about Q.
Also, ip and ill are unit vectors in the direction of the fields Hpl and
In the case when h approaches zero, (10) reduces to
W'(d, Z, Z') - Wed, Z) I
+ ff (Z';;: Z) (II' .i,,) (I + (II)
W(r, Z) W'(p, Z', Z) d' dp.
This is a two-dimensional integral equation for the function W'. In principle
one could solve (II) for W' and then using this, (10) becomes an explicit
integral formula for W'(Ro. Z. Z') at any height h. Because of the complexity
of such an approach, it is customary to reduce (11) to a one-dimensional
integral equntion by employing a stationary-phase principle (Bremmer, 1958;
Feinberg, 1946). Essentially this makes use of the idea that the important
part of the surface integral is a narrow ellipse with foci at P and Q. In the
geometry of Fig. I we would then find that (11) could be reduced to
W'(d, Z, Wed, Z)
_ (ikd)1/2 f (Z' - Z) Wed - p, Z) Z', Z) dp (12)
271' '10 [P(d - p})1/2 .
provided kb is somewhat greater than unity. An interesting special case of
(12) is when Z' is allowed to be constant with respect to p. Then. to within
the st:uionary-phase approximation. W'(p, Z', Z) in the integrand can be
replaced by W(p, Z'). This leads to the following integral formula for the
mixed-path function W',
W'(d, Z, Z') Wed, Z)
_ (ikd\1/2 (Z' - Z) f Wed - p, Z) W(P. Z') dp
2;1 '10 _ [p(d - p)]1/2 •
All quantities on the right-hand side are known, since
W(p, Z') = I - i(1:'p)I:2 e-P erfc(ipl/2)

ik (Z')2
where p = - -! - .
2 '10
the preceding results, borrowed from the previous work (Wait, 1956)
on ground-wave propagation over mixed paths, suggest that a plausible
approximation to (10) is obtained if W'(p, Z', Z) is replaced by the function
W(p, Z') appropriate for propagation over a plane of surface impedance Z'.
In the limiting case where Z' was zero W(p, Z') would be unity. Furthermore,
even if Z' were finite and slowly varying, but satisfied the inequality
kb IZ' 1
- - < I
2 '10 '
it would be an excellent approximation to replace W(p, Z') by unity. In most
ground screens, this condition would be met.
In order to simplify the required integrations, it is now assumed that d is
somewhat greater than b. Thus. in the integrand of (10) we make the foUowing
additional approximations
I" . I,:::::: - cos ••

R cos 1/10
for the whole range of integration. Thus
W'(R, Z. Z') - W(R. Z) [I +D)
D..... - --..!!:..- f f e-fkp e-fkCR-Rol (Z' - Z)
211' cos 1/10 '10
x (I + cos. d. dp, (16)
R = (p2 + d2 +h
- 2pd cos .]1/
Ro = [d
The quantity D is the fractional change of the mutual impedance between P
and Q resulting from the presence of the screen S. It is now convenient to
split D into two parts in the manner
where D. is the contribution from the semi-circular screen of radius a. and
D. is the contribution from the sector.
Over the range 0< p < a. it is pennissible to retain only first-order phase
tenns. thus R - Ro a! - Pcos cos .po. Therefore•

f e-«kp (1 + efb-_cos'l'.

-iJc J
D.= =----;-
- 2" cos .po
Z' Z)
cos II d,p dp.
The integration can be carried out in closed fonn to give

D. co:.po f e-
(I + Jl(kp cos .po) Z) dp (19)
where it has been assumed that does not depend on Jt(x) is the Bessel
function of the first type of order. An alternate derivation of (19) is
given in the appendix.
In the absence of the sector ponion. D. represents the total effect of the
ground screen. If ka> I the integrand in (19) can be approximated by
employing only the first tenn of the asymptotic expansion for the Bessel
function. Thus. for the major range of the integrand.
Jl(kp cos 1/10) e-
(I +
2! ( 1 )"2 (I _ COl Po) efkp,COI Po-ll. (20)
2"kp cos 1/10. .
D. =- J( ; ) f·k Z) (I _ ;e-
coo vol
- 2" cos
° e-fzU-eOI Pol
---:1'::'/2- dx. (21)
When is essentially a constant over the range of integration. D. can be
expressed in tenns of Fresnel in,egrals. Thus
D. J(2 1/10) (Z
.... ". . f kc) cos·,
__ "te-
,I dt __' _ :t 2
.r/Io 1/10
SID 2 ° cos
As .po tends to zero, the above equation reduces to
'2}( )1/2 Z Z') [ ( )1/2 f(4 :/1)111 ]
QII::::: '.,,
( ~ o II 1 -; ::Co 0 e"'
/21 " dl •
Since ko ~ I
DII ::::: e ~ o r 2 (Z ~ o Z ~ ) [I - (;;aY'l
When the second term in the square bracket is neglected the result agrees
with a previous analysis (Wait, 1956) for the transmission across a land-sea
boundary. It is concluded that the second term in the square brackets of
(24) results from the circular shape of the screen. Usually in the land-sea
boundary problems both media are semi-infinite. Further suppon to this
contention is given below.
It is of interest to compare (22) with the solution obtained on the assump-
tion that the ground screen may be replae:c:d by a perfectly conducting half-
plane. Assuming an incident plane wave, the voltage induced in antenna Q
is calculated by a modification of Sommerfeld's results (Sommerfeld. 1899)
for diffraction by a knife edge. The method suggested by Senior (1956) is a
union of ray theory and rigorous diffraction theory. A direct application
leads to
I + (J _ 2 F(u) +R(t/lo) F( -u)
II 1 + R(r/Jo)
where R(,po) is the Fresnel reflection coefficient given by
R(r/Jo) _ sin r/Jo - (Z/T/o)
sin ';0 + (Z/T/o)

F(u) = 1 +v(li) f e-cC
121 " dl
with /I = (4kol.,,)1/2 sin r/Jo/2. The function F(u) can be identified as the
response in the dipole at Q resulting from an incident plane wave (at grazing
angle .po) on a semi-infinite conducting plane. The function R(.po) F( -u)
is then the response of an (image) plane wave incident from below the half-
plane. Such a solution is very plausible since the tangential magnetic field is
continuous across the air-ground interface and the fields have the proper
singularity at the edge of the half-plane and satisfy the boundary conditions
on the half-plane itself. However, the tangential electric field is not continuous
across the air-ground interface. For near-grazing angles this violation of the
boundary conditions takes place within a very small distance from the edge
of the half-plane. The result given by (2S) can be rewritten in the form
Q. = (!\ _1__1_ f\1'(4 liD l' c-'(w/2) " dt (28)
2 ;/ cos "'0 sin 0
2 2
which is almost identical to (22) when = 0 and the second integral is dis-
regarded. It is also required that "'0 is small. (It might also be mentioned
that a similar fonnula for this situation has been proposed by Carswell and
Flammer (1957). Their result is derived by an approximate evaluation of the
one-dimensional integral equation of the same type that occurs in mixed-path
theory for ground-wave propagation 1956).)
An exact correspondence between (22) and (28) is not expected because of
the differing approximations inherent in the two approaches. However, this
demonstration strongly suggests that the second integral in the square
bracket is the contribution from the back edge (i.e. ; - tr) of the circular
disc. As mentioned, for ka» I. this term can be neglected.
Another aspect of the circular ground screen also deserves mention. In the
fonnulation of the problem it was assumed that antennas P and Q were
venical electric dipoles of infinitesimal length. The modification of the
theory for antennas of finite length is not difficult although the complexity is
greatly increased. For near-grazing angles. it is not difficult to show that the
principal results are not changed essentially. For example, if Q is a quarter-
wave monopole with an assumed sinusoidal current distribution. the changes
in (16), (11). and (18) arc:
1 cos t/Io
-- is replaced by
cos tPo (tr )
cos :2 sin "'0
1 -+- e-
is by e-.h'(pl+(A/41
For large ground screens (ka I), the difference between the latter two
factors is negligible. For screens comparable ;n size to the wavelength. it
may be important to use the correct fonn of this factor. In the case of the
quaner-wave monopole, D. can be written in the fonn
D. = cos tPo f - Z) e-
v (%1 +(./21
1J1{x cos tPo) dx. (29)
cos "'0) 0 '10
When is a constant over the range of :c and "'0 tends to zero, it is con-
venient to write
i. [( "Z)l/Z,,]
Xl = - cos x
+ '4 - 4 hex) dx
Xz = f sin [(X
- i] hex) dx.
If the screen is pcrfce:tly conducting
Z ( 'OCII )l/Z ( i.oCII )l/Z
8 = - e-

= 1 - ---
'10 a + ;.CII a +;.CII
in terms of the electrical constants, a and " of the ground. At low frequencies,
where CII «a/.,
8::: -;- -= 0'0075 (fMe/a)l/Z
which is essentiaJly a real quantity. (In the above, fMe is the frequency in
megacyc:les and (f is the ground conductivity in mhos per meter.)
Numerical values of Xl and X2 for ka in the range from 0 to 6·5 are given
in Table 1.
lea XI X.
0'0 0'00 0'000
O'S -0'042 0'040
1'0 -0'130 0'181
I· S -0'211 0·417
2'0 -0'209 0·700
2·S -0'102 0·947
3'0 0'042 1·093
3'S O'ISS 1'131
4'0 0'171 1'133
4·S 0'113 1'178
S'O O·osa 1·300
S'S O·osa 1-468
6-0 0'119 1·612
6-S 0'20S 1·674
These values were obtained by graphical integration so the accuracy of the
last significant figures are doubtful. For large values of ka, Xl and Xz can
be represented by Fresnel integrals if (x
+.,,2/4)1/Z is replaced by x and
hex) is replaced by the first term of its asymptotic expansion. Thus

Xz e; (2ka/,,)l/Z - f sin (i IZ) dl
u _ (4ka/,,)l/Z _ (Sa/AlI/Z.
It c:an be seen from Table I and from (33) and (34) that Xz is generally
quite large compared with Xl. Consequently, the imaginary part of D. is
somewhat larger than its real part which indic:ates that the presence of the
ground screen influenc:es the phase to a greater extent than the amplitude.
Attention is now turned to the sector portion of the screen. The antenna at
Qis again assumed to be a dipole. If b «d it is again permissible to retain
only first-order phase terms. Therefore, it follows from (10) and (14), that
. ....
Db - - ik f f e-ctp (1 + e·
- COl r10 X
2" c:os ';0 ikp
Z' Z)
x c:os '" II d'" dp.
This result is analogous to (18) for the c:ircular screen. To effect the'" integra-
tion we usc the basic relation

COl _ 1: J,,(x) cos n '"
.. -0
whic:h is a generating function for Bessel func:tions. J,,(:c). Using this result,
it readily follows that
Db - _k_ fe-
(I ... A(kp c:os ';0) t
; - Z) dp
c:os "'0 ,kp \ 110
= 2..l.. f fll e'
lll(X) J4. cos n; cos; d ;
", 11-0
1 ..
=- 1:
4fT; ,,-0
1 ( ) [sin (n - 1).d2 + sin (n - 1) .dl +
.." e II x 1
+ sin (n + I) .d
+ sin (n + I) .d
]. (37)
It is Doted that if .dl = .da = ",
A(x) == Il(X)
which corresponds to a circular screen. Another special case is
which leads to
== +!.. i .Ja,,(x).
2 '" ""0 (4n
- I)
This particular formula was quoted by Monteath (1958).
Equation (36), which generally requires a nwnerical integration and a swn·
mation, becomes very complex if the scretn is large in terms of wavelength.
This complication results from the poor convergence of the Bessel function
series when kp cos .po »1. An alternate representation for Q" can be obtained
if a modified stationary-phase evaluation of the ; integration is used. This
approach is particularly suitable when the kb» 1. The phase factor
k (R - Ro) is now approximated in the following way
(R - Ro) = + pI - 2pd( I - + ... )yl2 - Ro
=::: R1 - Ro + 7:; (40)
where R
== [Ri + p2 - 2pd]1/2. Thus we have retained second·order phase
variations. Consequently,
ik J(Z' Z) D" 0< - " "'-0 e-
e-UIRI-Ro) x
- 2fT cos .po Of
X f d.p dp. (41)
This can be written in the form
ik )1/2 1 f - Z) e-
- - --- -- F(kp) dp (42)
- 211' cos
/2 "'0 '0 pilI

.I, • I(bd)
1 f v'a;
F(kp) = --. e-l(w/2I'· dl
1 - I .1 iN
-41, V (ii1f,)

= +
1 - i

C(u) - is(u) = f e-(w/21 ,I d/.
It can be seen that if
are greater than about 5, F(kp) may be replaced by unity and thus the sector
is behaving as a circular screen of radius b. Equation (42) is in a suitable
fonn for numerical integration in the general case when F(kp) cannot be
replaced by unity.
In the far zone, where only first-order phase variations arc employed,
(42) has the fonn
___ (ik)"2 I f - Z e-·
D" = 2 3/21/10 1/2 F(kp) dp (45)
11' cos '0 P

I .,'V(bc:
F(kp) = 1 _ i f e-,(w/21 i
d/. (46)
_ J, ,/(bc:, ",)
This is also in suitable form for integration with respect to p
(or kp).
An interesting special case of (45) is when "'0 .... 0 and can be regarded
as a constant. Then
After an integration by parts, it readily follows that
Db = - Z) {[F(kb) _ iJ +
-J(i) [F(ka) - iJ + (48)
where F(kb) and F(ka) are defined by (46). If (kb)1I2 and (kb)I/2 I,
the first term in square brackets can be replaced by unity. Furthermore, if
(bla)I/2 I, the second square brar":t term is negligible compared with
unity. To within this approximation, the sector screen is behaving as a
circular screen of radius b (e.g. compare (24) and (48».
When "'0 is finite but small, it is possible to extend the preceding result by
replacing the factor exp[- ikp(l - cos "'0)] in (45) by its power series
expansion. Then, again assuming is a constant, it is found that
Do = _ (2ikb)1I:! - Z) i [- ikb(l - cos "'0»'"
fr '10 ",.0 m!(2m+ I)
x {[F(kb) - _.1 kb) + kb))]
(2fr,kb)l/- 2 2
- (6)"'11/2 [F(ka) -
( _. ka) + ( - ka) ) ]} (49)
When "'0 = 0 only the m = 0 term of the series is finite and the result is
identical to (48). When "'0 is finite but small enough that (kb)1I2.po < 1,
the series converges very rapidly and only a few terms are needed.
The collected results presented here should be useful in making estimates
of the influence of an inhomogeneous ground plane on antenna radiation.
As we have seen, the subject is closely related to the question of ground-wave
propagation over mixed paths such as occur at land-sea boundaries.
In the present study. the electrical characteristics of the ground are assumed
to be characterized by a surface impedance which is a (complex) constant Z
outside a surface S. Within S the impedance Z' is allowed to be variable. In
the case of a radial-wire system emanating from Q. it is appropriate to use
formulas which have been developed for the surface of a wire grid in the
interface of a conductint, half-space (Wait, 1958). In general these are com-
plicated, but recently some numerical results have been obtained which should
be useful in this problem. At low radio frequencies for moderately or well-
conducting soils it is a satisfactory approximation to regard the surface Z·
as the parallel combination of the surface impedance Z. of the equivalent
grid and the ground beneath. Thus
Z. Q,< Z.z
. od d
Z . ~ '.!- log. -,
.\0 211'c
Z ~ (iIJ4Jw/a)1/2,
and d is the spacing between the radial conductors and c is the radius of the
wires. Such a formula is strictly valid only if (al'Ow)1I2 d <I everywhere
within the ground system. If there are N radial conductors, it can be seen
that d can be replaced by 211'p/N where N is usually of the order of 100.
It is admitted that the theory in this paper is rather involved. In order to
obtain numerical results it is necessary to evaluate the integrals D. and Db by
numerical or analytical means. The quantity D( == D. + D,,) is then regarded
as the fractional increase of the field as a result of the presence of the sector
ground screen (as indicated by equation (15». The final results should be
valid when the surface impedances Z and Z' are reasonably small compared
with '70 or 12011' ohms. However, this is a condition which is also required
in Sommerfeld's theory for a dipole over a conducting half-space, and is not
overly restrictive.
Extensive numerical results based on the theory given in this paper have
now been obtained. They will be included in a forthcoming paper co-authored
with Mrs. L. C. Walters [N. B. S. Monograph No. 60, 1963].
The various approximate formulas used in this present work start from the
mutual impedance formula given by (2). As Monteath (1951) shows. this is
based upon Ballentine's (1929) formulation of the electromagnetic reciprocity
theorem. The author (1954) has obtained similar results directly from solu-
tions of the wave equation. The latter method has the advantage that a
perturbation procedure can readily be applied to obtain higher order cor-
rections. It has the disadvantage that only relatively simple geometries are
easily treated. A brief presentation of the alternate methc:1 is given here
since it sheds some light on the nature of the approximations used in the
body of the text.
We consider a vertical antenna erected over a fiat ground plane. Choosing
a cylindrical coordinate system (p,., z) the antenna extends from Zl to %2
on the z axis and the ground plane is z = O. On the assumption that the
fields do not vary in the • direction it is evident that the resultant magnetic
field has only a • component, H
• Furthermore, in the homogeneous space
z > 0, H
may be derived from a scalar function which satisfies
from the relation
Thus, in general,
1 a a a
- - p - + k
+ - .p = 0
pap ap az
H ~ = ap'

H;(p, z) - f Jl(Ap) e-·' -/(A) AdA
where H; is the field of the antenna over a perfectly conducting ground plane
for: &: 0, where Uo - (.\2 - k
)1/2. Then from Maxwell's equations

[ Ep(p,:) ] = Ep(p,O) == ~ f h(Ap)/(.\) Uo Ad.\. (56)
_-0 0
On an application of the Fourier-Bessel theorem, it follows that

ik f
/(.\) == - heAp) E,,(p, O) pdp.
Equation (55) may then be written in the form
• •
HJ(p, :) =; f f Jl(Ap) heAp') e-.e- 110
Ep(p', o) p' dp' AdA. (58)
We consider that the ground is modified in some way so that tbe new tan-
gential field becomes E;(p, 0), This in turn leads to a new secondary field
HJ. Therefore. the cbange of the field IJH
resulting from tbe modification
of the ground plane is
Uijl [E;(p', 0) - E.(p', 0)] p' dp' .\ d.\. (59)
appropriate for a perfectly conducting ground plane. When the antenna is a
quarter-wave monopole with a sinsuoidal current distribution
H;(p',O) = - 2;/ . e-
and, for kp > I,
- e-
cos (i sin t/J). (64)
n cos t/J f (Z' Z) e-fvCZ
/4) hex cos t/J) dx (65)
- cos (i sin t/J) 0
This is in agreement with (29).
Ackno",lecJgemems-1 would like to thank Mrs. Alyce Conda for reading
the manuscript and Mrs. Eileen Brackett for typing. Their assistance in the
preparation of the report during my absence is also appreciated.
AnUOTT. F. R. (l9S2l lA'$ign of oplimum buried R.F. ground $yslem. Proc. I.R.E. 40.
114(,·IlS2 (July I.
8ALLANTINE. S. (l929l Rc:ciprocilY in e:lc:ctrom:lgne:tic. acOU5tiC;&!. and inter.
connc:cu:d systems. Proc.I.R.E. 17.929-951 (June:).
8EKEfI. G. (19541 The impedance of an antenna above a circular ground plate: laid upon a
plane eanh. J. Ph.l·s. 31. 205-222 (March). .
DRLMMt.lI.. Ii. Propagation of electromagnetic waves. Handb/lch drr Ph.l'sik. 16,
423-639. [Conlalns an e:ltce:llent summ:lry on milled-path propagation.)
DROWN. G. Ii.. LEWIS. R. F. and EPSTEIN. J. (1937) Ground systems as a factor in antenna
e:fflcie:ncy, Proc.I.R.r:. 25. 753-787 (June).
CARSWELL. I. and FLAMMER. C. (1957) Ground antenna phase behavior in a differential
phase-me:asurlng syslem. Conl'rntion Rrcord of tM I.R.E. 5. Pan I, 49-56 (March).
CLEMMOW. P. C. C1953l Radio propagation over a flat eanh across a boundary separating
IWO different media. Phil. Trans. Roy. Soc. (London). %46. I-55 (June).
FEINBERG. E. C1946) On the propagation of radio waves along an imperfect surface:. J. Phys.
(U.S.S.R.l. 10. 41Cl-4I8.
GIHlIIf\;G. H. E. and BROWN. G. H. (I935l General considerations of tower antennas for
use. Proc. I.R.E. 23. 311-356 (April).
LARSEN. T. A investigation of the problem of the wire grid parallel to lhe interface:
belwc:en homogeneous media. submitted to J. Rrsrarch N8S, Radio Propagation,
Section D.
MALEY. S. W. and KISG. R. J. (1961} The: impedance ora monopole antenna with a circular
conducting-disk ground $ystem on the surface: of a lossy half-space:. J. Rrsrarch NBS.
Radio P'.?PDllatlOn. 650, No.2. 183-188 (March-April).
MO:'IITIATll. G. D. C1951} of the compensation the:orem to ce:nain radiation and
propagation I'rC'blems. Proc./.E.E. (London I98. Pan IV. 23-30 (October).
MOST£AnJ. G. D. 11958l The effect of Ihe ground constants. and of Ihe eanh system. on
the performance: of a medium wave: aerial. Monograph No. 279R. pp. 1-15.
Insi. Elect. Engs. (London) (January). [This paper conlains a valuable and
sUI"'e:y of pre:vlOUs work.)
NORTON, K. A. (1957) The propaplion of radio waves over the surface of lbe Elnh,
Proc. J.R.E. 25, 1203-1236 (5eplember).
PAGE, H. and MONTEA11I, G. D. (1955) The vertical radiation pauems of medium Wive
broadcasting aerials, Proc. I.E.E. 101, 279-297 (May).
SENIOR. T. B. A. (1956) Radio propagalion over a discontinuity in the earth's electrical
properties, Monograph 192 R. pp. 1-II.lnst. Elccl. Engs. (Londonl(Augusl).
SMl11I, A. N. and DEVANEY. T. E. (1959) Fields in electrically shon ground syslems: an
experimenlal sludy, J. NBS, Radio Propagation 6JD, No. 2, 175-180 (5ep-
SO......ER.FELD. A. (1899) Elcclromagnetic waves near wires, Ann. P/:)'sik und 67,
No.2. 233-290.
WAIT. J. R. (1956) Effect of the ground screen on the field radiated from a monopole.
I.R.E. Trans. .o\P-4. 179-181 (April).
WAIT. J. R. (1956) Mixed.path ground WIve propagation. I: Shorl dist3nces. J.
N.B.S.57, 1-15(July). (In equation (10), ('1 - l'/1)should be ('11 - ,/).)
WAIT, J. R. (1957) Amplitude and phase of the low·frequency ground wave nC3r a coast
line, J. N.B.S. 58. 237-242 (May). (In equations (14), (15). and (18). q should
be replaced by q/2; at top of page 240. the second inequality should read (J = {lRu ...: 0
and in the tint equation of the apflCndill ('1 - 'II) shoald be replaced by ('11 - '1).)
WAIT. J. R. ( 1957) Exc:itation of surface waves on conducting, stratified. diclcctric-elad. and
corrugated surfaces. J. Research N.B.S. 59, 365-377 (O<.'CCmben. (In cQuallon (71)
(plw) should be (plw)'; on P3gc 376. r, is defined by r, = r, - 2h C. J
WAIT. J. R. 1It)59) On the theory of reftcction from a wire gml parallel to an intcrfa\:c
between media. Part II. ..1",,/. Sci. Researcll. /1. 7. 355-360.
WAIT. J. R. (1959) C/ert",mtIJrnt'llc R,u/jullon j"",m C.I'/imlrjca/ Structurrs. Pcrgamon
London and New Ymk. (Inclull..-s a lli!ICusslon lIf slot ralliators on wedges anll hair·
planes. I
WAIT. J. R. and SURrrr5. W. J. (1954) Impedance: of .. lort-I<la<kd 1>, OJrbi"..ry
Icnllth over:l cm:ular rounded J. .••,.,,/. I'III·s. 25, 553-555 (\laYI. (In equations
(14) and l(5). SID (1111 - ,.)shoulll - I//,))
WAIT. J. R. and PorE. W. A. (19S4) The c:haracteristlcs of a \'ertical antenn3 with a rallial
conductor llround system. "'"p/. Sci. D. 4..177-195.
WAIT. J. R. and Porr.. W. A. (1955) Input resistance: of L.F. Unil'Ole aerials Wjrr/rs,
Engillrrr 31. 131-138 (May). (In equation (9). IIp should be
Numerical results based on these formulas are available in J. R. Walt and L. C. W.lllers.
"Influence of a seclor llJ"ound screen on the field of a vertical 3ntenna," NBS MnoolUal'lh
No. 60. 1963. 3vailable from Supt. of Documents. U. S. Gov·t. Printing Office. Washington
D.C.• price $1.00.
1.11 Wait, J. R., and L. C. Walters, April 1963, -Influence of a Sector Ground SCreen on
the Field of a Vertical Antenna,- u.s. National Bureau ojStandards, Monograph 60,
pp. 1-11
(Reprint No. 215)
Reprinted with the autho"s permission
U.S. National Bureau of Standards, Monograph 60 , April 1963
Influence of a Sector Ground Screen on the Field of a Verti<"&1
Antenna I
JSJmes R. Wait and Lillie C. Walters
Tht, li.·ld of a \'prtil'al a/ltt'II/18 on a I!roUlld i. phowlI 10 Ix- nllldifil·d
tI..• prt'>'('III'" of" IIwl"lIir "('r....... Th(' t"k"11 ill Ih.. form of "rir('''''" "Iltl n
t'tIll('t·"lrie ",·rlor. Th,· nlOdilienliulI of th.. fi.,ltt i... ill thp forln of "urf"pI' illl
O\"'r Ih.· di.k R'I<I th., ...·etur. IIl1llwrip,,1 ,p.IIII" fur 'h,....· hn."ie in"'Rr"l" ",.' Slinll
.IId • IlIlRlbt'r of "lllllieatioll" an' illtl..',a'..",
1. Introduction
The illfJuen('r of thp ground 011 the fields of
tll1lpnnas has bNon dis<'ussed sporndicnUy in t hI'
literAture for III mo!!t
e.-8lrulatiolls it ill thnt thr
antenna hns n lixrd dipolt' 1II01llrllt and t hI' I!roulld
is takt>n to bP II prrfe('t ('ondurtor or possibly a
homogt>lIeous illlpcrfef'tl," rondurting hlllf sp",'r.
In prartie.-t>, howf'n·r. 801111' kind of ground s.n1trlJl
is used, UsuIII"· this tllkrs thr (orlll of II lI\rllll
St"Tet>n or rndini wirr S\"strlJl whi,·h is on thr
surfare or thp ground or mllY hI' burird
the surflll·t'. Thr :,rsiJ!n or !;\II·h
has I)('f'n l'lIIpiril'lll. A\lpllrrntl.,·, Ihl'
first ttnlll.\'ti(·lIll1pprolll'h WIIS ('lIrdl'( lIul hy BrowlI
pt· a1. (I}.' J.,ntf'r works (2. al 1III\'p drill I IJIII illl.\·
with the in1luell('e of thr ground s\'slf'1II Oil lht'
impedane.-e. III mosl rllsPs il hus !,t'pll ussulllrd
that the rlldiated field for a f!i\'en ('urrrllt on thr
antt'IUla was not nPJ>rp("illbl." "fJr("lpd h.,· thp prt's-
('JI('P of thl' lUollnd SI'rt'1'11. III rll,'I. an approxi-
IIlntl' nlluh'tirul llll'tlJod ,,"lIS Ilr(','iousl.,"
\Yuil and )'0)11' ',II whi,'" is !""illl"ll' for rslimutill!!
t hI' t11'J>t'ndt'lIre of IItt' I!fOlllll1 WII \"1' on IhI' !lilt' of /I
l'ifl'lIlnf rOmIII srr('rll, ( '/11"111111 iOlls 15J IIIISl'd Oil
this WOf' supportpd th.. ('0111 1'111 ion thlll II S('rrrll
hilS 0111." II slJIull rtfI'd 011 IhI' rlldillll',1 fil'ld I'ro-
\'illt'11 t hI' f1\1li\1!.\ of t hI' !lC'fl'l'lI is of tlll' IIrd('r of /I
WII \'rll'lI!!1 h or Irss. \"rr," !"illl illl r "OIl1'ltllliolls hll \"I'
hrrll nrri\'t'd lit Brit ish WOrk('fS Iii, iI.
111 this JIIIJ>rr "ollsi,lrflll i'"1 j" I!j\"'11 III j!fOtllltl
!,,"fl'l'lI!'l whi,'h 11111.'" hI' IIII"!:" ill ' ....III!'l Ilr II \\'11\""
1t'1Ij!1 h. Silll'" t hI' Ihrof.'" 1""'11 If('11 I1't1 lfuilt·
I!l'nrrllHy illn prp\'iolls l'"pl'r 18). IIllrlllioll will hr
fOI'u,,('d hrrp Oil t hI' 1I111111'ric'II1 ("IIk"l" IiOlls lind t hI'
"rt'dil'll'd pt'rfoflllll 111'1'.
2. Formulation and Description of Problem
The situation isdt"Sl'riht'd I\S followlI. A "I'fti,'"l
rlrrtril' dipolr iR 10('11II'd 011 II fI'lt hOmll!!"II"""!!
of rond\l"1 11 1111(1 t1il'!t'c'l ric' "Ollll!"III f.
The vertical t'let:tric field E I1t It distan('t' Ill) und
elevation angle "'0 is gi\'ell as follo\\"s
E,_i;:;;:; e-.
jrrOulltl ,'o"d"rt i"jt ." Ill)
"""I"fl' (ill',',:)
U'o= II +('1,IZ) sin tJofJIo.
Po=:- iHi

2 'In.
"o=4Il'X )0-7
l=effet'th'e ht'lghl of trltllslllitting dipolr
I =current at terminuls or trllnslllittinlt dipole
In the aoo"e. 11"(0
, Z) is /I romplt'x qUllntit ,.
whie.-h is a rUIl('t iOIl or I hp surf"rt' illlpednn('(' 7. of
Ihe ,round. O\'f'r II ('ondul't in, f!roulld,
Jr "'ould Ilpproll('h ullit,\". III tht' ('nse of lillitt'
• This ."ark .at .1JOfIfO' It)· 11M' £1<-<, ...,,1,.. lI_h IJir"·lor.1f 0111",
AI' f_. Can.I"ltl••· II "" lIlf..·••, AfIOoSI'- 1Il'tO'''',h
CUIU.·J, , ....."".,. III..,., U,,"'" ,0"""'1 1·IIU-4.-5I"o4
.......,... In "''''''10 ....In.. II.. 11I,.,nlu(l' ..I_n.... on _ n
'10= 1207r.
This result is "alid for Ie Ro>> 1 Alit! < I,
t hI' I'xprrs!!'ion for II' roilll'idl's wil h I h,'
rl'!"ull gi"rll !\ortoll(1lI1 for Ihl' Sllllll' lIilualion.
JI 11111\' br IIOIl'd Ihllt Ihill \"IIluI' of 7. i!: I'xIII'lh'
1''1,,"1'10 thl' ratio of IIII' tllllgl'lIlilll 1·1(·,'lril' IIl1il
IIInglll'lir firl,11I for II "l'rli"I1I1," polari1.I'd pllllll'
wa\'p illl'idrllt at lin angll' 9()O-",o Oil thl' hOlllo-
whc'rc', h.,' dc'fillitioll,
,r,=(1 +1l,(1J'0>J/2
(l'() l1"(R. Z. Z')=Jr(R. Z) II +ll)
.' (?'_-Z)
2,.. ('OS '1o. •
111 a prr\'ious f"prr (M) all ('(Iuation for
Jr' "'as obtaillt'c bv an applic·"tion of t Ie Lorrlltz
rrriprodt," th('orf'ni. Although it would b(' POll-
siblr to soh'(' this t'quation dirr('tly using Il digitnl
('omputrr it was indif'lltr,1 thnl 1\ firllt ordrr itrrll-
tioll WftS sntisfllc,tof\', 111 thill C'lIl1r it was foullcl
thnt '
/l =IpZ+"1+/,z_2prl ('fle; !p1":
sill l/-n
whrrr II is thr frn('tionnl of Ihr fir'" Ilur to
thl' prl'lIrlU'1' or thr I'lI'rrrll. Wilhin thr np"roxi-
Infttlollll 1It11t('d. thr fll,·tor 11 c'l\n Ill' II"
thr modificfttion or th(' rfff'(,ti\"(' Iwighl of the
transmitting ant('nllft. sill(,(, it illflurllC'l'S Jr, alit!
W. to thr snlll(' (':((('nl. .
, Bf'ror(' pro('rrdin!! furl hrr it ill ,'on"rnirnl III
IIltrtllhlC'(, II polllr ('oordilllllc lwslrlll (p, 41) Cl'II-
t('rt't! al thr sOIJr('e dipol(' 1111 incli('lIt('d in I.
ThUll 1111 ('Ielllent of IIrell of t h(' !!roulld plllll(, is
pd41 "p.
From 'hr "",,Iysill ill '11f' I"'f'\'iflll" 1"'1)('" hy
"'"il lSI-it WIIS shown 'hIll
Il lIill ",o-Z;'Io
• sill "'o+Z/'Io
is rltdi"tion or sp,,('r \\"Il \'r firM, alI<I
111 appli('lItiolls to prn"tii'lIl rollllllUlli('otioll
prohlrllls it is wry ('OIlHlli"lIt 10 split ofT thl'
surfo('l' wavr portioll II'. h," writing
ill th(' Frrsnrl r,'f1r<'lioll ('Orffi('irlll. This dr"olll-
positioll of thr lotlll fil'lcl illto "pa('r olld lIurflll'r
wave was first madl' !\ortoll (10/ alld il is a ('011-
vl'nip.nt pro('t'dur(' ill radio t'llginrrrilllt sill(,(, hy
dt'finition, Jr, ill thr radiation p"ttrrll of thr 011-
tt'nna in thC' prl'!'('IWI' or t Ill' plnl\l'. It
ma:,' br thl' dOlllillllllt trrlll in 1111111." ('aSI'll of prtlC'-
ti('al intt'rt'St although "s approa('h('!l z('ro 11',
a('tuaU:,' vanishes. J\I('thods for thc'
rt'latin' impcrtan('C' or Ir. ar(' gi"C'n in thr pllpf'N'
b:,' Norton (10/.
ThC' ('C'ntral tllsk ill tl\l' Im'!!I'lIt 11I\Iwr i!' to ill-
di(,lItt' how a wirr lIIl'!lh or II lIilllilnr IIIrtnl !,"r(,l'1I
on thC' ground will thr firltl al thr
rt'('t'I\'inJ1; "ntC'nnn. Thr lIUrfll"" illlprdnnf'r i!' n"-
sUllied to b(' lIIotlifi"11 to 7.' O"f'r IhI' Ufl'n or t h.,
scr('t'n, but rl'maills thr SIIIIIC' oUllli,I,· th(' 1II'\'('l'lI.
Tht' field E; in the presenc(' of th(' s('rrrll is t!lrll
wh('r(' 11" is all unkllown 1'01111'11':'\ Ilunllt whi.'h
is now a fUl\{'tion of 7.' ill ndclil iOIl to nlltl 7..
Thr Jr' redu('f'S to Jr if 7.' =7.:
·, -ftR ",f 11"(/l Z Z'
.• = 2"/l; , 0 "oS' " • I.
Thr h(' r"IIII1"IC',1 whl'lI I h(' !':hlll'f'
of thl' !!rolllid lIc'r(,(,1l is lIpl'f'ifi(',1. III til('
"ttl'lIliflll will h(' C'ollfill('11 '0 l;\'TI'I'IIe; ",hi,'h ""1' ill
thr fflrlll of "lIl'c'lflr. A !'tl"·(·jlll I'"sr jc; " I,jl'('lIl"r
(:('rr('n nncl t his is l'of1silll'r('f1 fir!':t.
O"t'r the range O<p<a it il; nssullled thnt th('
surface impeden('e is Bt'.'"ond tht' s('ret'n
(i.e., p>a). Z'=Z. Furtht'rlllore, it is nssulllt'd
thnt thl'! rect'i\'injZ antt'1II111 is in the fnr fit'lcI su('h
3. The Circular Screen (' -< i f
f.0 i I )
"t, (I +:1 "OS "'0)
('OS,.o, ,-0 l"'p
(J I)
wh('rt' J, is thl' Bt'SSpl function of 'ht' first ty pe of
ordpr onp. Wh('n dt'nlinl! wit h III'1!e screens thp
kp cos "'0 cnn h(' r('Jrnrd('cI liS n IlItJrl'
O\'('r tht' IIInjor portiolls of th('
Thus. J. bt' r('plnct'cI t he first terlll of its
nS)'mptotic t'xpnnsion. Thert'fore,
J:0 J:' II -- ,-••,
0- 2" cos "'0 ,.0 •__ ,
X(I +_.1_), .•,....... 41 (Z;-Z)"41 dp. (III)
lkp '10
If dOt'S nol c1t'pl'ncl on 41 th(' with
rt'Spt'ct to 4111111." hI' r(,llllil.,· ('lIrrit'd Ollt to Jri,·('
i . I"i
p -- -'-
'0= (2,.. ('OS3 ",) 0 ( 'I" )
t - f,I1-('0I '10'
X(I-it-'''·... 40) ----,",-dr.
r "
G=i (2ka)"' [I-i (_!:_ )"1 ("A/,"I!
,.. ·U'a .0
I'Xp l-i(1I'/2)t'W] (I:lh)
When is essenliaJl.\· ('onstant on'r thp of
n. ('all hI' I'xpr('1\s('d ill tl'rlll!! of
intl'f,!rllls, Aft('r II dllUl!!p of \'lIrillhle it
readil,r follow thllt
G= ., i, _" [ I J'UA.toI1l11Ift '4.'"
oJ-o)'" sin (oJ-II/2) •
, (e.","' roo C4,1"
exp _1_,, .
, I'OS (oj-., 2) • 0
I'Xp l-i(1I'/21f'Ht] (1:111)
As oJ-o I\pprol\ches zero thp IIbon' equlltion rpdures
Fllr !lUrfRI'I' illlpl'dnlll'l'!l of t hI' \1111111',
this Imrpo!ll' it ill l'Oll\'l'lIil'lIt 10 wrill'
Z-Z;_2.. r"
'I. -,\'
",hl'rl' S Rnd fJ arl' rl'lIl, If till' Sl'rl'l'lI i!l II
"'1'1111 !lhl'I,t .... , <Z 81111. l'O"!lI"III,'"lly, 1\',.- 0'
('ollid hI' r"Ir"rdl',1 n!l Ih" ,'ollll'l"x rc,fr'll'li\'1' i'llll':'\
of thl' ilsl,Jr, lIowl'\"I'r, ill g"III'rul, I\' 111111
13 hll\',. 8 1II0rl' 11'\ 1II'Ii'Il'II hy (I!i).
Tnkillg ,\'=:1 anll th,. 1I111\1lilllll,. Illld phll!'I'
of I arl' shown plott I'll in 2n lind 211,
as R funl'tion of 1/.0 for "Ilrioll!' \"lIluI'!<
of It is I'lIIphn'\i1.(,tI thlll l<IlI'h I'IIr\'l''\ sholll,1
1I0t hI' n!' rudilll ion pllttl"'I1'\ hili rill h,'r
Il!' lIIu,lilil'lltion!' of tllf' l'If.",tin' hl'ilrht of till'
trnll!llllittillg Rntl'nnll dUI' 10 till' J.!round !<I'rI'l'lI.
It i'\ Ilppllrl'nt thnl for thl' 1o\\, 1I11!,dl''' ill \"01 \'('11 in
II F "ullllllllni,'lItion thl' Irrolllul !l,'n'.'n will inl'rt'lISI'
Ih,' ,'If.'din' IlI'i J.:h I of Ih.' 11'1I11"lIIittilll! 111111'111111
h.\' II !'ilr"ilil'lIl1t 1l1ll01l1l1. TIll' nihil' IIf .\' (rin'lI
ill Ihi!' I'xlllllpll' ,'orn'!<polld" 10 II Ilil'l,.dri" ('011-
!lIIIIII of:F or 9 whil'lI i!' of HI'Y Il'y ground,
Thl' I'IfN'I of ('hoOf:illg II IlIrlrl' nllul' of .\" is showlI
in figllrl'!il all IIl1d ah whl'rt,:\"= 10 IIl1d 8=11°, Th"
,'urns nrl' \'I'ry !'illlilllr in !lhn/,I' hili IIIl' o\"l'rull
I'lf1'('1 i\'I'III'!'!' of till' Irroll 1111 !','rl'l'n i'\ r,.tI IIl'l'tI
!'Olll I'\\'hll I,
TIll' \'11111" of d, "" ,lc-lillt',1 11\' (1.'i I, ,1.'I"I'I"i'If''''
Ihl' /,1111"" of IIII' "III"plo-:o, n'fl'l;,'li,1' illd.'x of IIIf'
For /I ""I'y dry or 1I0IWOIle!1Il'l inl! IrroUlul
dis 1.l'ro Il!il i'lllic'IIIt'd in 21l 10 :l". 1101\'''''1'1',
\\'1"," thl' 111"'01111'" il"/,01'111111 B 11111,"
IIf' J.!I'I'III,'r Ihllll 1."1'0. In flll'l, fill' II highly "1111-
IIII ... i'l!! r.rrollllli wlll'l'I' di"plllf"'III1'111 1'11""1'111" 111'1'
1I1'l!liJ.!ihll', d 11111.\' 1I\11,,'olll'h 4;;°, 'I'll ilh."'1 I'll II' Ih,·
inlhll'lwl' of fillill' d, till' 1III1I'Ii'"d., Illld phll'\I' of
1.L !!. lin' !'howlI ill Ii(rlll'l'" 411 lind 4h for hI =20,
.\"=-10. IIncl \"lIrioll" \'11111"" of fl 1",lw""1I 0° IIwl
4,;", II i" ('\'idl'lll fmlll ,hI''''' ('111'\"'''' ,hili IIIl'
pl"l'''','nl''' of t hI' 1'011111...1jlln ,'urn'lIt" •l'lul" 10
dilllini!lh thl' Illllplilutll' bill i, IIOI'!! in"n'lIsl' thl'
It i!l hl'('olllin(r IIp/,lIn'II' thlll Ilt IIII' low"r fn'·
'IUl'lwi,'!' /lnd l'Olllllll't inlr grollntl t hI' prl'!il-
I'n,'1' of thl' !,"rt'I'II 11lI!il II '\1111111 ('lfl"'1 011 thl'
lolnl firM (for II gi\'l'II II of thl' SOUlT('
dipol.,1. To mll!ll rtlt I' t hi!il Jloillt. IhI' 11111 pliltldl'
Illlli \lhll"" of 1+11. lire' !lhown ill fil!url''\ 511 Illll.l .'ih
for ko=211 lind 8=45° for X=1tI lind :ill. '1'111'
1II0difi('ntion of th(' dfl',{Oti\"1' h('ighl of thl' nnll'nnll
i!' I"!l" thnll 2 ,Ib nne! hl'rl' thl' rntliu" of Ihl' '\l'rl'l'lI
is nllllost :1
,(2ka)'1i2[ ('ill')"j
G:::1- 1-' , ''''.:1' '
,.. 11'
lind, if ko>>I, this IIIl1y hI' 1I\1\1rOXilllllt('d h,'"
It is interesting to 1I0h' tl\llt. if th(' intl'grlll in
(12) is pvaluntPd n stntionllr.\" phnsl' lII('thod.
thl' 81'1'0nd Fr<'8nl'l intl'lrrnl in thl' !l'IUllrl' hrn,",,"1
tl'rlll of (lau) is 1I0t pr"!lI'IIt. This would ,'om'-
sponll to th(' IIpproxinllllioli u!lulIlI,\- ill
the prlll'til'al th('ori<'8 of lIIixI'd-pllth groulld WII\'I'
propllgntion. Thl' \"Illul' of G l'orr('spo,"linlr to
thill SitUlltioll is 1II'II0tl'd G(I),
I'tJllIl'ril'lIl vlllul's of IIII' illl.'!!rlll!l G 111111 r., I)
ur(' giV('1I ill t111J11' I, Thl' \"1I1U1'S of (d"IIOIt',1
KA) tnk(' th(' \'/llu<'8 5, 10, 20, :W, IIl1d 1110, whill'
oJ-o (d('noted P.-;I) rUlls frolll 0° to 45°, It i!l illl-
III('dill t('1\' ('\'id('lIt thllt, for slll,,11 ,'"Iu('s of oJ-o
(i,I'" n('/ir grllzillgl. thl' illtl'grnls G IIl1d G( I) 8rl'
1I0t different. As will b(' c-I('nr frolll
thp followillg s('I,tioll thl' illt('grlll G(I) would
I'orr('!polld p!J,'sil'lIl1y to thl' situation wh('rl' thl'
. srr('en is sl'lIIi"irc'ular ill Shllpl' (i.r" • ('xtl'lIds frolll
,../2 to -,../2
To iIIustrnt(' thl' IIpplil'ntion of thl' r('suIts ill
tubl(' I, \'nlul's of thl' cOlllpll'x qURlltil,\' 1+0,
hu\'1' bl'l'n (,olllput('d for SI'\'('rul nlul's of thl'
4. The Sector Screen
11 is dl'nr frolll thl' prl'\'ious rrsult!l thnt n
"irl'ulllr groll III I !lrrl'l'n will. inlll',.,1. illlpro\",. IhI'
low angll' rudi/lt iOIl frolll II IrroulI,l-bllSl'd \'1'1'1 i"111
nntpnnll, How('\'I'r, on(' lIIighl IIsk if portiolls
of thl' cirrulllr 5,'rl'I'II ,'ould hI' r('lIIo\'l'tI
without lIIotl'rilllly nlfl'!'IillJ.! Ihl' pl'rfOnlllllll'1' of
thl' This is Il \"alid (IUI'Slion.
III Ihl' first plnl'l' it i'\ kllo\\,nj.'jl thllt Illl' illlJll'tllllI"1'
of till' Illltl'nllll is nol nlff'c,It'.1 b,'- 1111,\'1 hill(r hl'yolle!
Ilboul olll'-hllJr frOlIl IIII' 1l1l1,.I1I1I1,
Thl'rl'forl', to tbro\\' SOIllI' 011 Ihl' qUl'slioll
I'O"l'tI Il ho\"1', thp I!:rountl !ll'rl'l'lI i'\ IlIkl'lI 10 brill
th,. forlll of 8 !<I'I'tor frolll p=a 10 p=b
frolll thl' bllsl' of thl' trtlll!llllittlllg 111111'111111. I'rolll
(21 )
1 )IIIJ" f"(T)
G.=i .'- --. ,'dr.
21r a. Zlt2
+---- .

The G. hll!! hp..11 CVl1luutl'd for 11
of nIhIl'S of A'b. To th(' sitlllltion, tll('
low('r limit kn is 'ixrt! I1t !i 111111 AI A. 'I'll ..
II II III ('ri(,111 for G. Itlrnot('(1 (i(Bllllr(' l!iHII
ill 2 to 8 for IDELTAI fllnj!illg frolll 5° to
fiOo. Within 1'111'1t tl1l1l(' A,b IKBI \'Ilril'S frolll 10 to
11111 IIncllln (pSI) from lIO to 4;'°.
Ae; 11 rhl'l'k on thp 1l1ll1l'1I1 work. a. for lI-n=lI
\\"I1S colcuhlt('d lIsin!! hoth (19) I1l1d (21). Also, it
be noted tl1l1t
nn integrlltion pllrts it follows
Th(' Frl'Snl'1 inl .. F(z) is normoli7...d 1'10 thllt
lim F(z)= I, pro\'id('d AI snd arl' bOlh posi-
tin.. III this lin.liting ('nsl' till' is bl'hll\'illg
ss s rlrl'ulsr srr....II. For (·xllmpl.., Olll!
not .. thnt
\\"h..rl' G
is tht' intl'grnl dl'llrrihl'd h.," omil till!! till'
st'rond t..rill of (I ao).
An intl'rl'Sting llpl'l"iul of (19) WIIl'II
snd ('sn bp rt'Jtftrt!l't! liS 0 I'onstllllt..
whl're the \'"Iul'!l of G
(r) I1rl' li!!tl'() in ll1hle 1 1111t!
",ht'rl' r is to hI' idl'ntifipd with KA.
To iIIu!ltrl1tl' thl' p'f..l'l of 11 fillit(' Vl1hll' of A.
801I1t' nrl' shown in ill lint! it,
",herl' thl' al1lplitlldp nnd phns(' 01 G. I1re plott('c1
as 11 fllnction of '10 for ko=5, kb=40, and \'IlriollS
\'allll'S It Ilppl'nrs thnt for thl'S(, conditioll!!
the tolal sector IlnJtle npt>d not bl' t.hUll
Kbollt 50° in ordl'r to bt> fulh' l'ffl'('ti\"e.
In onlpr to dl'mon!!trntp tlip ..ffl'rt of tltl' ll('('tor
on tht> totftl fil'ld it is I'om·pni..nt to I'onsitl('r both
Z'. snd zr. small compnr(·t! with Z. Titus
_.!.. e
110 - 11o = lin - 1\"
[ (
.. 'Ud )"] 1.. . lIf. 1+,.-" ".... _ -I - - __<.
'I. n: R. 4
_Z-Z; -, 11f'
• ---, • Ut·
wht'r(' U. is th(' t'Ontributioll from th.. ('ir('ulor
of radius a ond U. is th(' rontribution from
thl' Sl'rtor whirh ('xtl'nds from a to b. Th('
poriion n. ('811 b(' writt('n
• Till. ,.,·flpld ..","Illon .... hr ..,It Irn
1+"'!-) e'·'·... - .... 40Xros. (·Z;-Z) (Ii)

wherl' tbl' r('('('i\'illt-; ont('nnll is IIssum..d to h.. in
the plane .=0. rJ ht' int.. for n. ..11 aho\'('
is g('lI..rlll to d('t ..rmin(' th.. t'UN"t of
th(' sector us II fun(,tion of 1·11·\'lItion 111111 117.imuth
angit'. Actulllly, th(' int ..grnl is to (lfI)
for the t"irrular 8('r('('n wh('r.. t hI' limits of • ('xtNItI
from -'" to "'. As b('for.., ollly first-ord('r pho!'o
terms are so t IlIIt thl' rl'('I,i\'inl! ant ..m",
must b(' in th.. fur fi(·ld.
Tht' ('xt('lIsion to till!
case has hp('n ('Ollsiclt'.r('d pr('\'iou!'ly b.\r
Wait (8/, In actual rOlJllJluni('ntion rirl'uil!' the
rereiving nntl'nna would alwRYs h.. in th.. fsr fidel.
To l'vsluott' intl'l!rnl in (Ii) it ill ('on\'l'nil'nt.
to use the approximation
I'OS .=1-'2
p=O out to p=a thf l!l('rl'l'n is ('ircular in shopI'.
situation is iIIustrlltl'd ill G. Th('
surfar(' unp('dom'p o\'pr. t h(' arpo of t b(' s('('tor is
X.. In tprllls of tilt' polllr ('oordinatl'
(p, .), thp ar('o of thl' s('('tor is dt'fillPd
IUld n<p<b.
It. is ('on\'I'nil'nt to th(' flll'lor U "II lhl!
8Ulll of t.wo pllrts in th(· llIallll('r
for till' in th.. inh'!!rIlllll whill', ill Ih..
int('grund, ('os • is r('plal('('11 hy unit.". This i,.
valid sinr(' th(' principal I'ontribulions corrrsponcl
to smnll \'alul'S of.. An l'I,t'(,k on
t.his is gi\'pn hl'low.
FollowinJt tht' pror('dur(' us..d in th(' prl'\'ious
sertion, 8 funrtion G. is introc!u('t'd
b)' setting
Thl' intl'gral for G. now be writtt'n ill tht'
i ia. e-,,(1 -.... '0' .
G.=(2 )1" "' f(z)dz (19)
1r cos 0.. z
1 ..... [ ]
F(z)=I_i exp -i'!.t' nt.
.... fo.I1I2 2
ground, Consrqut'ntly, it follows frolll (16). that
z-z; Z-Z; Z I ,.
'10 -= '10 = 'I" = l\' .
whirh is an ob\"ious grnrrRli1.ation of
To illustrfttr thl' azimuthnl \'nrintion of tl...
fil'ld ",hl'n using a sl'ctor it is agllin dl'sirn [,11' to
With this infonnation it is ft simpll' IIIftttrr to
romputl.' (1 +0> as a functioll of the azimuth
allglt' & which is dt'finpd b,"
:\uml'ricnl \'lIlul'S of or for vnrious
positiH' values of 6 IU(' gi\"l'l\ ill tnllirs 2 to t.4
IIIclusi\"e. If nrftatin· valurs of 6 nrr rnrountrrrcl
it is uSl.'ful to note that
1+n.+n.=- 1+Z-Z; G.e-··
Thl'1I ngllin dl'lIotillg thl' 101111 width of thl' SI'('lor
2.1, tht' amplilu«!rs of I +n.+n. nrl' showlI in
figUTI'S 1\ anc\ 12 for :\ =3. B=O. ka=5. 6=21)°.
IIl1d \"arious "olul's of !/t" from 11° 10 25°. III
figurl' 11. kb=40 whl'rl'as in 12. kb=2110.
,\'1 ('XpN'II'r!, tlll' n1a:l:imum rl'SpollSI' ('orrl'spolllls
10 smull \"Rlurs or &. In fll(·t, RS & illrrl'usC's Ihl'
rl'spolI!'1' dl'rrrnsl'!! quill' signifil'nntly for thl'
IRrgl'r Ill·rlor.
Tht' amplitude of this qUlllltity (e:'(prl'SS('d ill db)
and the phase art' shown ill figures and sb for
ka=5, kb=40, {j=0, and l\'=3. This would ror-
respond to a soil. It is c('rtaillly
t'vident here thnt cOllsidrrllbl(' impro\'t'mrnt r('-
sulls from the prescllc(' of th(' srctor. The cor-
responding set of curves shown in figurt's 9a and
9b are for a highly rondurting soil charact('riz('d
by N= 10 and tJ=45°. The s('ctor screen b('rr has
a negligible effect on thl' pl'rformance of th(' !l\"S-
tern. In fact, there is en-n a slight d('gradntion
for the very low angles.
The marked unpro\'ement usiag a
sector screen on a dr\" ground is indicated III
figure 10, Herr. ka=S:kb=200, N=3, and tJ=o.
At low angles thc gain is grl'ntl'r thall 12 db PHil
with a total sector 26. of 20°.
In the preceding discussion it has b('('n
asswned that the nntpnna is lorntrl! in
the vertiral plan(' whirh blSl'l'tS thr s(,l'tor. :\or-
this would b(' tht' optimulII 10l'ntion nnd
for a fixed communicution link it would h(' COII-
sidered practicp to ori('nt thr Sl'ctor toward
thp p.ntenna. Howr\"rr. thrrr IIIny hI'
certain apphrations wher(' the rrrl·i\"illl:! nil t('1lI111
is locatpd off tht' centt'r line. Thr forlllullls gi,'rll
aooV(' are actualh' \'alid for this cns(' sinl'r 6. nlld
may take positi... e OT negl\th'l' '-n\ul'. Bow-
ever. rather thun computing from Ih('
general fonnulas, it is desifllblr to rstublish !l01ll1'
simplp idt'ntities which enable the rt'sults in tllblrs
2 to 8 to be used.
It 1II1l\" br rendil\" vl'rifi('d tllllt (;.(6" liS
definrd b.y (18), has'thr following propl'rt,\"
5. Final Remarks
i'llli d
Z. == A; log, 21fc'
surfact' impl'danrc X, of tht' equinlenl grid al1ll
the ground beneath, Thus
Z'- Z,Z
Z== (iflGllll )112•
and d is the spacing bt'twepn the radial conductors
and c is thp radius of thl' wires. Such a formulll
is strirtly \'Slid if (trlolow)'d<< I evrf\'wherr
within the ground !I\'Stern. If tberl' are N radial
rondurtors. it ran b'p sppn thnt d <'8n br rrplarl'r!
hy 2'rp1N whpre N is of thp orl!rr of 100.
• A¥" from T. '.Burn. l.ralllO'.IOf)· 0' f:lfttrotnU'ftf'llr Th4'Ofy
Trrhnkttl t'nlyM'-")' 0' •"'nmll", ('o''''nl1",'o
In thp prespnl stud,', thr l'le('tril'al propt'rtirs
of the ground art' asSumed to bp characterized
a surfacp imppdan('l' which is a (complrx)
constant Z oUlsidl' R 8urfnre S. Within S, thr
impedance Z' is allowed to bl' \'ariable. In tht'
case of a radial 9t;re rmlSnating from Q. it
is appropriate to ust' fomlUlas which ha\"e brt'n
dl'\'eloprd for thp surfarl' of a wire grid in tht'
inlerfare of a cOlldurtillg half spare 1111. In
gpnpral thesr arp complil'nll'd. but soml'
numeri('al results ha\'1' bppn obtained which should
be uSt'ful in this probll'lll.' At low radiofrl'qupn-
(,it's for or \\"I'II-ronducting sotls it
is II sutisfartory upproximntion to r('gartl thl'
surface X' as thl' parallel combination of thl'
- b a ('
f(r)nr=--:; g(?/)d!l,
• • .. • -I
• ft
f(z)tiz=L; IJJ(a,HE•.
• • J-I
With n prol'l'llnrl' for thl'
intl'¥:rnl, thl' rl'lIIuining prohlt'lII WIIS to ('olllJlulI'
thr mtegral in (19). Thl' lJll'thod 1I111'd, Gaussiun
quadrature, is desrribell brlow (17).
In q.uadrature mrthods R drfinilr int('grnl is
by R wl'iJ:!ht('l\ sum or pllrlicular
"a urll or thl' ordilllltl' wilh thl' IlroPl'rh'
dislribulrd in thr limits or • 'hus, .
Th(' ,absrisslls aJ. arr roots of thl' Ilt'grndrc
nOllllals, the wrIghts Il
arl' hlJll'tiOll!\ or thl'!'I'
roots, IIl1d E. is thr rrror tl'rm whil,h 1'llII, ill
bl' mndl' urhitrllril." IImull with
1/. Th(' Gllussian root'l IIl1d wPights tnbulnh'll
for ,'nrious n for limits hl'tWI'l'II -I nnd I 1)\'
Dn\'is and Rllhinowilz (lSI, hut otlll'r limits ('ni,
bl' used by a rhange or \"ftrillblr as follows:
Flirt h('rmOfl' , in Ihl' (jnu!'!'illll Ilnlltlrntllrl' pro-
('('uure, thr int('grnnd is npproxiUlntl'" by II
or C2n -I) whi('h hns I hI'
ordinntl's liS thl' rllnl'lioll ror 1/ disl'rl'lI' IIhSI,j'l'lIl';.
To obtain arrurury for G. ('II (19) WIlS writ \rn
i [iiO
G.= - - dr
" 21f ('OS'/2 !/.-O 3 , r

+ dr . ..
10 "z
.. ]
+ _, dr
U-3 "Z
and Gaussian qUlldrature was usrd with n=16 ill
('I) (29) for ('nrh intrr\'ol of 5 for H. This work
\\'88 rhr('k('d (21) for !/.-0=0 l\IId ,'arions
,'alu('s of Rnd The answers agreed to th('
fin digits asked for in lhl' rrsults.
7. References
f(z) = ---.::---: tit·
o ,,21ft
6. Appendix
6.1. Evaluation of the Fresnel Intetral 6.:Z. Evaluation of G. by Gaussian
The intt'J!rnls orcllrrillJ! ill G (laa), (l3b), al\(I
]o'(z) , (19) lire of the t.ype
Thesp Fresnel integrnl':: were 1'\"Il1uuted "." the
method proposed 1)\' BOl'rslllu (121. This ml'thod
is based Oil thl' T illet hod of Lnllczos (131· The
Fresnel intefrul defined h.\' Boersma is
The definition in (25) conforms to the onP. used ii,'
Boersma (14\ in eq (26) if '
The '>Ower series in !, \'ulid for z O!: 4 is
.. z -
. I-i r 11 4 •
j(z)= -2-+
'1i (c.+ id.) (z) .
For values of the in (26). f(r)
is computed a finitl' power series in z; for \'"Iurs
of thl' z 4, flz) is upproxilllated h.\' u
polynomial In liz. For 1/= 12, the power series
In z valid for 0 :5z:i 4 is
(a.+ib.) Gr
The numericnl vulurs or the roefficient!! a., b., ('.,
and d. as developed by Boersma (14, 121 lire gi\'en
in table 9, With these coeflicients t he Fresnel
integrals can be computed o\'rr thl' rllllge O:! z:5 ....
in I!'enerlll, to eighl decilllul points. The suh-
routine used in e"nlulIlilll!' the Frt'Snel intel,!rlll
was checked with tlu' tfthlt'S of Pearc" (151 and
those of Wijnguarden lind Seheen '(161. The
fornler tables, dl'fillilion (26), arl' neeurnte
to six or seven diJrits on thl' sizl' of the
llrgunlfmt while the hitler, uSlllg definition (2.'»,
lire accurate to fi\'e digils.
/II G. H. Brown. It. F. and J. EJl!'I('in. Ground
eYl'tcml' as a fori or in onl('nna Proc.
IRE 21, i53-i8; (Junl' 193;).
12) F. R. Abbott, D«'Silln or ol'lilllllm bur it'd R. F. groulld
IIyell"ms. Proc. lin: f •• 841)..8:;2 19:;2).
13J J. n. Wait allrl W. A. 1'011". 1111'111 reistanr(' of LF
uniJ'lOlc a('rial.. Wirt·.. F.lIllinei'r 32. 131-138
1955). (11l1'q (!I) •• '., .hould hI' I.. "'>
141 J. n. Wait I\nd W. A. Po!>". Thl' characIl'rlstil"!' of II
\'crtical .ntcnnll ,,-ith 1\ mdilll rOlldurtor Ilrounrl
e,·lItl"m. Appl. !'ci. H,'!u'lIrch IUlf, (1954'.
151 J. n. Wail, Efl'l'ct of thl' ground errt'l'n on the fit·ld
ndiatl'd from a monopoll', litE TrailS. 011 Antennas
and Propagation AP-f, (April 19561.
16/ H. PII@:C and G. U. Montl'ath. Th(' "('rtil'lIl radiolion
of ml'dilllll "'a"(' hrollrlcl\.!ltinp; III·rillls.
Pror. lEE lOt. 2;9-29i In:;;",).
iiI (i. D. Thl' I'lll'rt of till' Irouml
lind of thl' I'arlh 011 till' p('rforllllllll'l' of II
\'I'rtiral medium 'A-an' ol'rio!. :\IOllolrnph :'\0.
:!i!llt, In.t. Ell'l't. Enlr., (I.omlon), "'1'.
(Jlln. 1!l.,)81. (Thi. I'nl"'r I'ollinill. II "111110bl,' nnd
I'rilirftl of prt'\·iou. work.)
18) J. It WRit. Th,' th"ory of RII nntrllllll onr .1Il ill-
IIrOllllrl ,,1'1111', I'ror. l'}'III"o-illlll on
EIt'ctrollulll:lIt·tic lUll I Alit ('1111""', <:0""11-
hagen, JUI\(' 11162. (To bc publishl'd b}' l'crlI;:lmon

Ill) J. R. Wait, Ellritatioll of "'R\"('S 011 cOlldllrt-
ing. Iltmtifi('d, di,·lrrtrir-rl"d. nil" corruut.·d
J. Hr••'urrh :,\IIS". 36;;"'3;";" (1"'1'. HI.';;",
(In rq (i I) ("Iw) hI' (,,/w)l; 011 JIRII" 3i6,
r, d.'fi,,,,d h}' r,=r,+2h<:.)
(10) K. A, Nortoll, '1'111' l,rO"'ll!atioll of radio o\"('r
the Ilurfacl' of thl' I'arth :lIld ill thl' upprr
phl'rl', Part I, Pror. IIlE %4. 136i-138i (UrI.
1936); Part II. Proc. IIlE %5. 1:l03-1236 (!'rpl.
Ill) J. fl. Wait. Oil th" th.'or}· of r"fI"ction from a "'ir"
"rid parallel to all intrrfucr b(·twCf'n hOmOI!('II"OU5
medin, Part II, ApI'\. l'ci. Ht'l','arrh IBI 1. 3ii;""360
(l2J J. Borrllmu, Com"utatioll of illtl'lIml,. !\Iath.
of Com"utatioll H. G!l-i2, 380 (l!l601.
113) C. Applit'd (Prt'ntirl' Hall, EIIRlc.
"'ood ChfJs. N.J., I!l,,61.
(14) J. Boersma. Un a numt'rical m"thod for computatioll
of FrCll'lt'1 intep;rals, Math. I 1111 t. , Ullh·. of Gronill-
lIten, Rrport TW:l (1!J601. (Thr rlrri\"3tioll for
f(r) alld a., b., 1' •• 'Uld t{. arr ill this
(IS) T. pparcp}', Tablr of th,' Fr,.,.,,,,1 illlrllr:tl (Calllhri"II"
Uni\". Press, 1956).
(16) Adrillll "all Wijnlltnllr,l"1I allli W. L. Ta"I.·
of Fr''l!'1I'1 1lll"lIm's, Amst"rrlulII, Sord-l\oll'Uld.clll'
l'ill!, !\Iij
(Ii) F. Kopal. SUIIII'riral all",,"si. (Joh" Wilt·,· .t :-OilS.
1111'., York. Y., I!I:;.'",), .
(181 P. Da\"is Rlld 1'. Ita"illowill. AI"r;«,,- n,"1 ",.illh's
for li"••••inll If'':ldr,,' ur," of hi!:h ord"r, J. lI,.s,."rl'l,
US 'I. 3.'".... 3i (J'III, I !''''Jfi I.
7.1 Additional References
T. I.nrs"II, ill\"l's' illltio" of till' "(Iui\"""',,,
illlp,'dnllr,' or a wi", Irid ""rulh·1 III thl' illll'rfu,'"
bt't "1"'11 two mrdin, J. 1I,'s.'arrh liS II D (ltlulio
I'ror.) I, pp. i-14 (JIIII.-FI'h. 1!16:!1.
!'. W. :\1 ""'}' nnrl It. J. TIIf' tlr " mOIll>-
",,"'nnll "'ith D rirrlll"r lItrolll,,1
."."'111 ,'n till' of R h,,1( J. 1t.....·"r'·10
ISD (llatdio Prop.) .. 2, "p. 183-188 (M"r.-
Apr, 1\161).
A. Rlld T. 1::, I'\"'RIII"', FiI·ld. in ""'ctricalh
Ilhorl ItrOllllrl ., ,trill.: An ':lIpl'rillll'lItnl stlldy. j,
1t''C''nrch 13D (nRdio Prop.) 2, rp. li'.-IRII
J. H. W"it. r,"Ii"lillll rrulIIl'\'li,,"ric',,1
1l','rl['"lIlIlI I'r'·... 1.1II"lulI "lid :" ,',,, Yorl<,
1!1.·,!II. 11111'11111," n t1i'ru",illll of Oil
\\"t'dg'-,. Rlld,""",. \
FIGt RE I. 1''''11',,1 ,lul"r t{,pnlr lor""t{ Olf' a errr"I".
/11"01 3(',,,n trlllrll. " .• ,If. ,. /r" nil on a IIolllog,nro".
F'<:I'RE :!h. Til, plio., of 1+11. a. n fllllrl,oll of "'" ,,.,'11
po.o""", lIa 10' nonrond"rlrn" ".o"n".
'" 20 ..
.. Go
• ..=-.--:\,.=-.--:\,.::-,---tlO'
jo"OI'RE :In. 7'11, alllpl""t{r "f I +II. " .• n f,,,,rllon of tl. 1/",,11
Jlo.amdt. kn for nonron""rl,nfl fI,o"nt{ illu31.alrng ,'',
,Jf,r/ of ,II, rrrr"la. 3rrttn of ,at{, " .• n
ITht'.".ltna.C'Nn hI· ......'.I,·.1 Lll tilt" of the- ""ff'hl" hr"h, "f
U'" monO'Jnlf rftUlttn. "ani tM cd lhr ,roun'. "",,'n.1
FIGUD 3&. TAr omplitudr of I +II, 0,' 0 oj rI. U'lth
IHINIlNItr ka ond no"co"dlll:ting g,ound iUu,t,oti"g th,
e,_e/ lIar,e N.

11' P:I'
II II' 10



. .


.. 11'
"II'll'RE -Ill. 7"/a, nrllphl"'" "f 14 1/. tI .• " J,,,,rtlflft oj 01-.
III, 'JT..' "f Jinrl. 8.
, -os'
If' 35'
CO ,.-

... ••

r G-

... ...
rlc\'.£ -Ib, TII.e pllolt of 1+(I, OK a Junrlion oJ •• ,1I"o\rlll-
i"" ,A, ,lf,rt of fi"it, fl.
FIGt'.£ 3IJ, TAr "AtU, of I +II, 0' 0 Jundio" of "'. fl'lth
poro",dr' ka ona ntr-;cond"ding ".o""a iU",t,o'"" ,A,
r§ed of 10rl1f N,
F,Ol'll: 5a. Tht of I +S1. a,' d f/lnrl/on of
hi,lal" conductin, ,round iUlla/ral,ng of lar,t




I t
10' .,.
}'IOl:III: 6, l'tr/ital tlulric dipolt localtd Ol'rr a cn",h",,.,tIUII
circ/dar-.tclor .crttll which, il'tlf, is I"ing on a 1I0",0I/t-
..,ou. ,round.

!'IGI'IIE 5b, Tilt phair of J II. a' tI (''''rlron of hlf/"'''
rond"rlin, ,round iU,,,'ralrnf/ of lar(/. !\,

FIOURI: ia. Tht amplltud, of G. a Jllllclion of "'. 111".-
,'rahn/7 effecl of jindt.6, •Th('ll(' cun'" are for a
circular Icrt'en of radius a and II .,clor "'hich ulendl
from a to b).
FHa'lIE iI>, Tht of (;.110' a fll'lrlron of "'.
'ht of finllt
to•• ,
•• ·eo
... ,
.. ...,
6"'- •

c:: .0'

I' II'
FIOUBE 8a. TIle amplitude of 1+O.+Ob 03 a l,m,IIo" 0/
illuetrating tlae effut of finilt .1 for nO"t'ond.It'li"lI 9,0.m<1.
l;r:".:::::::: ...
,be _bltwd Iorlll 01. drflIlar dIJt ...... _lor. I
I"W\'IIE 8", Tit, pita•• 0.' I +II. + II" ,,- " .rllnr""" fl.' 01 ..
if",.trall"g lit, ,p,n 0/ fi"'" .1 /'" """,,,,,,1,,,11"11 IIm"".t,
rr luta!



... .1' altO'
.. l'
.... ,
II ""0

FIOI'BE IIQ TIa, a",pfit"d, 0/ I +II. +lib a. a 1"",lio" 0/
lor Ia.glaf" conductl"g ground and largt iII".tra',"g ,It,
tl,et of finit,
hGI"IIE lib, TIa, pita., of J +II. +lib 113 a fu"cho" III •• f'"
It'vltl" t'o"dllttl"g ground alld fargt iII"."a,,", tit,
tl,eI 01 finii' .1.
1I ..........-.,.........,-""T'"-r---r-T'---r-""T'"-..
.. , ,...
.., .....
• • •

• I .

F.ol·u 11. 'I'M a",,zit,,de of a. a f"nction of
lAe a,i",,,,ltal a,,", • for "oncondueti", ,ro""d iUlllf7Glin,
cite ,I.01 +e/or kb-40.
FIOURZ 10. 7'Ae a",,zit,,1k of 1 GI a f,,,'ction· of
.". ill".f7Glin, IIw 'led of A for no_ndwtin,
110· ,
, ...
.. ,
.. ..... ..... .... ..... .....
F,Gl·U 12. TAe a",,,IiI_ 0/1+0.+0." a/ufldion 01 lit,
ali",,,tltGl a",I, • lor ""dudi., rnncl illftltrali.,
"" 'I. of firtilc +e/or kb-200.
1.12 Wait. J. R.. 1967, "Pattern of a Unear Antenna Erected Over a Tapered Ground Screen,"
Canadian Journal 0/Physics. Vol. 45. pp. 3091-3101
(Reprint No. 327)
Reprinted with the permission of the National Research Council of Canada
lul"'/_ Tckc_....iclJli"" SciftuIC"" A.o_,. ESSA. B..I4Ier. CoItwIMl"
Received June V. 1167
A theory is presented for the radiation from. thin wnical .ntenna located
above .nd .t the center 01 • sector ,round s)·stem. The formulation is carried
out for • ,eneral variation or the surf.ce impedance 01 the system. To facilitate
discupion. certain limitin, calleS are considered in _ detail. Of llpKial interest
is the possibilit)" that the !owl.....1e rndi;uion pattern 01 .n h.f. antenna oyn a
dielectric-t)·pe Cround will be improved b)' usine • ,round screen whose
surf.ce imped.nce varies eaponentl.Uy. in the radial direction. from the base
01 the antenna.
On a number of occasions it has suggested that low-angle radiation
from ground.based h.r. antennas can be enhanced by the use of large ground
planes (Wait 1956. 1963; Wilson 1961; Andersen 1963), To be effective. these
must reduce significantly the surface impedance of the foreground out to
distances from the antenna comparable with or greater than a Fresnel zone.
Usually. in the analytical fonnulations of this problem. it has beeD assumed that
the transmitting antenna is equivalent to a vertical electric dipole located on
the screen. In this paper. we wish to indicate the generalizations of the theon'
required to account for an antenna which may be of both arbitrary and
arbitrary height above ground. At the same time. we shall also consider the
ground screen or earth mat to be tapered in the sense that. in general. its
surface impedance is not constant.
The geometry of the situation is indicated in Fig. 1 where we have used
cylindrical coordinates (P••• z). \\'ith the surface of the ground being z = 0
and the linear antenna extending from z = hi to. - hi on the s axis. Without
To Receivin9
FIG. I. A line:lr antenna erected over a sector ,round s)'Item whose surface impedance
diflers from the sun-oundinC around plane.
IThis work 'I\'a. can-ied out while the author 'I\'as a visitin, professor at Harvard UniYU'!'it)"
Cambridce. M....chuletts.
CaMdlu J........ 01 I'IIYlin. v....._ U (\111)
loss of the receiving antenna is located in the plane = 0 at a
radial distance R
measured from the origin. The angle of radiation is denoted
and is measured from the ground as indicated in Fig. 1. Within the circular
portion of the ground screen (i.e., p < 4), the surface impedance is denoted
Z.' (p), which we regard to be a function of p. The outer portion of the ground
screen (i.e., 4 < p < band - AI < .. < A,), the surface impedance is denoted
Z,'CP, which may be a function of both p and ... To facilitate subsequent
discussion, we shall refer to the latter as the sector contribution. (In previous
studies, both Z.' and Z: were regarded as constants, in which case, the outer
portion of the ground screen was truly a sector.)
The formulation of the present problem is really a atraightfoA'ard applica.
tion of the Lorentz reciprocity theorem to the region. > 0, which
is bounded by an inhomogeneous surface where the tangential fields satisfy
impedance boundary conditions. Using some of the formalism developed for
solving problems in network theory, such as Monteath·s (1951) extension of the
compensation theorem, ""e find an expression for the radiated field in terms of
the specified antenna current and the tangential magnetic field on the surface
• - O.
To illustrate the purely theoretical aspect of the problem, ""e consider first
the azimuthally symmetric situation where the surface impedance at the plane
• _ 0 is Z' (p). The resulting magnetic field then has only a .. component which
we denote H.'. On the other hand, if, instead, the plane. - 0 can be character-
ized by a constant surface impedance Z. the corresponding field, of the same
antenna with the same current distribution, is readily computed and we
designate this H •. Now, under the rather nonrestrictive assumption that the
receiving antenna is in the far field, we find the following:
(1) H: .. H. + k (l + R.)
X i- Z'(p') - Z H.'CP', 0)1
(k,' cos
• 'I.
sin "'0 - (Z/,.)
sin "'. + (Z/".,
is a Fresnel reflection coefficient. Here, k - (1"")'101 - wle, '0 - (PO/IO)' -
120. ohms, and wis the angular frequency which enters into the implied time
factor exp(iwt). Then, of course, 1 1 is the Bessel function of order 1. The
derivation of (I) follows directly from the material in the Appendix of the
paper referenced above. It is rather important to note that H,,(p', 0) is the
tangential magnetic field over the ground plane whose SIIrface impedance is
The usefulness of (I) lies in the fact that the integrand may be approxi-
mated by assuming a value for H:(P',O) which need only be valid when
Z'(p') differs appreciably from Z. Thus, for example, if the ground screen is a
perfectly conducting circular plate of radius a, we replace the upper limit of
the integral by 0 and Z'(p') is zero. fn this casc, we may assume that H.' (p', 0)
over the range of p' - 0 to 0 is the same as H.-(p', 0), which is the tangential
magnetic field over a perfectly conducting ground plane of infinite extent.
It is clear that this assumption involves the neglect of waves reflected from
the edge of the screen, but othen\'ise it seems perfectly reasonable.
First of all, we have the following exact expression for the radiated field in
the absence of any ground system:
2) H (P) ikcos
• •z - 4..R
X fat l(h)(exp(ikh sin +R.exp(-iklzsin !fo)Jdll.
This may be interpreted as the direct radiation of the linear antenna with a
specified current l(h) and its current l(h)R., For convenience
in what follows. we rewrite (2) in the form:
i cos .
H.(p, z) - 4..R
(l +R.)exp( -skR.)[.. F(!fo).
(4) = 1 : R. f(A)(exp(i*" sin fto) +R. exp( -ikk sin !fo)]clJI,
[(II) = 1""(h),
Here F(!/I.) is a dimensionless pattern function and f(lI) is a dimensionless
current distribution function, while 1", is some suitably defineJ reference
current on the antenna.
The tangential magnetic field, under the perfect conductivity assumption,
(5) H.-(P',O) _ - .!-, fAt l(h) exp(-ik,.) dh,
8p AI 2..,.
where,. - [(p')1 + hl)t. An equivalent form of (5) is
iH fit ,( 1 )
H.-(P', 0) - 2" f(h)?, 1 + exp(-ik,.)dh.
"., '. ......
We now use (I), in combination with (3) and (6), and restrict attention to
the perfectly conducting circular ground screen or plate of radius 0. Thus, we
find the following expr. wion for the total radiation field:
(7) H,'(P,,) - !/I. exp( -ikR.)(1 + +OJ.
k' Z
(8) 12 "'" - cos "'0 ;;;
-[ il' (')' ( 1 ) ]
X fen) L,- 1 + exp(-ilt,.)dn ll(kp' cos "'o)dp'.
° I. '. ''''.
As an interesting check on this result, we may let a - CD, whence
(9) 121__ = It f.:' f(h)exp( -ilth sin ",.)dh,
which follows from the Appendix of a previous paper (Wait 1967). Then,
(7) reduces to
(10) H/(P,I)I__ .. iH", cos "'. -ikR
) Cit cos(kh sin "'o)f(h) dh,
2. • JI.
which is the exact expression for ttae radiation field of the linear antenna over a
perfectly conducting ground plane of infinite extent. In passing. we mention
that the recovery of this exact result is a consequence of using the integral
relation (1) with the identity H.'(p'. 0) "'" H.-(p',O). It is important to note
that the latter is only an approximation when the screen is of finite size.
We now return to the Ileneral configuration indicated in Fig. 1. In this case,
we no longer have azimuthal symmetry. This means that, in place of Cl), we
(11) H/ "'" H. +It (1 +R.)
X J f Z'(p', .) - Z H,(P', 0) exp(iltp' .) p' cos 4l<!p'd.,
• fl
where the integration extends over the surface S of the ground screen, \\'hOl'C
surface impedance is Z'(p', .), being a function of both p' and •. We note here
that the observer is located at (P, 0, I).
Actually, (11) is an approximation in that the depolarization of the scattered
field is neglected. In other words, it is assumed that the magnetic field has only
a • component even when the ground screen is not perfectly symmetrical.
Furthermore, in order to bring (11) into a tractable form, the tangential field
H/(p', 0) over the ground screen is assumed to be the same as H.-Cp', 0) over
the range of integration indicated in (11). With these simplifications, we use
(11) to show that
(12) H/ (P, 0, ,) iI", cos "'; - ikR.) (1 +R.)(F("'.) +0. +12.1,
a. ... f' Z:(p') - Z[
cos !/to J. ".
Alf(h) J4- (I
A, '. Ik,.
X exp(-ik'.)dh]JI(k
' COS !/to)dp'
(14) 0, .. f' f41 Z.'(p',.) - Z
cos !/to J. 211'1 -6, ".
X[ ff. f(h) 14(I + )exP(-ik'r)dh]
f. '. 1 , r
X exp(ikP' cos !/t. cos .) cos I/Idl/ldp'.
It is evident that O. represents the contribution from the circular portion of the
ground screen, whereas O. represents the contribution frolll the sector portion
of the screen.
The results given by (12), (13), and (14), while formidable in appe.uance,
are in a form suitable for specific applications. For example, if the ground
screen consists of a radial wire system, the surface impedances Z.' and Z.' are
expressible in terms of the physical p.1rameters, such as the number of wires,
their spacing, and their radii. We shall not enter into this aspect or the problem
here since it has been discussed previously (Wait 1959). Another factor is the
current distribution on the antenna. Obviously, this plays a role and cannot
be normalized out of the problem. However. for sufficiently thin linear antennas,
the sinusoidal current assumption may be madf'.
Considerable simplification results if tJle length of the antenna is smal!
compared "'ith a ,,·a\·elength. Then the quantity r, may be replaced by a
constant r. which is given by
'. - [(p')I +h.'). where h• ... (hi + h,)/2.
Then (12) is written in t1le simpler form:
H: i1". cos (1 +R.)
) +Ii. +n.l.
11' •
G (
L ) exp(ilth. sin "'.) +R. exp( -Uhf sin ",.)
• "' - 1 + R. '
- It J' 'L ) (p'>'( I
(L' Z.' - Zd
n. - --J-. exp(-I""t --r I + I"'P cos "'.) p',
cos.,.. ,'_t ,. u:r ".
3096 C.'NADIAS JOl'RSAL OF PIIVSICS. \'OL. 45. 1"1
'k J'. f6. (D')' ( 1 )
(17) fi... - ~ exp( -ik,o) 1;- 1 +-.-
2w cos "'0 _'_ .-..,6. '0 ~ k , o
X exp(ikP' cos ell cos "'0) cos ell • 7/0 d c/ldP'.
It is also worthwhile to note that (15) can be expressed in the familiar form
H. c ;:'texp( -ikRo) cos "'oW',
1'... I. f(h)dh ...
(19) W' .. (1 + R,>IGo(II o) +fie +fl.1I2.
If now ih
« I, the expression for the pattern factor W' reduces to that given
previously (Wait 1963) where it was assumed, at the outset, that the trans-
mitting antenna was a source dipole located at the center of the circular screen.
In (16) and (17), this amounts to replacing '0 by p' which is a valid approxi-
mation for finite values of h
provided kp' » kho.
In order to illustrate the general applicability of the preceding results,
several simple situations will be considered where the relevant formulas for
the pattern functions are exprl'ssible in closed form. First of all, we consider
the pattern function W' for a dipole located on and at the center of a circular
screen of radius a. From (19) and making use of (16), the appropriate form is
11" = (l + R,>I1 + 0.112,
u. c - ~ J'. F(kp')exp(-ikp') (I + ~ k l ) J1(kp' cos "'o)dp',
cos rO ° ~ P
F(kp') = IZ - Z:(p'»/...
As indicated before, 0. is the fractional correction to the pattern factor which
accounts for the presence of the ground screen whose surface impedance
Z.' (p') differs from the surface impedance Z of the otherwise homogeneous
half-space, When this impedance contrast F(kp') is zero, then, of course, n.
vanishes. In an earlier paper (Wait 1963) some consideration was given to the
evaluation of the integral in (21) for F(kp') 0= canst. and CJ finite. Even in this
relatively simple situation numerical integration was required, although, for
sufficiently large values of ka, useful approximations could be made to yield
results in terms of Fresnel integrals.
It is rather interesting to note that (21) may be evaluated in closed form
if F(ltp') is allowed to vary exponentially such that F(x) = F
exp( -bx),
where % ... ltp'. This can be regarded as a special case of a circular screen
whose effectiveness is maximum very near the antenna. Then, we find without
difficulty that
(22) D. = - f:· exp(- (b +i)x)J.(x cos e II to [ -lb .. .:)x1
cos ] .
When exp[ -b(ka)]« 1, it is evident that the upper limit of these two integrals
is effectively .... The integrals are then of the standard types (Gradshteyn and
Ryzhik 1965):
f- (a'+8')I_
(24) J
= fJ
which are valid for Re a > 0 when fJ is real. Using (23) and (24), we find that,
for ka "" ... , equation (22) is given by
- Fo (l + S.>IS. - (l - ib»)
n.... - --..-- S

S• ... (1 - ib)2 -
If b now much less than sin' it is seen that (25) reduces to
(26) f,. F./(sin
which is the expected value for radiation over an infinite ground plane of
constant surface impedance Zo'.
On the other hand, if 6 becomes sufficiently large, n. vanishes and the
resultant pattern corresponds to that for a dipole located on a ground plane
of surface impedance Z. To illustrate the behavior of the fields for this case, the
pattern function I(cos ./to) W'I is plotted (in Fig. 2(4), (6» as a function of
for the case where Zo'(O) - 0 and a pure dielectric ground is chosen such that
Z/"o .... ((c,/lt) -
and 1./10 - 3 and 10. The latter are two typical values of the relative dielectric
constant of dry ground. The values of 6 on the curves are a measure of the
extent of the circular screen. For example, the radian distance 1/6 is the
electrical length from the dipole to a point where (Z - Z.(,'»)/"o is lie times
its value at p' - O.
('261 I.S
( Z/(:» .b&Ir +:>


III 15 2D 3D 0 III ZO 15 3D
+OIDettwII +oIDe.,.....1
(0) (b)
FIG. 2. The pattern of a ground-based dipole antenna .·ilb a symmetrical ground
with a radially tapered surface impedance.
It is not that the cun.·es ill Fil:. 2(n), (b) show that the 10w.alll:ll'
radiation is much enhanced when b is chosen to be sufficiently small. Also it is
significant that the pattern does not have any lobe structure. This feature i!"
to be contrasted with the case for the abruptly truncated ground screen
(Wait 1963).
To give some insight into the sector contribution n., we note first that (Ii)
may be written in the form:
(2i) Iii. =
cos 1/10 f
· (')' ( I )
exp(-ilt,o) I +
•. _ '0 I '0
X A(kp' cos 1/10. to" to,)]l(p')dp',
(28) A(y, to" to,) .. -2.
and we have assumed that
being a product of two functions M(p') and N(.). Clearly, if N(.) .. const.
and to, .. to, - .-, then A(y, to" to,) 00: J,(y) X const. and the expression for
n. has the required form for a circular ground system whose surface impedance
varies only with p'.
To illustrate in a qualitative manner the influence of a • dependence in
Z.'. we choose
where p is a SOlie factor and ...... is the direction where the sector has a
maximum value of N(.). Then, because we restrict attention to values of a and
b which are large compared with a wavelenRth, it is permissible to replace
cos. by 1 - (.'/2) in the exponential in the integrand of (28) but replace
it by unity elsewhere. At the same time, we permit AI and A, to be sufficiently
large that exp( - pAl) and exp( - PAt) are both «1. Then, it is clear that
A(y, A.. At) ~ AI.
(31) Al ... -2
. S.... expl-P(. - ••)' Jexp (i,(l - h ')Jd ••
In _
and thus
• f. (itl>",!P),) 1
(33) AJ ... - (211"')' e exp - 2pTry if _ i(2P/y)1
If Pis now sufficiently small.
e f.
(211")')": e ,
which is to be compared with the asymptotic approximation
which is valid for,» 1. Thus, "'e recO"'er the expected value for a circular
screen except for the factor ie-If. which leads to a rapidly varying factor in the
integrand for at' and is of no significance for low-angle radiation over large
screens (Wait 1963).
To illustrate the inftuence of the azimuthal tapering of the ground screen,
we show, in Fig. 3, a plot of the function AI(p)/A.(O) which is the ratio of the
right-hand side of (33) and (34). For this example. y - 10 and .. takes the
values 0, 5, 10, and 20°. These results indicate that the sector width parameter
p plays an important role. Also any asymmetry of the propagation path.
relative to the direction of the sector, will degrade the radiated field.
It should be stressed that the curves in Fig. 3 apply only to the relative
contribution from a small annular rinR of the ground system. Without detailed,
numerical evaluations, it is not possible to draw further conclusions about the
o 0.8
3: 0.1
FIG. 3. The influence of azimuthal tapering of the surface impedance 0{ the sector portion
of the IfDIlnd oystem.
relative merit of azimuthal versus radial tapering of the ground system. It is
evident that the whole subject warrants hlrther study.
Finally, we should like to indicate that a formal extension of the theory
can be made to account for the departure of the field H.'(P',O) from its
assumed value H.(p',O). First of all, we observe that the surface-wave
attenuation over the screen can be considered if the function F(kp') in (21) is
defined by
F(kp') = Z - Z:(p') U'(p'),
W(p') - H.(P', O)/H.(P', 0)
is the attenuation function (Wait 1963). Formally, (20) and (22) still hold if
F. and b are defined in accordance · ~ : t h the substitution F(s) - F
exp( -b%),
where s - kp'. However, more work is :-eeded to fully develop this approach.
Appreciation is expressed to Kenneth P. Spies for his assistance with both
the numerical and the analytical aspects, and to Mrs. Eileen Brackett for her
help in the preparation of the manuscript.
ANDEUEN, J. B. 1963. The radialion field from. vertical dipole of an inhomoeeneous
(I'0Il00. tIl Electrornaenetic theory and aatennas, .iU4 6, Eo C. Jordan (pqamon
P,.. (bford), p. 1113.
WAIT: OF 1\ ASTF:NSA :\101
GIlAD5HTHS, I. S. and RYZHIK, I. M. 19G1, Tablet of series. and prOllucts
(formulas 6.611:1 and 6.623:3 ",'ith • - II (Academic Press. London).
MONTEATH, G. D. 1951. Proc. Elec. Enll:rs. (London), 98. 23.
WAtT, J. R. 1956. IRE Inst. Radio Engrs. Trans. Antennas Propagation. 4. li9.
-- 1959. Appl. Sci. Res. Sect. B. 7. 355.
-- 1963. The theory 01 an antenna over an inhomogeneous ground plane, in Electro-
malrnetic theory and antennas. edited 6, E. C. Jordan (Pergamon Press. Oxford).
-- 1007. Radio Sci. 2,995.
WILSON. A. C. 1961. J. Res. Natl. Bur. Stds. D65, 641.
1.13 Wait, J. R., September 1967, "On the Theory of Radiation from a Raised Electric Dipole
Over an Inhomogeneous Ground Plane," Radio Science, Vol. 2 (new series),
pp. 997-1004
(Reprint No. 330)
Reprinted with the permission of the American Geophysical Union
RADIO SCIENCE, Yolo 2 CHe. $erieal. No.9. s.......... 1967
On the Theory of Radiation From a Raised Electric
Dipole Over an Inhomogeneous Ground Plane
Jam-.s R. Wait
In.titute for Telecommunication Science. and Aeronomy, ESSA, Boulder. Colo. 80302. U.S.A.
21. 1967,
of a finile pound on "r a raiaed ia rro", an
anaJY'ic:al atandpoinl. The _lhod for ...aJua'inll ,"" it diKU.aed brWn) .nd aum....
result. are iii-en 1M !i;:-:"inll behawior for IllUUnd e«>rnn. nr la'll" dia",..I..,. II
it ahown th.I the resultinll pallem "")' 1M' ..'Ul
..'" inl..rpr..I" in I.rIIla of Ih.. di...rl r.diali..n ..r .h..
aourn dipole. ita i..... in an infinil. puullCl .,gill!••nd <'Gftlributiuna from tM ..r I,", Il,..und
1. Introduction
The possibililY thai 10w·anl1e radial ion from vertical antennas can be improved by the use of
extended ground .ystems has been discussed occasionall)' in the past. While the imJlrovement is
very modest for ground screens of wavelentEth dimensions (Wail and Pope. 1954; Palte and Mon·
teath. 1955), the increase in low·angle radial ion is substantial when the radial or mesh are
extended to many wavelengths (Wait. 19631. The of sector·shaped has been con·
sidered. both from the theoretical and the experimental standpoints (Wail and Wallers. 1963;
Gustafson et al.. 1966; Bernard et al.. 19(6). In fa<'t. the a!Ueement belween Ihf" "lJ"f"rYf"d radia·
tion patterns and those based on the surface impedance model is sufficientll encourattinjt to pursue
further this approach.
In this paper. we wish to generalize the theory 10 accounl for the finile heii!hl of Ihe anlenna
located over the [aOund system. In the previous formulation. the dipole was localed on and at the
geometrical center of the sector. This extension of the analysis is considered worthwhile in view
of the need to choose the optimum relation between ground·system size and antenna How.
ever. here we will nol dwell on the eniDneerin, economice of the situation, but will dire<'t our
attention to the method of calculation. At the same lime. lOme aepeete of the asymplutiC' behavior
of very lar,e screens will be pointed out. The resulting formulas lead to lOme interesting limiting
cases which provide physical
In what follows. we will deal only with the far·field radiation pattern which is assumed to be
vertically polarized. This is dearly a special case of the leneral mutual impedance formulation
(Wail, 1963). The situation is iUustrated in fipre l.
2. Formulatian
With respect to a cylindrical coordinate system (P, •• z). the earth's surface i. z-O and the
dipole Q is located at z., It on the axis. As indicated in fi,ure 1. the circular portion of the ground
ecreen of .urface ampedance Z; is bounded byp== a. while the tector of surface impedance Z. i.
bounded by p - 6 and • - + and - In the absence of any pound .y.tem. the surface imped.
ance of the earth i. Z and is ..sumed conltant. Apart from the finite value of II. the Ileumetry is
identical to that used in the quoted references (Wail. 1963: Wait and Walters, 1963; Bernard el al.,
1966; et al.• 1966). Howeyer. in the ,eneral mutual impedance formulation. there il one im·
ponant modi6cation. Thi. i. easily seen by noting that the ellprellion for the tangential magnelic
James R. Wa;'
F,GURE I. alr"ir,,1 rlrr'rir d"."lr I"nllrtl ",...r" r"",bln""""
c;rculor-.rc'o' Ie,un .-hid. ;11,11. i.t I Y I ~ on a 110"''''
prwoIII ,HM.
field at T of a lOurce dipole at Q is of the form
where r. =(p' +1a')I/I, Ie =fIJ/c = 2,,/(wavelength), and where I. is the current and I" is the length o(
the dipole. As usual. the time factor is exp (i""l. The form of (I) indicate!! that, whenever the factor
[1 +(ilepl-IJ exp (- ilep) appears in the previous formulations. we should insert. in its place. the
factor (plr,)Z(I +(iler.)-I ) exp (- iler,).
Keeping in mind the necessary modifications for a finite value of Ia. we find the expression (or
the radiation field to be
ip.ofIJ{I. -lirA I .,. rr/,
z a--- e • cos .......
11" = (1 +R,) IGa(/a) +0 ~ 2 .
R _ sin .". - (ZI.".)
r- sin ..+(Z/.".)·
..... +Rrr-
... '.
G,(Ia)= 1+R

Ie 1
II' ( I ~ (Z'-Z)
n. - -- e-
, - I +-:-- Ja(kp cos rile> _0_- dp
COJ" ~ o ~ .ler ".
iii 1· f'" p' ( I) (Zi.-Z)
o. =- e-
, - 1+-.- ea- -.-.. co. ~ --- df/Hlp,
2" cos tit. ~ o .--6, ~ ./':r ".
where ".-(p.J••,l/t-1201r. The result. pnn by (2H8. reduce to the corre.ponding forms given (\\'ait. 1963: Wait and Walten. 19(3) when Ia il set equal to aero. for 0-0. the pattern
function reduce. to the familiar form
where Rr i. the appropriate frelnel coeflicient to account for reftection from the homoleneous ftat
eanh oC .urface impedance Z. Thus. the dimensionless parameter {)( =0 .. + 0,,1 may be identified
u the contribution Crom the combined 1I'0und .ystem. Just as in the earlier work. the crux of the
problem il the evuuation oC the intell'u exprelsions (or n. and n..
3. The Contribution from the Circular Screen
Fint of all, we Ihall consider the intell'u n. which is the contribution from the circular portion
oC the lfOund .ystem. To limplify the disCUlsion. it is allIumed that the surface impedance is
conltant over the area of the screen. Then. after a trivial chanle oC variable. (7) may be rewritten
m the Corm
O.=--! e-1W/·C(lra)
C(lro) eW_'4_ i...·_,,_2- (I __)
cos 1/10 • ,,2+11' i("z+W)'/2
and where H-/rho When the radius of the Icreen becomes infinite. (10) may be evaluated in dosed
Corm (u indicated in the appendix) to give
This means that, in this limitin. cue.
r 'H .....
". Ian l#Io
Then, at the lame time. if the lfOund Icreen i. lufficiently weU conductin. luch that I.
Thil combine. with (3) to giYe
O•• --e-........ ••.
.,·1...... =COl (kIr lin ..)
which il the required pattern Cactor for a Yertical electric dipole at hei&ht h OYer a perfectly con·
ductiftl plane. Thil merely demonltrates that the ,eneru lurface impedance formulation leads
IG conliltent re.uhl when the extent of the Icreen is unlimited.
In order to develop a luitable asymptotic formula for larse yal... of Ira, we combine (9). nO).
and (11) to let
where S - lin til. and C- cos til.. If ka .. I. and .ince .r > lia oyer the ranle of intell'ation. we may
1000 Jo...., I. Woit
replace the Bessel function by the first term of its asymptotic expansion.' Thus. (151 is expressible
in the form
(J -; f'Xp (-2;.1'(;1],1.1l
For furtber analysis, (16) is written

e ". S'
F(z) -x-III esp (-i(r+IfI)"'+ u ].
It i, clear that the riaht·hand side of (17) .ani,hes when the tp'Ound system is of infinite estent.
Thus, when Ira is not infinite. the two intep'a1s may be interpreted as the influence of the finite
size of the circular pound system.
Funher insight into the problem i, achieved by intep'ating the riaht·hand side of (17) succes·
sively by parts. This leads euily to an espansion of the type
where Ft-l(lra)-d-F(z)/dx-I,••e for n-l. 2. 3•... Nand FIOl(ka)=F(lra). For sufficiently
large ka. the remainder RN can be made arbitrarily small if N is chOlen judiciously.
When tbe leading two terms of (18) are retained and the remainder R.o; i. neglected we easily
find tbat
• [ ( i(l +ip) )]}
-, O+C)(ka)'/I 1+
(l+C) •
fIJ- [(ka)'+ 1fI]III-ka
p-2ka [(ka)I+IfIJIII
If H is sufficiently smaD. fIJ and p can be replaced by zero, and the asymptotic development in (19)
is equiyalent to the previous formulation (Wait, 1963; Wait and Walten, 1963) where H=O at the
•,......... J,tOC,.{w!l).. _ he-a.,., ................ _.., ••,cI·... I,c'·... _.
Unfortunately. in mosl cases of practical interest. the asymptotic series of the t)'pe given by
(18) does not converge wen. The difficulty is that (I_C)(kO)"1 is not a large parameter for near
paing aDJIes (i.e.• Cal) even when ko is large. This suuests that we return to (16) and express
it approximately in terms of Fresnel intep'als which are wen tabulated. Taking a clue from the
nature of the ..ymptotic form liven by (19). we simplify the intepand of (16) by employing the
exp [- ;(%'+ /P)III:t ixC] a exp (- icIJ) exp [- u(J +C)]
which. of course. is exact if either %-Ito or if H = O. Without dilficulty. it is then found that
where c1J- [(lta)1 +/p]"I-lta a /P/(2lto) =(lch )'/(2Ira).
Equation (20) is in a form suitable for numerical evaluation since tables of Fresnel integrals
are available for all values of the argument which. in this ('ase. is the parameter 2(1ea/17')1/1 sin (aIIo/2)
or 2(lto/,,)l1I cos (""'2).' When the arlUment is sufficiently large. we may use the asymptotic ap·
" ,. II I
e - ~ dt a - i - e-I./I).·
• 1rU
where neglected terms contain hilEher invene powel' of IL
Employing this form. (20) simplifies considerably to
Z - Z ~ ) e-hr/4e-" I [e-IIh.l"t••• 1I1
fl.-Ua1a- -- ---.
• 2". (217' cos' "'-)111 (lto)lll sin
Z-Z' e-u:· ..• ..
a,.al •. and cIJ a (kIa)IJ(2Ita).
". sm ...
To live further insight into this result. we ..sume that IZ;/ZI C 1. corresponding to a highly con·
ductin. screen. Then from (3). we find that the correspondiq pattern function F' (with no sector
screen present) is
, ,(l-R
) e-···
. {e-IIh......lIiofZl. e-IIh....I..III}
F a cos (Ith sm ..) - 4 (2-'0 cos' "'-)111 s.n ... sinl (""'2) & cost (""'2) .
Here. the fint term cos (ill sin ..) is the pallern for an infinite FOund plane. while the second
term is the correction for the finite size of the actual circular screen. The result .. liven is only
..lid when lea sin' (",-/2) .. 1. (lea)'" (kIa)'. and... indicated above. IZ;/ZI C 1.
The fint term in the curly bracket in (22) represents the contribution from the front edge of
'0. _ - _ /.·.·_...-1. - ClIo" -'11-51.'1_Cl., ... 5'.1_........ ~ ' ~ ' _ l
Jame. R. Wail
the screen whereas the second term may be identified with a re-fteetinn from the hac'k e d ~ p . AI,tu-
aUy, for angles near grazing. the laller is relatively insignificant. Thus, if lItii <II 1. ill atlt.lition tu
ko"" • I, eq (22) may be further approximated b)'
While this is a greatly oversimplified formuh. it does indicale Ihat Ihe finite ltwund plane will
only appear "infinite" if (ko) 1/,,,,, is sufficienlly l a r ~ e . An)' furlher quantitative discussions neces·
,itate the evaluation of the Fresnel integral form given by (20).
4. The Contribution From the Sector
A few remarks will now be made about the method of handling the contribution n" of the
sector screen. The double integral to contend with is given by (8). The approximate method for
carrying out the tIJ integration is identical to that used before (Wait, 1963; Wait and Walters, 19(3).
In the cue where both ka and kb. 1 and when Z' is a constant, the result may be written
The Fresnel integral F.(z), appearing here, approaches one if 6, and 6
are sufficiently large.
The method for evaluating the integral in (25) is identical to that used before (Wait and Wahers,
1963). The only difference is the additional factor exp (- iell(s))in the integrand. In fact, if ko • (kh)',
this exponential factor may be replaced by one over the range of integration in (25). In this case,
the previous reswts (Wait and Walten, 1963) for the contribution n. and the resulting tabulated
integrals may be taken over without change. The pattern function including the effect of the circular
screen may then be obtained without difficulty from (3) and (6).
5. Final .emarks
In this paper. we h..e indicated the necessary extensions of the theory of the "finite ground
plane effect" to account for a raised antenna. While we have considered a vertical electric dipole
with its free·space pattern described by cos ... it is clear that a vertical antenna of finite length
may. in most cues. be treated by simply replacing cos •• by the appropriate pattern
function. Also. it should be stressed that the discussion given above refers to the far· field pattern
of the composite radiating system. From the receiving standpoint. this means that the pallerns so
calculated are only valid for a downcoming plane·wave incident at a grazing angle cII•. Some of the
complications which arise when the incident wave emanates from a test transmitter in the "near
field" is discussed in the references quoted (Wait, 1963; Wail and Walten. 19(3).
On the The«y of Rocliation ftom 0 Roited Electric Dipole Ove, on Inhomove_ Gtound '10M
The work reported in this paper was out under .ponsorship nf Advanced
.earch Projects Agency, Wa.hinJlon, V.C., under ARPA No. )83. .. n ..f the
theory••ed here was by Abraham Waldman of the Mitre ClIrJllIratillll. Bf'tlfllrd.
M.... I thank K. P. Spies for hi. helpful comments.
6. Appendix. Evaluation of the Infinite Integral G(oc)
The integral given by (10) for Ikol ... OIl may be written in the equivalent form
where e-"=k/lkl. If the air i. allowed to have a vanishingly .mall conductivity,l> i. an arbitrarily
.mall positive con.tant. FoUowing an integration by parts, (AI) is transformed to
where C-=cos 1/10. We now ob.ene thai
a at a
ax Ix.I.tCx»=- aCax J.(Cx) = ac (CJ,(Cx)J,
which permits (A2) to be expre••ed by
= e"".S - I exp (- iNS).
The infinite integral occurring in (A3) is weD known.'
7. References
Bernard. G. D.. W. E. Gu.tulOn. and W. M. ChaM! 19661. HF IJ'O'Ind .,lIe_: rnulta of a numeric" an..y.i•• Repl.
No. 1359. U. S. NaY, Electronic. Lab.• San Dicp. Calif.
Gu.tulOn. W. E.. "'. M. Chue. and N. H. Balli (Jan. 19661. Ground .,lIem etrect on HF antenn. propqation. No.
1346. U. S. Na", Electronic. Lab.. San Diep. Calif.
Pace. H.• and G. D. Moniealh 119551. The "enic.. r.dialion p.uem. of medium .a"e broadc••linr;leri.... Proc. In.l.
EIec. [ap•. 102. No. S. 279-297.
• .......-........... I .... 2.s..•. •• .... .... ............. 'A<..- .......
.... '.N.U
1004 Jo..... R. WOil
Pean:ey:T. (l9S6I. Tables or Ihe .. !'ren. ...
Wail. J. R. (1963). The Iheory or an anlenna over an ..neou. Jfound plane. in Elerlramallneli,' Thellry and Anlenna•.
E. C. Jordan led.). PI'. I079-1098lPer,amnn Pre••. Odllrdl.
Wail, J. R.• and W. A. Pope 11954). The characleri"ir. of a vf'niral anlenna wilh a radialrllndurlllr Ilrllund .yltem. Apl.l.
Sci. Rea. B4. 177-195.
Wail, J. R., and L. C. Wallera (15 Apr. 1(63), InRuen..e of a seclor lIOund acreen on Ihe field af a vertical anlenna. NBS
MOllOlfaph No. 60.
8. Additional References
Wail. J. R. (1967). Panern of a linear anlenna nver a la!'f'r..d Jfllund ..n. Can. J. Ph". 45. lin 1...... 1.
Witaon. A. C. 119611. Meaauremenla of low an,le radiali"n (rllm a m"nllp"le.J. Rea. NBS 65UtRadill Prill'. I. No. 6.MI-f>45.
(Paper 2-9-269)
1.14 Wait, J. R., OCtober 1969, "Impedance Characteristics of Electric Dipoles Over a
Conducting Half-Space," Radio Science, Vol. 4, pp. 971-975
(Reprint No. 388)
Reprinted with the permission of the American Geophysical Union
Radio Scitlll,ce, Volume 4, Number 10, pates 971-97S, October 1969
Impedance characteristics of electric dipoles
over a conducting half-space
James R. Wait
ESSA Research lAboratories, Boulder, Colorado 80302
(Received June 13, 1969.)
The input resistance of a Hertzian electric dipole located over a bomogeneous conducting
balf-space is considered. It is shown that the functional dependence of the input resistance OD
the 'loss tangent' of the baU-space is coosistent witb electrostatic concepts, provided the fre·
quency i ~ sufficiently low. On tbe ether band, at tbe bigber frequencies, the results are com·
patiblo with the surface impedance formulations based on the compensation theorem. The re-
sults have possible application to remote sensing of planetary surfaces from an elevated source.
When an antenna is located near or on the earth's
surface, a substantial fraction of the input power is
'wasted' in the ground. A measure of the perform-
ance is the ratio of the radiation resistance to the loss
resistance. The loss resistance is proportional to the
energy dissipated in the ground. To improve the per-
formance. the antenna may be raised to a sufficient
height above the earth to ensure that the reaction of
the ground is negligible. For low-frequency opera-
tion, this is not very practical because the height
must be comparable or somewhat greater than the
operating wavelength. Another approach is to em-
ploy a metallic ground screen at the base of the an-
tenna [Wait and Pope. 1955]. For VLF transmitting
antennas. this takes the form of an extensive radial
wire configuration, which may extend over several
square kilometers. Nevertheless, the radiation effi-
ciencies may still be less than 50%.
Another important aspect of the situation is the
inverse problem where the data on the measured in-
put impedance are used to estimate the electrical
characteristics of the ground [Keller and Frisch-
knecht. 1965]. Such an approach has promise in re-
mote-sensing applications for lunar exploration.
In this paper, we wish to review briefly the rele-
vant electromagnetic theory of the dipole impedance
problem. Various approximations and interrelations
in available formulations are discussed. We hope as
a result to have provided a clearer understanding of
the physical bases for remote sensing of the environ-
ment for dipole antennas located in the vicinity of
conducting surfaces.
We consider an elementary Hertzian electric di-
pole located at a height Zo over a homogeneous dis-
sipative half-space whose conductivity is " and di-
electric constant is (. H we superimpose the solutions
for vertical and horizontal dipoles in an appropriate
manner. the results for an arbitrary inclination of the
dipole are obtained without further analysis. There-
fore, in what follows we consider only the purely
vertical or purely horizontal orientations. The for-
mulation of the problem is very similar to the one
used previously [Wait. 1962] in a difterent context.
With regard to a cylindrical coordinate system
(p, <1>, z), the vertical dipole of length th, carrying
a current I. is located at Z = Zo on the Z axis over a
dissipative half-space which occupies the region
z < O. The situation is illustrated in Figure 1.
Sommerfeld [1949] gave the exact formal solution
many years ago. For this problem, the fields in the
insulating upper half-space can be obtained from an
electric Henz vector which has only a z component
given by
II .., ..!..!!. {ex
4Jrieow R
+ 1- R()')'l. exp [-Uo(% + Zo»)Jo(}'p) d'A} (I)
o Uo
Uo - ().' + 'Ye'i".
Fig. la. Vertical electric dipole (VEO)
over a homogeneous conducting balf-space.
cr, -,/£0
Fig. lb. Horizontal electric dipole
(HEO) over a homogeneous half-space.
After performing the derivative operations and pro-
ceeding to the indicated limits, we obtain
8Z = - 1- Ro.) x' e-·" tA (4)
4r'toW 0 110
where CI =2<:0. It is convenient to normalize this by
writing 8 =R.,T, where R., =20k
(ds)2, the real
part of Zo, is the free-space radiation resistance of
the dipole. (Here we assume that =
120"..) Thus we may write
8Z 3 1 1- N"llo - II. x·
if .. 1-
.,2 + .- exp (-alia) tA
a 0 IV 110 III 110
A simple yet revealing limiting case is to consider
the static or dc limit. Then III -+ 0 and, as a conse-
quence, Uo = "1 = A. Thus
Ro.) .. (N"llo - III)(N
110 + III) -:
III .. 0.' +"I1"i'",
"II 0= [11&oW(erl + Itlw)t'·, N .. "111"10,
R .. [p' + (: - %0)"]11'
Here we have designated the dielectric constant and
the magnetic permeability of the upper half-space to
be and "." respectively. To satisfy radiation condi-
tions at infinity, the real parts of Uo and u, are de-
fined to be positive for A ranging from 0 to co on the
real axis. The harmonic time dependence, according
to the factor exp (;"'1), is understood.
To perform a complete calculation of the self-im-
pedance of the source dipole, the current distribution
on the dipole must be determined. This aspect of the
problem may, however, be deferred if we confine our
attention to the change of the impedance resulting
from the presence of the lower dissipative half-
space. Thus for electrically short antennas it is per-
missible to retain the dipole approximation. By defi-
nition, the change 8Z is given by 8Z = Z - Zo,
where Z is the self-impedance of the dipole
in the presence of the half-space and Zo is the
impedance of the same dipole located in free space.
Thus, Zo =lim (:0 -+ co) Z.
According to the 'emf' method, we can calculate
the impedance increment 8Z from the formula
8Z" lim [_8£.ds]
'_'. J
8£, = (k
+ o"/Oz")(II - II)
II .. lim (II)
o '.-_
Fig. 2. The. input resistance of a Iltrtical electric dipole
(VEO) 10 the of a conductinl balf·space.
If we write N2 =K - ip wbere K =cd is tbe
relative dielectric cODStant and plK = 0'1Icl III is the
'loss tangent' of the lower balf-space, we obtain for
the real part BR of the impedance increment
The formulation for the borizontal electric dipole
(HED) is very similar to the case of the VED dis-
cussed above. The only slight additional complica-
tion is that the Hertz vector for the problem is
required to have both a vertical and a borizontal com-
ponent. Then following a straightforward application
of the emf method, we find that the impedance incre-
ment az, resulting from the presence of the conduct-
ing half-space, is
Fi.. 3. 1be input resistance of • horizontal electric dipole
(HED) in the pr",fU:1 of. COIIduetiol baH·space.
exp (-auo) - fA
In proceeding to the static limit (Le., ... -. 0), we
note that (Uo - U1)/(1Io + "1) -.0, but (uo - "1)/
-. - 1)/(2 A.). Thus, in this limit
8Z 3 N' - I i- ,_.1
= f 4k
N'l + 1 0 e fA
13 N
"" I 2(2Jcz
t N
+ 1
which is identical to (6) except for the factor 1/2.
Using numerical integration data from and
(1963), the function for the HED, is
plotted in Figure 3 as a function of p for K = 10 and
for various values of the parameter ka or 4"'Zo/A.o.
(The approach of these authors is similar to that of
Wair [1962).) The similarity of these curves and
those for the VED in Figure 2 is striking. In both
cases, there is a maximum in the energy absorption
where p = K + 1, as predicted by the simple static
To illustrate the dependence on the relative dielec-
tric constant K, the normalized input resistance R/R
is plotted in Figure 4 as a function of p, for a range
of K values for two fixed values of the dipole height.
Although the curves have the same general shape,
the maxima in R are shifted to the left as K is re-
duced. In all cases, the general behavior is in accord-
ance with the static approximation given by (9).
A significant point is that, for a fixed value of Zo/AD, a
single measured value of R/R
will, in general, lead
to two possible sets of values of K and p.
6R 3 21'
.. (K + 1)2 +pi (7)
For a fixed value of kZo and K, it is evident that BR
bas a maximum value when p = K + 1.
To illustrate the quasi-static bebavior, the function
RIRo, based on (S), is shown plotted in Figure 2
as a function of p for K = 10. This is mainly a meas-
ure of the power absorbed in the balf-space for a
vertical electric dipole (VED) placed immediately
above the surface. As indicated, for small values of
the dipole beight (i.e., 4"Zo/A. « 1), the input resist-
ance cbange 8R (= R - R
) greatly exceeds the
free-space radiation resistance R
of the dipole. Also,
in accordance with the simple static limit, the maxi-
mum value of R occurs, for a value of p = K + I =
11, for the example sbown. However, as the param-
eter 4.Zo/A. becomes comparable with unity, the
curves lose their cbaracteristic shape and a clear-cut
maximum is no longer evident. The behavior of the
impedance increment in tbis range is discussed below.
.. (l/ N)/(1ea)
!(x) .. 3[x-
(l + ix)e-i. - EI(-ix»)
This result shows that Re AZ or AR varies inversely
with N or p1/2. This is in accordance with the curves
in Figure 2 if p is sufficiently large. On the basis of
(16), we might be led to the (erroneous) conclusion
that AR or SR increase indefinitely with decreasing
loss tangent piK. As indicated by the curves in Fig-
ure 2, this does Dot happen. It is important that (16)
not be used outside its range of validity; namely, IN:
Having dispensed with the perfectly conducting
case, we now define the impedance increment AZ
resulting from the finite conductivity of the half-space
as follows:
U c: Z - ZC-) .. 'Z - ,Zl-) (II)
o = 1- exp (-auo) d).
o Uo Uo + I(k/ N)
- _lIill.1N) EI[ - ik(l + N'"1)cr)
U",", 3 1- ).1 exp (-auo) d). (13)
R;; =""Ni? 0 [uo + I(k/ N»)uo
Noting that N = [(11"1 + i Cl .,)/i co .,]1/2 has an argu-
ment between 0 and orr/4 (for nonvanishing 11"1 and
(1), we can express (13) in the form
AZ = _3_ [1 (I +
.. +kl(1 - -!;s)o] (14)
EI[-ix] ... - 11- d)'
• Y
is the exponential integral as conventionally defined.
Now, if INI is sufficiently large, (14) can be further
approximated by
U 3 1-).1 ()
- c: I ';l exp -auo d).
Ro k 0 + UI Uo
Now, for sufficiently high conductivity and/or high
frequency, "1 =(.\.2 - N
)l/2 can be replaced by
iNk over the significant range of the integrand. Then,
( 12) reduces to
I 10
PiS. 4. The input resistance of RED ahowiDS the inftueDce
of the relative dielectric constant eX = _/..) of the balf·
'Z - 'X-) - - (ds)',o 1- ).I
-I exp (-auo) d>.
4trik °
- - (I + ika) exp (- ika) (10)
Normalizing by Ro and considering the real part Re
&Z'-, we find that
'R'-) 3 .
T - (leat (SID (lea) - (lea) cos lea]
where, as usual 0 =2:0. Here we confinn that BR' .. I I
Ro - 1 as :.0/114 -+ 0 corresponding to the expected
doubling of the input resistance (i.e., R -+ 2R
), for
a vertical electric dipole located on a perfectly con-
ducting surface.
The results we have just discussed are dominated
by the electrostatic coupling of the dipoles to the dis-
sipative or lossy dielectric half-space. Cenainly, there
will always be a sufficiently low frequency where the
change of the input impedance due to the half-space
can be computed on the basis of a static theory. The
question then arises as to how this approach to the
problem can be reconciled with the usual methods
that involve the surface impedance description of the
half-space. To shed some light on this question, we
return to the integral formula given by (4) above.
rtrst of all, we consider the limit where the half-
space is perfectly conducting. Thus, if N2 - C1C, we
should be large compared with unity. This is a
rather important point since the compensation theo-
rem approach, if improperly applied, may also lead
to an incorrect conclusion. For example, on the basis
of the compensation theorem, in its general form, the
result for the change of the input impedance 13. of
the VED resulting from the finite conductivity of the
half-space is [Wait and Pope, 1955)
1 1-
u" J;! 0 E_H.
2ffP dp (17)
Here, 1
is the current at the terminals of the electric
dipole, E_ is the resulting tangential electric field in
the radial direction p, whereas H.lot>l is the tangential
magnetic field in the azimuthal direction ., for an
assumed perfectly half-space. If (17)
were applied with the proper value for E", it would
lead to an exact formula for 13.. However, to facili-
tate its application, E_ is usually first approximated
by assuming that E_ is proportional to H., which in
turn is replaced by H.' ot> I. In fact, it is an extremely
interesting exercise to show that, on using the ap-
E_ .. '10(1/ MH.I-I (18)
( 17) reduces precisely to (16). Furthermore, the de-
tailed analysis of Sommnfeld and Renner (1942)
gives an identical result for Re 13. or if :heir
complicated 'second order' correction is ignored.
A similar argument applies to the horizontal elec-
tric dipole (lIED), where the integral formula (8)
and the assumption INI » 1 reduces to the simple
:::: I (1 - £;-... (19)
This again illustrates the inverse dependence on INI,
which is in accord with the curves in Figures 3 and
4, for sufficiently large values of p.
The results given in this paper should clarify the
various mechanisms responsible for energy loss from
an electric dipole source located above a conducting
ground. As indicated, at sufficiently low frequencies
the coupling between the antenna and the environ-
ment (i.e., the half-space) is electrostatic in nature.
This is related to the so-called E-field loss discussed
in the context of high-power VLF transmitting an-
teDDas [Watt, 1967; Wait, 1963) operating over
poorly conducting soils. 00 the other hand, the
higher frequency approximation to the exact integral
formulas leads to results that are normally associated
with the compensation theorem approach. In this
method, the Poynting vector or some variant of it is
integrated over the whole ground plane, and in this
way the ground reaction on the antenna is estimated.
Actually, there is no contradiction between these
seemingly difterent approaches if we keep in mind
the nature of the approximations and the ranges of
their validity. Of course, in the case of the half-space
problem, it is possible to work with the exact integral
formula, and the numerical data so obtained are valid
for the whole range of the parameters. However, in
many cases of practical interest, the environmental
configuration is more complicated than a homoge-
neous half-space. Then, a quasi-static assumption or a
surface-impedance description is useful. We have at-
tempted to give some indication of the meaning of
these limiting situations and to remove some apparent
contradictions that have been alluded to from time
to time.
Finally, we stress that the dipole formulations con-
sidered here are only valid for wire antennas that are
small compared with both the wavelength and the
height above the half-space. Relaxing either or both
of these restrictions leads to a difterent class of
Ackflowledgmentr. I am I"Iteful for the valuable com-
ments from Mr. Lewis Vosler and for the assistance of
Mrs. Eileen Brackett ill the preparation of this paper.
This work was supported by the Air Force Cambridae
R_reh Laboratories, Bedford, MUSlchusetts, UDder c0n-
tract PRO.cP-69-824.
Keller, G. V.. and F. Frilchknecht (1965), Eketrict" Meth·
ods Ifl GeophysiCtlI Prospectiflg, 278, Perpmon, Ne.·
Sommerfeld, A. N. (1949), P""W DI6enlllilli Eqlllllions.
270, Academic, New York.
Sommerfeld, A. N., and F. ReDner (1942), Sb'abJUDpeIIer·
lie WId Erdablorption bei DipolanteDDeD, AIIII. Phys.•
VOller, L E., ad J. L Noble (1963), Curves of JfOUIId
proximity loss for dipole antenllas, NBS Tech. Note 175.
Wail, J. R. (1962), Possible iDfuenc:e of the ionoIpbere on
the impeclulce of a JIOUDd·buec! anteDna, J. Ru. NBS,
66D(5), 56J-569.
Wait, J. R. (1963), A DOte on E.field and H·6eld to.. for
JI'OUud·based antellJW, PrOt:. 1EEE, 51(2), 366.
Wait, J. R., and W. A. Pope (1955), Input raiItaDc:e of LF
unipole aerials, Wlreleu Eflg., 32, 131-138.
Watt, A. D. (1967). JlLF Radio En';n",riflg. 73, Perpmon.
New York.
1.15 Wait, J. R., 30 OCtober 1969, "Surface Wave Effects with Large Antenna Earth Screens,"
Electronics Leiters, Vol. 5, pp. 552-553
(Reprint No. 389)
Reprinted with the permission of the lEE
The radialion field E. for a lime factor ellPUwl), al an
infinilc distance R and elevalion anale'" is cllprasible in
the form

D - fc-IO·H'" (I + f,) J,(lcp cos.;,.)dp
Z, - PIr/J,
.. hen: 3, is a dimensionln< reactancc parameler. A load
aJ'Pf01timation is r., In Id.12trc)) .. $.. "'here dIS lhe
spacinl bel..ftfI lhe .. ircs in lhe mesh. ,\0 is lhe free-space
..·...len..h. r is the .. ire rad,us, lind S. is a correction factor
.. hich is ncaliaib\e if d;Ao is small.'
As indicaled by cqn. Ihc inlclr.nd, .part from t"'= factor
J.. is propordonal 10 lhe I.ntenl;a' maJRCtic field .1 •
dlSlance p from lhe dipole. If herc 1If( is replaced It)' un,I).
"C ha>-e lhe assumption thaI the lanlCnlia' maanclic field
is lhe same as if lhe surflcC .. erc rcrfccII)' conduClinlthrou8h.
OUI. Clearly, if lhe reaClancc parameler 3. "cn: clI'ecti"cly
zero, Ihis ..·ould be a ,oad Ippro.imalion c>en for a ":rccn
lhe around-.. field of lhe d,pole is .Iso modified by lhe
faClor I + D, ..herc Ihis is 10 be c>·alualcd .s ... - O. In
faCl, .s ..c .. ill sec belo... I .. D is csM:nlially indcJlmdcnt of
" for small .nlles. Hcre D is 10 be oblained from
jI< (z·)Z
, - - T ;; . F - (Z - Z'l/'/Oo .nd where J, is lhe
Bascl functIon of order one "'hi!c II·. is .n '.lIcnualion
function' ..hich accounts for the modificalion of lhe tanaen·
tiel maanctic field by lhe finilc surface impedance Z· of lhe
arth 1CIWIl. In obtaininl cqn. "'C haoe net\eClcd the cIl'ects
of bact rdIIctions from lhe edac of lhe earth system (i.c.
.1 , - b). Other invesliptioas haoe Shg,.l1 Ihis is a ..-ell
justifiod USUftlIIlion.J,_
N_ the modified surf.ce impedance Z' will be imqincd
to be composed of the parallel combinalion of the around
impedance Z (evalualed .1 arazilll inc:idcncc) and the clJcctioe
impedance Z. of the wire arid."! Thus
Z· - ZZ,J(Z + Z.l . . . . . . . . . . (7)
.. here Z - - til - K-')1 is lhe surf.ce impedance of
lhe around for pazinl incidence. If the wire'arid spacilll is
much less than ... and if ohmic losses in the wires
.re nca1ilible, "'C lhat Z, is purely inductive. Thus we
• • . . . . (II E COS"
2" R
.t is 'Olllled oul IMI ...rlee", cOlWlUC1ln•••"h "'1't'1'"
...., nol be tM opt.IIlum if 10..•..... 'adeallOG n 10 be IN"·
IIUMd 'or ....... u'nnll CUffCllt. Thll IS • conwqucftC't' 01
lhe IUrI," ••\'t: CIIC.t. 'or I" anlt KNIll WI'h 1'".11·
live nactaIltCC.
Eatended arth scnem .n: lOlIlCIimes UIed for imprO¥inl
Iow-anlle radialion from h.r.•ntennas. They usually IHC lhe
form of • radial wire or • rnctaIlic mesh which is plac:cd on
the arth's lUriacc in lhe immediate vicinily of the anlenna.'
In the theorcIicallralmenl for lhese systems, il is convenienl
10 describe lhe surface or lhe earth screen by an cRective
1Uri_ impedance Z', which, in acnerel, is dill'crenl from lhe
Illrf_ impedance Z of the IfOUIld beyond the screen. At
lint 11-, __Id Ihink thallhe idlalsystem would be 10
ha... Z· - 0 correspondinl 10 • screen of effecti>-ely perfect
condllClivity. It is the purpose of this Jetter to show lhal Ihis
is not the cue.
The liluation is illustraled in Fi,. I. A ftftical electric
dipole it located on • f1a1 around. The effecti... surface im-
pedance of lhe around system is • constanl Z' OUIIOa radius b
from the buc of the antenna. The I"IUftd beyond radius b
is taken to have a _I surf_ impcdancc Z, and "C
_tMtthesystem is rotalionally symmetric. As indicaled,
, is lhe radial cIistancc to an arbilrary point 011 lhe arth's
aurfacc from the dipole.
Hen ZI'Ie it the normalitcd surface impedance 'Jf lhe 'un-
modified' around· Jr the Ialler is hofnoIeIlCOUS .nd Iossless,
.... haoe
when R. - lsin" - (Z/'leII/lsin'" + (ZI'lell, 'Ie - 12Ow,
and 0 is • 'modificalion' which vanishes if lhe earth screen is
.bsent (i,c. Z· - Z or if b - 0), In the Iimilinl cue of no


Fig. Z ·AIf,.....,IO" '"''rtlO''' W, 'Of • p.rr,.II, mllurt,.,
--0_'" .. __ ........
ELECTIIONICS UnfllS 30111 Oe,ob" 1969 Vol 5 No. 22
, . • . , . . (2) W' - (I + R.)(I + 0)/2
ZI'Ie - (I/K)l1I - (cosz"l/KII
where lAO - 4" x 10' " Ir. - 2trJ(..a¥Clcnllh) and Ids is lhe
currenl _Iof lhe dipole. Here W' is a pattem function
__Iitcd 10 thaI il is unily noer a perfectly conductin,
around plane or infinilc ClllCllI (i.c. Z' - Z - 0). No.. ,
followinl .n early clcrivalion,z
when K is lhe relalioe permillivily or the dicllctric around.
The c:orrespondilll resull for W is CUCl.
The modificalion of lhe lUl'face impcclance ,n a circular
rqion of radiUS b. from Z 10 Z', results In improYln, Ihc
'CUI Ilecll' by • factor I + O. Also, il can be sho.. n
of finite elllellt. H01O't\'CI'. If the reactance or the screen is an
appreo:iaiJle rraction or the impedance or the pound. it is
llOl justified to tet WI I in the inlqrand or cqn. ,. This
ract is c1earl)' iIIustralcd in I 1. where the ampliludc and
phase or WI are tho.. n plOIlCG ii' a runction It, ror a losslfts
homcJIenlOUS earth wilh a relalive pcrmillivlt)' K - 10. For
10 the surrace effecl would nol be prcdlClcd. This ract could
be bpi in mind in lhe clcsi", or praehe.1 Clrth screens ror
hr. anlcnna. over poorl)' eonductin, ,,"ound.
, w,.,
CH 0-3
-------... ,
'\ w,"
11"0 ','0·2


.... I IfIJeINialiolt ".", dIM ro file ",..anc-
., - .._ W.-I _
Fil·' f1tI rItI.wrh· _
I .. ish 10 thuk K. P. $pia ror bill11i11a1a ill ...
"I cakulaU-.
I. e. WAn
C... lru,i,,,,, lor b_d1
ill £II.irtl1tlrWll,,,t
U"i.rrliry III C.....atnJdrr. Colo. IOJOZ. USA
I C'OLUl'I.'. I .• ud lWCUI. , .•. (Ia): '''-...,.
Hdl. 13.1'\. 21Giwi _..r..m,
2 WAIt.,.•,: ...... .....,ofu...............a•• nra......
fJl....•... _·
J dw"""'" _ of dw
_,_OD dw"""-01• ...-. .
1'roc. 'Z£. Iftsa. IISC 292-_
4 oun..-..... L. ud MLLL N. II.: __

, .AftON..... T.: .... 1.,... of -""-..
_ OIlo••
JuI, ••,
1M of .. - I. it .......t ....t die inductive portion
of r kI dow. putiaIlJ lnPl*! aurf__w 10
die aurfllZ. T1Ila .«act ror
.. -0·2i1_ ,or •
........ .. _ W, II lall)' lfOIlI llIIil)'
..... of _ of ip lndicaIIIl. AI ,....... oul by
....... ....., .-.:e IlIoukI for • IoU)'
............,.. ClIIIIidIr dIiI .
.... of I + D. ,... - 0'1 IIld O' 2, islllown
ill t. for i6 - 100 aDd K - 10
......... ..". ... 1M _If pa dil' ....lil)' wilh
_s ea..... w,-I.
....,. III Fit- 4, ........ hoW II + DI .... wilh
..._ ......,.. ,or6- )anclIO.Itt-IOO•
.. ..... kI .nt. In 1Ilit-.
II + III •• _ of hoW I11III __ is
III ...... 1M 1IId.1 11II __illdic:ate IMI
........... or I, wIlich is of die onIIr of O' I .
.............. W.-I plI ...pIiDll, ..........lduc
ILICfIlOtllCl unalll .. 0.... ,... VI' 5 N. :u
1.16 Wait, J. R., and K. P. Spies, 2 OCtober 1969, "Fields of Electric Dipole on Radially
Inhomogeneous Ground Surface," Electronics Letters, Vol. 5, pp. 478-479
(Reprint No. 394)
Reprinted with the permission of the lEE
Reprinted from Ek"'",lfi..s UIt"J. Vol. 5. No. 20. 2nd 1%9
Fig.' • ............'y
Fig. ,. AaulMflwrf«e-im".._••••Iion
;,. .. "I
" -I).' .••
",:.wC'I11 n.l.••
I 4·92 205
2 4·93 20·4
4,94 20,)
4 4·95 201
5 4·96 19·8
6 4·98 19'5
7 5·00 191
8 5'01 18·7
9 5'03 18·1
10 5·05
JlOciance conlraSI function. whkh. delinuilln. vanishes if
P > o. In this inte.,.1 representalion for the penurbed ntdia-
tion field. 1V'(pI is the unknown allenuation function for the
lanlCnlill ma,...tic field of the SOur.e dim1e in lhe lqion
0< p .-: n. This function "'IS sho.. n to salisfy a Vollerra·
inl....1equation of lhe form.
J') lIZ r' "t. - ),1""\)')
1V'(x) H'h) +.:.. Ff."1 - -_. . d.·
2.. -0 1..1' .1'11'/2 .
,. p 0 0'. ..•••• - 10. ,_ - JO
.• = lip. and I' - - U./2K7./'1o,2. lIe,e II"h) is lhe ...ell
kno...n allenualion function for propaption 10 a 'numerical
dislance' p 0YC1 an homoacneous IIaI lurface. In eqn. 6, erfc
is lhe complemcnl of lhe error function. Methods of lhe
solution of eqn. 5 for the allenuation function W'(.., are
dncribed elsewhere.'
As mentioned above, lhe specificalion of lhe functional
form of lhe lurfaee-impedance funclion F(..). where
.. - Itp, will determine the form of the resultin, allalualion
function W'(..), For present purposes. we will consider
Z - Z'(..) - Ze-
. C7I
.. here Z corresponds to the appropriate value for a homo-
,ellO"," lonlcu around of relalive JlOrmillivity .,1.0'
Tho lituation is iIIuslrated in fiB. la. In this case. we c"-
Z/'1o = (.o/.,I"ltl - .0/.,)1
2 . (8'
which is the form for a wnically pollrised plane waw
at lEralin, inciclcnce. The variation indicated by
eqn. 7 is an idealisation for a around S'.Teen ..·hich is tapered
smoolhly from the base of the anlenna. Here "'e do not dwell
on the ph)'Sicalru'iSlbililYof such a around s)"stem. allhoulEh
"e could point out Ihlt a ..dial...·ire system will have a
smoolh.y decrasina etJeclive imnedance as one recedes from
,he of ,he a,,'_ a'onlt ,he around s.mac:c. For our
eumple. lhe dimensionless pantmeler h is a measure of lhe
n1pidily of the imJlOdance taper. For eumrk, h - 0 would
correspond to a perfectly conduetinlt ,round plane. while
" - -r- cormrnnds to a honlOlCneous eanh of surfa.c
imrcdance Z Ihroul!hout.
Once ..e ha\C the numerical vllues for the allenultion
function II"tlip). lhe pallem function 1'/.1/'0) can be oblained
d'rft:t1y from eqn. 3. follgwin,the numer'cal intCJration of
eqn 4. In this QIe. the upper limit a of lhe inl....tiun
lable I
c"""roncJs 10 the outer e",emuy 01 the IfOUnd
As ,ndlCaled b)' eqns. lind 3. ,he comrie. flClor t I .. U.)
's Ihe nt"O of lhe field .. ith and .. ilht\ut the tarCfCd
,"'und ..em. As il 'urns out. faCiO' is • slo.. I)·
fun,""n of the anlEle "'0, at least f,or lhe low of interest
I" 10l\s·d,slance h.f. rrora,.""n To illuSlrale Ih,s roin' .....
sh,,"" the .mrliludo and rhlse of (I , U•• In T.ble I. for a
lyrICal of the relevanl ra..
1 he ncar consllncy of I ... U. as a function "I "'0 justifin Ihe
usc of Ih,s facior as a quan"II"'e measure of the efTec".eness
or lhe ,round l)"Stcm In fact ..... can a.sen thaI the etJecti\"C
momonl of lhe source dipole IS modlflCd b)' lhe factor I + U•.
An i,nc,ra1oCClualion method is employed to Iht'
fiekls ror ao"'..n.1c rachalion over. plane .. llh .iIIn

............ r.<lOf whicll depcncls _ bolh I.... II..... Md I.... O..on'
of the in s_.
There is an intrilJUin, possihility that the 10w-an,1e radiali"n
from h.r. antennas _y be enMrKed by modifyin, the fore·
Physiallly, this Qn be achieved by usin, an
extended ..d;'l·wire or a mesh pound syslem. In the pm"""
theoretiCIIl trutments of the subject, it has been assumed
_lIy tMt the I"OUnd I)'Stem is etJectiwly a perfect eon·
duetor owr its atent whether it is elise: or sector shaped.-
In this letter, we wish to ronsider __impliClltions of taper·
iIla the pound l)'Stem. In this cue. the etJcctiw surface
impeclance is a smooth function of the rad;'1 distance from the
base of the antenna. Analytic:alty. Ihis is a considerably more
invohed probIcm tMn for a constant or _0 lurface im-
For simplicity. we assume azimuthal symmetry. and "e
also represent the source as a ,round·based Hertzian eleclric
dipole. The situation is iIIust..ted in fi,. IA. the
surface impeclance of the around beyond a specified ntd,us n
is a constant Z. Within the pound system (i.e. 0 < p -: 01.
the lurface impeclance Z'(P) is taken to be a function of p,
the radial distance from the source dipole. As indicaled. "'0
II the a. IUbtencIed by the obscrwer'l direction and the
pound plane.
In lhe ablencc of lhe pound 1)'Slem li.e. /I - 0 or
Z'(p) - Z).lhe far.field ..d;'tion paUerR 1'(1/10) of lhe ,round·
bMed dipole on the hornoIa- lIat eanh is
1'(';'> - 'I + R.I(cos ..)/2
R _ sin .. - (Z/'/o)
• sin "" + (2/'/0)
and '/0 - lzo". Here, of course. It. is the app,opn.le
Fresnel-reflection c:oefIIt:Ienl for a normalised lurface 'm·
pedance ZI.".. It wu shown before' thaI the correspond,n.
pattern function is
1'("'0) - 10 + R.l( 1 + n.)I(cos ",-'/2
where n. is the all imponant cornction factor ..!lith accounls
for the preRllCe of the around 1)'StCRl. The Ialler is
n __ -"- [W'(IcP'F(lcp)e-J"
. -...
)( (I + J:,,)J1("PCOS"'oldP(4)
where It - 2tr/fwawlenllh), J - Bessel function 01 lhe
lint kind. and Fflt,,) - (Z - Z'(PI"'lo is the IUrface·lm·
• - 10, .. <' ,-
• Of/" - J, ...... S'
15th August 1969 J. S. WAIT
Bould". Colo. 80J01, USA
This useful concept was also oorne out in an earlier study for
cons'ant-impedance ground screens.'
For the tapered ellronential model considered here, some
concrete numerical valucs are iIIustr:llcd in FillS. 2n and b
for relative permillivities of 10 and 3, respectively. In
each case, the abscissa is the taper rarameter b, while the
ordinates arc the amplitude and the of I + Un' In cach
three values of the ground-systcm radius 0 are indicatcd.
[Here, ko = 2"Q/Cwavelenllh)).
From the curves in Figs. 20 and b, il is evident that, if the
taper parameter is sufficiently small (i.e. almost constant
surface impedance), the results are equivalent to a perfcctly
cooductin. circular screen of radius Q Iyin. on a dielcctric
half-space. This fac' is confirmed by comparin. the results
here with those obtained previously' for such a situation. As
the taper parameter b is increased. it is evident that the ground
system is less efl'edive in the sense that I + U. is approaching
I. Also. we sec that the dependence on the finite value of "0
is less as b increases. In fact, if b > 0·1 the discontinuity in
the surface impedance at p = Q is not si.nificant.
The method employed here can be applied to more realistic
situations which involve elevated antennas of finite lenglh
ercded over inductive wire-grid systems. The incorporation
of ohmic losses in ,he ground is also straightforward. Work
on the subject continues.
I "'An, ,.•. : 'ElI'eel of the .elftn on the field radialed from a
monorofe·.IItE: T'.IIJ.. 1956, AP-4, rr. 179·/1'
2·...'''lUl". G. D.: 'The ell'eel of Ihe ,round eon<13n" .nd of an
e.'lh ')"Inn on tht f'C'dorm:ancC' of • mr!Jium·'ul\·c .cnar,
I"or. IF.F.. 1000l', rr. 2'1:
) ('0(. It. , .• and rt'.lI!. w. L.: or on .nlenn3. 'Olin',
J. 1Irs. """r. /Iu,. 51.IId.. 1964, ..\). rr.
4 "'An, ,. It.• and "·ALtl.S. L. c: 'Innuence or. sector cround
on the field of • verlleal .nlenn.·. N.lIon.1 Buruu or SI.ndard,
Mono, 60, Ar'i! 1961
\10 An. J, •. : 'The theor)' or an :lnlCnn3 O\'cr un
,round·, ill ' ...DA.... r. r. IEd.l: 'Uottrom'cnellc theory .nd
.n'tnnu' (Per,amon, 196Jl. rr 1019-tO'lA
6 "'All. J.....nd SP,U. K. P.: 'inlecrai equ.lion 10 Ihe
nd.alion r,om • ,..,rue.1 anlenna over .n ",homo,eneou. ,rounQ
plant'. lI.d,o Sri., 1969, (10 be rubh.hedt
7 KPoIG"l, P., .nd 'MODAl, •. u. c 'Innuenee or the ,round nea,
'ran.millln,.nd rete""', .erial'on Ihe " ...n,th of medium-frequency
sky·. I"or. 1££, 1969, 116, pro 911-919
.. ka"OO

- -9::
.......... ,
ka-'OO ...........
... _ ka.30
_, ,oa- .::: _..... phase

C>003 0-0' 0'03 0" 0·3
taper parameter b
O.............. .............L....I........................- .......-...JO
0003 00' 003 0,' 0'3
taper parameter b
a6t---- ___
Fig. 2 Mod/tintion of .f(KtiV. dipal. mom.nt ,.su"ing f,om
.uumld su,f«.·im/lftlanc. va,iation
1.17 Wait, J. R., November 1969, "Transient Response of a Dipole Over a Circular Ground
Screen," IEEE Transactions on Antenna and Propagation, Vol. AP-17, pp. 806·809
(Preprint No. 396)
Reprinted with the permission of the IEEE
. Vol AP·17. No.6. Nowlnller 1969
Copyriaht 1969. by t.... Institute of EIeClrical and EIeclronia Enpneeu, Inc.
Printed in the U.s.A.
.._ )(Z.' -Z)
• J, -; CO!' lI-. --".- tip
Jr' (I +R.)[G.(II) +0]/2
R. _ lin #. - (Z/".)
.in #. + (Z/".)
exp [i..(II/c) lin "'.] + R.exp [-i..(II/r.).in "'.]
G.(I&) - (4)
I +R.
I' [ _, ( r )
0--- ellp (-i..../c) - 1+:-
c_#. _ r,' ...r,
earth, i.oo Z". This, in dect. is "YU'I that the elIective lurfare
impedant'e for the eatire pound plane is Z" for 0 < < a, ami
Z for > a.
For t'Ollvenience, ..e ..ill discllSl the problem initially f"r a time
faet« ellp (i,",). The cnrrent moment of the dipole j,. deliAnatetl
P.<w}, and tile field in the Jar .one "... the form
H ) iwP.(w) . R / ) II")
.(1' - 2trcR. ellp (-.... c CO!' lI-. (.. R. is the dilotance to ol...rver, "'. the anllllt'
b)' R.and earth'llurface, and c the of Iilthl in" vacnnm.
II" ill a pattern function which norm.lizetl to be unity if thc
dipole heilht 1& trere aero, and if the entire lround pl"ne Vie. e
perfectl,· eonductinl.
An approximate formula for Jr' is live" ... folloa'!l [4]:
Ab,trllCt-Tbe tiIIIe-domaiD relpoDSe of a nrtkal electric dipole
iocated ewer a circaJar IrOUlld screeD jl CODIidered. Tbe rele•."t
tiIIIe-bumoaic IOlutioD is used u a ltartiDc poillt. B1 maIliDc a
a_bar of approzimatioDl a nry IiIIIple fonaaJa is oblailled for
Ibe tr...ieat reapoIlIe of Ibe far lIeld wbea Ibe dipole curreDt
m_eat is a nmp fllDCtioD of tiIIIe. It II Ibowa daat for earl, times,
Ibe panemrnpoue appean al If Ibe IfOUDd screea were of illlDite
meat, wbile at .ery Ioq times, Ibe respoue appraadaes tbat
apected for a bomoceaeoul flat poIIDd.
Transient Relponse of • Dipole oYer • Circular Ground
With to a cylindrical coordinate .,stem the
earth'l lurface ie at • - 0, and the Inuree electric dipole is Iocat..1
al • - 1& on the uill. All indiC'lted in Fill. I, the cimder llfOuntl
..roen ie toea,ed on the lurface r - 0 a"d ill bounded II,· - a.
In Ihe absence of the lIlfOu"d .ywlem the lurface impeda"ce j,o Z,
which doe< nol Vir)' wilh On the other hand, the lurface im-
pedance of the pou"d _n, in para1lel with the homopneou<
Low"'lle ndistion from a dipole antenna oYer a finitel,· eon-
ductiq around may be improvetl b)' the IN of a melallic IreMlnd
1eJ'ellfl. The limited li.e of any practical Iystem doOIl not permit
one to naIiIe faJly t .... ideal pattern for a perfectly
lround plane. Quantitati.. Itudiel of thilo important elIect han
Men t .....ub;ect of ..riol" tht!Cln!tic,,1 a"eI e.perimental invllltip.
tions [1}-[3]. Without ellcepti"n the an"l,- han been caniecl
out for tim&-barmonic: fields. In this eommunication we wish to
develop a tranlient lOIution. To limplify the diK..ion, a relalively
aimple model is adopted, and the lOuree dipole _t is _umetl '
to be a Itep function of time.
( I!I)
A (/) - .4,(1) + G(I)
1 f-.II"
0(1) - 2- -:- ellp (- iwAS/c) ellp Ii"") d...
.. _....
• i .. ...
(a + i ..)(6 + i ..)
Tit. it,t.....lion ill readily carried IIlIt wilh the f..I"""illl ....lIlt:
A.(I) - --- I[{J exp (-fJl) - a up (-al) ]u(')
2(fJ -e)
+[(Jexp (-fJl') - anp (-al')]u(f) I (14)
when r - , - (2I&/c) ain #•. The terms multiplied by .. (I) IIl1d
• (I') _ proportional &0 the direet IIiIR&! and the sipal ftfIected
from the pound plane, ....-.inly. If fJ and a 8ft allowed to lip"
praach aero, i\ an be .en that
COIllIidered to be perfeclly conduelillll:. n,Wl W' in the illlf!lrallci
01 (12) is to be repIaeed by (7), liyinl
(I) - A.(I) - - -2 lJ +ellp [-i.. (2I&/c) aill #.]1
2.. _
A.(I) - 1.[-! II +up [ -i..(2A/c) ,in #.]1 exp (i"') d..
2.. _ 2 ...
.11" _ -L-. [I + __._c__]
S + 4cC _,' +II' i .. (p· + "')'"
• Cll" [-i.. (p' +"')"'lc)Jtl .."clr) tip (1i'
..·ilh 4 • Zl .... 8 - ain oJ·.. IIl1d c: - 1'... oj •• • ·nr the raml' l<II".'"
fun('tion ,,(/) • ",(t), , ... _pu"'" f1811en. is thC'1
II"' - l't'" (""'Sic) + III" (It\)
From the nature of this Jimitinl proeelIS it is clear that &he con&Our
in (15) ill &0 be indented below any sinplariliell which OfflIr nil
lhe- reel alii&. III &be followinl, it ill undeftlood that thito convention
In I'" limilinl raM 01 a pt'rl.eI.I,· ('CJlldllelillll: 1I:M....d "Ialle Ihl'
ftMIiated fi.ld ill wen to be Iwo allJlf'rimrc-d fllncli.. TI..
t'ClrrIi'opUndinl anurre dipole mnm.1I1 i!I a ramp fllll('lilln, i.r.,
,,(11 - 1.. (1). i. a eOnftlli.II1 1'·I&e of IlIIlIfee for an illi.ial
IltaHI)· 01 tI.. lranaient -"'"'!Ie of • II:n.tIInl Il('n!ell clleill'Cl a
. [I +i ..(,,: A')II'] I exp [-i..(,/d (I - C)]
- iflll,,[-i.. (,,:rll' +CI]I.XII[-i..... (,)]rI, (21)
In order ttt pnX'f!f!l1 wilh Ihe Ilf!n.rlll _, a IIlllnltt'r nf .itlll,lili'-I1-
I a.. nnw n,,,,le. Finat. it ill ",.........1 Ihnl tI,(' RrnUllI1 ...·r...·11 i.
......t"I'tl'· l'OlIdlletilll (i.e.• Z: - 0). 'fllll' (2) i.. eXllrt'!<"ihle ill lite
simpler furm.
1'0 facilitate the inlqraliot,ll ill Oil, &he follo..·illll: aoymll'nli('
1_for tbe 0-.1 fUII('liot, are emplO)·etl:
( ("" Clc) 0< - [2.. :.."CJ"
• [up (i"" Clc) - i ellp (-i.." C/c)]. (;.'0)
The 01 ""inK this approlli...nti.." lin-
in &he Appendill. nil... (17) redll,," In
.Ir np ( - iwA8/c) S.1 I I 1- I "
i.. ::l< - -... A'2..r)'11 Co;; •
i.. ellp (i"')
ellp (-al) - ellp ( -/II)
,,(1 • ..(I)
where a and fJ are eonstanta, and where .. (/) • 1 for I > 0 IIl1d
u(l) - 0 for I < o. As will be ,ho""11, thj" douhle ellllOllcllli,,'
fllnn hu mathemalieal advahtall"". The Fourie. I..
of the current lIIClfM"t is liyell by
PII. ,. Vertk'al dlpok! 0 ..... ....und .........".
w...... - (,..1..)'" • 12(). and r, • (-" +A')'''. TI.. ,"III,a
Pen by (2)-(5) reduee to the forma 11ft11 pmriousl,· [I]. [2],
where A••&eq.... w 1efO. While (2) • approximale it doe!' 1Wd.....
&0 nrioua eornc& Jimitiaaa forma. For eample, II • - 0, t1_ n
2W' - (l +R.)O,(A)
- up ["'(A/c) ain #,] +R. up [-i.(A/c) !lin #,] (ea)
wben R• • &be appropriate F_I ftfteetion fOelIicient for oblique
tefIec&ion fram a lat earib whole aurf.. impedance • Z. n ..
odJer JiaJi&itIc _ • when the pound ICreeft ndill. beeomes
infinitely Jarp. For uample, If IZ.'I « Z, we find ht [4), in the
limit. - -,
o - (ZI..) up [-i..(A/c) ain #,]Il1in h- (Ib)
Tbit comb_ with (2) and (3) &0 live
u" • COlI [ .. (Ale) ai" #,] (7)
whieh ill &he expected ,.Uern for • vertical _trie dipole Oftr •
11.& perfectly condlletinll IfOUnd pIlIne.
In order &0 approach the &rallllient prublem, it is ima«i"ed thai
at time I - 0 the dp • auddenly ,.",ted 011. TMn lhe eu".e,,'
p.(..) -f.,,(I) ellp (-i"') til - _.!-(_I_. - - (8bl
_ fJ-a a+,.. fJ+...
By superpositioll tI.. transient "'puRlf! A.(I) 01 &he radialion
field ill then obtained by iDvertinl &he &ranaform
H.(..) • A.(I) up (-i"') til (9)
or, __aplicitly, fl"Olll
At(I) - i;[ H.(..) up (i"') d....
By u&iJiainC &he abill rule, it ill _y &0 obtain
At(1) - 2!.- COlI #-.4 (I _ +hin#.)
c c
A (I) - i;. J:: W'(..) up [-"'(A/c) ain #.]
• (a +i ..)(fJ +i ..) d... (I:?)
The function A (I) ill deipated III the pattern -JNIIl!'f!. In order
&0 _ &he ......'1 01 this quantil)·, the whole ,"",lid pia... j,.
lEU: TR"""",TllJS. lJS ASTE""". A..... I'ROrAGATIO", NOVEllaER 1969
Fill. 2. Tlmo-ray In""I,,,·,.''''n or 10'.1 &ranol..n' olcllal
' t. : I
AIII:=t± -----
• I f
FI,. 3. Tr.n....n' .....pon.. of _...und·!Nuom <1,,,,,1,, wllh d ........ orncon.
,.. - Ila - IIIS)C + [1., - illS)' -1II'8')'"IS-'. (:.'6)
All all@nlllive form or 1:.1:)) "'hirl, i, ,"illllJle fur lllllllCriMlI
.....rk i:<
, II ..... A - Z,.. II d""_ co lie ./I &h·..h· • con""n' .Iolrh ,. In·
""""nden, or r"",,_,. Til.. I. c&.ktl, 11d onl, f... _ .... <lit'I.., ••k·
Uk......uncl III. •
.... (1 - CO) - 2".1<1 - IIISIC - [1., - liS)' - II'] - O. 12:.)
1'1.. relevlUlt root is
_ __1_1"""-C' ...!..
8 +/A (2e)'''' • ,,,"
• I d ..[, _ !! (I _ C)] (29)
[I - ("/e)(1 - C) ]", " e
GU) -
/A 8 1 { . [1 2(1 - C)o]
- 8 +/A (2(1 - .e)]III; - - c:e
+i} v [t -;(1 - C) l (30)
I(T) • (I/w)[ arealn (1 - 2/T) +../2] (321
.·I,ieh i. tht' ...clt'tl value (or lloe pallern r"clor ror • dip.le 011
tM 811rl_ or • lint imp@<I,,"<'@ ..urface or illfi"ile extent. n,e situa-
ti,," i.. i1Ju..tralt'tl ill Fil. 3 ..Ioere AU) is .blclM!tl u a (unction or
t Ioe IillM! paruneler.
A (I)] ,_ - I - [A/IS +/AI]· 8/(S +/A)
A con.,ict.rable Inalytiral limplific.lio'l ,. obt.ined when tlte
dipole is located on tiM! acnen. Then (27) redu_ to
1'1"... it rail he IIftn Rt tiM! i"ilial i"stlUll I - 0 tloe reopon!lt' i.••
ullil JIUlIil in Ilep. nlis ill (ullu"'ed by • lint' t!t!CreMillll lilt',,,1
.....ieh IJrlillll .1 T - I. It thell a"Uen, oR to • constant value in
acconJante" tiM! limil:
T - (11/0)/(1 - C) (a/o)/(S'/2) (a/a)/(J/-.'/2).
n .. rarlor SI[2(1 - C) ]111 in (30) nlay be replaced by unit)'
.i"te it ill .......(1). _umetl t"at I - C« I. 11M! lllIultant pattern
-JIOIIlIe ror t"is lilftil inl aituation iI tMn liven by 'be foUoorina
remultabl,)' limplellllult:
A(I) • v(I) - [/A/(S +/A)Jf(T)u(T - 1) (31)
While II,C prt'<ent lUll I,..", is h..ortl on • hillhly it!e.lizt'tl mOllel,
tiM! ullos do indieat@ t"at tiM! finit@ @lll@nt or " ."ound eereell .'ilI
n iry Iilt'lificanlly tiM! pulR Ihlp@ or tiM! rlldialt'tl fit'ld. T..ilI mlY
Ill! .n import.nt factor in timine lyIt@mll wlM!re some reature of
tI... radi.led pulR shape illaged u • point to measnre tiM! travel
time. FurtMr work on this luhj@ct ahould consider tiM! rrequency
c"'"enclenCle or tloe ,round..url.l't' ImpedlUlc@ ."t! liM! eqniv.lellt
illll'l!t1"nre or tIM! wire mesh which mMes up tiM! lrountl ar.n'C!n.
AI.... raisrtl ant@nnu of finile lenltth will lead to more romplielllt'tl
illieiral evaluation but, in principle. till! results ean btl
..laplt'tl if is ,IRed.
III JIl!rrurntillll II.. i"lt'lIir.tinn nver w ill (I!I). tiM! Re.o<wl Inllcli""
WIL. b,· Ih@ lirsl It'rm in il .. lL'ym!'lolic expansioll. The
.il(llifirtlll.... or Ihi. .'iII he e1i...".....1hrit'll)·.
\\t' lIrt! cull....M1@c1 ... ith the t'VlluatiulI or tiM! f"II..... ;1I1l ....mi...
11- r-i...,/e) ( e )
.11) -2" _ Ce· 1+;;:,. iJ,I-e/c) exp (i"") dw. 13-'1\
! I".' +111')11I _ ,..C + - , _0
e e e
8/A 1 1" 1
- ----- --
8 +/A 12c)'"" • ,''1
,,·I.i,·h is eqlliyalent to
Gill -
"'1",... it i.. implicitly _"11",,1 th,,' the '....I",·e 11\\-
I.. /A is illdelM!lIdclIl ur tilt' r""I"I'''''y,' II .nll 1M! IOftll that tll@
illlrj[rRllt! ill (2:1) ill H1'u ru. ur" > ,... where
(,,' +111')'" " lIS
.1,,) .---- - -+-.
e e e
h. .. or th@ ill th@ o.igillal deriyalion [4]. th@
faclu. C'" ean btl replaced by unily. Am, linee __cIea1illl with
Iarp lIereenl whare (000/c)>> 1. th@ finat aquare bracbt term ill
11l@ inteer-lld of (21) may btl repllC@d by unity. On tha otllt'.
halld. in the _nd 8qu_ braeket, tll@ t@rm multiplied by -i call
btl ignored Iince the ph_ ill .aryilll rapidly. ItlJ indiealed hefore
[4]. thil aeetected term ill related to the wa.. rellecled front th@
bade ed«e of the acreen. With .implificatlona, it ill fCMlIld '''at
(21) red_to
.... ex!' (-i.JtS/e) S/A 1 1- 1 1
i.. - 8 +/A (:.I.e)'" • ,,," (i..)'"
• up [-i.. I"/e) (/ - CI]@xp[-i"'I")]d". (Zl)
UMill1l form rot tll@ int","d ill (19), 'h@ iJlI@lrIliUII OV@....
call IIuW lie readily @/ft!Cted. ThUi
G(I) __ ' S/A -'''-1- I ..[1- 1"/rl II-C) -.(,,)] tI" (23)
S+/A (2c)'lIw • ,,'"[1- 1"/el (I-C) -.1,,»)'"
=---.,....,.......,......-:-..;..,.----:-=-=- d" vI,.. - a). (27)
[I - (lIe) I,,' +A')'II + ,.c/e - IIS/e'J"
•·..r 11l@ raNd diJ'OIe li.e., 111 > 01. rmlllt'r I" or Ihi.. illit'lliral
not -em JlOI'i"ihle.
TIl@ time-n&Y inl@rpreIAli..1I or lilt' _nil. i.o illdicllt'tl in 2.
TIM! dipnle at T .. excil@(1 at 1 - O. U tiM! puillls M .nd N 're Oil
tilt' r.ommon _vefront. theil, nbviou,.ly. the ."ound rellt'clt'tl
•• ,... will arriv. at the oboft-y@r II li",t' 1 -.Is Ialer, "ICh th"l
a • TN - TAl - I,..' + A')'" - ,..c + lIS. l:m,
Ti,e .um total or tt- ra,..., rrom tiM! or lI,e rftll
oul to illfinily. lives th@ c"nlrihlllinll G/Il to 11ot' Iran.;"111 J'OlIlO4!
at 1I.e dipol@.
NOlinl that iJ,IZ) - ',liZ,. the Fourier inlqra!lab_ [3J can
be .-d to tho.. that
,I') - -(, -;)']'" -(, -;1(7)'
-(, - [-I, -;1 +7]. (34)
For tbe timea IIIIcb tbat " - (,fell' - ClI« (,,Ie) U -CI. it
au be _n tJaat
11[' - (,lei (I - CI J
,(1) :0< - (../e)(J - C) J'"
While this is au admittedly enade .pproamatiot•• it is qualit.l ivel}·
aatidaetory, for this NMOft. and bftauae it fadlital. tbe lUt.quet.t
intearatioG _ ,. ID fact. &he ...ult lEi"" by (35) conw.ponda to
the form .-d in the _in text ..hi..h is a.-d on the Iimiu/ll ...
YJnptotic form for the &-I fuMt"" J,(..,c/e) ill tbe
lAMa n. WAIF
ESSA n-reb Leba.
UB, Dept. of Com_
Boulder. Colo. 80302

(II J. R. W.1l .nd L. r. w " ... Inll n.... 01. _Of' ....und """,,n
on &llr ft.l<. 01 .....&1 n nn.:· IIS Mono 110. April Ill. lUI'''.
121 (;. 1> • .".n.rd. W. E. GUII.I...... and W. )1. l·ha.... "HF around
ISIIem ""U'.I or • namerlta' .nahlll:· t·. s. S.,·s Eloc\ronla S.n Dleao. r.m Rrl" 1359:'.._rl: 191'06.
131 W. E. G,,"'.IlOn. W. )1. Cha.....nd N. II. B.IU. "Ground I.·_m
·11"". on HF .n'mna ,",,,,,"'io..:· (. s. S.,·, E_1Ik'a I.a.....
San 01.11". ("alif. Ht"'l 13"'•. Janu ,· ,W.r.
f4f J j( ".fl. "(In 1ft.. lit.....' <t' r." 'I'Om •rrIJ4I'd .."""ric 4''''''''
o¥t'r an 'nha"'-t'nt'Ou" .round plan",." Bollio St', .. "01. 2. PII, Wi-
1004. ...mbrr Hili;
'51 n. A. l·.n."....11 .nd R )I. FOI'''r. Fou,j" In",.." 'n, P,."irol
",,''''ltion. S ...· lork. Amrri","o T""'phon" .net TrhllraPb
Co., 1031. pal... _., ...d " •.7.
1.18 Wait, J. R., and K. P. Spies, January 1970, "Integral Equation Approach to the Radiation
from a Vertical Antenna Over an Inhomogeneous Ground Plane," Radio Science,
Vol. 5, pp. 73-79
(Reprint No. 397)
Reprinted with the permission of the American Geophysical Union
RJulio Science. Volume .5, Number I, pales 73-79, ""nary 1970
Integral equation approach to the radiation from a
anteDDa over an inhomogeneous ground plane
JtIIPIU R. Wait and Kenneth P. Spies
as" Lilbo,lIIorie#. Bo"ld". Colo,ado '0302
(Received July 31,1969.)
The fields of a dipole IOUra localwd over a variable ,urfaee .re considered. A
melhod of obtaininl solulions of lhe equalion for Ihe lanaenlial field is oullinwd.
Numerical resulls are liven for Ihe radialion pallems for an larercd
vari'lion of lhe surface II is shown Ihal lbe ha. tbe adv.nlap Df reducin,
!he lobe struclure of the low'Inlle ndialion.
The use of extended II'ound screens to enhance
low-angle radiation from HF antennas is now com-
mon. To be effective the ground screen should re-
duce the effective surface impedance of the fore-
ground to distances comparable with a Fresnel
zone. The utility of the ,eneral analytical formula-
tion [Wait. 1963) has been demonstrated on a num-
ber of recent occasions [Bernard etal.• 1966; Gus-
tafson et aI•• 1966; Collin and Zucker. 1969).
In this note, we wish to discuss the evaluation of
the radiated fields for a situation where the surface
impedance of the ground is tapered as a function of
distance from the base of the antenna. For simplicity
here, we assume azimuthal symmetry, and also we
represent the source as a ground-based Heruian
electric dipole. This situation is illustrated in Figure
I, where the surface impedance of the ground be.
yond a specified radius Po is a constant Z. Within the
ground system (i.e., 0 < , < Po), the surface im-
pedance Z'(,) is taken to be a function of, that is
the radial distance from the source dipole. As indio
cated, ",. is the angle subtended by the observer's
direction and the ground plane.
Now, in the absence of the ground system (i.e..
= 0 or Z'(p) = Z), the far-field radiation pallern
P(!#I.) of the ground-based dipole on the homogene-
ous ht et:rtb is given by
- II + R.I (cos
lin - CZ/"ft)
lin 'I. + (Z/"o)
and .,.. = 12(),.. Here, of course, R,. is the appro-
priate Fresnel reflection coefficient for a normalized
surface impedance ZI.",•. It was shown earlier that
the corresponding pattern function is given by
- 1(1 + R.)(I + 0.)1 (c:os (3)
where n. is the all-important correction factor that
accounts for the presence of the ground system. The
ground system factor is given by
n. - __le_L'· W'(kp)F(lep)f>-il.
.(I + ,:,) JI(le, C:OSJ'Io) dp (4)
where Ie = 2"./(wavelength), where J
is the Bessel
funclion of the first kind, and where FClep) = IZ -
Z'(p) J/"" is the surface impedance contrast function
which by definition vanishes if p > Pt,. In this integral
representation for the perturbed radiation field,
W'(p) is the unknown attenuation function for the
tangential magnetic field of the source dipole in the
region 0 < , < Po. This function was shown to satisfy
F11: I. Venical dipole located cenlfall)" 0\'tI' a radially varyiq
impedance surface.
a Volterra integral equation o( the (orm
W'(x) _ W( ) + (,x)"
1' F(y) ",ex - y) W'()') d
x 211' • lY(x _ y»"2 y
W(x) _ I - erfc: (
"2) (6)
and p = -(u/2) (Z/'/lI)2. Here, W(x) is the weU-
bOWD attenuation function for propagation to a
'numerical distance' p over an homogeneous Oat
lurface. ID (6), erfc is the complement of the enor
i-- , ." • [ ( i )"' ]
+ f.': a. x = a. + o. - 211' a.-, x""
- ; + 9
r(n 2) a.-.
Finally, we equate coefficients of like powen o( X'/·
on the two sides of ( 12) to get
We now outJine a series method of solving (5)
for W'(x) for small values of the argument x. Since
W(x) bas an expansion of the form
' = o. _ (.l)"2
2. 11.-.
(n = I. 2. 3, ... ) (14)
W(x) - L O.,x"'2
which is effectively a recurrence formula for the
(7) evaluation of Q'. in terms or Q'n. 0'10 ••• , ft'. ,.
When these results are applied to the case where
it seems plausible to assume that W'(x) has a simil:lr
. .
L X"'2 - L o.,x"'2
••0 ••0
Noting the integral in (to) is x -/2 times the beta
function B[(p + 1}/2, (n - p + 1}/2J and using
the standard relation
Upon substituting the appropriate expansions into the
in!egral equation we obtain, on interchanging the
order of summation and integration,
Z'(x) - Z Z _e.
'IQ '10
(where b is a nonnegati\ie constant). the series (or
U"(x) is given by
W'!.,,) = I - \ y; + 1". y;
+ y·sb'E')(' - I. y; - Ib'E'x"
+ my; - S6b'fJ."OJ'
+ iHb'('x
+ .. , (16)
where t = (;/2)1/1 Z/'IO'
When x is not sufficiently small, series ISis not
useful for evaluating IV'(x), and we must to
numerical methods of solving integral equation 5.
The technique outlined below is an adaptation of one
described by Wagnf'r (1953J nnd yields IV'(x) for a
prescribed set o( x values, XIo X:. •••. The
step is to compute W'(x,) and W'(x:) using
16; the solution then proceeds inductively, IV'(x.)
being computed when ",'(XI)' IV'(x:),···, W'(x... d
are known. From integral equation S. we
In.\".) ... W(.".) + (;;;)'"
·{f' K(.t•• ")W'()") dy + {' Kt"•. y)W'(y) dy
+ ... + K(.t •• y)If"(y) dY} (17)
W'(x) - L x""
B(II,o) - nil +v)
· ,.-lIn( )'.·.-1112 d
.,. x-y y
I )"2 • • •
- 2
L L L r,a;., 0.••
w .-0 ••0 ,-0
where the coefficients Q'.. are to be determined. In
addition, we assume the known impedance function
(Z'(x) - Z)/Y/f' can be expanded as
r:( ) Z'(x) - Z i--,. .12
r'X - - - -
'10 .-Q
(t 0) becomes
FCJ·) ",(Jt - ).)
K(Jt • .1) - l.Y(x _ .1») iii (18)
Now assume that W'(y) may be approximated in the
interval XJ) (; = 3,4•••.• n) by a quadratic
polynomial fitted at XH. and XJ; thus
(21 )-(25) were approximated by a 12-point Gauss-
ian quadrature formula. To remove infinite singulari-
ties in the integrand. the integration vari:lble W:lS
first changed to (J by the relation y = XI sin' 0 in
' 1(.1'.) and by X. - y = (x. - X... I) sin' (J in I.{x.)
and i(x.). In ' 1(.1'.) and '::(.1.). W'{y) was eval-
uated at the Gaussian abscissas by means of series
Computing time is a rapidly increasing function of
the number of points at which W'(x) is evaluated
(about 5 minutes was required for 60 points on a
CDC 3800 computer); thus it is desirable to space
the points Xh .1'2, Xlh ••• as widely as the demands of
(19) accuracy will permit. One must, of course. take XI
and x:: to be small enough so that W'(x,) and W'{x:)
may be computed from ( 16) ; some numerical experi-
ments then indicated that adequ:lte accuracy was ob-
tained by taking the interval X, - Xi I to be roughly
x,/IO. Further confidence in the results was gained
by applying the numerical technique outlined above
to the integral equation for JJ'(x):
'x)'" Z f.' wey)
W(x) = I - 211' ;;; 0 V'(x _ ),)Jin dy
+ (y - .1',_,)(.1 - .1';0') W'(x;)
(x, - x,_,)(Jt, - .1',_,)
which is just the well-known Lagrange interpolation
polynomial of degree 2. When the appropriate poly-
DOmialS are substituted into (17). ODe may solve the
resulting equatiOD for W'(x.) aDd write
iJt )'11 i-
W{x.) + 2 I ;(x.)
W'(,x.) _ 11" ,-,
I _ I(x.)

- 80 -
O. 03·
__- __ _ C'
"" ".. -- --- _ - .3
CD: ,,:J --,.,. ---
," , _JlCI-- 0.0;i_-- --- 5:
, " , -- U ---- OOL c
/ "",II'"...... _---- -:- - .s=.
' .... - .. ------ -----.. - - - 0
10 20 o.ool 30
40 C'
0 '&.
(21 )
(25) -3:
K(x•• .1) W'cy) dy
J.(x.) - [' K(x•• .1) W'()·) dy
I.(x.) -
+ B,CY)W'(x,_,) + C,(,Y)W'(x,») dy
U - 3. 4•..•• " - I)
I.(x.) - K(x•• .1)[ A.CY) W'{x••,)
+ B.U·)W'(x._,») dy
1(.1'.) - K(x•• y)C.(y) dy
C,(,Y) _ (.1 - Xi_,)(I' - .1'._.) (26c)
(X; - X,.,)(X; - X,_I)
aDd K(x•• y) is obtained from (18). The intcgr:lIs
f 'I!. 2n. b. The Illenu:lIion funclion for In
\·.;il'iC'n of the surface im!X'd:Jncz. The :Ih<ci«:1 i< the norm;tl·
ized dis' - 2.p/\\,a\c1cnl!thl for the d.('Ole.
and where Z corresponds to the appropriate value for
a homogeneous lossless ground of relative dielectric
constant c,/fO. In this case, we choose
To start the calculation, W(0.10) and W(0.11) were
computed from (6); then a formula analogous to
(20) was used to evaluate W(x) at a sequcnce of
points ending at x = 30. These results were com-
pared with values obtained from (6); at no point did
the mapitude of the relative error exceed 3 X 1()-6.
As mentioned above, the specification of the func-
tional form of the surface impedance contrast func-
tiOD F(x) wiD determine the form of the resulting
attenuation function W'(x). Using the numerical
methods outlined above, some represeotative results
are obtained for the case where
which is the exact form for a vertically polarized
plane wave at grazing incidence. The cxponential
variation indicated by (28) is an idealization for a
ground screen that is tapered smoothly from the base
of the antenna. Here, we do not dwell on the physical
realizability of such a ground system, although we
could point out that a radial wire system will have a
smoothly decreasing effective impedance as one re-
cedes from the base of tbe antenna along the ground
surface. For our example, the dimensionless parame-
ter b is a measure of the rapidity of the impedance
taper. For example, b = 0 would correspond to a
perfectly conducting ground plane, whereas b = co
corresponds to a homogeneous earth of surface im-
pedance Z throughout.
Specific values of the amplitude and phase lag of
W'(x) are sbown plotted in Figure 2 for c,/to =10
and for t,/fO = 3. The abscissa here is the electrical
distance x measured from the base of the antenna
along the ground (i.e., x =2"p/(wavelength»). Vari-
ous values of b are indicated on the curves. As ex-
(28) z - Z'(x) - a-I.
€g I€o • 10
• 100
10 30
0 10 20 30
Filo Jer, b. The far·fleld radiation pattun of the dillOle as a function or the ele\'ltion anllle •• for In ullOnenti31ly tapen:d around
system that is truncated at ~ . - 100 (i.e., 2rp. - 100 ,u\-elensths). Various values of b are shown.
peeted, the magnitude of the attenuation function
W'(z) is considerably less than unity for the lower
dielectric constant of the ground. We stress here that
the curves shown in Figurc 2 apply ani}' to a pure
dielectric ground. This would be a reasonable repre-
sentation lor a real physical situation of operation at
HF over relatively dry ground or thick ice la}'ers
RADIATION PATTERNS \ ~ ' t ' ~ e "
Once we have the numerical values for the aUen-
uation function W'(kp), the pattern function P("'o)
can be obtained directly from (3) following the
numerical integration of (4). In this case, the upper
limit pO of the integration corresponds physically to
tbe outer extremity of the ground system.
By use of the numerical results for W'(z) shown
in Figure 2, the pattern function P("'o) is shown in
Figure 3a and 3b for e,,/eo = 10 and 3, respecth'el}',
for Zo =kpO =100. It is not surprising that the low-
angle portion of the pattern is greatly enhanced when
b is decreased to small values. In fact. for tbe case
b =0.003, the ground system is ,·cry similar in ef-
fectiveness to a perfectly conduct in!! circular disk of
radius pn. This fact is confirmed by cOl11p:tring the
results for b =0.003 in Figures 3a and 3b with the
cun'es given previously for a pcrfectly conducting
circular disk of the same radius [Wait arid Walters.
1963) and for the same values of the relative dielec-
tric constant of the ground.
Fa smaUer values of b, the curves in Figures 30
and 3b are smooth and monotonically increasing
functions of the grazing angle "'0' This can be attrib-
uted to the fact that, for the value of .10 (or kpo)
chosen, the surface impedance contrast function
F(x) becomes negligible before x reaches .In. Thus,
there is no appreciable scattering from the edge of
the ground system at p = po). For some practical ap-
plications, this may be a desirable characteristic for
the radiated fields.
The inftuence of varying the extent of the ground
30 10 20
"'0 (Degrees)
30 10 20
"'0 (Degrees)
M a.. 0.6
- -
- £91£0 =10
- £9/£0 =3 0
Fia. 40. b. The far-6c1d pattern for an upoaentially tapered around s)"Stem sholAina the effect or different truncatioD distances
for b .. 0.01.
os 0.8
J..,.I,.,. .........
o 10 20 30
1/10 (Degrees)
. , ...
10 20
-- - Q.

€1J1€o - 10


b- 0.1

€Q 1£0' 3
02 0.2
b' 0·1
Fi•. So, b. The far·field paltern for an nponentially tapered lP'ollnd system showin. the etrect of dill'erent truncatioa distances
for b - O.t.
Integrol Equotion
Kirchhoff Approximation -
... -

0.4 -

o 10 20 30
Fi,. 6. The far·field rallern u5inll the solution ror
W'(x) compaud with the KirchhofT-t)'rc: apl'follimation which
selS ",'(x) - I in the field intearal.
system is illustrated in Figures 4a and 4h for .,/(..
= 10 and 3, respectively, for a fixed value of b
( = 0.01). 1r is not surprising th:ll for these cases the
low-angle patiern is again improved as x" is in-
creased. Also, there is some evidence that the scat-
tered wave from the edge of the ground system i'\
producing some minor wobbles in the pallerns. Simi-
lar results are shown in Figures Sa and 5b. where the
value of b is increased by a factor of 10. Here. the
influence OD the finite value of XI) is much smaller
because the surface impedance contrast has de-
creased to a negligible value before the 'edge' of the
ground system is reached.
In a previous study (Wait. 1967] of tapered ground
systems, the attenuation function W'( lip) was ap-
proximated by unity in the field integral given by (4)
in the present paper. In effect, this is a physic:l\ optics
or Kirchhoff type of approximation. It has the mcrit
of leading to a relatively simple closed-form exprcs-
sion for the resulting pattern functions. Certainly. for
a truncated ground system of low surface impedancc.
the approximation is very good (i.e., where to /;,
Po « I in the present context). Also. if the ground
system taper is sufficiently rapid, the contribulion
from the iDtegral in (4), where W'(p) dillers appre-
ciably from unity. would be expected to be negligible,
even when the upper limit po is effectively infinite.
This fact is confirmed by comparing the computed
pattern function P(l{Io) for the case (l) where the
integral equation is used to obtain W'(p) and (2)
where W'(p) is replaced by unity. The comparative
results are shown in Figure 6 for .,1.... where the
value of Zo is effectively infinite. As we see from the
plotted curves, the Kirchhoff-type approximation is
overly optimistic for small values of b when the
tapered ground system is effectively infinite in extent.
The results given in this paper apply to a rather
idealized radiating system. For example, the source
is a Hertzian ground-based dipole and the ground
system is represented by a surface impedance bound-
ary that is allowed to taper smoothly from the source
to the extremity of the system. To consider a more
realistic system. we should take into account the
ohmic losses in the the inductive reactance
of the radial wire ground system, and the finite
height and length of the source antenna. The inclu-
sion of such factors constitutes a straightforward ex-
tension of the present formulation.
In general, we feel that the intentional tapering of
the ground system can lead to major improvements
in the low-angle radiation characteristics of HF
Adnowlrdgmrnt. The continued interest in this work of
the contract mODitor Philipp Blacksmith is much appreciated.
The reported here was surroned by Air Force
Cambrid,e Researcb Laboratories. Bedford. Massachusells.
UDder contract PRO-CP-69·824.
Bernard. G. D., W. Eo Gustafson, and W. M. Chase (1966),
HF Jl"ouDd systems; of a numerical analysis, U. S.
NallY EI,ct,onic8lAb. R,p. 1359. San DielD, Calif.
Collin, R. E.• aDd F. J. Zucker (editon) (1969), Antrnna
Th,ory. vol. 2, McGraw·HiII, New York.
Gustafson, W. E., W. M. Chase, and N. H. B:l1Ii (1966).
Ground system effect on HF antenna propaption, U. S.
NallY Elrct,on;c8 lAb. R,p. 1346, San Diego, Calif.
C. (1953), On the numerical solution of Volterra
integral equ3tions, 1. Math. Phys. 32. 289-301.
Wait, J. R. (1963). The theory of an aDtenna over an in·
homo,eneous ground rlane, iD EI,ct,omagn,t;c Th,ory.'
and Ant,nnas. edited by E. C. Jordan, pp. 1079-1098.
New York.
Wail, J. R. (1967), Pallern of a linear nntenna erected over
a tarered ground screen, Cnn. 1. Ph"s., 45(9). 3091-3101.
Wait. J. R., and L C. Walters (1963). Inftuence of a sector
,round screen on the field of a vertical 3IItenna, NBS
Monog,aph 60.
1.19 Wait, J. R.
and K. P. Spies. July 1970, "On the Radiation from a Vertical Dipole with an
Inductive Wire-Grid Ground System," IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation,
Vol. AP-18. pp. 558-560, (and an extended report version AFCRL-69-0404)
(Reprint No. 411)
Reprinted with the permission of the IEEE
It.prl..led loy "......,10.. / ...... IEEE TIlANSAC110NS ON ANTENNAS AND PIlOPAGATION
Vol. AP·II. No.... Jul, 1970
Copynpl 1970. b, ".I",lilule of EJeclricaland EJec:1nIftia ......... Inc.
On the RacUation from a Vertical Dipole with an IDducti.e
Wire-Grid Grouod System
AIll."....-TII. far Ield of ...rtical electric dlpol. 011 • lectiollll1J,
Iaomo,ea.u poad ,laD. Ia couldered. Tile epedIc model ued
Ia • dlelectric-like ., .laicla Ia modlled b, DlIiDC III Iadacti.e
wire crid or m.... eer.ea Ia • "cioll lanoudillc tile dipole. Attell-
tiDa Ia f__011 til. modIiCltioa of tile r.diatioa ,.tten r..a1tiDc
froDl til. "....c. of tile Iadacti.. eroud .cren. It Ia d.Dloll-
Itrated tlaat tIae 10....&1. ndiatioa me, b• .,••U, eDIwIc.4 b, •
poDDd _ wlaida IZtIDdI oat Ie IS or mor....eI.......
The performance of HF .ntennu is adye,..I)· influenced by the
p,..nce of • poorly ,round. Unfortunatel)', for one
_aor aaotber. it ie _etimes required to operate. commuDic..
lion ayateln witb at I_t ODe terminal oyer ice, frvlen eround, or
oiber dielectric-lib meteriel. In aucb _ the Iow...le radial ion
ie .,.atJy One re",edy ill to raiae the antenna to a hei,ht
of _raJ _veJellltlaa. Wlaile tbis may luffice for eertAin applie.-
lio_, it ..uaU7 ie _Dlpanied by deep nulls in tbe vertical radiation
pattern, DOt to mention tbe increued C08t or the lupport Itructure.
The otber remedy ie to e",plo)' a wire ,rid or meah eround ",at
IMneatb tIae antenna. Not only doea tbis at,bilize Ibe impedance
IIUucrtpI .....ftCI ..p...ber 211. Ite.: ,ulled Pebnaa17 4. 1.70.
1\" • Jr - (l + R.)/2 - lin 1I,/[lin II. + (Z/",l]. 131
fartor of I + n. it can bt' Iho...n [2] th.t the cround wave
fi...01 01 th.. dipol.. ill alllG modifil'rl hy the faNor 1 + n, thi.
is to he evaluat ..d as -0. In fart, u "'e ,,·illae. belo..·• I + n
is indt'JICndenl 01 "'. lor .mall analftl while, of co_,
th.. pattern f..tor II" itae'f vari linearly ...ith II•.
The ...orkinc formul. for 0 hich fonna the buis of tbe p,..nt
paper is civen by [2J
..·h.,. p. -(i"_/2)IZ'/",I' an,l F - IZ - Z·)/",. lIere. J, i..
1MB_1 funrlioll 01 ord..r nile ... hil"lI'. is a "lIoum) ....v.. DIII!III1"-
tionlullrtion" ... hirh lor the modifi..alion ollhe t.II"ellti••
n'AIMlir fi..ld the finile "uri..... im)ll'llall"" Z' 01 the Crollllol
o.,..n. Oft.n, 1\'. i. "'1,1......1hy unit}· "'hieh j""tifi..,I. "I .."lIr....
il Z· - II and if bafk rl'lI.rlin'lII lrum th...,llE
"I th.. a'''",,'' ."n,,·11
.,.. (5). 011. ol"'f'rve that 1\'. i_ el""..,y rel.t ..d 10 til..
,,'...'m. di.-re",ion fum'tion [Ii].
(6) "'u deriv..d Oil Ih. b",.i, thlll II, i. a 'lIIall I'"r"ml!lrr,
hut ,hi,. L'''umJ,tinl1 unt "lUI ill f"rt rnl1 hr
..<..,111/,10:10' "'ilh 1I1',Iij:ihll' ",ror. AI-o. i, .1""tI,1 hI! "'f'lIli,,,...,1
th"l th.. atl.nualinn funrli"n 11'. i. " ..rive.I on the b:l.i.
Ih:lt 'Z·/... I« I bill, in far', Ihi, i. oVI',I.,· r"",irliv•. II, ill I"rt,
Ihp \·"h." nl Z· i. ,.· ..i,·.. i- al'prn",i"l .. Inr a,ll7.ina i,,-
ri.I N·. 'I', joe ,·"lillfl\·t-n _h(tll Z',,,, i .. nut !'liliAn [!i]. lit nn.," c'n..:f',
lor 1, "1 l'Ul)-..... "'ill "'''umr thai Ih" 10/l1l1l1n.' nr.. vAli."
Furlh.rmore. the mndili..d surl"... iml't'.ln".... z· ... i11 he imnaill".lto
b.. roml'<....d of Ih. 1,,,r,,U..1mmhill"lin" III th.. a"''''"' im.."tlA"rt'
Z'd al arazi"c ill..i"'..IIrt') a"d th....n.clive illl.....lll"''''
Z. 01 Ih.. "'ire arid.
11',(1<_) - 1 - ilrp)'11 eX» (-p) erfc (ip'll) (7)
I b I
(21 n" • (l + R,W +III /2
Tbe lituation .. illustrated in FiC' 1. A vertiCAl electric dipole
is located on e.t around. The ellective imredan.... of the
l'Ound .yatem is • coNlt.nt Z' oul to • r.di..... II frnm th.. h...... nl
the .ntenn•. The around heyond rldiUll II is taken to have. f'Ol ••tanl
eurlace impedance Z. In the pment formul.tion, ..........ume th"t
the .yatem is rot.tionally .ymmetric. Tbe colllequcnee5 01
_umption are dise_d later on.
The radiation field E. lor. limf' factnr exl' li...l) , .1 • di.t.nre Ii
and elevation angle 'I•• is expl'e!lllibl.. i,. the form
E i_/d, "llp l-ikRl
- It ... - 4r X 11I-'.1< • 2r/h,·"v..If'llalh) •• i. Ihr ,,"rrNII
moment of Ihe dipole. Here. 11" is a "attern 'um·tio" "nrlll"li,rcl
luch that it is unil)' onr • perfect I}' eOlldurtill([ arou"d 1,la"t' 01
infinileextelll (i.e.• Z· • Z .0). No.... lonoa·illa.n ....r"· cI..ri,·.tio"
[2]. the first-order iteratioll 01 all illlt'([r.1 equalio" ..I;I,
where H, - ["in II. - (Z/",) ]/[,ill II. + 'I, - 1211•. ",,,I
nill a "modific.tio,," ... hirh vDni.h.... il th.. arollnd 'rr...·11 i.. "10 ,,,
(i.e., Z· • Z or if II -0). III the limitillC cue 01 110 c,nu",1 .rr ".
Here. Z/'" is tbe norm.lized imredance of th." ulln.odifi..J"
lround. If tbe latter is homog..neous .nd 1011I1_. "e have
of the antenna but, if it is luRiciellll}' exlended, the vertic.1 radillioll
pattern will 8pproacb the ideal ellJlft'ted for. perfertJ}· conducting
cround There is now ••ubst.ntial liter.ture [I }-[S] on
the lubjeet of extended cround _III conrine botb theoretical
and experi_nt.1
The cenen! theory of the radialion field bas been diselll'Rd rather
extensively. Tbe method IIIed is bued on tbe rompensation thcorem
which is c"'I)' rel.ted to tbe Lorentz reeiprocit}· rel.tions for
vector electrolllllllletic fielw.. In the .ctu.1 it .....
_umed that the current over the arou",1 ..r..t'll
is identieaJ tll that for the tame .ntenna loc.ted over • perlert I}'
conduetine cround _no If tbe wire spacinC in the cround 't'reen
or meah .. 'ufticientl)· amaJl thit m.)' be .n exrellent approximation.
However, in the ceneral CIIlt', th.. currentll ellciled on th.. I[round
_n will be .ttenuated or modified due to the nollzero v,lue of
the ellective , impedance. In the p,..nt rommunication,
we examine this q_tion. To facilitate tbe dise.-ion, .n idealized
model is _pIoyed.
Z/'" • II/K)'''[I - (cos'll.)/K)'''
Z· • ZZ./tZ + Z.) fill
M' ::0< h(l0/3) • X 3.16.
K' =- h(3/2"') • II. X 2.12
wbile if K - 10,
wbere (Z/",) =- (I/K)"'[l- (I/K))'II•• ••illa.II'I..
in radians. If, for eumple, K - 3. "'e have
Z•• i.".
.. hr,.. Z • ",K-'"'' - Ii-I)'II, i- th. i"'I.....I."'.....I th..
...",d fn, Ilra,i,,!: inri.I.."..... II thl' ..·irp ari.....n'·;lIa i. III1I1'It 10....
Ihall a .·avel"'llllh and il ohmir 1....<4'. ill thl' ,,·i..... are "t'Jtlill:ihlr,
...t! k"o... thaI Z. is purel)' illllut'livt'. Thu...... ""t • i•• dim..".iolll..., ,.."..Ianr.. l"ran'I!I..,. A lEo", 1 .1'1""';'
mal ion '" • - Id/At) loa. [d/(2trt)] + So, ... h..rt' d i. Ih"
1...1..·..11 th...·i.... in th. m..h. At i. Ih.. f,......"'''' ......·.v..I.."alh. t
i. Ih.....ire r.diu.' ••nd S. i•• rllrrerti"" fartn, "'hirh i. "I'j:lij:ih'e
il d:At i!' .umrit'n"}· "mall [I]. [a). For I"_,,t l"'l)IO!Cf'-, .. r ,. ill
110' <1..·..11 on th.. ccomel ri..a'I,:.r.lllete", of t ht' "'ire crid. bUI "
"I...ilr the enf't'tive value 01 •.
w. th.I, in ,h.. prpct'1I1 "otr. Ih.. arou",1 j,. a"um...' tn
I... " In••I tli..I...tri... Wltil.. Ih.. Ih.... h". 10....11 dl'vrlo 1 In' "
.Ii i,,,"h·t- .,nn1l4I, it .. illl1'liruo"" ,1", .li"wlI..:",iun if til n,ln'I\'f'
<lirl""Ir,r f'O""a"I i.. lilt.." tn "1' ",nl. Th;.. 11/'1:1""1 III ,·oll,hll'li.."
t'II,r."I' i. "alid "·h.,, ./1\_« I...· • i. the ('f)"durlivily 01
lhe ,rou"d.
151 Jr =-11./(Z/",)
where K j,. the rel.tive diel.elrir ro""I,nl o( Ihe di.,....I,ir a"""I<1
Tbe eorrespondi!'!I: rault lor II' i. euet. If 110... "'e (OCUlI our .11..11"011
on low eruine .neln, we see that
At. typic.lanele 013· we have I\' .0.111 .IId 0.165,10' II' -:I
.n<l 10, IWJlet'tiveh·. This "cuthark" en...t. ,,·h.rt! II' v"ri... h"..
with ".. at low anclt'll. is. t'OrtIC'IUCllre olloc.tina thl! .11'"'''''' ""rr
• dielectrie-type cround.
The modification of tbe .urlaee impedanc.. in • eirrul:u '.11;0"
of rldilll b, from Z to Z', raulla in improvinl th.. futback a
PIa. I. MoeIIDcatloo. 10 declbrl•. of radiation lIeld of dipole _ullin.
maa p...oce of ....uod ocreeo of radl... t.
A numeriral ".Iual ion or (G) r.rried ou, fnr " 0.;.1.. r""c..
of Ihe p.rameler.l "'., trll, Ii. , .nd I. The r."c.. or "·Lt
auitably aubdivided, .nd • G.\JllIIiA"" "... ."I,It..<I 10
eaeh aubinlerv." The del.iled or Ih.. "."..r" f"..'nr
If" .nd the .II-imporlftnl "ftramel ..r I + II .....vail"hl 1-.." h.r..
(7]. Here. we ..ill pn!llent *,me of Ihe raullo in Cr.l.hi 1form ."d
dile.. the ph)'lie.1 of Ihe r.di.lio" "all ern.
In Fi,. 2 we Ihe mlllltnilud. of I + II AI' • fun.. tinn 01
Ihe ltr.linlt .ne1e "'•. The ordi"at .. ,,·hi..h i. 20 Inlt.. 1I + III ,.
the decibel ralio of Ihe radial ion field ... ith .nd "·ith,,u' Ih.. ,ruu"d
.)'Item. The radi.. b of the Iround .('reen is ll00l2w)loo or .huut
16 w.velenetha .nd the diele('Irir of Ih.. (1< 1 \
lround is 3. values of I, the norm.lized ....'een ,." .
are abown. Nole the dependen('e on Ihe Ir.zinll an,l.. "'. a"d ,h..
norm.lied _tanee I of the ...ire _h. I - 0 <'Or""VO".lo
to a perfeetly eonduetinel<'reen of radius b Ii.e., the ,,·ire ",.(',n, d
is elfeelively aero). The other two eurve- (i.e., for I - 0.1.".1 (12'
COrNIpond to typie.1 v.lue- or the no,mftlized rea"I.".... All th..
eu",_ in Filt. 2 iIIUlI"ale Ihat I + 1/ io .I""oa..hi"lt " "·..II·....'i,, 1
Iimil ... "'. lends 10 aero. The n'&lnilud. or" Ihe or,lt,,:.... (or II, ..
email values of "" is a meMure or ,ne abilily of Ih. Ilroun.1 ...r "
to enhan('e both the 10...·.lIIle Iky wave radi.'io" ."d Ih.. ltrou".1
...ft from the dipole. Immediatel)', "'e ... Ih", Ih. Iwe' Ilro","l
Ii:, r. SrIEO
Ueseal'l'h lAbs.
Houleler. Colo. llCmY.!
nol ne..._ril)· II... O"e ,,·hi.·h io perfeclly eonductilllt.
More ...iII be .boul Ihill.ter.
A inl lilll '" or Fill. 2 i. Ihe mann..r in
..hi"h II +nI varies ilh ""for the dillerenl value-or there.('Ian...
I••r.meler I. In leneral, ".• _ lhal ... "'. i. from I('ro,
I I +n I de..reues 10 a minimum, then riHI &I"in to aubllidiary
m"ximum, .nd tMn Olldllale- .·ith a ripple. As
indiUled before (5), for the ea... I - 0 Ihe "att.rn e.n be interpreted
...." i"Ieri""n.... bel"''''" Ih(' dire", r",li,,"i,n, or Ihe dil.n'. ""d
Ih.. t1irha..lio" from Ihe edlt.. of Ih"llrnu"d '''Fe('". The .il""li"" i•
.imilar for nonzero value- of I, bUI no,,· Ihe fillt null in the pallern
O<'''Ur.l .t .nllle!<. This is a <'OftlIequenre of the redured ph-
v..ln"il)· of Ihe"lround" ell..iled b)· lhe dipole a10DI the llIOu"d

The dl1..ndenre of Ihe Ilround ureen modifi".Iion '.etor II + II I
0" the exlenl or Ihe lround I<'reen is .ho..n in Fi" 3 for K - 3
a"d for the .. .nlliet'. Various values of the
...a"Ianrl' p.r.mei..r I .re aOOwn. The d.....ndenee on A:b for the
I - 0 ...... io enlll'Urll'nl ...ilh Ihl' ellperled of
II In ftrb)"'. A aimil.r trend obierYed for olher of I u"
10 .bout 0.1. For I.,.er values of I, there ia. marked dqradation,
parlieularl)' for the I....r kb values.
Olh.r ('.I('ul.liollll (7) .ho... that for I vallJell of ord.r of 0.1
Ih. lo,,··alllie radi.tion i.. maximized. This enhaneement etan be
.ttrihult'rl to the trapped .lIri e ...ave "h""eler or the ltrullnd
"·"'·e l''d over .n imped." hou"daf)' Ih.1 hL< ." ."I"eciahle
illtlu.. tiv. l'OmIJOn.."t. In f.el. Ih.. malt"illltl" of the Ilrollllll ...ave
""".."u"Iin,, f""..Iio,," I", .........1 if Ihe "nml'ric'"
.Ii-'s".... ""r"n,..I..r I" I i. ill Ih.. r""ltl' frum I to IU ..hil(' al Ihe
-"n... lim...'11" > o. Th Mlltlitinno "'" me' ov.r • porlion or
Ihe di.lanre r.llle in the p nl ..
Thl' "",ulls li"(',, ill Ihi. ""I.. iIIu'lra'e Ih.. r",h..r .ilt"i(j,·ft"l
n\ll.IiIi.."lin". for IOn indu..liv.... tn... Ilr"III111 ". "f Ihf' ra,liftlio"
rrum \IF 1"1..,,nll.". It io h.lir,·..d I".. 1, "1 ,·al,'ulali"". arr Ihr
lire. tIl .hn,.· Ih••ITI'.·I .., " IIUIl.-i·lrll"I 1sur1ft,·.. "'''''1' n..
Ihr Itrollllli ."....". While Ih.. nllld.,\ ..11IL.i.t. or a" Izinllllh31 'ylll·
m..lri ".I..m. the r",,"lt. "an h.. apl'li".1 "'ilh " ronlidl'n... 10
..... " _h", ....1 Ilrou..d orreen. if th" s....tnr is dire.'ted 1""'1\1.1 the
",,'t'ivi"l!: 1",i"I, or roul'«'. Ih.. ""Ilulnr ,,·i,I," ..f Ih......."" ,hnul,1
lit- to ftt Ir:l.o,;l out" .'"rrsnrl J.nllr. ftS
in.hrlOlf'C1 ill !lOme d..l"il.IOC(',..h"... (5).
Th.. n.ajnr ...."" from Ih.. 1' "1 "·,,rk i- thllt • l..
..n"tlu"li"lt ltrou",1 ...teen ""' ' Ihe ,rllllllli "rr('t''' ir
lu,,-.ftn«lfl radiftlinh j" to !lfl maxirni7.(ltl. "'f' rtnphn.o,;i:u·,
Ihsl Ihi" rn""lu"inn must'" I.m!,,1 Ih.. r..aliz.,i"" Ihal Ih"
\·..rI i..,,1 r.di.lio" "al'(' I......Jt'Cirahl(' ill h.. I",,-·.ulll. radi", ill"
.. n.uift\ized.
III J R. ".".od w. A, rop<'. "lnplI' r••I•••n.... of LF unlpolr ar'I.'...·
..·..,1,.. E",.... \01. 32. PP 131-138. M.) 19:1:1.
121 J K \\"alt. Utfl)1)" of an &"'4"nn& 0\-'" an tnhomornt'oul
.round pia,",:' an £I,rtromo:rn,.ur Throrl/ ."" Aft,,.,,nOJ. E C.
Jnrdan. F.d.,d. Enslan I'('rs.mun. ,.y. 10711-109•. IlIG3.
131 \\ E Guo••rlOn. W, M ('ha••. anrl 1". " lIalll, "Uround .)·....m
EI.-ctronlcs Lah.
loll J lIorn. "A numf'rtcal anal).I. of IIF ...'c-ndrd·IIC"r'or .rnund
I,_.pmoe:· ", !t. Elr<'tronl ..." J..ab. (C.-n,rr), "an Uholto. CaUl.•
Itrp. I no. Jan. IIIG; ..
•!l1 J It \\" 31t. "("harartrr'&"'" n' .nl,·nn:l. nn"' tn".)' "n" h. In ..'n,,,.. ,,n
71l,. ..,I'. It F. (.'uilin and t· J ZIu-kf\r. t:,,- !'litO" \ ..rk Mrliru"·
IGI .. .:!ndC"I
21, CnnlA' Tit,. "/ n.."rsiftn "·vftCfion.
:\:,." \'or'" A,.df'mlr P"n. 11\(,1
I;, J. II "ait and 1\. P ""."1. ··aldiatlon from. nrllral dlP.!c'l.. '1I1h
AIi Cit
kb -100
----... \
"', \
'\ 0.1 \
" \
0.2 \ \
" \/1 , /J
\ ,
' ...
DeDeDdeDCle on wlrt.. mesb ,·.rlous ft&C'taattl
of wire meall for" - 3.


Fl•. 3.
... 16
+ 14
AFCRL-69-0404 4070000 -051178000
James R. Wait and Kenneth P. Spiea
Envtronmental Science Servtce. Adminiatration Reaearch Laboratorie.
Boulder, Colorado 8030Z
Contract No. PRO.CP-69-8Z4
Project No. 5635
Taak No. 563506
Work Unit No. 56350601
Scientific Report No. 47
September Z3, 1969
Diatribution of thl. document ia unlimited. It may be releaaed to the
Clearingbouse, Department of Commerce, for aale to the general public.
Contract Monitor: Philipp Blackamith
Microwave Phyaica Laboratory
James R. Wait and Kenneth P. Spies
ESSA Reaearch Laboratories, Boulder. Colo. 8030Z
The far field of a vertical electric dipole on a aectionally homo-
geneous ground plane is considered. The specUic model used is a
dielectric-like ground which is modUied by USing an in,,' wire
grid or meah screen in a region surrounding the dipole. Attention is
focussed on the modification of the radiation pattern resulting from
the presence of the inductive ground screen. It is demonstrated that
the low -angle radiation may be greatly enhanced by a screen
which extends out to 15 or more wavelengths. However. some rather
curious e({ects are nO'ed, such;u pronounced lobes in the vertical
radiation pattern when the reactance of the meah acreen ia of the
order of 0.1 times tile characteristic impedance of free space.
The performance of HF antennas is adversely inUuenced by the
presence of a poorly conductinc Iround. Unfortunately. for one
reason or anothflr, it is sometimes required to operate a communi-
cation system with at l one terminal over ice, frozen ground. or
other dielectric-like material. In such cases, the low-angle radiation
is Ireatly reduced. One remedy is to raise the antenna to a height
of several wavelenlths. While this may suffice for certain appli-
cations, it usually is accompanied by deep nulls in the vertical
radiation pattern, not to mention the increased cost of the support
structure. The other remedy is to employ a wire Irid or mesh
Iround mat beneath the antenna. Not only does this stabilize the
impedance of the antenna but, if it is sufficiently extended, the
vertical radiation pattern will approaCh the ideal expected for a per-
fectly conductinl ground plane. There is now a substantial literature
(l.SJ on the subject of extended ground screens coverinj both theo-
retical and experimental investigations.
The leneral theory of the radiation field has been discussed
rather extensively. The method used is based on the compensation
theorem which is closely related to the Lorentz reciprocity relations
for vector electromalnetic fields. In the actual calculations, it is
ueually aeeumed that the current distribution over the Iround ecreen
is identical to that for the eame antenna located over a perfectly con-
ducCinl Iround ecreen. U the wire spacing in the ground screen or
mesh is eufficiently small this may be an excellent approximation,
However, in the leneral caee, the currents excited on the ground
screen will be attenuated or modHied due to ti.e non-zero value of the
effective surface impedance. In the present paper, we plan to ex-
amlne th,S question. To facilitate the discussion, an idealized
model is employed.
The situation iB illustrated in Fil. 1. A vertical electric dipole
is located on a nat ground. The effective surface impedance of the
ground system is a conscant Z' out to a radius b from the base of
the antenna. The ground beyond radius b is caken to bave a conscant
surface impedance Z. In the present formulation. we as sume that
the system iB rotationally symmetric. The consequences of this
assumption are discussed later on.
The radiation field E. for a time factor exp liwtl. at a
distance R and elevation angle "0' is expressible in the form
i ~ w Ids
-ik R
W· (COS" )!....--
o R
k = Z"/(wavelengthl. and Ids is tbe
.. " • 10 •
where ~
current moment of the dipole. Here. W' is a pattern function
normalized such that it iB unity over a perfectly conducting ground
plane of infinite extent Ii. e •• Z· = Z = 0). Now. foUowinl an early
de rivation IZ].
where R = Isin" - (z/." ))/lsin" t (z/." I). ." = lZO", and
v 0 0 0 0 0
n is a "modification" wbich vanishes if the Iround screen is absent
Ii. e., Z· = Z 01' if b - 0). In the limitinl case of no Iround screen.
W' =W = (ltR)/Z = sin"/lsin" t (Z/.,,))
v 000
Here, Z/."o is tbe normalized surface impedance of the "unmodified"
ground. If the latter is homogeneous andlossless, we have
where K is the relative dielectric Constant of the dielectric ground.
The corresponding result for W is ellact. U no·"e focus our
attention on low grazina anales. we aee that
W .. ~ /(Z/r, ) (5)
o 0
wbere (Z/"o) .. (l/K)t(l - (I/K)l'. and "0 ia the IIrazinl angle
in radiana. U. for e x a m p ~ e . K =l. we bave
W .. ~ o (l/Z') "0' 2..1Z
wbile. if K =10.
W .. ~ o (lO/l) = "0 x 3.1&
At a typical anile of 3
we have W " 0.111 and 0.1&5 for K " 3
and lO. respectively. Tbis "cut-back" effect,where W varies linearly
with ~ o at low a con.equence of locatinll tbe antenna over a
dielectric-type IIround.
The modification of the surface Impedance in a circular region
of radiua b. from Z to Z'. reSults in improving the "cut.back"
by a factor of 1 + O. Alao. it can be Shown (Z) tbat the around wave
field of tbe dipole ia aho modified by the factor 1 + n. wbere this
is to be evaluated aa ., - O. In fact. aa We will aee below. 1 + n
ia esaentially independent of "0 for small anglea While. of courSe.
tbe pattern factor W· .tself varies linearly with "0'
The working formula lor n which forma the basia of the present
paper ia given by
n", _.!..L. Se-
kp W Ikp)(l +
• -p ,
W Ikp) = 1 - dllp)' e erIc Ii p )
i k "( Z',,\z
P = - T T) and F ~ (Z-Z'llr
Here. J
i. the
Be••el funchon 0 of order one while W i. a "ground wave attenu-
ation function" which accounts for the modification of the tangential
magnetic field by the finite .urface impedance Z' of the around
.creen. Often. W i. replaced by unity which is ju.tified. of course.
if Z· =0 and if back renection. from the edge of the ground .creen
are ignored (5). Some .implification. and limiting ca. os of (01 are
di.cuued in the Appendix.
Actually. (01 wa. derived on the ba.i. that 41
i. a .mall
parameter. but thi. a ••umption i. not overly renrictive and. in
fact. tl can be u.ed up to 30
or .0 with nealiaible error. Also.
it .hould be mentioned that the attenuation function W
ia u.ually
derived on the ba.i. that Iz'/., I « 1 but. in fact. thi. i. overly
re.trictive. If. in fact. the value of Z· i. employed which i.
appropriate for gradng incidence. W
i. valid even when z'/Tl
not .mall (5-7). In any ca.e. for pre.ent purpo.... we will a ••ume
that the formula. are valid. Furthermore. the modified .urface im-
pedance Z· will be imagined to be compo.ed of the parallel combina-
tion of the around impedance Z (ev.\luated at gra&ing incidencel and
the effective impe4allce Z of the wire grid. Thu••
Z' Z Z I(z + Z I
a a
wbere Z =Tl K-
(l - K-ll
. ia the .urface impedance of the
ground for gra&ing incidence. If tbe wire grid .pacing i. much leu
than a wavelenatb and if obmic lo••e. in the wire. are negligible. we
know that Z ia purely inductive. Thu•• we .et
Z i Tl &
a 0
where 6 i. a dimen.ionle.. reactance parameter. A good approxi-
mation i. 6 • (d/l. ) 1011 [d/(Z. c)] + 5 where d 18 the .pacing
o , c
between the wire. in the me.h, >'0 18 the free-.pace wavelength.
c 18 the wire radiu., and 5 i. a correction factor which i.
negligible if d/>.o 1••u!!icienUy .mall [1, 5]. For pr..ent purpo....
we will not dwell on the geometrical parameter. ot th. wire grid. but
.imply .pecUy the effective value of 6.
We .tre•• that, in the pre.ent paper, the ground 18 •••umed to
be a 1o••le.. dielectric. While the theory ha. been developed for
a .eneral di..ipative ground, it .implifi.. the if the
relative dielectric con.tant 18 taken to be real. Ttli. neglect of
conduction currenU i. valid when -;1K ( w «1. w here a 18 the
conductivity of the ground.
A numerical evaluation of (6) was ca rried Oul for a wide ranlle
of the parameters tl
' k b. K. and 6. The ranlle of intellration
was suitably .ubdivided and a C.Uulan quad.ature was applied to each
",ubinterval. The detailed tabulahons of the pattern factor W' and
the all-important parameter 1 + n are available from the authors.
Here. we will present some of the results in Ilraphical form and
discu" tile physical signiftcance of the radiahon patterns.
In Fig. Z, we illustrate tile magnitude of 1 + n aa a function of
the arazing angle '0' The ordinate Which ia ZO 10110 11 + n I ia
the decibel ratio of the radiation field with and without the ground
system. For this liaure. the radius b 01 the ground .creen is
(lOO/Z" p. 0 or about U. wavelenath•• and the relative dielectric
conatant of the (lo••le••) around i. 3. Varioua value. of 6. the
normali:&ed Icreen reactance. are .hown. Actually. 6" 0 correa-
ponda to a perfectly conducting Ie reen of radius b Ii. e •• the wire
spacing d is eflectively zero). The other two curvel (i. e •• for
6 " O. 1 and O. Z) correspond to typical valuel of the normalized
reactance. All the curvea in Fig. Z illustrate that 1+ n is approach-
ing a weU-elefined limit al ~ o tendl to zero. The magnitude of the
orelinate for tbe.e lmall valuea of ~ o is a mea.ure of the ability of
the ground Icreen to enhance both the low-angle Iky wave radiation
anel the ground wave from the dipole. Immediately, we lee tbat the
"be.t" around acreen i. not necellartly the one which i. perfectly
conductina. More will be laid about thi. below.
A particularly interuting feature of Fig. Z is the manner in
wMch 11 + n I variel with I/J for the different valuel of the reactance
parameter 6. In general, we lee that as "'0 is increased from zero.
11 + n I decreales to a minimum then rile. again to .ubsidiary
maximum and tben olciUates with a slnuloidal-1ike r\pple. As
indicated before for the case = O. the pattern can be inter-
preted as an interference between the direct radiation of the dipole and
the diffraction from the edge of the ground screen. The situAtion is
for non-sero values of 6, but now the first null in the pattern
occurs at lower anllel, Thil il a consequence of the reduced phale
velocity of the'.round wave" excited by the dipole along the ground
The influence of the extent of the ground screen is illultrAted in
Fil. 3 for 6 =0 and in Fig. 4 for 6 =0.10. A s expected. at low
angl.s. the pattern modification factOr 11 + aI is proportionAl to
for 6 .. O. but thil il only approximately true for 6 =0.1 •
Alao. we s.e from Fil. 3 thAt. for 6 =O. the factor 11 + aI hAs
a relatively weak dependence on 1P
' at least for low angles. Again.
as expected,for 6 .. 0 the first null occurs at the lowest angles for
the larlest value of k b • A similar but more marked trend is seen
in Fia. 4. Here. aaain the relauve Slowness of the ground wave on
the screen is producina a more drastic mutilAtion of the pattern.
The dependence on the relative dielectric constant K of the
ground is illustrated in Fil. S for k b =100 and 6 =0.10. While
only two values of K are shown (i. e .. 3 and 101, the results are sufficient
to demonstrate that 11 + al. at low angles, is greater for the lower
value of K [i.e., around acreena are most effective (or the poorer
ground conditions). Also, we note from Fig. that the general (arm
of vertical radiation pattern Ii. e., the variation with 1P
is not
critically dependent on K.
The dependence of the around screen modification factor 11 + al
on the extent o( the ground screen 18 shown in Fig. b for K = 3 and
for the vanishingly small grasing angles. Various values of the re-
actance parameter 6 are shown. The dependence on k b, (or the
6 = 0 case, is fully consistent wltn the proportionality of a to (k bl'. as
in tne Appendix. A s.mllar trend is observed for other
values of 6 up to about 0.1. F 0" larger values of 6. there is a
marked degradation. particularly for the larger k b values. The
same e!fect is observed in Fig. 7 "'hen K =10 .
The actual dependence of 11 + nI on 6 is illustrated in Fig. 8.
Here. we see that, for 6 values of the order · ~ f O. 1 • the low-angle
radiation is maximized. This enhancement can be attributed to the
trapped surface wave character of the ground wave excited over an
impedance boundary that has an appreciable inductive component. In
fact. the magnitude of the Iround wave "attenuation function" WI
may exceed unity if the numerical distance parameter Ip I is in the
range from about 1 to 10, While at the same time, al'l p> 0 •
The.e coolditions are met over a portion of the distance range in the
present calculations.
The departures of the attenuation function W
from unity over
the range of the distance p are illustrated in Tables 1& and Ib for a
selected set of parameters. The values of W
based on (7) are shown
in the tables in complex polar form. It is evident. for the distance
ranges involved. 'N I exceeds unity by a substantial amount. How-
ever. if the reactance 6 is increased beyond about O. 1, it is evident
that IW I decreases signi£lcantly below unity. Thus. the behavior
of WI indicated in Tables 1& and Ib is consistent ",ith the feature.
of the radiation patterns discussed above.
Table 1&
Amplitude and Phase o! W for K =3
kp 10 I. 055 (-3.4°) 1. ZZ4 (-19.7°) 1. HI (-41. 5°)
ZO I. 078 (-4.8°) I. 3Z3 (-Z8. 5°) 1. 306 (-60. Zo)
50 I.IZ7(-7.70) 1. 5Z3 (-47.1°) I. 335(-99. 3°)
100 I. 183 (-11. 1°) 1.744 (-69.8°) I. 179 (-146. 0°)
ZOO I.Z68(-15.90) Z. 004 (-105.3°) 0.696 (-146.8°)
300 I. 337 (-19.8°) Z.IZO(-135.Zo) 0.310(-99.8°)
Table lb
Amplitude and Pha8e o! W
for K .. 10
6 O.OZ O. I O.Z
kp 10
I. 053 (-3. 5°) 1.169 (-ZO. 1°) I. 075(_38.1°)
ZO I. 076 ( 4.9°) I. Z37(-Z9. 0°) I. 069 (- 54.4°)
50 I.IZ3(-7.90) 1. 36Z (-47. 4°) 0.990 (-86.9°)
100 1. 178( -II. 3°) 1. 477 (-69. 4°) O. 81Z (-IZ3. 0°)
ZOO 1. Z59 (-16. Zo) 1. 563 (-IOZ. 8°) 0.495(-169.4°)
300 t 3Z4 (-ZO. Zo) 1. 546(_130.1°) O. Z86 (-16Z. 7°)
The results given in thia paper illustrate the rather significant
modification, for an inductive-type ground screen, of the radiation
from HF antenna.. It is believed the present calculations are the
£irst to sllow tile effect of a quasi-trapped suriace wave excited on
the llround screen. While the model consists of an azimuthal symmetric
system, the results can be applied with some confidence to sector-
shaped llround S••-':"'ns if the sector is directed toward the receivinll
point. Of course, the angular w;Jth of the sector should be sufficiently
1arlle to encompass at least one Fresnel zone, as indicated in some
deta,l elsewhere [S).
The major conclusion, from the present work, is that a perfectly
conducting llround screen may not be tbe best llround screen if low-
angle radiation is to be maximized. We empnasize, however, that
this conclusion must be tempered by the realization that the vertical
radiation patterns are less desirable if tbe low-angle radiation is
Analytical Simplifications
While the general equation (6) can be employed for numerical
work. it is desirable to investilate the analytical structure of the
intelral form and examine certain limitinI cases.
First of all. we decompose (6) in the following manner:
F S-ix (, 1:...."\
- -- e +""iJ J
cos !Po I I 0
k F S -ikp Q 1 "\
- --.,- e W(kp) 1 + .-k dp
cos.. I I p., 0
o a
Now we usually choose the parameter ka so that, for 0 < x < ka.
W(x) can be approximated by 1 in the integral for 0a while, at the
same time, ka is sufficiently large that J
(kp cos !Po) can be ade-
quately represented by its asymptotic approximation in the intelral
for 0b'
With the judicious choice of ka indicated, we find that
Ci (ka)
Se -iX(l + 1....', J
('" cos I/l ) dx
tJV 0
is an integral which has been tabu""ed and discussed rather
thoroulhly [BI. Thus, we can dispense with it.
-13 -
In the integral for n
' we now utilize the fact that k p » 1.
Then. in the integrand,
I + _1_ ... I
i k P
. -i k p(l +coa "oIJ'
- 1 e •
I [S W(kpl e -ik(l - coa !Polp
(ff kit p ~
(9bl ia approximated by
k F
(Z coaa!p It
n ...
Now, for small analel of 1/1
' we lee that the fint integral in aquare
bracket. above ia dominant becauae of the hiahly oaci1latlng term
exp [-i k (l + coa !Polp] in the aecond integral. In fact. thia aecond
intearal can be interpreted aa the contribution from the back edge of
the ground acreen. WhUe thia contribuuon could be retained without
difficulty, we will diacard it here.
Uaing the definitiona of
ia aiven by
F .''It/4 "'k);Sb
nb ... ( a i L ~ .
Zcos !Pol a
i k; cz; Se -czp
W(kpl liven by (71. we now find that (61
-i k (1 - coal/lolp
e d
? P
where a = -i k (7..'/"o
/Z. Now. the first integral in the aquare
bracket above can be converted to a Freanel intearal and tile aecond
lation. we lind thac
can be evaluaced by intearation by parn. Thull. alter lome manipu-
n •
'k(l .'1 (4kb/lll'lin(Cl/ZI
I -COli.. S 0
I exp( -i(tr/l) ZZ] dz
o (4 kal Ifl t lin (1/1 l'l)
i (k eslt , ,
es+ik(l-cOllfl) (- esb • ik(l'COI"o)b] erfc (i(Gbl ]
U now "0 O. we obt&in the limiting form
U. in addition. lince Ies a I hal already been auumed lmall.
Fei3ft/4 k t ."b t
• zt (;) [e erte (i (esb) ) • 1]
n ..
F i)"I. t b t f
e zi \,.-;) [e-e erfc (iles b) ] • e -ea erfc [i(ea) ] ]
In the extreme lbnitina cale where I es bl «1. we obt&in the aimple
which il W.,U known (sl. It correaponda Co the caae where the around
wave auenuation function WI iI effeetiyely unity over the wllole ex-
C.,nl of the Iround Ie reen. Thia can be aeen by returninl to 113) or
(H) and aettinl "
F e
n •
O. Wllinee ,
(4 k bJ\r) lin (l/I IZ)
a,n 721 r exp (-i hr/Z):Z] d z
o 14 k aJ\r); ain 1$ IZ)
which is also well known (5J. Then. it now we let ~ - 0
o .
n • F(ZkI'll')t (b
_ at) e
F(Zkb/ll')t e
which is consistent with (17) above.
(1) J. R. Wait and W. A. Pope. "Input resistance o! LF unipole
aerials ... Wireless Enlineer. vol. 3Z. pp. 131-138. May 1955.
(ZJ J. R. Wait. ''The theory o! an antenna over an inhomoleneous
,round plane ... in Electromasnetic Theory and Antennas, E. C.
Jordan. Ed. Oxford. Enlland: Perlamon Pre... 1963.
pp. 1079-1098.
(3J W. E. Custabon. W. M. Cha.. and N. H. Balli. "Cround system
eHect on HF antenna propagation. "Report No. 1346. U.S. Navy
Electronics Laboratory (C.nter). San OielO, California. 191>1>.
(4) J. M. Horn. "A num.rical analysis a! HF .xt.nd.d-••ctor ground R.port No. 1430. U. S. Navy El"ctronics Laboratory
(C.nt.r). San DieiO. California. Jan. 1967.
(5) J. R. Wait. "Characteristic. o! ant.nnas ov.r los.y earth...
Cn. Z3 in Ant.nna Theory. Part l. R. E. Collin and F. J. Zu;k.r.
Ed.. N.w York: McCraw-Hill. Inc•• 191>9
[I» J. R. Wait and C. A. Scalak, "N.w asymptotic .olution for the
electroma,netic £ielels o! a dipole over a .tratUi.d medium...
El.ctron. Letten. vol. 3. No.9. pp. 4Z1-4ZZ. 191>7.
(7) R. J. KiDl' "EM wave propa,ation over a con.tant impedance
plan.... Radio Science, vol. 4. No.3, pp. ZS5-Z&8. April 19&9.
(8) J. R. Wait and L. C. Waltere. "1A£luence o! a ••ctor around
.creen on the field o! a vertical antenna... NBS Mono,rapta No.
&0. IS April 19&3.
Fi.. I The e..ential ,eometry .howina a .ide view of the dipole on
the nat 'l'oWld plane.
kb =100
K= 3
" 10
0.1 \
~ \
8 \
. ,
'- ....
Fi•• l The mo4ific:&tion. in d.cibel., of the radiation fi.ld of the
eli pol.....ulliD' from the of Ut. ,round aC"e.n of
raeliua b. He...,.e.bow til. on til. ,raain,
anile .0 &Del til. nonnaUaed ...act&nc. 6 of Ut••ire m••h.
Fil. 1 The dependence on Irazinl anile for Yarioue wire-meeh
ecreen diameten for effectively zero wire epacinl.
Fl,." The dependence on ,razinl an,le for Yarioue wlre-me.h .creen
diameten for non-zero ware epac,nl.
kb =100
Fil. S The dependence on Irazinl anile for two) dielectric COn8tanu
of the Irollnd.
FII. II The dependence on the wire-me.b .creen diameter for "'1'1011.
reactance. of the wire me.b for K A 3 •
8 0.2
0 100 200 300
Fil. 7 The dependence on the wire-me.h .creen dia.meter for variou.
reactance. of the wire me.h for K. 10 .
.", =0°
kb= 100
Fia.' The dependence on die ellecti"e reactance of the wire mee"
lor two dUler.",c ·Ii.leeerie eOn.tanU 01 U,e aro_d.
1.20 Hill, D. A., and J. R. Wait, January 1973, "Calculated Pattem of a Vertical Antenna with
a Finite Radial-Wire Ground System," Radio Science, Vol, 8, pp. 81-86
(Reprint No. 488)
Reprinted with the permission of the American Geophysical Union
ltIIdio .sc.,,", Volume 8, Number I. pqes 11-86, January 1973
Calculated pattern of a verticalanteDDa with a
finite raclial-wire pound system
Daid A. Hill IIIfII Itllllu R. Wait
IIUIiI.. '0,. 0' ..llic,,'iOIl$
US 0' C__rc" CoIorllllo IOJ02
(Receiwed AulUst 7, 1972.)
Tbe apprapriate form for abe lUfface impeduc:e of a radial-wire pouDd lerecn is utilized
to obIaiD quantitative eIIec:ts of the impor1allt parametcn (number of radials, Icnath of
radia", wire radius, aDd around coastants) on the low-anile radiatioD of a wrtical antennl.
An apprcWmltc correction term is derived to account for CUIRIIt. reftcc:ted from the edae
of abe screen. The dfed is ....u for Iarae acrectIS, but it may be impor1allt for IIIII1Icr SCreeDS.
. cap (-,.,)(1 + 1/lk,)J.(k, eoa ,y) dp
wberell is the fint-order Bessel function and W'(k,)
is the unknown attenuation function.
The determiDation of W'(k,) is a considerable
task in itself, :lnd consequently, we choose to make
the simplifying assumption W'(kp ) =I. The validity
of this assumption for an nponentiall)' tapered im-
Wire ground screens are commonly used to en-
hance low-angle radiation from HF antennas. The
theory of impedance ground screens has been treated
quite aenerally [Wait, 1963, 1967a; Collin tmd
Zuelen, 1969), and extensive numerical worlt has
been done IWait and Walle,s, 1963; Horn, 1967,
1968). The complication of an exponentially varying
impedance ground screen bas also been ell8mined
[Wail, 1967b), and an integral-equation approach
has been used to determine the attenuation of the
JrOund wave over the screen [Wait and Spies, 1969,
Here we consider a radial-wire ground screen
which bas a variable impedance as a result of its
variable wire spacing. Through the use of such a
ground screen, the dependence of the low-angle radi-
ation on the important parameters (number, length,
and ndius of radials) can be directly examined.
.Also, the importance of the wave relected from the
edge of the screen is evaluated by an approxmiate
method. Such an evaluation is importat'lt since the
possibility of such waves is ipored wben using the
ulual impedance representation of the ground screen.
The pometry of the transmitting antenna and cir-
cular screen is shown in figure 1. The screen is of
radius a while the source is a Hertzian dipole of cur-
rent moment Illacated at the ori!in. As indicated,
tbe elevation an,le ." equals' - ",/2. In addition, Z
is the impedance of the ground, while Z' (,) is the
parallel impedance combination of the screen aDd the
The far-zone radiated magnetic field witb no
screen present, H.O(",), is given by the geometrical-
optical formula
H:Cit) - IlIkll exp (-iJu)J!4,,,"(J + R.) cos ,y (I)
R. - (siD ,y - (Z/lh)J/(sin ,y + (Z/"o»)
Z/". - t. -.'1(1 - (cos' ,y)/t.t"
where c, is the relative complex dielectric constant of
the ground, Ie is the wave number, and '10 is the in-
trinsic impedance of free Ipace. In writing (1), and
in what follows, exp(i.J) time dependence is as-
With the screen present, the far-zone magnetic
field is liven by
H.(,y) - H:(,yXI + Q. + 0,) (2)
where 0,. k a correctinD for the wave reBected from
the edge of the ICIftIl and wbere
Q. - (-Ic/eoa,y). W'(Ic,):lZ - Z'(p)JI",,1
V.,. I. Vertical electric dipOle located at the teDler of a
radial-wire .rouDd ICrHn.
z ~ - - - + - - - ' - - . p
far-zone pattern. Since a rigorous computation of the
reflected current would necessitate the solution of an
extremely complicated boundary-value problem, we
choose to make the following simplifying assump-
tions: (I) the reflected current at the edge is the
negative of the primary screen current (equivalent
to -I reflection coefficient), and (2) the reflected
current propagates inward with the known propaga-
tion constant for a wir;: located at the interface. If
anything, assumption (]) above will be an overesti-
mate of the magnitude of the reRected wave.
Now, the primary surface-current density carried
by the screen at ,. =a is given by
Z. - (iI.I".pl N) In (pI Nb)
where b is the ndius of the wire (assumed perfectly
conducting) aud N is the number of radials. By sub-
stituting (3) into (2) and making a change of vari-
able, we obtaia a form suitable for computation:
0. _ -(Z/,.)
(exp (-lx)J(I + I/IJt)J.(x cos "') (4)
•• J + /1Jt/(Z/".)NJI (In (xl Nkob») dx
Evaluation of (4) and numerical results are dis-
cussed Jater.
pedaDc:e bas been studied by Wail aM Spies (1970J,
ad they point out that the assumption is essentiaUy
a pbysical-optics or Kirchhoff approximation. Their
Dumerical results iDdieate that this approximation
yields. slightly larJet' value for I + n. than the
more riJOl')\lS c:aIculation ia some cases, but almost
no difference in others.
The parallel impedance of the screen and ground
for grazing incidence is given by [Wait. 1959J:
(I - R.hin 1/1 ... (I + R.XZ/".. ) flO)
J:(o) = [E,(o)]/(Z.(o») (5)
Furthermore, the radial electric field can be approxi-
mated by
E,(o) ~ -Z,'(a)H; (0) (6)
where H.· is the mngnetic field which would eAist if
the ground were perfectly conducting.
Using (3), (5). and (6), the reflected current,
I/(a), at the edge can be written
J;(a) ~ [Z/(Z + Z.))H'-(a)
__ {kll(1 + I/ika) exp (-ika)
=211'011 + ika/(!\·(Z/".)) [In (ka/Nkb)lI (7)
Then the inward traveling current 1:(,.) is approxi-
mated by
J;(p) ~ J;(a)(a/ p) up [- ik..(o - p») (8)
where k. =k«c. + ]) /2]'n is the propagation con-
stant for the wire in the interface (Wait, 1972]. The
factor (a/,.) results, of course, from the convergence
of the ingoing wave.
Now that the current density is known, the far-
zone reradiated magnetic field Hf1'( ",) can be calcu-
lated from a straightforward surface integration.
H;(I/I) ~ ll-ik(l - R.) sin 1/1 exp (-llcr»)/4..rl
.[ PJ;(P>[{W cos. exp (Ik,. cos t/I cos.) de#)] dp
where the factor (I - R,.) sin '" C3n be derived by
reciprocity. The. integr3tion can be done exactly by
using the integral representation of the first order
Bessel function. Also, we note that
at 1/1 ... 0
Z'(p) ~ ZZ./(Z + Z.)
Since the edge of the ground screen re-..ults in a
dilcoDtinuity in the surface impedance, a reftected
wave is to be expected. Equivalently, since the cur-
rent of the ends of the radial wires must be zero to
satisfy the continuity equation, a reflected current is
necessary to produce zero wire current at the end.
Since this current is normally neglected, it is desirable
to determine whether it bas a significant effect on the
We note that for large ka, n. becomes quite small.
This is to be expected, since the individual wire cur-
rents decrease, and the increased spacing results in
an effectively small surface-current density. Equiva-
lently, this can be thought of as the result of a large
surface impedance at the edge of the screen.
In order to estimate the importance of reflected
curnnts, the quantities: 1 + 0,,1 and 11 + 0" +
were evaluated for various screen sizes, numbers of
radials, and complex dielectric constants. n. was
evaluated by a numerical integration of (4), and n.
was evaluated from the asymptotic form in (17). A
comparison of the two quantities is given in Figure 2
for a moderate-size screen (ka = 30). The value for
Finally, on substituting (16) into (14) and replac-
ing k. by its definition in (8), we obtain
a.-- up (-ikQ)
(2dG)'''(costl-)312«(1 +Ii/cQ/lN(Z/ '10)11 [In(ka/Nkb»»
•{exp li(kQ cos tI- - 311'/4»)
(I. + 1)/2)'12 + cos tI-
+ exp (-I(ko cos tI- - 3r/4»} (17)
(e. + 1)/2]"5 - cos ft
where Z is the ",-dependent form as given by (I).
Consequently, H.·(",) is given by
H:(ft) (k(l + R,XZ/f/o) up (-ik,)]/z,
•[ pl"(p)/.(kp cos ft) dp (II)
The change in the far-zone pattern due to reflected
current n. that was introduced in (2) can now be de-
fined by:
0" H."(ft)/ H.o(ft)
ClIi! (I + l/tkG)(Z(!f)/f/o) exp (-I(k + k.)o)
- COl ft II + tko/(N(Z/..»In (kG/ Nkb) I
.r" 1.(% cos ft) exp (l(k./k)K) tbt (12)
where Z(",) indicates the oit-dependent form rather
than the grazing incidence form that appears in the
In general, the integral appearing in (12) requires
numerical evaluation. However, for large screens
(i.e., lea » I) and if k", has a significant imaginary
part [-1m (k,.4) » 1J, the main contribution to
the integral occurs for large 1l. Consequently, the
Bessel function is approximated asymptotically as
-- 1I/(2n)"']
• lex&- (I(z - 3r/4») + exp (-I(z - 311'/4>11 (13)
Consequently, n. can be expressed in the form
I. -- f[-I(k/G)''']j(k. :± k cos ft)1
'exp IllG(k. :± k cos ft) =r (311'/4>11
(Z(ft)/f/o) exp (- I(k + k.)o)
The leading term in the asymptotic of
/. can be obtained either from the asymptotic expan-
sion of the Fresnel integral for complex argument or
from an integration by parts. Thus, in either case.
J. - ellp (=r 1311'/4)
·r" «Iexp (i(k./k:± cos JI.)KJI/%"'»d;c
By a change of variable, we find that
J. - /(exp (=r13r/4)]/(k./k :± cos ft)"'lI
e...... ".
. ° I(exp (a)]jz'''1 d.r
Icb corresponds lO #14 wire at a frequency of 30
MHz. The effect of re8ected curreots is less than .1
db for aU angles, and, fOr larger screens, the effect is
even smaller. For small screens in which the effect
may be of some importance, the asymptotic form
in (17) will probably not be valid, and a numerical
integration of (12) is required. However, Cus should
pose 110 problem since the integration interval (O-
lea) will not be large.
The ellect of the number of radials for a larger
ground screen (i.e., lui = 60) is shown in Figures
3 and 4 for two representative values of c•• It is seen
that significant improvement is obtained by increas-
ing the number of radials. For both cases. the ellect
of n. is insignificant.
o 25 30
Fi,. 4. The etfect of the Dumber of radial' for a larpr
dielectric CODlWlt: t. = 10 - i 2. All = 60. aDd kb =
0.512 X 10-

-1'.410 1
---1,.41 0. 41.1
o 10 15 20 25 30
'" (deQrees)
Pia. 1. TIle dect of eclae-reftected curreots: All = 30;
kb =0.512 X 10-
, •• =3 - I .3. aDd N = 150.
The effect of screen size is shown in Figures 5 and
6. It is seen that little is to be gained by increasing
u and that the pattern becomes more oscillatory at
luau anlles for increased u. Again. the effect of
0. is illlignificant.
It was found that the effect of currents reOeeted
from the edge of the screen is quite small when the
screen is reasonably large (i.e., kD > 30). Howevcr,
the situation is not quite so clear-cut for smaller
screens, and a numerical integration is required to
yield quantitative results.
For radial-wire screens, greater improvement can
be obtained by increasing the number of radials
than by increasing the lengths of radials.
Since these calculations are based on a simplified
model in which the unknown attenuation function of
the ground wave is set equal to one, a worthwhile ex-
tension would be to solve the integral equal for the

Fla. 3. TIle dect of the DUmber of radial, for a l1li8"
diellclric COIIIWlt: •• =3 - I .3... = 60, ud kb =
0.512 X 10-

o •

o 5 10 15 25 30
'" (deQrees)
Fi,. 5. The effect of screen size for a ""In dielectric con·
lIant: '0 = ] - , .3. N = 100. Ind Ab = 0.512 X 10-

o 10 15 25 30
'" (degrees)
FiJ. 6. The effect of ICreeD Iize for a Jaraer dielectric: COD-
ItaDt: •• =10 - I 2. N =100. ib =0.512 X 10"'.
attenuation function. Such a procedure would im-
prove the accuracy of both n. and n•. However, we
do not feel that the conclusions would be appreci-
ably modified.
AclcllOwled,,,,enu. We would lite to tbaDk Pbilipp
Blac:f!smitb for iastiptial this study. aad Nra. Loys Gappa
for ber belp ia PrepariDl tbe IIWIUlCript.
Edllor'. Note. Raden are mDiadecI tbat ia 1biWD1-
Irae:tion DOtalion. fI/be is to be interpreted to mean
Collia, R. E., aad F. J. Zucker (Eds.) (1969), Anrtnna
vol. 2, pp. 316-432, McGraw·HiII. New York.
Hom, J. M. (1967). A numerical analysis of HF elltended-
sector lrouad systems, Rrp. 14JO. 52 pp.. US Navy
Electronics Laboratory. San Dielo. Calif.
Hom. J. M. (1961). HF patteras of mono-
poles aad elevated vertical dipoles witb aad witbout ell'
tended pound aystems, 1567. 142 pp.• US Navy
Electroaic:s Laboratory. Saa Dielo. Calif.
Wait. J. R. (1959).011 tbe tbeory of reflectioa from a wire
arid parallel to aa interface between bomoaeneous media.
2. A"pl. Sd. Re••• Sect. B. 7. 35S-36O.
Wait. J. R. (1963). The tbeory of an antenna over an in·
homoaeaeous lfOUad plane. in rheo,.,
find Ant"'"".. part 2. edited by E. C. Jordaa. pp. 1079-
1097. Perlamon, New York.
Wait. J. R. (l967a), 011 the theory of radiation from a
raised electric: dipole over an inhoDloaeacous around
plane. Radio Sd., 2(9). 997-1004.
Wait. J. R. (l967b), Pattera of a line.r anteana erected
over a tapered arOUDd Kreen. Cfln. 1. Phys.• 41, 3091-
Wait, J. R. (1972). Theory of wave propalalion alonl a
thia wire parallel to an iaterface, Radio Sci., 7(6). 675-
679., J. R.• and K. P. Spies (1969), Fields of electric dirole
on radially iDhomoaeneous Iround surface, Electron. UII .•
1(20). 478-479.
Wait, J. R.• and K. P. Spies (1970). latelnl equatioa
appro.cb to tbe radiatioa from a vertical .nteaa. over
aa iabomopneoul around plane. Rt«lio Sci., 1( I), 73-79., J. R.• aad L. C. Walten (1963), Influence of •
sector around KRea on the field of • vertical antenna,
Nflt. B",. SttIIUI. (US) Mono,r.• 60, 1-23.
1.21 Hill, D. A., and J. R. Wait, March 1973, "Effect of Edge Reflections on the Performance
of Antenna Ground Screens,· IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, Vol. AP-21 ,
(Reprint No. 503)
Reprinted with the permission of the IEEE
Effect of Edce Reflections on the Perform&Dce of
ADtuDa Ground ScreeDs
DAVID A. HILL AND JAMES R. WAIT for _putiDc til••lfect of tile •••e reflected
....reI f,.. tile ..,. of circ1IIu poud &Cr.... I. developed.
JII_aricaI rwuJq ..... dlat til. n8ect.d •••• II Ullilllportut to
til• ....-. 01 ftrJ Iaqe __ad oaIJ 01 ...u lmportuc.
for lDOdarat••• _, Ro....r... til. acran size i. furtller
til. nlati•• lmportuc. of tile r.Sected .... ilia......
"'ire pound llftftn••re U!!td to improve Ihf' pto.-
fonnanre 01 HF antennu Opt'r.tinc in thf' prt!!'enre of •
eoDdllctinC poIIIId. The improvement in the radiation Mid has
been elltenllively (1}-[4], .nd thf' IIlf'lhnd 01
• 11I bued on the compton.alion thMrem. In .ut'h tre.lmenlo, Ihe
effeet of a ••vereflf'Cted in...rd from the ed.. of the l'<'reen
been conaidend necli,ible. In thi. communication "'e deyelop •
metllod lor ..a1u.ting the import.nre of the in..ard reSected ..aye
for circular cround SCreeIJS of coostant .urface impedance.
The &fOmetry i!l illustrated in Fill. I. A vertiul Hf'rUian dipolf'
of current moment 11 located al Ihe cenlf'r of a cirt'ul.r rrollnd
screen of radii'" a. The effecliye allrfart' impedance of Iht' Itrrllllld
')'lItem ill a Z', .nd lhe around be)'ond a h.. a
_tant .urfllCe impedant'e Z.
The lar·_mapetic field H.(II-.) CaD be writtea in the follo..inC
f_ (I]:
H )

• (h - 4.... (l +0) (I)
• here R. - (ain 11-. - (ZI",)]i[.in 11-, + (Z;••l], k i!l thf' "a...-
Dumber. '" .. tbe imlteda..rl' of free ap_••nd an up (iwl) de-
pendenec j,. _umcd. If lhe ..-n....d j,. hOll\Oll!neolll, tbe
lurfllCe iIIlpedanee ZI... is given by (4]
; -(!r[1 -
• bare .. is the rel.liye t:omplell conalant. Thf' lerm 0
aecounta lor the of the ICreen and YaDishes if the ..reea
ia abient.
As indicaled b)' (l) lhe' p""ern ill modified II)' a lat'lnr
1 + n. It can .h"..·.. lhal II... It''''"''' ..·.ye • mudiMd by
1 + n, .here 0 a1l1aled .. 11-. appruacllfll sero [I].
For CODftIIiIIIee. n is DOW aptil inlo t.o peru:
lIIa.lIIer1p, _"ed October :I. re..1Ied '"o,·....ber @.
TIlM work ••• 1»' the Air Forno C••_,. RMearrh
Th. aulhors w..h the omee 0' T.I«OlnmunlcaUou. '.llIIulf' 'or
for T-r-.u "on Iiden.,.. I'. II. u......,.elu 0' Co••err?
8ou1d•• Colo. 11I:I02.
FII l. \'Drllcal ele<1r1e dipole ., .,..,.,.. 0' dreular _ad __.
",hrft'll. i. thf' ILollal 'oml "'hirh nrj!'.... '. "."....tint,. f.lll. II... f'<11t"
of Ihf' 'rrf't'n and 0, i.. a t'lIrrt'C't illn Irrm "'hit'h fll. Ihc
,.lIf't"ioD. First of all "'I! kao,,' Irom previoWl .ork (1] thaI Q,
is &iyea b)'
Do. -F [e
(-ik,,)lI',(k,,) (, + ) J,(k"cna II-.)A:J" (4)
COlI 11-. e ••"
..hf're F • (Z - Z') I",. J1 i.. Ihe fi..I-order 8eAse1 funclion aad
lI'.lk,,) • I - i(1r')'"l!lCp (-pI erft' 1;,'"),, • - (ik,,/2)·
(Z· ....)•. ID the preeedinc, II", i. a .......nd ..aYe aUenuati..n fllnrlinn
..hit'h Ill'C'OlInla lor thf' mndifirlllinn ..f Ihl' nIAlt....lit' '"'1<1 lhe
finite ollrf_ impNMl'f' ?'. In emernJ, a nllmerical evaluation or
(4) .. required, and the .ubatitllliun r • k" ill Wleful.
The modified turf_ imped.nce Z· is _umed to be the parallel
t:ombinationof the pound impedanl'f'Z lalll-•• 0) andtbeeffeeliYI!
impedance Z. oIlhe "'ire crid [4]. Th\lll

(Z +Z.)
If 'hl' ,,·i,. «rid opat'in« i. murh I..... than" "'''Vl'll.'nj!lh And Ihe
"'ir"" arf' t'ondul.'ling. Ihf'n Z, i. p... indurliye (3], [4]
and "'I! m.)· sel Z•• i"."' is and independent
of ".
An ""timate "r 0. ran he derivl'd Ihl' mllllnl'lie
fit'ld over lhe 10 int'ludt' a rt'ftf't'lt'd "'''Vf'. •
this i.< equiyaleat lo rt!1lTiting (-I) "'ilh the fullu"'ing'raasformatiun:
ellP (-ik,,)lI'.(k,,) (I + i:,,)
-exp (-ika)II",lka) (1 + R("l (6)
R ).FU
[-iklll-")]II·[ka_ )].
(" 2(2.. )'"(k(a _ ,,)]"' • ( "
The factor R(,,) ill • ,.fIetotion funclion ",hHoh ....... deriyed from .n
earlier inyolying re8eclinn of a ..-ound ..ave Irom aland_a
hound.,,· (5], ad we _ume here thai H("l i. nul affeeted the
curvatlll'f of the bouDdllr)·. The oinllliar nalure "' R(,,) at" - •
'Ullf"ta th.t the intecral be "plil inlo an inlecrable term inyolvinc
tbe .incularity ad a I'l!IIIIiDder. Th...
0. -"up[-i(ka +../4)] tr (ka) (1 +..!..) I (7)
2(2"COOhl'" • ika •
I. - 2(ka)'"J
(h_#.) +1- (loa - Z)-IIII-JI(kacoeh)
+lI'.(ko - z) exp (-i(ka - z)]JI(z coa#.) I dz.
The intf'lrland no" is ...eU behaved, and (7) is a .uitable form lor
Dumerical evalualioa.
III. N"IIEItICU IlElllll.T!l
A numerical evalultion of and (il "'M carried "ul for r,,"ll""
01 intet'P."1 of #.. ka, ... and •. It ...... found thaI, lor
(kG IIIUI, n. had an in.i,;nifit'Anl.ffecl «0.1 dUl ,",11,1' quantil)'
I + o. In FiC. 2 "'e iIIu.<lrlle _nit". 01 ..-alill'; illridenet' f". a
('OftduetiDC around. for I..·u !IOme"'hal smaller l'CreellS.
E\".n here, the mwmum differenre in the curves ...·ith .nd "'ilh"nl
1M ,.lIecled ..aye is onl)' abuut 0.2 dB aryl the vallie of • "'hit'h
)'wld! the muimum yalne of II + 0 I alll-•• 0 j,. _ntillll)'
unchaneed· M ka .,._. the ratio 10.11\ Q, I inCftllel. 110...•
.... __ON ANTI':NNU AND PIlUPAGA'ftON, .UL AP.2., NU. 2, IIAllnl ID73
_.. -S.-1.6
11le ..,.118 eonfirm tile fir earlier e.lC'lIl.t.i1l1ll1 'ur I••
JI'OUIId _ ....... relleeted 'rom edtte or tile IIeIftIl
ha" been MJleeted. In, eYen ror moderate 1Ii_ Cia 25),
the relIeetion" are rel.ti"')· alld dll nllt ehanl" the
JftIefai trendA. 11,...."" ... b dftre-... relatiye importanee
01 the refleeled 6eId .
_ . ...u __are USIIalIy of minor interest beeauJoe they
do DOt fth8nee the radiation field lIIIfIieien'ly. n....'.. 'or I.......
_ are Pown in F.... 3 and -I, with .1. hein. illllilnifieant Ion
papbinl .euney ill _h _. 11le optimll1n ..Iue of • dee...-
qbtJy witb t. and with inere...inll I., I .
The optimum ..Iue or , ror "'. - 0 )·ielcL. a Mloirable patl.em
'or hillier anp.. (4). Thi. ill ....11 ill Fill:. 5 1\'hprp the pattl'm
'or the optimum .alile of , 'or "'. "0 (a._ detprrnillt'd 'rom Fill. 3)
.. eompU't'd to the p.ttern or thp C'lIl1duetinc diRk. For
........, the DIIIla are ... to or.eur 'ur _aller .alllll of "'to

.,., ..•

...... o..-'.ee .. ' fer ............. _.
I 1.1 U U 1.4

.... 1. __ fIl ............ ......-........ _.
II I' .. U 1.4 U

.... t. - whII .....
1.22 Wait, J. R., September/October 1980, "Low Angle Radiation of an Antenna Over an
Irregular Ground Plane," extracted from "Atti della Fondazione Giorgio Ronchi,"
Vol. 35, pp. 576-583, (Florence, Italy)
(Reprint No. 689)
Reprinted with the permission of the Fondozione Giorgia Ronchi
extracted from fiAtt! della Fondazione Giorgio Ronchi"
Anno XXXV, N.5 - Settembre-Ottobre 1980 -Pagg. 576-583
Firenze , Italia
Low-angle radiation of an antenna over
an irregular ground plane
JAMES R. \VAIT(*j,lnsmUle lor Tdeeornmunic..ion Scicn<n. U. S. of Comm.-rct:,
Boulder, G>lorO<lo IlOl02.
RIASStn.'TO.. U"",Jo ,I ItO,..",. Jt/lJ C_pt'Uol:Io.t. II It "pTtman,
.J """,0 J.<, ('limp. J, J, ",,'fl"It"". II ",OllOpoiU ptJflfl fOp'" "na
JIIPI",;t,t '''rca/llfe" "011 c'o"dUII"",;' Ii"".. Si cOI""in4 tl (IUD oJ '''''''''''''4 J, fO/",·
llu"t. r: 11 tlppll(flIIO I ''fI''''_" "I ,:(110 ,,, ('II, J'J1IU1IU poJ/tJ lOp'" 'mil 1""1111/11''''11
Clreal." CO" pJrt't, mcl'lfllU, Si mOil'. thr II tllMiticno J'Il,,"""" l'unl":/lJ,,,. Jdlc
and... Ji 1('"" 10"0 "'''lJ('U'' dn ntl c/"o J. "".1 u,pt,/irlt ,.If,I",,,,t>mrn/C' P,,,,114
SUMMAltY.. U,,,,,, ComPt"wllon /ifJ/-ot'Je-, t'xpft'ssmns 11ft ubllllnc·J
/1)' Ihr: fdJIJJJun JidJs ,,} oJ ''''JlfOpul,· .ml""ntl lucoJuJ 0&'(" till "',"(111", emu"J JtI,·
IdCe ,,,,,,b ti",te ('o"Jue/U'Il\' Tbr Il:,mulh,dh' eflJC II CtJnJ,Je,C"J JnJ fh..·
,(,ulll tlpftl,cJ II) n/rulllJn Ihr "'flffUp04.., If IfA"JIt'J on tln d ..·..·"h·J
,,,,;,,1.,, pi4lll'tlU u:llh sin"",,, siJC'I. II If If,JKlllc,i Ihlll Ibc ,;nlt'''''' Roll", find
1."'''''4 U,.,,·C ,,"Xc:lltlllrJ,, r"/u,,,cJ 0,," 11:111 to, J II",If),,,,h lI.,t Jur,JCc
Thcre ore a number of important applications where thc irrcl:ular
Ilround surfacc influcnccs thc dcsired performance of antennas. For
pic. in man\' H. F. communication "·srcms. the total transmission 1055 is
criticalh' dePendent on the nature of 'the radiation at (all' an!:lcs from the
Iransmittin!! antenna.
In this nOtc. we "ment a !leneral lirsr-order thea'" for calculating
the radiation field uf a monopole antenna located on or over an irrelllJlar
bounda,,·. The development is based on the elecrroma!!neric Compensa-
tion Theorem in rhe form developed b,' Monteath f 1) over twen,,' years
a,:c. The lull srope of the Compens:lri;'n Theorem has not a)\\,a,;s 'been
appreciated, since Monteith only illustrartd irs application to relarively
simple problems. Also, ir has only been realjzed quire r«enrly rhar me
formulation is sufliciendy general ro facilitate integral equarion solution
of rather complicattd problems (21. For the present, however, we shall
invoke physical approximalions wirh a view 10 obtaining relarively con·
cise 6rst-order expressions for the radiation pattern of a vertical monopole.
As illustrared in Fig. I, we located a verlical electric dipole of effec-
tive length /. al point A over a delerministic suriace ;: =f (x, )' I, where
;: =0 is the reference surf"ce. Al some point B located in Ihe (x.:l plane.
we have a similar electric dipole of etfecl;,'e lenglh Ib , The dislance or
ranlle between ;1 ;lnd B is R, and rhis srraillhr line sublends an anllie 9
with Ihe posilive :·axis, The Ileneral problem is to calculare Ihe mUlual
impedancc belween rhe two dipoles for ;l prescribed surbce profile f (x, y)
;lnd irs electrical properties.
Firsl of all. u'e assume Ihal the mutual impedancc ZAO belween the
dipoles is knou'n for the SImpler auxiliar\' problem uf havinll I (x. )" = 0
ever,'where, and rhe : < V /0 I"" :I h"mlll:t'nt"us half·spaee.
The concspondinc mUlual impedance for the aC1\la( "r"tile ! (x, )'\ is denu·
teJ as Z'AH, wliere the rmme the unknown llr <luanUlI',
Munteath's formulation III ot the Compcnsatlon Tht'urem tell. us imme·
.lialdy that:
In [I), Ihe lermmal currents In Jlpoles t1 and B arc I. anJ I.. respecti.
vely, and E. anJ H. arc the kno",," field, of dipole B for the aUl(llialV
situation, whereas ['. and I j'. are the unknown fields for rhe acw;ll pro-
file where : = I (x, ."1. Here, the intellrauon of rhese quantiries is over
the surlace Ihal comcld" '\'Ilh : =;1.<, '" and is closed bv am' surface
ar some larlle nel!aul'e ,'alue of :. 'IX'" here Ihal il is pos.
sible 10 selecr rhls lower surtace so lh;lt us conmburion to the ',urlace
integral in [I) is nelllij!lble The unu ,'ector is rhus rhe ourward normal
ro surbce : = I (::c. )'1, as indicated I.' Fill. 1. For relarively j!entle
we can see rhar the Caneslan components at are I!iven b\':
The electrical characrerlStlc. "i the actual suriace arc to be descri·
bed bl' Ihe Leonlo"lch or ,UrlJtc ,mpe<bnce bnundaf\' condition, This
surface impedance 1)' (x. y) may be a slowly varying function of the hori·
zontal coordinates x and y. Strictly speaking. it should not vary signifi.
cantil' in a distance equal to 'y-I:. where y is the propagation constant
of the medium for :: < I lx, y). Then. for convenience, we dJaracterizc:
the homogeneous hal£·space in the auxiliary problem by a constant surtace
impedance 1).
ii =f(x,y)
A..... _
Flc. I
An .pproximate solution.
Adopting the various simplilications and physical approximations de·
setibed abo\·e. we now can write down the required field expressions that
are to be inserted in [11. Here. we assume that the dipole B is etfectively
located at an infinite distance from the surface. Thus. the relevant unpri·
med field components ovet S are:
E•• = ..n n.- i'R /'" <01. Ii nO (/'f
-l- .-"f
." R
E " f}., I. I. 0 - j'R ,.4(> <0191;ne ( "f <ole - "f (010)
•• - I ,-, •
R. W,,;/
H•• _ -; j 1.1• •- ,jR /1i<J ce•••in
(.'j[ co.O +,- ,j/ co.O )
These correspond to the field of Hertzian dipoie Orien-
ted at right angles to the radius vector R and a current equal to
the real part of 1. exp(iwtl, where w is the angular frequency. Here,
k:: wk is the free-space \\·avenumber. and 11" a.. 120:: ohms. Also. as
indicated in Fig. 1. qI is the azimuthal anglc with reierence to a cvlin-
drica1 coordinate system Q. ;). In 'Iddition. we should observe lhat in
writing [21. [3J. and [4], we arc. in elfect. that the rderence
surface at ; =0 is a relatively good conductor.
Now the primed or unknown field component' over S arc postulated
10 have the form:
• 1.. 1.. -,.t)
H •• = !:'I t" (I + cos•. F(·.',.) G(:.,:)
E' - ',.,' M E' •• --'1 ... ••
where F (p, <;l) is an «attenuation function. that to a firsl approximation
is replaced by unm·. In writing [5 J. [6 J. [i]. .md [8]. we assume that
the field components J;e the same as Ihose of a \'ertica1 Hertzian dipole
located at ; = O. but modified by a suitable height'j!ain function G (;•• ;)
that depends onl\' on the heights of the dipole A and the observer over
the surface ; = O. It is important to note that these primed expressions
melude near field etfects.
Lou"<I/fglt ,l1di<lIlO/f 0/ 11/f 11/f/t/f/f"
To proceed further, we observe that:
- -. " - - . of . or
(1:111':' H.- E.·,,- H,}.,,::: £., H EhH IIIZD)"
+ H'e", - E' •• Hili. & - f'd HilII'
Here. we [.'lte that the sum of the latter h"O terms can be replaced by
Tl' II'.. H" b\' virtue of [il:
Usinl! "ll the equations. we lind without difficuhy that:
l'•• -Z.,,.
,. '"
{ (
. "" <059 "nO [
. .Jf:'/" Jl.', . , cosO 110 UrcosO) COSq:l
. .
l)! ,)'-" 1 I
..-(059<05('f(05·')r2:;i:;·(I"".\')' '. Fh·.9)
(121 l.

2·' H
\X'c nOlC here that Z.. is the mUlual Imp"..lancc of the two .lipoic, if the\'
were lueated on a flat l'Crtcctl\' conduclIn!: plane and 'cpar;1\ed b\' a di·
stance R. ;\1,0, in wrllin:: [10 J. we ha"c' assumed that G 1:_,:) = 1.
An immediate simpli(,callon of [101 occurs ""hen Tl', I and aI/up ,tre
independent of the aZimuth an!tle r:>. Then. we can use the followmg
kno\\'n lormuias trom Gessel luncllon thcon':
zl:t .f :Zt:OSQ .It;> '= )" lZ)
-;",' ( /Z COJ" (os. 4t;> = i, (Z)
Then. [101 becomes:
(I'I Z'••;:Z•• --Afl[rcoIQlin(AfcoIQ)- "',:" cO.(Afcola)]J,(.I,••;nQ)
where F (p) is azimulhallv svmmelric allenualion funclion.
In Ihe case of a flal surface I = iJl/iJp =0 every",'here;
rhus [15 J reduces 10:
This expression or closely relaled forms have been used 10 predici Ihe
form of Ihe radialion pallem and Ihe enhancemenl of Ihe surface wave
fic:lJ of antennas wilh larjle grounJ melallic jlrounJ >creens [3 J. [4 J.
In such cases, 1)' is reJuced to be much less Ihan 1) and/or Ihe impedance
1)' is made 10 be effeclively induclive so Ihal F (p I may be enhanced over
Ihe ground syslem.
Another spc::cial case is 10 ,,110"" Ihe surface (a be evcrywhcrc pcr-
fectl" conducling. Tllen, 11' = 11 = U {or all \'"Iues of p. Cunse<juent/".
( 15] reduces 10:
Z'... - z.."
= - •.1 f 1
COl (.If COlO) J. ..nO).
On sClllng F (p I = I, which is a rcasonablc approximalion. Ihis rcsull
reduces 10 an cquivalcnl form dcm'ed by Pagc and Montc:llh (5).
Onc ralhcr rc"calinll c:<ample is to ICI 1) = O. corresponding 10 an
assumed pc::rleclh' conducllng sea Ihal occupics Ihc rCllion P > b. Wilhin
Ihis c.rcubr ,sland. wc havc a circubr plarcau of radius IJ wilh a flar lap.
At Ihe same IImc, wc allow e_ 90·. corresponding 10 grazing incidcncc.
For thIS case. we can \\'rilc:
1181 Z'•• ::: Z.II--'- n,.,.. n.1
(191 O,-.j (1+ ),-i!l1JI(!Q)F(Q)JQ
Thus n. is the of the field resulting from the electrical pro-
perty of Ihe «island *. while n. is the corresponding modifi-
calion due to the non-tlarness. As menrioned above. n, has been discus-
sed on numerous occasions. The lopographical effect represented
by n. is usua!J)' ignored. although. in many applialions. lhe transmiuing
monopole is on a blutI or some olher elevated terrain feature. To
its effect. we assume that the beach of the island has a uniform
downward slope. so thai - al/ap is a positive conslant that we desillnale
by 1\. Also, 10 simplih Ihe discussion. we assume thai Ihe radius of the
plaleau is much greater than a wavelenllth. Thus. k4 and kb> > I. and.
consequently. J. (hpJ. can be replaced by the first lerm of its asymptotic
expansion over the intellration ranlle in [201. Thus. we find lhat:
With suitable assumptions aboul the form of f (p), Ihis inlellral an be
evalualcd in lerms at error inrellrals of complex arllumenl (01). The essen-
lial nature nf Ihe problem, howcver. appealS if we recollnize Ihal Ihe
contribution from the varyinll lerm i exp ( - 2ikp) can be nelllec·
led. Also. over Ihe region iI < p < b. lhe slowly varying function F (p)
can be replaced by F (il I. Thus. [21] reduces 10 Ihe remarkably simple
[11\ 0. (Z K «U)t - (..)t\ 1'(_) _ lK (6 j,)t - (_:I.)t) 1'(_)
where A. is the frec-spxe wavelength. For example, if blA. =lOa.
ilf). = 601, K = 0,1. and assuming f (iI) = 1. we sec thai:
0. 0.• x /",.
This corresponds approximatelv to a 01 dB gain. For Ihis case. Ihe heillth
of Ihe plateau above Ihe sea is 3.6>', and Ihe sloping beach eXlends over
a radial dislance equal 10 36A..
AClualh·. the improvemenl of locating the monopole on an elevaled
plateau applies also to the elfccti\'e ground wave radiated for a given
10 R. WlUI
current moment (3l. Thus. the main conclusion from this analysis is that
the elevalion of the ground plane should be consideted in any design of
surface wave launchers for high-frequency radio waves over the sea.
0) G. D. MosTEAnl. ApplzeD/IOIIS 01 l'OmptlUtlIlO" th('()r,m to ...."'ttm
,.wIOl,on and Proc. I.E.£. (London •. \'01. 98. pp. 2}·}0
(2) J. R. \\/AIT .lnJ K. P. SPIES, InU1,rfl/ 'n ,!-t. 1.1,ilo1I10'1
/rom .J IItrlICill ""'t!",,d OVtr "n grounJ pi"",. IUdlo xi., \'01. ,.
No. I. pp ;}·;9. JJn. (1970).
(31 J R. Tht' thtor, 01 "" 11"""".1 ovt, In ",hom0r..tntoflr riJIt("
Theory and AnleM.'. E. L. Jordon. Ed. a.lurd. Per,a·
man Pres. (1963).
J. R. \V"IT 3nd K. P. Srn:s, 0" th, '4JiJtlon I,om II L'UII(Ji JUIO/c' "'lIh
." indue;'"t wlrt'-I."d "round svsum. l.El:.E. Trans. 'Antcnrus ;lnd Prot' .. \'01.
AP·IH. Nu. pp. luj,' 119701.
(5) II. PACE Jnd G. D. MONTEA",. Th, v"I,caI ,"';,."on {hIU<rn ..f .."J,um
a.",ur. Pro<. I.E.E. (Lunolon). vol. 1028. pp. 279·297 119",
J. R. Wait
5 March 1990
of H.F. extended-sector ground
NEL Report 1430
Following the publication of the Monograph by Wait and
Walters(1963), a series of unclassified reports were issued by
investigators at the U.S. Navy Electronics Laboratory (now known
as the Naval Ocean System center) in San Oiego. We will identify
these as NEL 1346, 1359, 1567 and 1430 in the order we discuss
them below.
W.E. Gustafson, W.M. Chase, and N.H. Balli, Ground system effect
on high frequency antenna propagation, NEL Report 1346, 29 pgs.,
4 Jan 1966
G.D. Bernard, W.E. Gustafson, and W.M. Chase, HF extended ground
systems: results of a numerical analysis, NEL Report, 52 pgs.,
24 Feb 1966 , NEL report 1359
J.M. Horn, HF vertical-plane patterns of monopoles and elevated
vertical dipoles with and without extended ground systems,142 pgs.,
25 Jun 1968, NEL Report 1567
J.M. Horn, A numerical analysis
systems, 52 pgs., 14 Jan ,1967,
These four NEL reports were distributed widely including
libraries and they were released to the Federal Clearinghouse now
known as NTIS (National Technical Information Service) • Now such
are in the public domain. Thus we need not describe their
content in great detail. But it does seem appropriate to identify
some of the significant results and conclusions reached by the
authors. In some cases, an alternative interpretation of the data
is offered without meaning to detract from the noble efforts of the
NEL'investigators .
In NEL 1346 it is pointed out that the ground based monopole
with extended ground screens may have a major advantage over elev-
ated vertical antennas (with or without ground screens) if pattern
}obing is to be minimized. With this motivation, the authors under-
took physical. model for circular ground sreens employing both
square meshes of various sizes( t to 4 inches) and radial wires
with various angular separations ( 11 , 2t and 5 degrees). This exp-
erimental program became by using frequencies in the
VHF range (130, 250 and 360 MHz) which were appropriate to model
frequencies lower by a factor of 12 when a relatively well conduct-
ing ground site was selected e.g. 0.1 mhos/m). Some useful and
meaningful pattern plots were illustrated by the authors to confirm
the expectation of enhanced radiated fields at low take-off angles ..
Dr. Gary BeLnard, who was a consultant to NEl,presented a con-
cise tabulation of the experimental data along with results gener-
ated by computer calculations using the formulation in Wait(1963)
and Wait and Walters(1963). This comparison of experiment and theory
is reproduced here from NEl Report 1346. The calculated quantity
tabulated is equivalent to 20 In I 1 + 1\a I in dB . The source adopted
is a vertical (ground based) electric dipole at the center of the
circular screen. Actually the experimental data were obtained using
a quarter wave monopole with a small radius (impedance stabilizing)
ground plane . The general agreement between experiment and theory
is reBsonably good. It is also worth noting that, for low take-off
angles,the angular dependence of the field is small. This is part-
icularly the case for 130 MHz (i.e ka = 16 ) which is the lowest
test frequency.
Further radiation pattern calculations are reported in NEL
1359 which again are based on Wait and Walters(1963). The frequen-
cies chosen were 4, 8, 16 and 32 MHz. The full circular ground
screen radius varied in octave steps from 2 to 128 wavelengths and
the grid spacings were 6, 12, 24 and 48 inches, The ground conduct-
ivities chosen were 3,10, 30 and 100 milli-mhos/m with correspond-
ing dielectric constants of 4, 10,20 and 30, respectively. In each
case, computations were carried out for vertical (take-off) angles
of 2, 5, 10, 15, 20 and 25 degrees. For all computations, the ground
system was circular (i.e. full azimuthal symmetry). The copper wire
size was No.l0 (American Wire Guage) . The source in all cases was
assumed to be a short vertical current element or (infinitesimal)
electric dipole.
Some examples of the extensive calculations, from NEl 1359
are shown in Table 2 where the quantity Ein dB is again the quant-
i ty 20 In I 1 + A
I • Here G represents the improvement for the
antenna with extended ground screen compared with the same element
over the imperfect ground when the dipole moment is fixed • In this
example,the ground conductivity is 10 milli-mhos/m and the dielec-
tric constant is 10. In the case, where the radius is a = 16 wave-
lengths or ka = 100, the results.fOr 32 MHz, for the smallest mesh-
spacing, are compatible with Fig.2a, in Wait and Walters(1963) car-
ried out for a dielectric constant of 9, zero ground conductivity,
and an assumed perfectly conducting ground screen.
In NEL 1567, many additional calculations are reported again
for the fully circular ground screen •• for the most part, the res-
ults are based on Wait(1967)'s paper for vertical electric dipoleof
finite length erected over the center of the ground screen. Many
graphical plots are presented in a format which allows the reader
to see the relative enhancement of the low angle radiation when an
extended ground screen is employed. As J.M. Horn, the diligent
author,points out the advantages of such a ground screen are re-
duced somewhat for elevated antennas. Also, as indicated before,
the economic benefit,of large ground screens over well conducting
ground, is small.
In 1430; Horn deals with thE sector ground screen geometry,
using essentially the formulation of Wait(1963) and following the
methods outlined in Wait and Walters(1963). He adopts the ground
based quarter-wave monopole which would not be very different than
for the infinitesimal dipole model unless the ground screen was
less than several wavelengths in size. Horn includes a listing of
two computer programs. One is based on the mesh ground screen
where the effective surface impedance Z' is essentially a constant
and the other is for various radial wire configurations where Z'
with radius.
In the four above mentioned NEL reports, it is stated that
the ground wave is ,it is true that the results
are presented in the context of the modification of the radiation
fields - due to the presence of the ground screen. But the quaritity
I 1 + Jl
I tabulated , for low angles (e.g. "'0 = 2
), is applic-
able to the modification of the ground wave field as compared to
the case of no (or small) ground screen for a fixed current at
the terminals of the transmitting dipole. It is a pity that the
NEL investigators did not carry out their calcUlations for the
grazing condition where "'0 -+ 0
as done in Wait and Walters
While there is no reason to doubt the accuracy of the cal-
culations in the four NEL reports, one might question the validity
of the results in cases of very low conductivity where sparse
ground screens are employed. In such cases some of the initial as-
sumptions apPear to be violated.
( r e p r ~ d u c e d from NEL Report "1346)
(20 FEET =2.5 WAVELENGTHS AT 130. 5 MC/S.)
Radial Wire Separation
Elev. Angle
Square Mesh Size
1/2 I 1 I 2 I 4
130.5 Mc/s
1. 25 I 2.5 I
5 4.9 4.9 5.1 5.1 4.7 4.3 3.8
10 5.2 5.2 5.5 5.4 4.9 4.4 3.9
15 4.9 4.9 5.1 4.9 4.9 4.3 3.6
20 5.0 5.0 5.2 4.8 4.8 4.1 3.4
25 4.8 4.8 4.9 4.2 4.5 3.9 2.8
250 Me/s
5 4.6 4.9 4.9 3.6 4.9 3.7 2.3
10 5.0 5.0 5.0 3.2 4.9 3.4 2.0
15 4.8 4.9 4.6 2.2 4.2 2.6 1.6
20 4.6 4.5 3.9 0.5 3.8 1.9 1.1
25 2.8 2.3 1.4 -2.8 1.4 -0.4 -0.3
360 Me/s
5 6.7 6.8 6.7 3.5 6.4 4.5 2.5
10 6.9 6.9 6.4 3.0 6.1 3.9 2.0
15 6.9 6.9 5.7 1.3 5.5 3.2 1.6
20 5.6 5.1 3.3 -1.2 3.4 1.7 1.0
25 2.4 1.6 -1.1 -1.5 1.3 1.1 0.6
(20 FEET =2.5 WAVELENGTHS AT 130.5 MC/S.)
(reproduced from NEL Report 1346) .
Quarter Wavelength
Measured and Modified. Short Dipole -- Computed
Elev. Angle
Square Mesh Size
1/2 I 1 I 2 1/4 I 1/2 I 1 I 2 I 4
130.5 Mc/s
5 4.9 4.9 5. 1 4.2 4.2 4.2 4.2
10 5.1 5.1 5. 1 4.4 4.4 4.4 4.4 4. 1
15 5.5 5.4 5.4 4.9 4.9 4.9 4.8 4.4
20 5.0 5.1 5. 1 5.3 5.3 5.3 5.2 4.8
-- --
25 5.0 5.0 5.0 5.7 5.7 5.6 5.5 5.0
250 Mcfs
5 6.4 6.8 6.6 5.7 5.7 5.7 5.5 4.6
10 6.2 6.4 6.3 6.2 6.1 6. 1 5.8 4.9
15 6.7 6.9 6.4 6.6 6.6 6.5 6.1 5.1
20 6.2 6.3 5.7 6.7 6.7 6.6 6. 1 5.0
25 5.2 4.9 4.1 6.2 6.2 6.0 5.5 4.3
360 Me/s
5 7.3 7.7 7. 1 6.7 6.7 6.6 6. 1 4.8
....-._- f-._-_..
10 7.1 6.5 6.7 7.2 7.2 7.0 6.4 5.0
15 7.3 7.6 6.3 7.5 7.5 7.7 6.6 5.0
20 6.2 6. 1 4.3 7.1 7.1 6.8 6.0 2.9
25 3.6 3.2 1.1 5.3 5.3 5.0 4.2 2.8
• Extrapolated from results with 2-foot-radius impedance ground.
Table 2
Gain G in dB for large screen relative to small or no
screen for ground conductivity of 10 milli-mhos/m and
relative dielectric constant of 10 (reproduced from
NEL Report by Gary Bernard et al.)
A. 4 Me/s
0= 2 ,,= It O. 983.5 It

Mash Spacing (inch.. l
6 12 24 48
1.3 1.3 1.3
13 1.4 1.4 1.4
IS IS 1 S 1.5
17 1.7 17 16
20 2.0 2.0 18
2.3 23 22 20
flu. Mesh Sp.cing (inch..)
Angla (da,.) 6 12 24
2 1.9 1.9 2.0 1.9
5 2.0 2.0 2.0 1.9
10 2.3 :1.3 2.3 2.2
15 2.7 2.7 2.7 2.•
20 3.1 3.1 3.0 2.7
25 3.3 3.3 3.1 2.7
00& 16 A. It
2 29 29 2.9 2.7
5 3 1 3.1 3.0 2.8
10 3.7 3.6 3.5 3.2
15 1 1 3.9 35
20 39 3.8 3.6 3.1
25 27
26 24 20
o = 32 A= 7868 It
2 6.2 6.1 59 5.3
5 68 6.7 5.8
10 6.2 60 5.7 50
15 33 3.2 31 27
20 2.6 26 2.5 2.1
2S 2 2.• 2.2 1.9
2 •. 3 4.3 4.2 3.8
5 4.7 46 4.5 4.1
10 5.4 5.3 5.1 4.5
15 4.5 4.4 4.2 3.6
20 2.5 2.3 2.0
25 3 1 3.1 2.9 2.5
•• 64 A. 15.736 It
2 8.6 8.4 8.1 7.3
5 8.9 88 8.4 7.5
10 4.0 4.0 38 3.3
15 3.7 3.6 3.4 3.0
20 2.8 2.8 2.6 23
25 2.5 2.5 2.3 2.0
... 128 A. 31,472 It
flu. M..h Sp.cin, (inch••)
An,l" (d",.) 6 12 24 48
2 11.2 110 lOS 95
5 9.6 9.5 9.0 8.0
10 4.3 4.2 4.0 3.5
15 4 0 3 9 3.7 3.3
20 3.1 3 0 2.8 2.4
2S 2.6 :l5 24 2.1
0= 2 A.. 245.9 "
To"'e 2 CDllt.
8 8 Mc.•
Elov. M..h Spocing (inch..)
Anglo (clog.)
6 12
2 22 2.2 22 20
5 2.2 2.2 22 20
10 2 I
IS 2.6 26 2.6 2.1
20 3.0 2.9 2.8 2
25 3.3 3.3 3.1 2.6
o. 8 A.. 983.5 "
2 A.A A.3 U
5 A.7 A.A 39
10 5.2 5.1 A9 A2
15 5.5 5.A 5.1 A.2
20 5.0 A.9 36
25 3.5 3.3 3.0 2.3
o .. 32 A. II
2 8.3 7.9 68
5 8.8 8.7 8.2 7.1
10 7.7 7.5 7.0 5.8
•. 3 •. 0 3.•
20 3.5 3.2 2.6
25 3.3 3.2 2.9 2.3
Elev. M..h Spocing (inch..)
A"gle (c1eg.) 6 12
2 3.1 3.1 31 2 7
5 3.0 3.2 31 18
10 3.5 3.5 3. 30
IS •. 0 3.9 37 32
20 •. 3 •. 1 3.3
•. 3 ..0 3.2
0" 16 A.. 1967.0 II
2 6.3 6.2 5.9 5 I
5 6.6 6.5 6.2 5 3
10 7.0 6.9 6.5 5.5
15 5.8 5.6 52
20 3.3 3.1 3.0 2.
25 •. 1 •. 0 3.6 2.9
o .. '" A.. 7868 "
2 11.0 10.7 10.2 8.8
5 11.0 10.8 10.2 8.8
10 5.3 5.2 •. 9 •. 0
IS ..9 •. 8
20 3.8 3.6 3.3 27
25 3.• 3.3 3.0 2.•
0" 128 A.. 15.736 "
Elo•. M..h Spoelng (inch..)
Ant'o (<I.g.) 6 11 2. 48
2 13.6 13.A 12.7 11.1
5 11.6 11.3 10.6 91
10 5.6 5.5 5.1 •. 2
IS 5.2 S.I .7 3.9
20 .0 39 36 2.9
2S 3.• 3.3 3.1 2.5
o • 2 >. '" 122.9 "
EI.". Muh Spocing (inch••)
Angl. (eI.g.) 6 12
2 3.2 3.2 3.1
5 3.3 3.3 3.1
10 3.2 2.5
15 3.7 3.7 2.6
20 3.9 3.6 2.7
25 3.8 1.5
2 6.1 6.0 5.6
5 6.2 6.1 5.7 4.5
10 6.6 6.5 5.9
15 6.8 6.6 5.9
20 6.0 5.7 5.0 3.5
25 3.9 3.2 2.1
o • 32 >.. ft
2 10.4 10.1 9.4 7.5
5 10.6 10.4 9.5 7.7
10 9.0 1.7 7.7 5.7
IS 5.5 5.3 4.7 3.5
20 3.6 2.5
25 3.1 3.3 2.3
EI.". Muh SplICing (inch••)
Angl. (cI.g.) 6 12
2 3.3
5 3.3
15 5.2 5.1 3.6
20 5.3 3.5
25 5.1 4.5 3.2
o .. 16 A. 983.2 fl
2 1.1 7.9 7.3 5.9
5 8.3 8.1 7;5 6.0
10 8.5 8.3 7.5 5.8
15 6.9 6.5 5.7
20 4.0 3.5 2.4
25 5.0 4.0 2.7
... A. 3932.8 ft
2 12.9 12.6 11.7 9.6
5 12.1 12.4 11.4 9.2
10 6.5 6.3 5.6
15 6.8 5.8 5.1 3.8
20 4.6 3.1 2.6
25 2.3
... 128 A. 7165.6 fl
EI.... M••h Speelng (Inch••)
Angl. (oI.i.) 6 12
2 15.6 15.2 14.1 11.1
5 13.2 12.8 11.6 9.2
10 6.8 6.6 5.8 4.3
15 6.3 6.1 3.9
20 4.7 2.7
25 3.5
o • 2 ).,. 61.5 It
Tolo'. 2 con'.
O. 32 Mel.
0,.4).. 122.9ft
EI••. Mesh Spocinll (inch..)
Anlli. (d.,.) 6 12 24 48
2 4.0 3.9 3.3 2.1
5 4.0 4.0 3.3 2.1
10 4.2 4.1 3.4 2.1
15 4.4 4.3 3.5 2.1
20 4.7 4.4 3.6 2.1
25 4.9 4.6 3.6 2.1
0.8).. 245.9 ft
2 7.1 6.9 5.8 3.2
5 7.2 7.0 5.9 3.9
10 7.5 7.2 6.0 3.9
15 7.5 7.0 5.6 3.8
20 6.5 5.9 4.3 3.4
25 4.4 3.8 2.5 2.2
0" 32 ). =983.5 ft
2 11.5 11.0 9.5 6.7
5 11.6 11.1 9.5 6.5
10 9.6 8.9 7.1 4.1
15 6.1 5.7 .1.4
20 .18 4.3 3.2 16
.1.4 4.0 2.9 1.4
EI••. Mesh SpClcinll (inch.. ,
Anlll. (d·II·) 6 12 24 48
2 5.4 5.2 4 ..1 29
5 5.5 5.3 4.4 29
10 5.7 5.5 4.6 2.9
15 6.0 5.7 4.6 2.8
20 6.1 5.7 .1.5 2.6
25 5.9 5.4 4.0 2.1
o. \6 ).. 491.8 "
2 9.1 8.8 7.5 5.1
5 9.3 8.9 7.6 5.1
10 '.3 1.8 7.2 .1.6
15 7.3 6.7 5.0 2.5
20 4.6 4.2 3.1 1.6
25 5.3 4.8 3.4 1.6
0" 64). .. 1967.0 ft
2 140 13.4 11.7 84
5 137 13.0 11.1 7.7
\0 7.1 6.7 52 3.0
15 6.6 6.1 4.8 27
20 5.0 .1.5 3.2 I 6
25 4.5 4.1 3.0 1.5
o .. 128 ). .. 3934. I "
EI ••. M..h Spocinll (inch.. )
Anlli. (d.II·) 6 12 24 48
2 166 16.0 140 104
5 13.9 13.' 11.0 7.2
10 7.4 69 5.4 3.1
15 69 63 49 27
20 5 3 48 34 17
25 46
30 1.5

.... '. "
SEC'ftON 3
by ;
SMarch 1.190
.. .. ..
3.1 Krause. L. 0., November 1967. "Enhancing H. F. received fields with large planar and
cylindrical ground screens," IEEE Trans. on Antennas and Propagation, No.6, pp. 785-795
The author presents a series of interesting pattern calculations (using image theory)
for tilted ground screens located over a conducting half-space. For such geometries, the low
angle radiation may be enhanced. Cylindrical shaped screens are also considered. The
author cautions on the use of the method for angles at grazing angles below 3°.
3.2 Collin. R. E. and F. J. Zucker. 1969, Antenna Theory, Pt. II, McGraw Hill, N.Y.
In Chap. 23 authored by J. R. Wait, eq.. 123 has a misprint; ejx should be e-jx. Eqs..
23.122 is OK. Also the Fressel function J1 here was approximated by the first term of its
asymptotic expansion which can lead to 1 dB discrepancies in computed patterns but general
features are correct. This point was confirmed by Lt. Joe Fortney. of RADC. Hanscom AFB,
Bedford, Mass.., who recomputed the integral given by 23.123 (private communication Jan
3.3 Waldman. A., January 1970. "Elevation steering of the pattern of vertically polarized elements
over a ground screen." IEEE Trans. on Antennas and Propagation. Vol. AP-18,
pp. 105-107
Author presents calculation based on reprint 1.13 (Wait, , 967) for an elevated vertical
antenna over the sector ground screen system. An approximation pattern multiplication
scheme is adopted. The objective is to develop a method to steer the principal maximum in
the low angle elevation pattern.
3.4 Balanis. C. A.• July 1970, "Pattern distortion due to edge diffractions," IEEE Trans. on Antennas
and Propagation. Vol. AP-18, pp. 561-563
This is a systematic treatment for an arbitrary aperture source in a finite size ground plane
of perfect conductivity. The ambient medium is free space. Excellent correlation with
experiment is shown.
3.5 Yu. J. S., K. J. Scott, and A. R. Spatuzzi, November 1970. "A modified elevation angle of
radiation from a monopole on ground screens," IEEE Trans. on Antennas and Propagation, Vol.
AP-18. pp. 795-799
The authors employ an approximate diffraction technique to estimate the pattern of a
vertical monopole on a square wire mesh screen of finite extent. The experimental data
appears to justify the procedure for the pattern calculation for the pattern calculation for the
particular examples given.
3.6 Rafuse R. P., and J. Ruze. December 1975, "Low angle radiation from vertically polarized
antennas over radially heterogeneous flat ground." Radio Science. Vol. 10,
The authors construct an admittedly approximate analytical solution based on an assumed
current distribution on both the ground screen and the external ground surface. The results
seem to be compatible with the more rigorous formulations based on the compensation
theorem. The latter can be used to form an integral equation to deduce the surface current
..... - ..
distribution over the ground screen rather than assuming it [e.g. see reprint 1.18 (Wait and
Spies, 1970) and Hill and Wait, 1973»). Rafuse and Ruze introduce an "efll)irical
normaUzation" of the near field surface impedance to bring their results into conformity with
physical expectations. The comment in the paper that the surface current at the edge of the
ground screen is discontinuous is a bit surprising. Of course, the radial electric field, indeed,
is discontinuous. In an important observation, the authors confirmthat the classical Fresnel
zone description of the "active" area in front of the antenna does not hold. Indeed, it is much
smaller as has been shown by J. Bach Anderson (1963).
3.7 Teng, C. J., and A. J. P. King, January-March 1981, "Surface Fields and Radiation Patterns of
a Vertical Electric Dipole Over a Radial-Wire Ground System," Electromagnetics, Vol. 2,
pp. 129-146
The authors use the compensation theoremto deal with a vertical electric dipole located
over a radial wire ground system at the interface of the flat earth and air. The radiation pattems
were found to be independent of the length of the radials beyond the point where the
effective impedance of the composite impedance was within 90 percent of the underlying
3.8 Park, K. S., R. J. P. King, and C. J. Teng, April-June 1982, "Radiation Pattems of an HF
Vertical Dipole Near a Sloping Beach," Electromagentics, Vol. 2, pp. 129-146
The effective surface impedance of the beach is calculated from a twO-layer stratified earth
model so the formulation proceeds as if the equivalent ground plane has a constant elevation.
It is found that the low angle radiation is reduced somewhat from that of no beach. The usual
lobing occurs in the elevation pattern when the dipole is raised above 0.3 wavelengths.
3.9 Burke, G. J., A. J. P. King, and E. K. Miller" September 1984, Surface Wave Excitation Study,
Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Report 20214
In this report, results are shown for the terminal impedance of a vertical anteMa with a
radial wire ground systemfor up to sixteen radials. The "Numerical Electromagnetics Code",
known as NEC, is employed. An interesting comparison is made with corresponding results
based on the approximated compensation theorem approach. The agreement is good when
the restrictions jr. the lalter method CJ.j'e adhered to. But, for a dielectric-like earth, agreement
is poor because of reflections trolil the end of the radials. As Burke et al point out, resonance
effects are most noticeable when the earth system is elevated and not grounded at the end
points by stakes.
3.10 Weiner, M. M., S. P. Cruze, C. C. Li, and W. J. Wilson, 1987, Monopole Elements on Circular
Ground Planes, Artech House, Norwood, MA.
The analyses deal with the case where the monopole element and circular disk are
located in free space. The models which are used and compared are the induced
electromotive force (EMF) method, integral equation, method of moments, oblate spheroidal
wave functions, scalar diffraction theory, geometric theory of diffraction, method of moments
combined with the geometric theory of diffraction, and the method of images.
3.11 Burke, G. J., January 1988, A Model for Insuluted Wires in the Method of Moments Code (NEC),
Lawrence Uvermore National laboratory, Report 21301
Among other things, Burke shows how the propagation constant of a buried insulated
wire depends on the depth of burial. Excellent agreement is obtained with Wait's paper
(Canadian Journal of Physics, Vol. 50. pp. 2402-2409. 1972) who employed an analytical
method. The results are relevant to the radial wire ground system.
3.12 Nagy. lo, 1989. Input Impedance and Radiation Pattern ofa Top-Loaded Monopole Having a Radial
Wire Ground System. (Summary only), Proceedings of the International Radio SCientific Union
(URSI) Symposium on Electromagnetic Theory. The Royal Institute of Technology.
The author deals mainly with the input impedance calculation using the compensation
theorem along with first order perturbation. The radiation patterns. as presented. ignore the
presence of the ground system which is partly justified because of the short length of the
3.13 James, G.l. and G. T. Poulton. August 14-17, 1989. EffectsofGroundScreenonHFAntennas
(Summary only), Proceedings of the URSI Symposium on Electromagnetic Theory. The Royal
Institute of Technology. Stockholm
Authors employ a GTD (geometrical theory of diffraction) technique to reduce radiation
patterns for a vertical antenna over a circular ground screen for both radial wire and square
mesh (bonded and unbonded) geometries. Approximate boundary conditions due to
Kontorovich et al are exploited.
Dr. James R. Wait was bomin Ottawa, Canada, on January 23, 1924. From 1942 to 1945 he
was a radar technician in the Canadian Army. He received his BASe. and MASc. degrees in
engineering physics in 1948 and 1949, respectively, and his Ph.D degree in electromagnetic theory
in 1951, all from the University of Toronto, Toronto, Canada.
From 1948 to 1951, he was associated with Newmont Exploration ltd. of New York, N.Y., and
Jerome, Arizona, where his research led to several patents for electromagnetic and induced-
polarization methods of geophysical prospecting. From 1952 to 1955, he was a section leader at the
Defense Research Telecommunications Establishment, Ottawa, where he was primarily concerned
with electromagnetic problems. Since joining the National Bureau of Standards (NBS), Boulder,
Colorado, in 1955, he was appointed adjunct professor of electrical engineering at the University of
Colorado, Boulder. During 1960, he was a visiting research fellow at the Laboratory of
Electromagnetic Theory in the Technical University of Denmark, Copenhagen. For the academic year
1966-1967. he was avisiting professor at Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts. From 1963
to 1967, he was a senior research fellow at Boulder, where he was also a consultant to the director of
the Institute for Telecomrronication SCiences and Aeronomy. From 1967 to 1970. he was senior
scientist in the Office of the Direclor of the Environmental SCiences services Administration (ESSA)
Research Laboratories. Boulder. In September of 1970, he became the senior scientist in the Office
of the Director of the Institute for Telecommunications Sciences (ITS) of the Office of
Telecommmications. In October. 1971, he retumed to his position in the Office of the Director of the
Environmental Research Laboratories of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration
(NOAA ), formerly ESSA, but remained as a consultant to the director of ITS. In addition, he was a
fellow of the Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental SCiences. In May, 1971. Dr. Wait
was a visiting professor at the Catholic University of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, and in september, 1971, he
was a guest of the U.S.S.R Academy of SCiences in Moscow and Tbilisi.
Dr. Wait was awarded the Department of Commerce Gold Medal in 1959 for "highly
distinguished authorship in the field of radio propagation"; the Boulder SCientist Award sponsored by
the Scientific Research Society of America in 1960; the NBS Samuel Wesley Stratton Award in 1962;
and the Arthur S. Flemming Award, Washington, D.C. Chamber of Commerce, and the Harry Diamond
Award fromthe IEEE. both in 1964. He is also a fellow of the Institute of Electrical and Electronic
Engineers (IEEE) and the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AMS). In
september 1972, Dr. Wait receiVed an Outstanding Publication Award from the Office of
Telecommunications in Washington, D.C. Dr. Wait received NOAA's 1973 Scientific Research and
Achievement Award "in recognition of his outstanding achievement as a scientist and research leader
in theoretical studies of electromagnetic wave propagation in the earth and its atmosphere". In 1975
he received a Special Achievement Award from the Office of Telecommunications "in recognition of
outstanding authorship of a great variety of publications and journal articles".
He was mainly responsible for the establishment of the journal Radio Science, which started in
1959 as Section 0 of the NBS JOUTflQl ofResearch; he served three terms as editor. He has also served
three terms as an associate editor of the Journal ofGeophysical Research. For four years, he was U.S.
regional editor of Electronics Letters. Currently, he is a member of the Editorial Board of
GeoExplormion (Sweden) and he is co-editor of the Institution of Electrical Engineers (lEE) series,
Monographs on Electromagnetic (EM) Waves (England).
Dr. Wait has published eight books and numerous papers on subjects ranging from
electromagnetlcs to geophysics. He was secretary (1974 to 1978) of the U.S. National Comrnttee of
the International Scientific Radio Union(URSI). He has been a U.S. delegate to URSI General
Assemblies In Boulder (1957), London (1960), Tokyo (1963), Ottawa (1969), Warsaw (1972), Uma
(1975) and Helsinki (1978). In 19n, Dr. Wait was elected to the U.S. National Academy of
Engineering. Also, In June 1977, he was elected to be a fellow of the lEE. On July 31,1978, Dr. Wait
received the Balth van der Pol Gold Medal at the General Assembly of URSI held In Helsinki, Finland.
In August, 1980, Dr. Walt became professor of electrical engineering and geosciences at the
University of Arizona in Tucson. Since then he received the IEEE Centennial Medal in 1984 and the
IEEE Geoscience and Remota Sensing Society's Distinguished Achievement Award in 1985. He was
appointed regents professor in the University of Arizona in 1988. Jim Walt retired from the University
in September 1989 to become a private consultant in his home office, 2210 East Waverly, Tucson AZ
85719. He keeps in close touch with the campus (being a 10 minute bike ride away).
J. R. Wait
August 1990
Note: Reprints included in section 1 are denoted by an asterisk in front of the reprint
1 J.R. Leslie and J.R. Wait, Deteetion of overheated transmission 'Line joints
by m«Zns of a Trans. AlEE, Vol. 68, 1-5, May 1949; also Elect.
EDg., Vol. 68, November 1949.
2 Elee'f:%tanQ(Jnetia ztadiation in the eaz>th (A theo1'etiaaZ investigation) Dept.
of Electrical Engineering, University of Toronto, April 1950.
3 Tzransient eZeet1'omagnBtie p1'opagation in a eonducting Geophys.,
Vol. XVI, 213-221, April 1951.
4 The magnetie dipole OIJer the ho1'i80ntaHy stratified Can. J. Phys.,
Vol. 29, 577-592, November 1951.
5 A eonductint,J sphezee in a time va1'!fing magnetie Geophys., Vol. XVI,
666-672, October 1951.
6 The oylindrieal ore body in the presence of a eab1.e ea1'1'ying an oseiZlatint,J
Geophys., Vol. XVII, 378-386. April 1952.
7 Cu:t'1'ent-etrl"1"Ying tA1i1'e loops in a simple inhmlogeneous region:. J. Appl. Phys.,
Vol. 23, 497-498, April 1952.
8 The basis of a method for measuring the compZe:r dieZee'Q'ie eonstant at miZ1.i-
metre Radio Physics Laboratory, Project Report, 15 Sept. 1952.
9 Mutual inductance of ci1'eUits on a wo-layer Can. J. Phys., Vol. 30,
450-452, September 1952.
10 Etectromagnetie fields of eun-ent-earozoying tJi,re8 in a condueting medium
Can. J. Phys., Vol. 30, 512-523, September 1952.
11 The magnetie dipole antenna irrme1'sed in a eonducting medium:. Proc. IRE,
Vol. 40, 1244-1245, October 1952.
12 A 71Dte of dipole radiation in a conductint,J medium
Geophys., Vol. XVII,
978-979, October 1952.
13 Reflection of e'Lectromagnetic wGWes ob'LiqueZy from an inhmlogeneous
J. Appl. Phys., Vol. 23, 1403-1404, December 1952.
14 The B1.eet1'ic fields of a 'Long current-ca1"1'Yint,J lJi1'e on a stratified earth
J. Geophys. Res., Vol. 47, 481-485, December 1952.
15 Receiving properties of a lJire Zoop lJJith a sphez>oidaZ Can. J. Tech.,
Vol. 31, 9-14, January 1953.
16 with J.E.T. Mousseau, Calcul.ated field patterns f01' ho1'i80ntaZ tmveZUng
Radio Physics Laboratory, Project Report No. 19-0-2,
15 January 1933.
17 couplint,J in gzoaunded Geophys., Vol. 18, 138-141,
January 1953.
18 A t2-an8ient dil-'OZe sOW"ce in a dissipative J. Appl. Phys.,
Vol. 24, 341-343, March 1953.
19 with L.L. Capbell, Effect of a 7"apge dieZeetZ'ie eonstant On f!1'ound-ltJave
Can. J. Phys., Vol. 31,456-457, March 1953.
20 On the feasibility of measuring g2'ound conductivity f1'orn an
Defence Research TelecOllllllUnications Establishment, Ottawa, Canada
(March 9, 1953).
21 with L.L. Campbell, The fie'tds of an e'tecmc dipo'te in a seni-infinite
cont1.ucting J. Geophys. Res., Vol. 58, 21-28, March 1953.
22 Induction by a ho1'iaonta't'ty osci't'tating magnetic dipoZe oVe1' a conducting
homogeneous Trans. Amer. Geophys. Union, Vol. 34, 185-188, April 1953.
23 1'he potentiaZ of tlJo auP1'ent point SOUl'CeB in a homogeneous conducting
pzooUzte J. Appl. Phys., Vol. 24,496-497, April 1953.
24 Pzoopagation of zoadio waves over a stratified Geophys., Vol. 18,
416-422, April 1953.
25 A conducting sphezoe in the presence of a coi't carrying an
osci'tlating Can. J. Phys., Vol. 31, 670-678, May 1953.
26 with L.L. Campbell, T1'ansmission au1'VeB fop g1'ound L)atJe propagation at l"",
zoadio Report R-l. Res. Tele. Est •• Radio Physics Lab.,
April 1953.
27 1'he loop L)ith a hoZZOLJ p1'olate spheroidal Can. J. Tech.,
Vol. 31, 132-139, June 1953.
28 An appzeozimate method of cbtaining the 1'esponse f1'orn the f1'equency
Can. J. Tech., Vol. 31, 127-131. June 1953.
29 with L.L. Campbell, The fie'tde of an osciZ'tating magnetic dipo'te irrme1'sed
in a seni-infinite conducting J. Geophys. Res•• Vol. 58. 167-178.
June 1953.
30 Radiation from a vezotica't electric dipo'te over a st1'atified Trans.
IRE, Vol. AP-l, 9-12, Part I. July 1953.
31 Radiation resistance of a amaH ci1'auZar loop in the p1'esence of a conducting
J. Appl. Phys., Vol. 24. No.5, 646-649, May 1953.
32 The zoadiation fields of a horizontal dipole in a semi-infinite dissipative
J. Appl. Phys., Vol. 24. 958-959, July 1953.
33 Electzoomagnetic coupZing betL)een a ci1'aular loop and a conducting
Geophys., Vol. 18, 970-971, October 1953.
34 Radiation fzoom a 'tine SOUl'ce adjacent to a conducting haZf J. Appl.
Phys., Vol. 24, No. 12, 1528-1529, December 1953.
35 Induction in a conducting sheet by a smaZZ current-carrying Appl.
Sci. Res., Sec. B, Vol. 3, 230-235, May 1953.
36 Cowrplez TnagW4tic pezrmeabiZity of spherical Proc. IRE, Vol. 41,
No. 11, 1665-1667, November 1953.
37 The fieZds of a Zine souzoce of current OVe1' a st1'atified Appl.
Sci. Res., Sec. B, Vol. 3, 279-292, 1953. .
38 Radiation fzoom a g1'OUnd Can. J. Tech., Vol. 32, 1-9, January 1954.
39 with W.C.G. Fraser, Radiation f1'Q1l a vezoticaZ dipo'te OVe1' a stzoatified
Part Trans. IRE, Vol. AP-3, No.4, October 1954.
40 Note on the theoroy of roadio propagation over an ice-covered Def. Res.
Tele. Est •• Radio Physics Lab•• Project Report 18-0-7. March 31. 1954.
* 41 with W.J. Surtees. Impedance of a top-l.oaded antenna of arbitrary l.ength
ove a grounded J. Appl. Phys•• Vol. 25. No.5. 553-555.
May 1954.
42 On anomal.ous propagation of radio waves in earth Geophys •• Vol. 19.
342-343. April 1954.
* 43 with W.A. Pope. The characteristics of a vertica"l antenna Llith a radia"l
conductor ground Appl. Sci. Res •• Sec. B. Vol. 4. 177-195. 1954.
44 with K.F. Hill and W.A. Pope. Ref1,ection fran a mirror surface Llith an
absorbent J. Opt. Soc. Amer •• Vol. 44. No.6. 438-441. June 1954.
45 On the rel.ation between te"lZuric currents and the earth's magnetic
Geophys •• Vol. 19. 281-289. April 1954.
46 Mutual. coupHng of l.oops "lying on the Geophys •• Vol. 19. No.2.
290-296. April 1954.
47 On the theoPy of an antenna Llith an infinite cornel' Can. J.
Phys•• Vol. 32. 365-371. May 1954.
48 Ref1ection fran a grid paral.l.el. to a conducting Can. J. Phys ••
Vol. 32. 571-579. September 1954.
49 with S. Kahana. Radiation from a dot on a cyUndricaZZy tipped Can.
J. Phys •• Vol. 32. 714-721. November 1954.
50 C. Froese and J .R. Wait. Ca"laul.ated diffNction patterns of die"lectric rods
at centimetric Can. J. Phys•• Vol. 32. 775-781. December 1954.
51 with L.L. Campbell. FieLds of in a semi-infinite conducting
J. Geophys. Res•• Vol. 58. 21-28, March 1953; 167-168. June 1953; Def. Res.
Tele. Est., Project Report 19-0-9, September 1954.
52 with W.A. Pope. EvaZuation of errors 'l",: an eight-e"lement adcock
Trans. IRE. Vol. AP-3, No.4. 159-162. October 1954.
53 Theory of el.ectromagnetic surface waves over geol.ogical.
Geofisica pura e Appl., Vol. 28. 47-56. 1954•
. 54 Ref1ection at arbitrary incidence froom a para"lZel. Appl. Sci.
Res•• Vol. 14, No.6. 393-400, 1954.
55 On the scattering of spherical. waves by a cyUndricaZ Apple Sci.
Res •• Vol. 4. Sec. B. 464-468. 1955.
56 with C. Froese. Ref1ection of a trar.sient el.ectranagnetic wave at a conducting
J. Geophys. Res •• Vol. 60, No.1. 97-103, March 1955.
57 On the theory of the notch Def. Res. Tele. Est., Radio Physics Lab.,
Project Report 19-0-14, May 17. 1955.
58 Mutual. eZectrcmagnetic coupZing of "loops ove a homogeneous Geophys.,
Vol. 20, No.3, 630-637, July 1955.
* S9 with W.A. Pope, Input resistance of LF unipo"le Wireless Engr ••
Vol. 32, 131-138. May 1955.
60 Radiation characteztistics of azial slots on a c017liucting Wireless
Engr., Vol. 32, 316-332, December 1955.
61 Field produced by an arbitrary sl.ot on an el.Uptic J. Appl. Pbys.,
Vol. 26, No.4, 458-463, April 1955.
62 Radiation fl'Ol'fl an el.ectric dipol.e in the p:t'esence of a cor1"U{}ated
Appl. Sci. Res., Sec. B, Vol. 6, 117-123, 1955.
63 Scattering of a p1.ane lJal)e from a cil'(m1.aI' dielectrtic cyUnder at obl.ique
Can. J, Pbys., Vol. 33, 189-195, February 1955.
64 Scattlftlling of el.ectremagnetic wal)eB frem a "l.ossy" strip on a conducting
Can. J. Phys., Vol. 33, 383-390, April 1955.
65 with J. Kates, Radiation patterns of cil'cumferential sl.ots on moderatel.y
Large conducting Proc. lEE (London), Pt. C, Vol. 103, 289-296,
March 1956.
66 with H.H. Howe, Ampt-,.tude and phase curves for ground-r.Jat)e pl'opagation in
the band 200 per second to 500, NBS Circular No. 574,
May 1956. (available from NTIS No. PR272292/AS). '
67 Mi:J:ed path gl'ound tAmle p:t'opagation: 1. Short J. Res., NBS, Vol.
57, No.1, 1-15, July 1956.
68 Radiation frcxn a verotical antenna over a auPtJed stratified J. Res.,
NBS, Vol. 56, No.4, 237-244, April 1956.
69 Cu1t1'ents e:z:cited on a conducting surface of l.arge radius of IRE
Trans., Vol. MTT-4, No.3, 144-145, July 1956.
* 70 Effect of the gl'ound screen or. the fiel.d radiated frem a IRE
Trans., Vol. AP-4, No.2, 179-181, April 1956.
71 with M. O'Grady, Surface currents e:z:cited by an infinite sZot on half-
p1.anes and IRE Trans., Vol. AP-4, No.1. 47-50. January 1956.
'* 72 D.G. !!'rood and J .R. Wait. An i'Y(/)estigation of sl.ot radiators in
metal. Proc. lEE (London), Vol. 103, Part B, No.7, 103-109, Jan. 1956.
73 Radiation pattern of an antenna moun.ted on a SU1';"ace of 7.a:rge radius of
Proc. IRE, Vol. 44. No.5, 1 pg., May 1956.
74 On the conductance of IRE Trans., Vol. AP-4, No.2. 124-127, April
75 Radiation resistance of dipoles in an interface between
Can. J. Pbys., Vol. 34, 24-26. 1956.
76 with S. Kahana, patteronB of ci1'CU1flferentiaZ sZots on a circular
conducting oyl.inder
Can. J. Tech., Vol. 33, 77-97, 1955.
77 with R.E. Walpole, Cal.cu1.ated radiation characteristics of sZots cut in
metal. Can. J. Tech.• Vol. 33, 211-227, Part I, 1955.
78 Transient fields of a verticaZ dipole over a homogeneous curved
Can. J. Pbys., Vol. 34. 27-35. January 1956.
79 with lC. Okaab1ao, Patterns of stub antenn:zs on oy1.indzoicaZ
can. J. Pbya., Vol. 34, 190-202, February 1956.
80 LotJJ f1'equency zoadiation f1'om a ho1'izontal antenna OVe1' a sphe1'ical
Can. J. Phys., Vol. 34, 586-595, June 1956.
81 ShieLdin,g of a transient elect1'omagnetic dipole field by a conductive
Can. J. Phys., Vol. 34, 890-893, August 1956.
82 with R.E. Walpole, Calculated 1'adiation chaztacte1'istic8 of slots cut in
metal Can. J. Tech., Vol. 34, 60-70, Pt. II, 1956.
83 Mutual electzoomagnetic coupUng of loops ove1' a homogeneous ground - an
additional Geophys., Vol. 21, No.2, 479-484, April 1956.
84 On the lJXn)ef()1'fTJ of a 1'adio atmospheztic at sho1't !'anges Proe. IRE, Vol. 44,
No.8, pg. 1052, August 1956.
'* 85 with D.G. Frood, The 1'adiation patte1'n8 and con4uctances of slots cut on
1'ectangulal' metal Proe. IRE, Vol. 44, No. 10, pg. 1469, 1956.
86 with A. Murphy, The geanet1'ical optics of VLF sky lJave Proe.
IRE, Vol. 45, No. 6, June 1957.
87 The mode thso1']J of VLF ionosphe1'ic p1'opagation fo!' finite g!'ound
Proe. IRE, Vol. 45, No.6, 760-767, June 1957.
88 A.G. Jean, Jr., L.J. Lange and J.R. Wait, Ionospheric reflection coefficients
at VLF f1'01fl sfe1'ics Geofisica Pura E Applieata, Vol. 38,
147-153, 1957.
89 H.H. Howe and J .R. Wait, Mode calculations fo!' VLF ionosphe:roic pl'opagation
(VLF Symposium Paper No. 36, Boulder, Colorado, January 1957).
90 On the meaBU1'ement of the conductivity of a fluid contained in a cyUntbtical
Can. J. Tech., Vol. 34, 410-412, 1957.
91 with A. Murphy, Influence of a 1'idge on the lOlJ-f1'equency ground
J. Research, NBS, Vol. 58, No. I, 1-5, January 1957.
92 with R.R. Rowe, The lJaVeguide mode theoroy of VLF ionospheric
Proe. IRE, Vol. 45, No. I, pg. 95, January 1957.
93 with A. Murphy, Multiple 1'eflections betlJeen the eal'th and the ionosphe1'e
in VLF Geofisiea Pura E Appl., Vol. 35, 61-72, 1956.
94 The transient behavio1' of the elect1'anagnetic g!'ound lJXn)e on a sphe1'ical
IRE Trans., Vol. AP-5, No.2, 198-202, April 1957.
95 with L.B. Perry, Calculations of ionosphmc 1'eflection coefficients at
V81']J lOlJ zoadio J. Geophys. Res., Vol. 62, No. I, 43-56,
Karch 1957.
96 On the theo1']J of 1'eflection f1'om a lJiN g1'id paroZZel to an inte:rofoor.
between homogeneous Appl. Sci. Res., Sec. B, Vol. 6, 259-275, 1957.
97 AmpUtude and phase of the lOlJ-f1'equency g1'ound lJXn)e neal' a
J. Research, NBS, Vol. 58, No.5, 237-242, Kay 1957.
98 The impedance of a lJi1'e groid paroZZel to a dieZectl'ic IRE Trans.,
Vol. KTT-5, No.2, 99-102, April 1957.
99 with W. Kientka, SZotted-cyUnde:ro anatenna lJith a dielectl'ic
J. Re.earch, NBS. Vol. 58. No.6, 287-296, June 1957.
100 Diffzeaction of a sphe:zoicaZ l.o1aVe pu"L8e by a haZf-p"Lane Can. J. Phys.,
Vol. 35, 693-696, 1957.
101 with J. Householder, Mized-path tp'ound-l.o1aVe pzoopagation: 2. Lazoge1'
J. Research, NBS, Vol. 59, No. I, 19-26, July 1957.
102 Insulated "Loop antenna irmIe1'sed in a conducting J. Research, NBS,
Vol. 59, No.2, 133-137, August 1957.
103 Introduction to the VLF Proe. IRE, Vol. 45, No.6, 739-740, June 1957.
104 The attenuation vs. f1'equency chaztacte1'istics of VLF 1'adio Proe. IRE,
Vol. 45, No.6, 768-771, June 1957.
105 On the mode theoPy of VLF ionosphe1'ic Rev. Geofisica Pura E
Applicata (Milano), Vol. 37, 103-115, 1957.
106 A note on the pzoopagation of the t1'an8ient g1'ound l.o1aVe Can. J. Phys., Vol.
35, 1146-1151, 1957.
*107 Pattezon of a f"Lush-mounted mi01'owatJe J. Research, NBS, Vol. 59,
No.4, 255-259, October 1957.
108 The effective e1.ectricaZ constants of soi"L at 1.(JIJ Proc. IRE,
Vol. 45, No. 10, pg. 1411, October 1957.
109 A.G. Jean, L.J. Lange and J.R. Wait, Ionosphe1'ic 1'efZection coefficients at
VLF /%'Om sfmes Geofisica Pura E Applieata, Vol. 38, 147-153,
110 Pztopagation of a puZse ac¥'Oss a coast Proe. IRE, Vol. 45, No. 11,
1550-1551, November 1957.
III with A.M. Conda, Radiation from sZots on die1.ect1'ic-cZad and c01"1'Ugated
J. Research, NBS, Vol. 59, No.5, 307-316, November 1957.
112 Iw:J.uction by an osci"Llating magnetic dipoZee ave1' a '/;;b10-"LayB1' Appl.
Sci. Res., Sec. B, Vol. 7, 73-80, 1958.
113 On the caZcuZations of t1'Qnst'e1'se CU1'1'6nt 1.oss in bU1'ied z.n.1'e tp'ound
Appl. Sci. Res., Sec. B, Vol. 7, 81-86, 1958.
114 E:t:citation of BU1'face l.o1aVes on stzoatified dieZect1'ic-cZad
and co1"1'U(Jated J. Research, NBS, Vol. 59, No.6, 365-377,
Dec_ber 1957.
115 On the theo:oy of p1'opagation of e"Lect1'omagnetic t.)CWes aZong a CU1'Ved
Can. J. Phys., Vol. 36, 9-17,
116 A ZotJ-fzoequency anTQJ.Za:tt-s1.ot J. Research, NBS, Vol. 60, No. I,
59-64, January 1958.
117 and diacussions with R.B. Frische and H.V. Buttlar, Discussions on 'A
theo1'etioa1. study of induced e"Lect1'icaZ Geophysics, Vol. 23,
No. I, 144-153, January 1958.
118 An eztension to the "'ode the01']J of VLF ionosphe1'ic J. Geophys.
Res., Vol. 63, No. I, 125-135, Karch 1958.
119 with A.M. Conda, On the measUl'ement of tp'ound C01'IIiJ4ctivity at IRE
Traua., Vol. AP-6, No.3, 273-277, July 1958.
* 121
* 128
with A. Murphy, Further studies of the influence of a ridge on the 20',,)-
frequency ground wave, J. Research, Vol. 61, No.1, 57-60, July 1958.
A study of earth currents near a VLF monopole antenna UJ'ith a radial
ground system, Pro. IRE, Vol. 46, No.8, 1-2, August 1958.
Transmission and reflection of electromagnetic waves in the presence of
stratified media, J. Research, NBS, Vol. 61, 3, 205-232, Sept. 1958.
Propagation of ver>y-Zow-fr>equency pulses to gr>eat distances, J. Researcn,
NBS, Vol. 61, No.3, 187-203, September 1958.
with A.M. Conda, Pattern of an antenna on a curved lossy suPface, IRE
Trans., Vol. AP-6, No.4, 348-359, October 1958.
A phenomenological theory of induced eZectPical Can. J. Phys.,
Vol. 36, 1634-1644, 1958.
A s1;u(J:,j of VLT:' fieZd streneth data: Both old and new, Geofisica Pura E
Applicata (Milano), Vol. 41, 73-85, 1958/III.
On the eZectromagnetic response of an imperfectZy conducting thin dyke,
Geophys., Vol. 24, No. I, 167-171, Februar.y 1959.
with A. Conda, The patterns of a sZot-aPPaY antenna on a imper>fec:t
gr>ound pl,ane, L'Onde Electrique, Special Supplement, pp. 21-30, 1958.
H.V. Cottony, R.S. Elliott, E.C. Jordan, V.H. Rumsey, K.X. Siegel, J.R. Wait,
and D.C. Woodyard, National Committee Report, URSI Subcommission 6.3,
Antennas and Waveguides, and annotated bibZiography, IRE Trans., Vol. AP-7,
No.1, 87-98, January 1959.
Transmission Zoss curves for propagation at very l,ow radio fr>equencies,
IRE Trans•• Vol. CS-6. 58-61, December 1958.
Downcoming radio Electronic and Radio Engineer. Vol. 36, No.3,
106-107, March 1959.
TPansmission of power in roadie 'F1'o;"::'Ja:r;ion, Electronic and Radio ::'ngineer,
Vol. 36, No.4, 146-150, April 1959.
Radiation from a smaZl, Zoop in a ser.r:-infinite medium,
Can. J. Phys., Vol. 37, 672-674, 1959.
Diur>nal, change of ionospheric ;.eights deduced from phase velocity meas;.aae-
ments at VLF, Proc. IRE, Vol. 47. 5, pg. 998, May 1959.
On the theory of refl,ection from a wire grid paraZl.eZ to an in-;erface
between hanogeneous media (II), App::'. 5ci. Res •• Sec. B, Vol. 7, No.5,
355-360, 1959.
The caZcuZation of the field ir. a homogeneous conductor UJ'ith a wavy
Proc. IAE. Vol. 47, No.6, pg. 1155, June 1959.
EaPth currents near a monopo7,e antenna lUi th top l,oading, J.
Research. NBS. Vol. 62, No.6, 247-255, June 1959.
with A.M. Conda, DiffPaction c: electromagnetic waves by smooth
for grazing angl,es, J. Research, Vol. 63D, No.2, 181-197,
Oct. 1959.
with W.E. Mientka, Cal,cuZated patterns of slotted
antennae, Appl. Sci. Res., Sec. B, Vol. 7. 449-462. i959.
140 with J. Householder. Pattern synthesis J.
Research. NBS. Vol. 630. No.3. 303-313. November-December 1959.
141 with A.M. Conda. On the of eZect1tunagnetic by aurved
conducting Can. J. Phys •• Vol. 37, 1384-1396. 1959. (Addenda
and corrigenda: Vol. 47. pg. 1050. May 1969).
142 Some soZutions invoZving spherical.
and cyZindrical. J. Research, NBS. Vol. 64B. 15-32. Jan.-Mar. 1960.
143 Terrest1tiaZ propagation of very-Zo1.J-frequency radio J. Resaarch, NBS,
Vol. 64D, No.2. 153-204. March-April 1960.
144 On the propagation of ELF radio 1.Jal)es and the infZuence of a non-homogeneous
J. Geophys. Res., Vol. 65. No.2. 597-600. February 1960.
145 A.G. Jean. W.L. Taylor. and J.R. Wait. VLF phase deduced
from atmospheric tJaVe J. Geophys. Res •• Vol. 65. No.3. 907-912.
March 1960.
146 Preface to the surface tJave IRE Trans., Vol. AP-7. S132 (Special
Supplement), December 1959.
147 Guiding of eZect1tomagnetic wves by rough IRE Trans ••
Vol. AP-7. Pts. 1. II. SI54-S168. December 1959.
148 Radio 1.Jal)e in an inhomogeneous NBS Tech. Note No. 24,
September 10. 1959, (PB 151 383).
149 Dif.fzoactive cozorections to the geometrical. optics of Zen.> frequency
in 'EZect1tamagnetic Wave edited by M. Desirant and J.L. Michiels.
pp. 87-101, Academic Press. 1960.
150 Propagation of el.ectromagnetic puZses in a hunogeneous conducting
Appl. Sci. Res., Sec. B, Vol. 8. 213-253. 1960.
151 with A.M. Conda. On the resonance excitation of a
Proc. lEE (London). Pt. C, Vol. 107, 362-366, June 1960.
152 with A.M. Conda. On the comt-utation of diffraction fieZds jor
in 'EZect1tomagnetic Wave edited by M. Desirant
and J.L. Michiels. pp. 661-670, Academic Press. 1960.
153 with A.M. Conda, Radiation a sZot on a Zarge
in 'El.ectromagnetic Wave edited by M. Desirant and
J.L. Michiels. pp. 103-109. Academic Press. 1960.
154 Mode theol"y and the propagation of extremeZy Zen.> frequency radio
J. Research. NBS. Vol. 64D. No.4. 387-404. July-August 1960.
155 with N.F. Carter. FieZd strength caZcuZations for ELF radio NBS
Tech. Note.No. 52. March 1960 (PB 161 553).
156 On the el.ectrunagnetic response of a conducting to a dipoZe
Geophys •• Vol. 25. No.3. 649-658, July 1960.
157 On the theory of the sZ01.J-taiZ portion of atmospheric J. Geophys.
Res •• Vol. 65. No.7. 1939-1946. July 1960.
158 On the ezcitation of eZectrunagnetic surface tJaves on a aurved
Trans. IRE. Vol. AP-B, No.4, 445-449, July 1960.
159 A conference on the propagation of ELF electItCfTlagnetic Proc. nEt
Vol. 48, No.9, pg. 1648, September 1960.
160 Inf1,usnce of sOUPce distance on the impedance chazoacteristics of ELF Ndio
Proc. IRE, Vol. 48, No.7, pg. 1338, July 1960.
161 with K. Spies, Influence of earth cwovatu1'e and the terzaestzoial magnetic
fie Zd on VLF J. Gee-phys. Res., Vol. 65, No.8, 2325-2331,
August 1960.
162 Elect1'omagnetic Radiation fl'CfTI CyUndztical Cha. 1.
2. S/,a>r)ey of the Uteroatuzoe on slots and l'elated 3. A:t:ial dipole
Llithin a coroner l'ef1,ectol' and slots on 4. The fields of a:z:iaZ
dipoles in the pztesence of a cil'cularo conducting 5. Slots on a
cylindPicaZZy tipped 6. TzoansVe1'se haZf-lXlVe slots on isoZated
7. Contiuctance of arial slots on infi?:ite cylinders and
8. Residue series l'epl'esentation fUI' the fields of an a:cial 9. FieUs
of the a:z:iaZZy slotted cylinder in tenns of Fock 10. Residue
series l'eproesentation fol' ci1'cumferentiaZ slots on 11. FieUs
of curzoent dist1'ibutions in rvedge 12. RadiaZ eZect1'ic dipoles in
cylintboical rvedge 13. Field of a slot on an elliptic
14. CaZculated Ndiation charoacte1'istics of sZots in metal 15.
Radiation fl'CfTI slot a:n'a7Js on a 16. Slotted-cylinder antenm
Llith a dielect1'ic coating. 17. Scatteroing of a plane lUaVe f1'CfTl a dieZect1'ic
cil' cyZinde1' at oblique 18. Diffzoaction by a convez cylin-
dricaZ Appendiz: Radiation f1'CfTl eurl'ent (Pergamon
Press, Inc., New York, NY, 1959).
163 A phenomenological theozry of ove1'Voltage fol' metalUc Ch. 3 of
'Overvoltage Research and Geophysical Applications', edited by J .R. Wait
(perg8Dlon Press, Inc.. , 1959).
164 The vazeiable-f1'equency Ch. 4 of 'Overvoltage Research and Geo-
physical Applications', edited by J .R. Wait (Perg8Dlon Press, Inc., 1959).
165 L.S. Collett, A.A. Brant, W.E. Bell, K.A. Ruddock, B.O. Siegel, and
J .R. Wait, Laboroatozry investigation of Ch. 5 of 'Overvoltage
Research and Geophysical Applications', edited by J. R. Va!t (Pergamon Press,
166 with L.S. Collett, C1'ite1'ia from the tItansient decay Ch. 6a of
'Overvoltage Research and Geophysical Applications', edited by J.R. Wait
(Pergamon Press, 1959).
167 The eZectztomagnetic fieZds of a dipoZe in the pl'esence of a thin pZasma
Appl. Sci. Res., Sec. B, Vol. 8, 397-417, 1961.
168 Pztopagation of electztomagnetic wves a thin plasma Can. J.
Phys., Vol. 38, 1586-1595, 1960.
169 A nBlJ approach to the mode theozry of VLF J. Research, NBS,
Vol. 65D (Radio Prop.), No. I, 37-46, January-February 1961.
170 On the calculation of APMAG Geophys., Vol. 25, 1290-1293,
Dec.her 1960.
171 with K. Spies, A note on phase velocity of VLF roadio J. Geophys.
Res., Vol. 66, No.3, 992-993, March 1961.
172 with A.M. Conda, Resonance cha.1oactePistics of a cozozougated cy'Lindep e:z:aited
by a magnetic IRE Trans., Vol. AP-9, No.4, 330-333, July 1961.
173 Some boundazoy va'Lue p1'Ob'Lems invo'Lving p'Lasma J. Research, NBS,
Vol. 65D (Radio Prop.), No.2, 137-150, April-June 1961.
174 On the theozry of mized-path gpound-wave propagation on a spherica'L
J. Research, NBS, 65D (Radio Prop.), No.4, 401-410, July-August 1961.
177 P1'Oceedings of the 1960 Conference on the Propagation of ELF Radio
NBS Technical Note No. 61 (PB-161 562), edited by J.R. Wait, June 6, 1960.
178 A compa:M,son betl.Jeen theopeticaZ and ezperimenta'L data on phase ve'Locity
of vtF Proc. IRE, Vol. 49. No.6, 1089-1090, June 1961.
179 rhe p1'Opagation of e1.ectpomagnetic waves along the eanh's in
'Electromagnetic edited by R.E. Langer, pp. 243-290 (University
of Wisconsin Press, Madison, WiS., 1962).
180 A.G. Jean, H.E. Taggart, and J .R. Wait, Ca'Libmtion of loop at
J. Research, NBS, Vol. 65C, No.3, 189-193, July-September 1961.
181 A aiffmction theozry fop LF sky-wave J. Geophys. Res., Vol. 66,
No.6, 1713-1724, June 1961.
182 with A.M. Canda, A diffmction theozry fop LF sky-wave propagation - An
additional J. Geophys. Res., Vol. 66, No.6, 1725-1729, June 1961.
183 A.G. Jean, A.C. Murphy, J.R. Wait and D.F. Wasmundt, Obse'PVed attenuation
J. Research, NBS, Vol. 65D (Radio Prop.), No.5,
475-479, September-OCtober 1961.
184 The e'Lectzoomagnstic fields of a hoPiaontal dipo'Le in the presence of a
conducting Can. J. Phys., Vol. 39, 1017-1028, 1961.
185 K.P. Spies and J.R. Wait, Mode calculations fop VLF propagation in the
eaPth-ionosphePe NBS Tech. Note No. 114, (PB 161 615),
July 17, 1961.
186 A note concerning the e:z:citation of ELF e'Lectromagnetic J. Research
NBS, Vol. 65D (Radio Prop.), No.5, 481-484, September-october 1961.
187 On the possibi'Lity of rejecting certain modes in VLF Proc.
IRE, Vol. 49, No.9, pg. 1429, September 1961.
188 On the impedance of long lJipe suspended over the Proc. IRE, Vol. 49,
No. 10, pg. 1576, October 1961.
189 A. Nennsberg (translator); J.R. Wait and J.B. Reubens (editors), ChapteP on
'Long waves fpom book. 'Ionospheric lTopagation of Radio Waves' by Ya. L.
Al'pert, NBS Translation T5-60. August 5, 1961.
190 E:z:pected influence of a locaZi2ed change of ionosphere height on VLF
J. Geophy8. Res., Vol. 66, No. 10, 3119-3123, October 1961.
191 COtmIents on K. Voaoff's paper 'CaZibration of pulsation detectop coils'
J. Geophys. Res., Vol. 66, No. 10, pg. 3603, October 1961.
192 Average dscay Za1JB of VLF Proc. IRE, Vol. 50, No. I, 53-56, Jan. 1962.
193 C""",ents on paper by W.D. WestfaZZ 'Prediction of VLF diuzonal phase changes
cmd80Zarf1,are J. Geophys. Res., Vol. 67, No.2, 916-917, Feb. 1962.
On t'h8 pzoopagation of VI;F and ELF radio 1I7al)es uhen the ionosp'h8re is not
shazopZy J. Research, NBS, Vol. 66D (Radio Prop.), No.1, 53-61,
January-February 1962.
C.M. Jackson, J .R. Wait aad L.C. walters, NtlnezoicaZ resuZts for the suzoface
impedance of a stratified NBS Tech. Note No. 143 (PB 161 644),
Karch 19, 1962.
An antlZysu of VI;F mode propagation jor a variabZe ionosphere J.
Research, NBS, Vol. 660 (Radio Prop.), No.4, 453-461, July-August 1962.
Mode convezosion in the eazoth-ionosphere NBS Tech. Note No. 151,
June 8, 1962. (PB 191730)
rwzz,e p1'opagation azoound a CtD"Ved boundazry which contains an
Can. J. Phys., Vol. 40, 1010-1016, 1962.
PossibZe inf1,u.ence of the ionosphere on the impedance of a ground-based
J. Res., NBS, Vol. 660 (Radio Prop.), No.5, 563-569, Sept.-OCt. 1962.
of magneto-te1,1,uric J. Res., NBS, Vol. 66D, (Radio Prop.),
No.5, 509-541, September-OC:tober 1962.
E:citation of modes at vezry tow frequency in the earth-ionosp'h8re
J. Geophys. Res., Vol. 67, No. 10, 3823-3828, September 1962.
A 7'IOte on the propagation of eZectromagnetic puZses ove the earth's
Can. J. Phys., Vol. 40, 1264-1268, 1962.
In1:Jtoduction to the theoz?J of VI;F Proc. IRE, Vol. SO, 1624-1647,
July 1962.
Effective impedance of a we grid para1,1,eZ to the eazeth's IRE
Trans., Vol. AP-I0, No.5, 538-542, September 1962.
On t'h8 p1'opagation of ELF puZses in t'h8 earth-io7'IOsphere Can.
.1. Phys., Vol. 40; 1360-1369, October 1962.
A 7'IOte on diurnaZ phase changes of vezoy-'LoI.>-frequency 1I7al)es for Zong
J. Geophys. Res., Vol. 68, 1, 338-340, J,nuary 1, 1963.
E'Lectztcmagnetic Wavss in Stztatified Media (Perl_on Pres., Oxford, 1962):
Chs. I. GtmIIl'aZ II. RefZection of eZectrGmagnetic waves f1'fXfl
horiaonta1,1,y stztatified III. Ref1,Bction of eZsctzoomagnetic tJal)SS
fztr:In iMDmogeJ'lSOU8 media with speciaZ IV. methods
for treating refZections from inhcmogenllOUB V. Pztopagation along a
sp'hsZ'icaZ VI. Fuw1tzmenta1.s of mods theory of wave
VII. ChaztactB1'i.stics of the modes fo:r .VI;F VIII. P:ropagation
in etztatified magnBto-p'LaBma IX. VI;F p1'opagation - J'hsoZ"Y and e:cpe:ri.-
X. ELF (sz1::ftIlmBZy 'LOII1 frequency) p:ropagation - J'heorry and
U. ABJ1fIP1;otic dBoeZopnent for guided wave XII. Supen'ef:raotion
and the of tZ'opoephszoi.c dwJting.
2nd. Ed. 1970) III1crofo1'lll (MIM ,fl4IIqell House,Falrvlew Park,Elmsford NY 10523 J.
!'he t'Mory of an antmzna OVI1l' an inha'flOgeJ'lSOU8 grouniJ. in 'EZsctzoo-
magntltic J'h«n-y and edited by E.C. Jordan, PerlUlOn Prea.,
Oxford, 1963.
A note on the eZflCtztomt:zgnetic rssponse of a stztatified Geophya.,
Vol. 27, Ro. 3, 382-385, June 1962.
* 215
K. Tao aDd J.R. Wait. Ref7,ection mechanisms for sporoadic in 'Ionospheric
Spol'at1:;,c edited by E.K. Smith and S. Matsushita. Pergamon Press. Oxford.
Th8 mode theoroy of VLF l'adio propagation for a sphel'ical earoth and a concen-
tric anisotl'opic can. J. Phys •• Vol. 41, 299-315. 1963. (Errata:
CJP !i, pg. 819 and pg. 2267, 1963).
with K.P. Spies. Height-gain foro VLF !'adio J. Research. NBS. Vol. 670
(Radio Prop.). No.2, 183-187. March-April 1963.
with L.C. Walters. CuztVes for gl'ound ",ave pl'opagation ovel' mi:r:ed land and
sea IEEE Trans., Vol. AP-ll. No.1. 38-45. January 1963.
A note on E-fietd and H-fietd Losses fol' groound-based Proc. IEEE.
Vol. 51, No.2, pg. 366, February 1963.
with L.C. Walters, Infl,uence of a sector ground sC!'een on the fietd of a
verotical NBS Monograph No. 60, April 15. 1963. NTIS (COM-7S-l0053) ..
Conceroning sol,utions of the VLF mode probZem foro an anisot1'opic curved
J. Research, NBS, Vol. 67D (Radio l'rop.) , No.3. 297-302,
May-June 1963.
with L.C. Walters, Refl,ection of VLF l'adio 1lXZt1es f1'Ol1l an inhomogeneous
ionosphe1'e. Pa:zot I. &:ponential.'Ly va:zoying isotl'opic J. Research,
NBS, Vol. 670 (Radio Prop.). No.3, 361-367, 1963.
with C.M. Jackson, Resonant charoacte1'istics of a c01TUgated J.
Research, NBS, Vol. 670 (Radio Prop.), No.3, 347-353. May-June 1963.
Trans'Lated ezt1'acts froom the book 'Ei,ect1'Offlagnetic nelds AppZied to
Induction Methods of El,ectricaL by A.B. Ve1i1dn and G.S.
Fraatov (Translator: Alberta K. Garber), NBS Report, T7-60, May 6, 1963.
Vezty-ZOli) fzaequency proopagation in the earoth-ionocphe1'e UKlve-guide of non-
Proc. Int. Conference on the Ionosphere, Imperial College.
Inst. Pbys. and Pbys. Soc., London. 446--451. July 1962.
Influence of the 1,0U)B1' ionosphel'e on pZ"opagation of VLF U)al)eB to groeat
J. Res. NBS. Vol. 670 (Radio Prop.). No.4. 375-381, July-
August 1963.
A note on antipodal NBS Tech. Note No. 182. August 20, 1963.
Available through NTIS (COM-75-l0283).
with L.C. Walters, Reflection of VLF ztadio L7CZVes fl'an an inhomogeneous
Parot II. PB1'tu1'bed e:rponential J. Res. NBS, Vol. 67D
(Badio Prop.), No.5, 519-523. September-october 1963.
7'he possibiZity of guided eZect1'Ol1lagnetic '",aues in the earoth's
IEEE Trans., Vol. AP-l1, No.3. 330-335, May 1963.
The oblique proopagation of gl'ound waves acl'OSS a coast line - Pa1't I
J. Research NBS, Vol. 67D (Radio Prop.), No.6, 617-624, Nov.-Dec. 1963.
with C.M. Jaclulon, The oblique pl'opagation of gl'ound tJal'es aol'OSS a coast
line - Part J. Research NBS. Vol. 67D (Radio Prop.), No.6, 625-630,
Nov_ber-Dec:cber 1963.
L.C. Walters and J.R. Wait, Numez'icaZ caZcuZations fol' reflection of
L7CZVes fl'om a lOBsy NBS Tech. Note No. 205.
Nov.-ber 21, 1963. (COM 73-10634)
228 with C.H. Jackson, Calculations of the fieU near the ape:r: of a rvedge
NBS Tech. Note No. 204, November 21, 1963 (PB 184 118).
229 RevielJ of mode t'h8ozoy of 1*adio proopagation in te1*1*estPial Revs.
Geophys., Vol. I, No.4, 481-505, November 1963.
230 with L.C. Walters, RefZection of VLF 1*adio waves f1*om an inhcxnogeneous
ionosphe:re. Pa1*t III. Exponential model bJith hyperboUc J.
Research NBS, Vol. 67D (Radio Prop.), No.6, 747-752, Nov.-Dec. 1963.
231 Calculated diffraction effects at VLF from a localized ionospheric
NBS Tech. Note No. 208, January 16, 1964.
232 '!'heozoetical calcuZations of t'h8 impedance of a monopole antenm bJith a zeadial-
bJi1*e ground systll'l on an impe1*fectly conducting by S.W. Haley,
R.J. King, and L.R. Branch (based on J.R. Wait's theory). AFeRL Scientific
Report No. 26, December 13, 1963.
233 Tl.1o-dimensionaZ treatment of mode theozoy of the propagation of VLF l'adio
Radio Sci. J. Res. NBS, Vol. 68D, No. I, 81-93, January 1964.
234 Some 1*ema:rks on mode and NY theo1*ies "f VLF road';'o Radio Sci.
J. Res. NBS, Vol. 68D, No. I, 79-80, January 1964.
235 with L.C. Walters, Reflection of electl'omagnetic waves fl'om a 'lossy magneto-
Radio Sci. J. Res. NBS, Vol. 68D, No. I, 95-101, January 1964.
236 Oblique pztopagation of gzroundJ..Javes across a Pal't Radio Sci.
J. Res. NBS, Vol. 68D, No.3, 291-296, March 1964.
237 '!'he 1*eZation between VLF propagation and D-Zaye1* IEEE
Trans., Vol. No.2, 239-240, Karch 1964.
238 On the theo1*y of Schumann 1*esonances in the eazoth-ionosphere Can.
J. Pbys., Vol. 42, 575-582, April 1964.
239 Electromagnetic scatte1*ing f1*om a 1*adiaZZy inhcxnogeneous Appl. Sci.
Res. Sec. B, Vol. 10, 441-450, 1964.
240 Electromagnetic fie'las in lossy media (The U.S. National Committee Report
for Commission 6 of URSI, Subcomm. 6.3 E1ectromagnetics), Radio Scl. J. Res.
NBS, Vol. 68D, No.4, 463-465, April 1964.
241 Some 1*flIfIal'ks concezoning non-1*eciprocity in 1*adio IEEE Trans. ,
Vol. AP-12, No.3, 372-373, Kay 1964.
242 On phase changes in vezoy-IObJ fl'equency p1*opagation induced by an ionosphe1*ic
depression of finite J. Geophys. Res., Vol. 69, No.3, 441-445,
February 1, 1964.
243 Electromagnetic surface in Advances in Radio edited by
J.A. &axton, Vol. 1, pp. 157-217, Academic Press. London, 1964 (See also
RP-421, from EM Probing in Geophysics, 1970).
244 Influence of a ci1*cuZa1' ionosphenc dep1*ession or. VLF Radio
Sci. J. Res. NBS, Vol. 68D, No.8, 907-914, August 1964.
245 A 7IOte on VHF 1*eftection f1*om a t1*oposphe1*ic Radio Sci. J. Res. NBS,
Vol. 68D, No.7, 847-848, July 1964.
246 Pztofiu on Microwave J., Vol. 6, pg. 83, July 1963.
247 with C.M. Jackson, Inf1,uence of the zoefractive inde:c pr'ofUe in VHF zoefZection
fzoom a tztoposphsric IEEE trans., Vol. 1P-12. No.4, 512-513, July 1964.
248 C01ICem:ng the theozwy of radiation fzo(X1l a s'totted conducting plane in a pZas1lr1.
Tech. Note No. 223, September 28, 1964. (PB 168051)
249 with K.P. Spies, Pzoopagation of zoadio waves past a coast tine LJith a gztadual
change of suzoface IEEE Trans., Vol. AP-12, No.5, 570-575,
September 1964.
250 Cohel'ence the01'ies of tztopospheztic Mdio IEEE 'J:I:ans., Vol.
AP-12, No.5, 649-651, September 1964.
251 Radiation fzoom sOUztces iTrrnezosed in comp1'essible pZasma Can. J. Ph .,
Vol. 42, 1760-1780, September 1964.
252 L.C. Walters aDd J.R. Wait, Computation of a modified Fzoesnel integzoal
arising in the theozoy of diffzoaction by a vareiable NBS Tech. Note
No. 224, October 14, 1964 (PB 184 119).
253 TheoZ"JI of zoadiation f1'OTfl sOUztces iTrmezosed in anisotropic J. Res.
NBS, Vol. 68B, No.3, 119-136, July-September 1964.
254 TheoZ"JI of a s'totted-sphe1'e antenna mer.ed in a compzoessib'te
Paret I. Radio Sci. J. Res. NBS, Vol. 68D, No. 10, 1127-1136, Oct. 1964.
255 1'heozoy of a sZotted-sphezoe antenna mersed in a compytessib'Lp
Radio Sci. J. Res. NBS, Vol. 68D, No. 10, 1137-1143, Oct. 1964.
256 Resonances of a spherical void in a compzoessibZe isotztopic J.
Geophys. Res., Vol. 69, No. 19. 4189-4191, October I, 1964.
257 On the thsozoy of zoefZection of electzt(X1lagnetic 7.tXlVes fzoom the interface
between a compztessibZe magnetopZasma and a Radio Sci. J. Res.
NBS, Vol. 68D, No. II, 1187-1191. Noveaber 1964.
258 with K.P. Spies, A note on the insuZated loop antenna mersed in a con-
du.cting Radio Sci. J. Res. NBS. Vol. 68D, No. 11, 1249-1240,
November 1964.
259 with K.P. Spies, Cha1'acteztistics of the BCU'th-ionosphere waveguide fozo VLF
ztatIio NBS Tech. Note No. 300. December 30, 1964 (available frOiD
the Natioual Technical Information Service, Springfield, VA (PB 168 048»
260 E. Babar and J .R. Wait, NicztOLJaVe model techniques to study VLF ztatIio
pzoopagation in the Bfl1'th-ionosphere Quasi-()ptics (ed. J. Fox),
Polytechnic PI:eas of the Polytechnic of Brooklyn, pgs. 447-464,
261 of eZectztrnagnetic and e'tectroacoustic waves by a cy tindricaZ
object in a Radio Sci. J. Res., NBS. Vol. 690, No.2,
247-256, February 1965.
262 with C.M. Jackaon, CaZcuZations of the bistatic soattezoing czooss section
of a sphezoe with an impedance boundtrJwy Radio Sci. J. Res. NBS,
Vol. 69D, No.2, 299-315, February 1965.
263 Cavity zoes01lClnDes fOl' a sphezticaZ. eazoth with a c01lCenmc anisot:roopic
J.A.T.P., Vol. 27, 81-89, 1965.
264 A.G. Jean alld J .R. Wait, The use of e'Leetl'omagne:ie signa'Ls emitted fl'om
nue'Lea1' e:cp1.osions to study 'Long-range VLF J. Geophys. Res.,
Vol. 70, No.5, 1258-1261, March 1, 1965.
265 Guided r..xwes in the earth-ionosphel'e in 'Progl'ess in Radio
edited by F. Horner, Vol. IV, pp. 98-112, Elsevier Pub. Co.,
Amsterdam, 1965.
266 Waves eil'ou'Lating a1'ound a l'igid ey'LindrieaZ obstaeZe in a eompl'essib'Le
Radio Sci. J. Res. NBS, Vol. 69D. No.4. 567-577. April 1965.
267 Cone61'ning the meehanism of ref7,eetion of e'Leet1'omagnetie wves fl'om an
inhomogeneous lossy Radio Sci. J. Res. NBS. Vol. 690, No.6.
865-869, June 1965.
268 Justifieation fol' neg'Leeting the of the ionosphel'e in VZF
Mdio IEEE Trar.s •• Vol. AP-13. No.3, 480-481, May 1965.
269 Nature of the eleet1'omagnetie fieU refZeeted fl'om a Electronics
Letters. Vol. 1. No.3, pg. 65, May 1965.
270 Inf7,uenee of an inhomogeneO'UB on the of VLF zaadio tl1aVes
in ths earth-ionosphl11'e bJaveguid8, Radio Sci. J. Res. NBS. Vol. 69D. No.7.
969-975, July 1965.
271 On radiation of e'Lect1tomagnetic and e'Leet1'oaeoustie wves in a p'Lasma
Appl. Sci. Res., Sec. B. Vol. 11, 423-431. 1965.
272 Ea1'th-ionosphl!!1'e eavity resonances and the pr'opagation of ELF mdio
Radio Sci. J. Res •• NBS. Vol. 69D. No.8. 1057-1070. August 1965.
273 Modes of proopagation in a bo'U11ded eompr'p.ssible Electronics Letters,
Vol. 1. 193-194. 1965.
274 with K.P. Spies. In;fLuenee of finite ground conduetivity on the
of VLF radio Radio Sci. J. Res. NBS. Vol. 69D, No. 10. 1359-1373,
October 1965.
275 Propagation of pubes in d1:spel'sive Radio Sci. J. Res. NBS. Vol. 69D.
No. 11, 1387-1401, November 1965.
276 COffIfIents on H. Volland's 'Retrmt'ks on Austin's formu.'La' Radio Sci. J. Res.
NBS. Vol. 69D. No. 11. 1465-1467, November 1965.
277 On radiation of eleetztomagnetie and e'Leet1'OaCoustie tl1aVes in Appl.
Sci. Res. Sec. B, Vol. 12, 130-138, 1965.
278 The long tl1aVelength limit in seatte1'ing fl'om a die'Leet1'ie eytinder at
oblique can. J. Phys., Vol. 43, 2212-2215, December 1965.
279 with K.P. Spies, Theo.ry of a slotted-sphel'e antenna immel'sed in a eompl'essib'Le
ptasma, Radio Sci., Vol 1 (New Series), No.1, 21-26, Jan. 1966.
280 E. Bahar and J.R. Wait, Propagation in a modeZ tel'1'esmal wveguide of
nDnunifoZ'lfl height: TheoPy and cpel'iment, Radio Sci. J. Res., NBS. Vol. 69D,
No. 11, 1445-1463, November 1965.
281 Some highlights of the URSI Symposium on Eleet1'omagnetie Wave held
in Delft, The Sept. 6-11, 1965, Radio Sci. J. Res. NBS, Vol.
690, No. 12. 1691-1693, December 1965.
282 A note on su.rface and (Jl'ound IEEE Trans •• Vol. AP-l3. No.6.
996-997. November 1965.
283 Pzeopagation of elect%'07rr:zgnetic pulses in tta"1'estriaZ IEEE Trans••
Vol. AP-13. No.6. 904-918. November 1965.
284 On the theo'JOY of tJal)e p1'Opagation in a bounded car1pzoessibZe Can. J.
Phys •• Vol. 44. 293-302. 1966.
285 EZectzoomagnetic Ndiation f'¥'Om an acoustic point soUPce L1ithin a c01l1p1'essibZe
pZasma Can. J. Phys •• Vol. 44. No.3. 467-475. March 1966.
286 2'heoPies of pzoolate spheroidal Radio Sci.. Vol. 1 (New Series).
No.4. 475-512. April 1966.
287 Limiting behaviour of a thin plasma sheet for a transverse magnetic
Electronics Letters. Vol. 2. No.4. pg. 156. April 1966.
288 Cha:ltaeteristics of a sZotted-sphezoe antenna mersed in a cOTTlpzoessibZe
from Microwave Behaviour of Ferrimagnetics and PlaS1llB.s. Conference Pub. No.
13. Institution of Electrical Engineers. London. September 1965.
289 R.J. ICing. S.W. Maley and J.R. Wait. Grou7dJave p'¥'Opagation aZong thzoee-
section rrri:r:ed Proc. lEE (London). Vol. 113, No.5, 747-751. May 1966.
290 2'.ransverse pzoopagation of lIXnJBguide modes in cyZindzeicaZZy stNtified
Radio Sci.. Vol. 1 (New Series). No.6. 641-654, June 1966.
291 D.B. Large aDd J.R. Wait. Cavity 1'esonatozo modes in a cy7.indzoicaZZy stzoati-
fied magnetop7.asma# Badio Sci.. Vol. 1 (New Series). No.6. 655-658.
June 1965.
292 Radiation from a spherical aperture an,;enna mersed in a compressible
IEEE Trans •• Vol. AP-14. No.3. 360-368, May 1966.
293 EZectzooJrrz.gnetic propagation in an idea7.iaed earth CPUBt Radio
Sci •• Vol. 1 (New Series). No.8. 913-924. August 1966.
294 K.P. Spies and J .1.. Wait. On the caZcuZation of the ground wve attenuation
factor at ZOltJ IEEE Trans •• Vol. AP-14. No.4. 515-517. July 1966.
295 Ne1:tJol'k l'epresentation for spherical waves in a compressibZe IEEE
Trans •• Vol. AP-14, No.4. 517-519. July 1966.
296 Dipole l'esonances of a magnetopZasma Electronics Letters. Vol. 2,
No.7. pg. 265, July 1966.
297 A possible metihanism fol' e:cessive mode convesion in the earth-ionosphere
Radio Sci •• Vol. 1 (New Series). No.9, 1073-1076. Sept. 1966.
298 Smle highZights of a Symposium on Subsupface Propagation of E7.ectromagnetic
Paris# ApzoiZ Badio Sci •• Vol. 1 (New Series). No.9,
1115-1118. September 1966.
299 Influence of a comprBssible pZasma half-space on the impBdance of an eZectric
Proc. IEEE. Vol. 54. No.9. 1193-1194. September 1966.
300 Some factol's concezoning sZectzoQnag7'l8tic tJal)e propagation in the earth's
Proc. IEEE, Vol. 54. No.8. 1020-1025. August 1966.
301 with E. Bahar. Simulation of curvatu.!'e in a straight model wavBguid8#
Electronics Letters. 2. No. 10. pg. 358. October 1966.
302 Radiation f1'OTfl a spherical antenna with an anisotropic plasma Can.
J. Phys., Vol. 44, No. 10,2303-2313, October 1966 (Errata: Can. J. Phys.,
Vol. 45, pg. 2228, 1967.)
303 Electrcmagnetic fie'Lds of a dipoZe over an anisor;ropic Can. J.
Phys., Vol. 44, No. 10, 2387-2401, October 1966."
304 Theo:zoy of HF ground wave backscatter from sea J. Geophys. Res.,
Vol. 71, No. 20. 4839-4842, October 15, 1966.
305 Quasi-static theo:zoy of a cylindrical impedance probe for
Radio Sci •• Vol. 1 (New Series), No. 11. 1297-1301, November 1966.
306 Influence of a sub-surface insulating layer on electromagnetic ground wave
IEEE Trans •• Vol. AP-14. No.6, 755-759, November 1966.
307 Fields of a horisontal dipole over a stratified anisotropic
IEEE Trans., Vol. AP-14, No.6, 790-792, November 1966.
308 with K.P. Spies, On the theory of transient wave propagation in a dispersive
Appl. Sci. Res., Vol. 16. No.6, 455-465. 1966.
309 CcrmtentB on 'The variation of ground constants for the frequency range of
30 to 70 MBs' (with author A. Rashid's Proc. IEEE, Vol. 55, No.1.
85-86, January 1967.
310 nlumination of an inhomogeneous spherical ear'th by an LF plane electro-
magnetic Radio Sci., Vol. 2, (New Series), No. I, 111-118, Jan. 1967.
311 Theo:zoy of a plasma resonance probe in a magnetic J. Appl. Phys.,
Vol. 37, No. 13, 4905-4907. December 1966.
312 Fundamental diffi.:mZty in the analysis of cylindrical 'WaVeguides with
impedance Electronics Letters, Vol. 3. No.2. 87-88, Feb. 1967.
313 Further note on the quasi-static theo:zoy of a cylindrical impedance probe
for Radio Sci.. Vol. 2 (New No.2, 253-256.
February 1967.
314 COtmlent on propagation over mountain-diffraction paths' IEEE
Trans •• Vol. AP-15, No.2, pg. 321. March 1967.
315 D.B. Large and J.R. Wait. Coupled modes in a spherical resonator with a
impedance Electronics Letters, Vol. 3, No.5, 221-223,
May 1967.
316 Influence of a thin inhomogeneous surface "Layer on electromagnetic ground
'WaVe Proc. IEEE, Vol. 55. No.4, 568-569, April 1967.
317 Acoustic whispering-gaHery phenomena in circular' Can. J. Phys.,
Vol. 45, No.5, 1861-1869, May 1967.
318 with E.A. Brackett, Bibliography or. waves in ESSA Tech. Rept. No.
IER-ITSA-39. April 1967, (PB 175 657).
319 D.B. Large and J .R. Wait, Resonances of the thin-sheU model of the earoth-
ionosphere cavity with a dipolar magnetic Radio Sci., Vol. 2, No.7,
695-702. July 1967.
320 Radiation from dipoles in an idealized jungle Radio Sci.,
Vol. 2 (New Series), No.7, 747-750. July 1967.
* 327
* 330
On assumed boundary conditions at an interface a dielectric and a
comppessible plasma
Electronics Letters. Vol. 3. No.7. 317-318. July 1967.
The lJhispering gal lery nature of the earth-ionosphepe bJaVeguide at VLF IEEE
Trans •• Vol. AP-15, No.4, 580-581. July 1967 IEEE Trans ••
Vol. AP-16. No.1. 147, 1968).
TeP1'estzoial in 'Electromagnetic Wave Ed. J. Brown,
Proc. of Symposium at Delft. Netherlands, September 1965, pg. 195, Pergamon
Press, Oxford, New York, 1967.
On the theory of shielded suPface IEEE Trans., Vol. M'IT-15, No.7,
410-414. July 1967.
R.J. King. S.W. Maley and J .R. Wait, E:z:perimental and theoretical studies
of propagation of ground lJaves across mi:ced in 'ElectrCN7lagnetic Wave
Ed. J. Brown, Proe. Symposium at Delft, Netherlands, September 1965,
pp. 217-224, Pergamon Press, Oxford, New York, 1967.
E. Bahar and J .R. Wait, Propagation in a model terrestrial lJave-guide of
non-uniform height - Theory and in 'EZectzoomagne#c Wave Theory'
Ed. J. Brown, Proc. Symposium at Delft, Netherlands, September 1965, pp.
211-216, Pergamon Press, Oxford, New York, 1967.
Patteron of a Unear antenna erected over a tapel'ed gl'ound Can. J.
Phys., Vol. 45, No.9, 3091-3101, 1967.
Launching a surface lJave over the earth
Electronics Letters, Vol. 3, No.9,
396-397, September 1967.
with G.A. Schlak, NelJ asymptotic solution fol' the fields
of a dipole over a st1'atified medium
Electronics Letters. Vol. 3, No.9,
421-422, September 1967.
On the theory of l'adiation fl'om a l'aised electric dipole over ar. inhomo-
geneous g1'ound Radio Sci., Vol. 2 (New Series), No.9. 997-1004.
September 1967 ..
Electzoomagnetic lJhisperoing gallery in a dieZectl'ic Radio Sci.,
Vol. 2 (New Series). No.9. 1005-1017. September 1967.
Theory of diffl'action by a curved inhomogeneous J. Math. Phys., Vol. 8.
No.4, 920-925, 1967.
G.A. Schlak and J.R. Wait, ElectzoCN7lagnetic bJaVe propagation over nonpax'aZZel
stPatified conducting medium
Can. J. Phys., Vol. 45. No. 11. 3697-3720, 1967.
Comment on 'Radiation from linear l'esonant antenna in lJeakly ionized
Int. J. Electronics. Vol. 22, No.4, 389. 1967.
CCfmlents on a paper '1. numerical irwestigation of classical appr'oximations
used in VLF pl'opagation' by R.I.. E.E. and I.J.
Radio Sci •• Vol. 2 (New Series). No. 11. 1393. November 1967.
David B. Large and J .R. Wait. Resonances of a cyZintboical earth-ionosphel'e
cavity model with a dipolar magnetic J. Geophys. Res •• Vol. 72, No. 21.
5395-5400, November I, 1967.
K.P. Spies and J .R. Wait, On the calculation of antenna patterns fol' an
inhomogeneous spheroicaZ aadio Sci •• Vol. 2 (New Series), No. II,
1361-1378. November 1967.
338 Planar analogue of the earth-ionosphere Electronics Letters,
Vol. 3, No. II, 518-519, November 1967.
339 Applications and limitations of the mode theory of long wave radio propa-
Reprinted from MF, LF, and VLF Radio Propagation Conference, Pub.
No. 36, November 1967, pp. 57-62 (Institution of Electrical Engineers,
Savoy Place, London).
340 Asymptotic thoery for dipoZe radiation in the presence of lossy sZab
lying on a conducting IEEE Trans., Vol. AP-15, No.3, 645-648,
341 K.P. Spies and J.R. Wait, Phase of the electromagnetic fieUi on the surface
of an inhonogeneous earth for sky-wave IEEE Trans., Vol. AP-15,
No.5, 708-709, September 1967.
342 Y.S. Yeh and J.R. Wait, On the theory of radiation from an annular slot in
a compressible Radio Sci., Vol. 3 (New Series), No.2, 171-180,
February 1968.
343 EZectrcxnagnetics and Holt, Rinehart and Winston, Inc., New York,
NY, 1968.
344 CalcuZated mode conversion at the sunrise boundary in the earth-ionosphere
Electronics Letters, Vol. 4, No.7, 131-132, April 5, 1968.
345 G.A. Schlak and J.R. Wait, Attenuation function for propagation over a non-
paralZeZ st.r-atified Can. J. Phys., Vol. 46, No.9, 1135-1136,
May 1, 1968.
346 Mode conversion and refraction effects in the earth-ionosphere waveguide
for VZF J. Geophys. Res., Space Phys., Vol. 73, No. 11,3537-
3548, June 1, 1968.
347 D.B. Large and J .R. Wait, Influence of a radial magnetic fieUi on the
resonances of a spherical plasma Radio Sci., Vol. 3 (New Series),
No.6, 633-637, June 1968.
348 COffITIents on S. W. 'Wave propagation in earth-ionosphere waveguide'
Appl. Sci. Res., Vol. 18, 458-459, March 1968.
349 K.P. Spies and J.R. Wait, Calculated mode conversion coefficients for' a
graded height change in the earth-ionosphere waveguide at ESSA Res.
Labs., Tech. Rept. ElL 77-0Dl, May 1968.
350 CortITIents on 'Propagation of e.1,.f. radio waves to great distances below the
anisotropic by M. J.A.T.P., Vol. 29, p. 937,1967,
J.A.T.P., Vol. 30, No.6, 1247-1248, 1968.
351 Cc:KmIents on 'An asymptotic field calculation in the penunbra region' IEEE
Trans., Vol. AP-16, No.2, pg. 260, Karch 1968.
352 with K.P. Spies, On the calculation of mode conversion at a graded height
change in the earth-ionosphere waveguide at VLF Radio Sci., Vol. 3 (New
Series), No.8, 787-791, August 1968.
353 with D.B. Large, EZectroqnetic fields in a spherical cavity with a con-
centric anisotropic shell Can. J. Phys., Vol. 46, No. 13, 1505-
1509, July 1, 1968.
354 D.B. Large and J.R. Wait. Theory of e"Lectromagnetic coup"Ling phenonena in
the earth-ionosphere cavity, J. Geophys. Res., Vol. 73, No. 13, 4335-4362,
July 1, 1968.
355 Modal, am"Lysis of i1'1'Bgu"Lazt terrain effects in radio propagation and the
ray interpretation, Electronics Letters, Vol. 4, No. 17, 367-368,
August 23rd, 1968.
356 Note on mode conversion at VLF in the earth-ionosphera lJa1)Bguide, J. Geophys.
Res., Space Physics, Vol. 73, No. 17, 5801-5804, September 1, 1968.
357 modes in a tropospheric "Layer, Electronics Letters, Vol. 4.
No. 18, 377-378, September 1968.
358 On the theory of VLF propagation for' a step model, of the nonuniform earth-
ionosphere uaveguide, Can. J. Phys., Vol. 46, No. 17, 1979-1983. Sept. 1. 1968.
359 Diffraction and saatterine of the e"Lectranagnetic {J1'ountiJuave by te1'1'ain
features, Radio Sci., Vol. 3 (New Serip.s), No. 10, 995-1003, October 1968.
360 EZ.ect1'orragnetic induction in a smaU conducting sphere above a resistive
ha"Lf space, Radio Sci., Vol. 3 (New Series), No. 10, 1030-1034, Oct. 1968.
361 with K.P. Spies. VLF mode ca"Lcu"Lations for propagation across a "Land/sea
boU7'Jtialty in the earth-ionosphere waveguide, ESSA Tech. Rept. ERL 87-oD-2,
September 1968 (40 cents).
362 Scattezoing fran a thin sheet obstacle on a curved surface, Can. J. Phys.,
Vol. 46, No. 23, 2601-2605, 1968.
363 with K.P. Spies. On the diffraction by a knife-edge obstac"Le on a conducting
earth, Radio Sci •• Vol. 3 (New Series), No. 12, 1179-1181, December 1968.
364 Recent theoretical, advances in the terrestrial, propagation of VLF e"Lectro-
magnetic waves, in 'Advances in Electronics and EZ.ectron Physics' Ed. L.
Marton, Vol. 25. pp. 145-209, Academic Press, New York and London, 1968.
365 Optimisation of the ground wave over a stratified earth, Electronics Letters,
Vol. 4, No. 26. 575-576, 27 December 1968.
366 EZ.ectromagnetic transient response of a sphericaZ conductine shell, Electronics
Letters, Vol. 4. No. 26, 576-577. 27 December 1968.
367 with K.P. Spies, Radio pzeopagation over a ayZindriaa"L hill inatuding the
effect of a obstaatp, IEEE Trans., Vol. AP-16, No.6, 700-705,
November 1968.
368 ReJ!ection from subrefractive layers, Electronics Letters, Vol. 5, No.4,
64-65. 20 February 1969.
369 with K.P. Spies, Phase shift for totaZ re:tection from a bounded dieZectric
Can. J. Phys., Vol. 47, No.7, 826-830, 1969.
370 E"Leot1'c:mlagnetio radiation fran conical, structures, in 'Antenna Theory',
Ed. by R.E. Collin and F.J. Zucker, Chapter 12. Part 1, pp. 483-522
(McGraw-Hill Book Co., New York, 1969).
371 Eteotromagnetic radiation from spheroidal, structures, in 'Antenna Theory'
Edited by R.E. Collin and F.J. Zucker, Part I, Chapter 13, pp. 523-559
(McGraw-Hill Book Co., New York. 1969).
* 389
Chazoacteroistios of antennas over ea:rth, in 'Ant:m;1fl Theory', Ed. by
R.E. Collin and F.J. Zucker, Part 2, Chapter 23, pp. 386-437 (McGraw-Hill
Book Co., New York, 1969).
EZeotromasnetic fieZds of sou:t'ces in media, in 'Antenna Theory', Ed.
by R.E. Collin and F.J. Zucker, Part 2, Chapter 24, pp. 438-513 (McGraw-Hill
Book Co., New York, 1969).
Antennas in in 'Antenna Theory', Ed. by R.E. Collin and F.J. Zucker,
Part 2, Chapter 25, pp. 514-555 CMcGraw-Hil1 Book Co., New York, 1969).
An approach to the mode conversion in nol-aA.nifornJ crooustic waveguides,
J. Math. Phys., Vol. 10, No.3, 447-451, March 1969.
with K.P. Spies, IntePrial guiding of miozoCNaVes by an elevated tI'oposphezoic
Zayer, Radio Sci., Vol. 4, No.4, 319-326, April 1969.
RefZection of a pZane tI'ansient etectI'anagnetic wave fran a coZd tosstess
PZasma stab, Radio Sci., Vol. 4, No.4, 401-405, April 1969.
On the propagation of a puZse through an antipode, Can. J. Phys., Vol. 47,
No. 12, 1327-1330, 1969.
Tztansient zoesponse of the penumbrat C!U1'7'ents for ptane wave diffraction by
a cyZinder, Can. J. Phys., Vol. 47, No. 12, 1307-1312, 1969.
On the propagation of acoustic gravity waves over a spherical earth, Pure
and Applied Geophys., Vol. 74, 35-44, 1969/111.
with K.P. Spies, EZectI'omagnetic induction in a conducting sphere with a
conoentric sheZZ, Radio Sci., Vol. 4, No.6, 557-560, June 1969.
On mode convel'sion of VLF radio waves at a Zand-sea boundtzroy, IEEE Trans.,
Vol. AP-17, No.2, 216-220, March 1969.
Image theOl'y of a quasistatic magnetic dipoZe ovezo a dissipative half-space,
Electronics Letters, Vol. 5, No 13, 281-282, 26 June 1969.
ObZique zoef1,ection of a plane impulsive electI'anagnetic wave fran a
half-spcroe, Phys. Fluids, Vol. 12, No.7, pg. 1521, July 1969.
Distortion of elect.romagnetic pulses at totaZZy ref1,ecting layers, IEEE
Trans., Vol. AP-17, No.3, 385-388, May 1969.
Critical zoef1,eation of pZane waves in the time danain, Proc. IEEE, Vol. 57,
No.8, 1453-1454., August 1969.
Distol'tion of ELF puZse after pl'opagation throough an antipode, J. Geophys.
Res., Space Phys., Vol. 74, No. 11, 2982-2986, June I, 1969.
Impedance chazoacte1'istias of elect.ric dipoles over a conduating hal!-spaae,
Radio Sci., Vol. 4, No. 10, 971-975, October 1969.
Su:t'faae-wave effeats Za:rge antenna ea:rth sC2'eens, Electronics Letters,
Vol. 5, No. 22, 552-553, 30th October 1969.
On the optimum l'eceived band:J.1idth for pl'opagated puZsed signats, Proc. IEEE,
Vol. 57, No. 10, 1784-1785, October 1969.
with K.P. Spies, On the imase repzoesentation of the quasi-static fieZds of
a line Cur1'ent BOU1'Ce above the ground, Can. J. Phys., Vol. 47, No. 23,
2731-2733, 1969.
392 induction in a soZid conducting encZosed by a thin
conducting spheztio:z.Z Geophys., Vol. 34, No.5, J53-/59, 1969.
393 with K.P. Spies, Quasi-static response of a conducting
Geophys., Vol. 34, No.5, 789-792, October 1969.
* 394 with K.P. Spies, FieZds of eZectztic dipoZe on rodiany inhcmogeneous
Electronics Letters, Vol. 5, No. 20, 478-479, 2nd October 1969.
395 Concezomng the theory of scatter of HE' radio waves from peztiodic
sea ESSA Tech. Rept. ERL 145-oD 3 (Supt. of Documents, U.S. Gov't
Prtg. Office, Wash. DC 20402 ), December 1969. (also see Rp-423)
*396 Transient response of a dipoZe OVer a circular IEEE Trans.,
Vol. AP-17, No.6, 806-S09, November 1969.
*397 with K.P. Spies, IntegraZ equation to the radiation from a vertical
antenna 0IJe:t> an inhomogeneous Radio Sc:1., Vol. 5, No. I,
73-79, January 1970. .. ,
398 D.C. Chang and J .R. Wait, AppraisaZ of near-fieU soZutions for a He:t>taian
dipoZe otoiU' a conducting Can. J. Phys., Vol. 48, No.5, 737-743,
399 Transient analysis for an electric dipole on a disk IEE-IERE
(India Division) Proc., Vol. 8, No.1, 10-15, January-March 1970.
400 On the input impedance of a Hertzian dipote over a ftat IEEE Trans.,
Vol. AP-18, No.1, 119-121, January 1970.
401 Critical refZection of a p"Lane-lJave carrie?' puZse UJith a Gaussian
IEEE Traus., Vol. AP-18, No.1, 145-146. January 1970.
402 R.Gabillard, P. Degauque, and J. R. Wait, Rayonnement des sources eZect1'o-
magnetiques pZacees dans des mil-ieux absorbants (Paper presented at AGARD
(NATO) Meeting, Paris, June 22-26), 'Electromagnetics of the Sea' (a)-Revue;
403 Comments on 'On the ?'ej!ection coefficient of a plasma of exponentially
tapered density and fued coll-ision f?'equency' IEEE Trans., Vol.
AP-lS, No.2, 297-299, March 1970.
404 C7'OUnd-fIXlI)e attenuation function fo?' a Gaussian modutated can'ie?'
Electronics Letters, Vol. 6, No.4, 106-107, 19 February 1970.
405 Oblique reflection of an elect7'omagnetic plane wave from a st iated imped-
ance J. Hath. Phys., Vol. 11, No.4, 1437-1440. April 1970.
406 EZectromagnetic fieZdS of a puZsed dipoZe in dissipative and dispe:t>sive
Radio Sci., Vol. 5, No.4, 733-735, April 1970.
407 On Zauwhing an aaimuthaZ 8U"r'face lJave on a cyl-intiJ'icaZ inrpedawe
AFCRL Scientific Report No. 49. (Contract No. Harch 1970
(Revised, July 1970). Also Acta Physica Austr., Vol. 32, 122-130. Springer-
Verlag, 1970.
408 Factoztiaation method applied to eZectromagnetic lJave propagation in a curved
lJith wm-unifoMl Radio Sci. t Vol. 5, No.7, 1059-1068,
July 1970.
409 with K.P. TPansient field cal.oulations fol' an elect1>ic dipole in
homogeneous conducting ESSA Tech. Hemo. ERLTM-OD5. August 1970.
(PB 194 024).
410 David C. Chang and James R. Wait. Theory of a ver'tical tubuZa'l' antenna l
located above a conducting IEEE Trans •• Vol. AP-1S. No.2.
lS2-1SS. March 1970.
*411 with K.P. On the radiation fl'CR1 a vertical dipole 1I1ith an inductive
fJJire-grid ground IEEE Trans •• Vol. AP-1S. No.4. 55S-560. July 1970.
412 Ezact fields of a pulsed dipole in a hCRIogeneous cold J. Appl. Phys ••
Vol. 41. No. 7. June 1970.
413 Transient fields far an electric dipole in a dissipative Can. J.
Phys •• Vol. No. 16. lS5S-1S62. 1970.
414 A pitfall in th2 scal.a'l' e'Lect1'CRIagnetic f01'l7'lU'Lation of Kirchhoff
IEEE Vol. E-13. No.2. 9S-99. August 1970.
415 Ana'Lysis of VLF propagation in the earth-ionosphere 1JXZVeguide over a mi:J:ed
?,ana/sea path (Part lEE-IERE (India Division) Proc. Vol. S. No.4.
September-october 1970; Part II. Vol. S. No. 5. Novem.ber-
December 1970.
416 Disto.rtion of pulsed signaZs when the group de'Lay is a non-Zinea:r function
of Proc. IEEE. Vol. 5S. No. 1292-1294. August 1970.
417 with K.P. Spies. TPansient magnetic fieU of a pulsed e'Lecrnc dipole in a
dissiPative IEEE Trans •• Vol. No. Sept. 1970.
418 Pzsopagation of e'LeotrCRIagnetic lAUZVes OVer' a smooth multisection CUMJed
earth - an e=act J. Math. Phys •• Vol. 11, No. 2S51-2860.
September 1970.
419 Electrornagnetics of the Science. Vol. 170 (Meetings Section). 1124-1130,
4 December 1970. Full Proceedings of the conference. I Electromagnetics of
the Sea'. available from the National Technical Information Service (NTIS).
Springfield. VA 22151 (AD 716 305)
420 On the reflection of elect1>omagnetic pulses f1'CR1 the Radio Sci.
Vol. 5, No. 12. 1461-1467. December 1970.
421 Theory of Ground Wave Propagation, Chapter 5 in 'E'Lect1'CRlagnetic Pzsobing
in Ed. J.R. Wait. pp. 163-207. Golem Press, Boulder, Colo••
1971 (from Rp-243).
422 Ground Wave Pulses, Appendi:c A in 'Electromagnetic Probing in Geophysics'
Ed. J.R. Wait. pp. 349-360, Golem Press. Boulder. Colo•• 1971.
423 Conce'l'ning the Theory of Scatter of BF Radio Ground Waves f1'CRl Periodic
Sea Waves, Appendi:c B in 'Elect1'CRlagnetic Pzoobing in Geophysics' Ed.
J.R. Wait. pp. 361-369. Golem Press. Boulder. Colo•• 1971 (See also Rp-395).
424 On the Theory of Radio Propagation Over a Slightly Roughened Curved
Appendi:c C in ' E2ectroTfD.gnetic Probing in Geophysics' Ed. J. R. Wai t,
pp. 370-381. Golem Press. Boulder. Colo •• 1971.
425 Rayner K. Hasich and James R. Wait. On the calcuZation of an average SUI'face
impedance 101' a periodic OT Research Report. OT/rrSRR1, Oct. 1970,
(Also AFCRL Scientific Rept. No. SO. Contract No. PRO-Y-7o-818).
Available from NTIS AD 714 090
426 On BW'face rJaVe pl'Opagation around a Acta Phys. Austr., Vol. 32,
113-121, Springer-Verlag, 1970.
427 PenU1'bation anal.ysis fop pefl.ection fporn tluo-dimensionaZ pezoiodic sea
Radio Sci., Vol. 6, No.3, 387-391, Karch 1971.
428 Propagation of VLF eZectpomagnetic waves aaross Zand/sea
'Electromagnetics of the Sea', AGARD Conference Proceedings No. 77, NATO
Adv. Group for Aero. Res. and Dev., November 1970.
429 with K.P. Spies, Ez1al.uation of the sU1'face el.ect1'omagnetic fieZds fo1' a
bU1'ied magnetic dipol.e AFCRL Sci. Rept. No. 52, Contract No.
PRo-Y-71-872, February 1971.
430 Kenneth P. Spies and James R. Wait, On cal.cuZations of the modaZ paroamete1's
of an ideaUaed earth-Ol'Ust ONR Technical Report No.1, Order
No. NA-QNR-15-71, March 17, 1971 (AD 721 371 - NTIS).
431 with K.P. Spies, VLF mode p1'opagation ac1'OSS an el.evated Radio
Sci., Vol. 5, Nos. 8-9, 1169-1173, August-September 197J.
432 F. Einaudi and J.R. Wait, AnaZysis of the e:r:citation of the earth-ionosphe1'e
ruaveguide by a satel.Ute-bo1'ne Can. J. Phys., Vol. 49, No.4,
447-457, February 1, 1971 (See Rp-436, Pt. II).
433 Editop's Preface and Tabl.e of from 'Electromagnetic Probing in
Geophysics', the Golem Press, Boulder, Colo., pp. 5-12, 1971.
434 On the theozty of guided el.ect1'omagnetic ruaves On a nonideal. cyUnd:t>icaZ
Can. J. Phys., Vol. 49, No.7, 864-869, April 1, 1971.
435 AJo2tay technique fop el.ectromagnetic positionaZ detezmination of a buztied
l'eceiving Electronics Letters, Vol. 7, No.8, 186-187, 22 Apr. 1971.
436 F. Einaudi and J .R. Wait, AnaZysis of the e:rcitation of the earth-ionosphe1'e
ruaveguide by a sateZUte-bopne antenna - Can. J. Phys., Vol. 49, No. 11,
1452-1460, June I, 1971 (See Rp-432, Pt. I).
437 C1'ite1'ia fo1' l.ocating an osciZl.ating magnetic dipole bu1'ied in the
Proc. IEEE (Letters), Vol. 59, No.6, 1033-1035, June 1971.
438 Kenneth P. Spies and James R. Wait, Attenuation cal.cuZations fo1' a 2- l.aye1'
ea1'th-C2"U8t ruavBguide fo1' sub-sU1'face el.ectromagnetic ONR
Technical Report No.2, NA-ONR-15-71, June 1971 (AD 726 754 - NTIS,
Springfield, VA 22151).
439 El.ectramagnetic-pulse propagat{on il1 a sirrrpZe dispe1'sive Electronics
Letters, Vol. 7, No. II, 285-286, 3 June 1971.
440 Tzoansient e:r:citation of the ea1'th by a line SOU1'ce of Proc. IEEE
(Letters), Vol. 59, No.8, 1287-1288, August 1971.
441 El.ectromagnetic induction technique for l.ocating a burtied IEEE Trans.
Geasci. Elect., Vol GE-9, No.2, 95-98, April 1971.
442 with D.A. Hill, Tztansient signaZs [1'am a bU1'ied magnetic J. Appl.
Phys., Vol. 42, No. 10, 3866-3869, September 1971.
443 ruave p1'Opagation in t1w ea1'th's of the Inter-
national Symposium on Electromagnetic Wave Theory, Tbilisi, U.S.S.R.,
September 9-15, 1971;, Plenary Session 6P, pp. 830-835.
444 R.N. Grubb and J .R. Wait, In situ mealna'anents of the compl(J.% p1"opagation
constant in rocks for frequencies fl'(XT/ 1 MHa to 10 Electronics Letters,
Vol. 7, No. 17, 506-507, 26 August 1971.
445 with K.P. Spies, Subsurface electr(XT/agnetic fieUs of a line sOUX'ce on a
Radio Sci., Vol. 6, Nos. 8-9. 781-786, Aug.-Sept. 1971.
446 with K.P. Spies, Electr(XT/agnetic fiel-ds of a smaU loop buried in a strati-
fied IEEE Trans., Vol. AP-19, No.5, 717-718, September 1971.
447 with James A. Fuller, On radio propagation through the IEEE Trans.,
Vol. AP-19, No.6, 796-798,-November 1971.
448 A report on electromagnetics in IEEE Spectrum, 99-100, December 1971.
449 Analytical investigations of eZectromagnetic wave p1"opagation in the earth's
in 'The Structure and Physical, Properties of the Earth's Ed.
J.G. Heacock, pp. 315-324, Geophys. Mono Series, Vol. 14, AGU, Washington,
DC, 1971.
450 with K.P. Spies, Note on calcul-ations of p1"opagation parameters for an
idealized earth-crust in 'The Structure and Physical Properties
of the Earth's Ed. J.G. Heacack, pp. 325-331, Geophys. Mono Series,
Vol. 14, AGU, Washington, DC, 1971.
451 On diffraction by a rippled conve:r IEEE Trans., Vol. AP-19, No.4,
562-565, July 1971.
452 Inf1,uence of earth curvature on the 8ublna'face electromagnetic fieUs of a
tine Electronic Letters, Vol. 7, No. 23, 697-699, 18 November 1971.
453 R. Gabillard, P. Degauque, and J.R. Wait, Sublna'face el,ectzoomagnetic
tel,ecommunication - a IEEE Trans., Vol. COK-19, No.6, 1217-1228,
December 1971.
454 D.A. Hill and J.R. Wait, Reftection of pulses from a linearl-y varying
ionosphere model UJith a vertical magnetic Radio Sci., Vol. 6, No. 11,
933-937, November 1971.
455 D.A. Hill and J .R. Wait, Scatterine of transient plane UJaVe by a periodic
Radio Sci., Vol. 6, No. 11, 1003-1009, November 1971.
456 D.A. Hill and J .R. Wait, Ref1.ection of el,ectr(XT/agnetic pulses from a
peztturbed linear ionosphere Radio Sci., Vol. 6, No. 12, 1039-1043,
December 1971.
457 David A. Hill and James R. Wait, Theory of the el,ectr(XT/agnetic transient
response of the ionosphere f01' pl-ane wave PAGEOPH, Vol. 90,
No. VII, 169-186, 1971.
458 David A. Hill and James R. Wait, El-ectr(XT/agnetic scattering of a smaZZ
spherical, obstacl,e near the Can. J. Phys., Vol. 50, No.3, 237-243,
February 1, 1972.
459 Ground UJaVe pulse Revista BrasUeira de Tecnologia, Vol. 2,
No.4, 193-199, December 1971.
460 with K.P. Spies, Wave aZong a thin diel,ectric coated UJire
buried in the AFCRL Sci. &ept. No. 56, Contract No. PRo-Y-71-872,
January 26, 1972.
461 ,.nth K.P. Spies. Note on detel'mining eleotrical gzoound constants from the
mutuaZ impedance of BmaZZ oopZantl1" J. Appl. Phys •• Vol. 43. No.3,
890-891. Karch 1972.
462 dipole in a oonducting Revista Brasileira de
Tecnologia, Vol. 3. No.1. 29-37, Karch 1972.
463 The effect of a buried conductor on the subsurface fie lds for Une source
Radio Sci •• Vol. 7, No.5, 587-591. Kay 1972.
464 Theory of lI)(We propagation a7,ong a thin "";'re paraZZel to an
Radio Sci •• Vol. 7. No.6. 675-679. June 1972.
465 Kenneth P. Spies and James R. Wait, Propagation of electromagnetic lJaves
in the earth crust lI)(Weguide from ELF to ONR Technical Report No.3.
NA-oNR-15-71. 1 May 1972 (AD 748 331 - NTIS. Springfield. VA 22151).
466 On the theory of transient electztomagnetic sounding over a stratified
Can. J. Phys., Vol. 50. No. II, 1055-1061. 1 June 1972.
467 with R.E. Wilkerson, The sub-BU:l'face magnetic fields produced by a Une
czatl'ent SfAa'oe on a PAGEOPH. Vol. 95, No. Ill, 150-156.
468 with R.H. Ott. On caZauZating transient electztomagnetic fieZds of a smaZZ
C'UZ"!'ent-OCU"l'Ying loop over a haI'Iogeneous PAGEOPH. Vol. 95. No. III.
157-162. 1972.
469 Absozoption mode for E.L.F. electztomagnetic propagation in the earth-crust
Electronics Letters, Vol. 8, No. 11. 292-294. 1 June 1972.
470 with David A. Hill, magnetic fields produced by a step-function-
e:cited loop buried in the Electronics Letters. Vol. 8, No. 11.
294-295, 1 June
471 Kenneth P. Spies Jamaa R. Wait. Detel'mining electrical ground constants
from the mutuaZ impet:1tmce of sma7.Z copZana:r IEEE Trans •• Vol. AP-20,
No.4. 501-502. July 1972.
472 with Kenneth P. Spies, Subsurface electromagnetic fields of a cirauZar loop
of azatztent Zocatsd above IEEE Trans •• Vol. AP-20. No.4. 520-522.
July 1972.
473 James A. Fuller and James R. Wait. EZectztomagnetic pulse transmission in
homogeneous displ11'sive IEEE Trans •• Vol. AP-20. No.4. 530-533.
July 1972.
474 The Sanguine Concept from the Proc. of the 1972 IEEE Conf. on "Engineering
in the OCean Environment", Newport. RI, Sept. 13-15. 1972. pp. 84-87 and
Project Science, Vol. 178. 272-275, 20 October 1972.
475 with Kenneth P. Spies. Attenuation of eZsqtromagnetic lJaPes in the Ba:t'th-
crust lI)(Wsguide fZ'Om ELF to Radio Sci. (Letters). Vol. 7. No.6.
689-690. June 1972.
476 Electztomagnetic soattl11'ing from a lJire grid pa2'aZZeZ to a plana:r stratified
IEEE Trans. Antennas and Prop•• Vol. AP-20, No.5, 672-675.
Sept_ber 1972.
477 James A. Fuller and James R. Wait, EM coupling of coa:riaZ and copZana:r Zoops
in dissipative Proc. IEEE (Letters). Vol. 60. No.8. 993-
994. Ausust 1972.
* 488
Locating an oscillating magnetic dipole in the Electronics Letters,
Vol. 8, No. 16, 404-406, 10 August 1972.
Theory of electromagnetic reflection fram a parallel grid of dielectric
coatee buried in the Can. J. Phys., Vol. 50, No. 18, 2149-
2157, September 15, 1972.
Erratum and Addenda: can. J. Vol. 52, No. 22, 1974.
with David A. Hill, EZectr(Tflagnetic surface fields produced by a pulse-
loop buried in the J. Appl. Phys., Vol. 43, No. 10, 3988-
3991, October 1972.
David A. Hill and James R. Wait, The transient electromagnetic response of
a spherical sheZZ of arbit;rary Radio Sci., Vol. 7, No. 10, 931-
935, October 1972.
with Kenneth P. Spies, On mode conversion in the ea1'th-cl"UE't ONR
Technical Report No.4, NA-ONR-15-71. 27 October 1972 (AD 756 693 - NTIS,
Springfield, VA 22151).
N01"TfIQ,l mode model for electromagnetic ppopagation in the earth Cl"Ust l.I)(ZVe-
IEEE Trans., Vol. AP-20, No.6. 811-813. November 1972.
Electromagnetic uave propagation aZong a buried insuZated Can. J.
Phys., Vol. SO, No. 20, 2402-2409, 15 October 1972.
with J .A. Fuller, APgand representations of the mutual eZectr(Tflagnetic
coupling of loops on a two-Zayer Geoexplor •• Vol. 10, 221-227, 1972.
with David A. Hill. electromagnetic fields of a finite cirouZar
loop in the presence of a conducting J. Appl. Phys., Vol. 43.
No. II, 4532-4534, November 1972.
with Kenneth P. Spies, Dipole of
in the earth crust uave JGR. Vol. 77. No. 35, 7118-7120,
10 December 1972.
David A. Hill and James R. Wait. CalcuZated pattePn of a vertical antenna
7A1ith a finite radial-7A1ire ground Radio Sci., Vol. 8. No. I, 81-86
January 1973. (AFCRL Sci. Rept. No. 59, August I, 1972, Contract No. PRO-
James A. Fuller and James R. Wait, High-frequency electromagnetic coupling
between smaZZ cop"Lanar Zoops over an inhomogeneous Geophys., Vol.
37, No.6, 997-1004, December 1972.
Lorv-angle radiation of an antenna over an irreguZar ground AFCRL
Sci. Rept. No. 60, Contract No. PRo-Y-71-872, November 7, 1972.
with James A. Fuller, Characteristics of an insulated linear antenna in a
f1,uid-or aize-fiZled ONR Technical Report No.5, NA-ONR-lS-71,
28 February 1973 (AD 757 977 - NTIS, Springfield, VA 22151).
with Kenneth P. Spies, E1,ect1'(Tflagnetic pl'Opagation in an ideaUaed earth
crust Pt. PAGEOPH, Vol. 101, No. IX, 174-187, 1972.
with Kenneth P. Spies, Electromagnetic propagation in an idea1,ised earth
crust waveguide. PAGEOPH, Vol. 101, No. IX, 188-193, 1972.
On ths theory of r.N%Ve pJ'opagation along a thi.n di.electric coated 7A1ire in
a stratified Int. J. Electronics, Vol. 34, No.2, 265-272, 1973.
* 503
indUction in conductive Can. J. Phys •• Vol.51.
No.2. 209-218. 1973.
Resistance of earth Electronics Letters. Vol. 9. No.4. 90-91.
22 February 1973.
Randolph H. Ott and James R. Wait. Firost o1'dero effects of te1'1'Qin on the
roadiation patte1'n of a LF Archiv fur Elecktronik
uDd Ubertragungstechnik (AEU) - Electronics and Communication. Band 27.
Heft 3. 106-110. 1973.
James A. Fuller aDd James R. Wait, coupling of
loops in a bo1'ehole
Radio Sci •• Vol. 8. No.5. 453-457. Hay 1973.
Remote sensing of obse1'Vable8 in geophysics
extracted from Proceedings at
NSF Workshop on Future Directions of Electromagnetics of Continuous Media.
20-25. Williamsburg. VA. December 1972.
COf/fT/ents on a Zette1' by 'On the Reproesentations in the ELF
Range' and on the zoepZy by .T.R• .TohleI' and R.L. JGR. Vol. 78. No. 18.
3627. June 20. 1973.
David A. Hill and James R. Wait. Radiation patteron of a ZOLJ-froequency beacon
antenna in the pI'e8ence of a semi-elliptic teM"ain Archiv fur
Elektronik und Ubertragungstecbnik (AEU) - Electronics and Communication.
Band 27. 239-243, 1973.
with James A. Fuller. Tmnsmission line theoPy fo1' an insuZated ZineaP
antenna in a fluid-o:r ail'-fiZ boI'eho Appl. Phys. 1. 311-316.
June 1973.
David A. Hill and James R. Wait. Effect of edge reflections on the pBf'-
fOZ'fflance of antenna groound 8C1'eensI IEEE Trans.. AP-21. No.2. 230-231.
March 1973.
David A. Hill and James R. Wait. t1'ansient 1'e8ponse of a
sphe1'ical conducting 8hell overo a conducting Int. J. Electronics.
Vol. 34. No.6. 795-805. 1973.
David A. Hill and JRes R. Wait. Subsu:rface elect1'arragnetic fields of a
gJ'OUnded cabZe of finite Can. J. Phys •• VoL 51. No. 14. 1534-1540.
with K.P. Spies. L<N-f1'equency intpedance of a ci:reularo Zoop overo a conducting
Electronics Letters. Vol. 9. No. 15. 346-348. 26th July 1973.
Errata. ElectroD:-:Lett •• Vol. 10. pg. 248. 1974.
David A. Hill and James R. Wait. Radiation patte1'n of a Zow-fI'equency beacon
antenna Zocated on a semi-elliptic i1'1'egularoitYI AEU. Archiv fur
Ekektronik und Ubertragungstechn1k - Electronics and Communication. Vol. 27.
No. 7-8. 293-296. July-August 1973.
David A. Hill aDd Juaes R. Wait. t1'ansient 1'esponse of a
small IJizoe loop buzoied in a ha'flogeneous conducting PAGEOPH. Vol.
105. 869-878. 1973/IV.
with Kenneth P. Spies. distance dependence of the sU1'face
iJrtpt4dance and IJave ti tt fo1' a line-sou:rce e:rci ted wo- ea1'th
Technical Report No.6. NA-oNR-15-71. 4 September 1973. (AD 767 089 - NTIS.
Spr1nlfield. VA 22151).
510 David A. Hill and James R. Wait, The eZectl'omagnetic l'esponse of a bzatied
sp'hsl'e for bwoied-dipoZe Radio Science, Vol. 8, Nos. 8-9,
813-818, August-September 1973.
511 with Kenneth P. Spies, Subsurface eZectl'omagnetic fieZds of a Zine SOU1'Ce
on a Radio Science, Vol. 8, Nos. 8-9, 805-810, August-
September 1973.
512 R.H. Ott and J.R. Wait, A fil'st appl'oach to the pl'opagation of ZatemZ
tJaVes in an inhomogeneous OT Technical Memorandum 73-154, Nov. 1973.
513 David A. Hill and James R. Wait, EZect1'omagnetic scatte1'ing of an a1'bitl'al'y
pZane ",ave by non-intel'secting perpendicuZa1' "'il'e Can. J. Phys.,
Vol. 52, No.3, 227-237, 1974.
514 R.B. Ott and J.R. Wait, EXcitation mechanisms fol' th1'ough
f01'est-cove1'ed and vegetated Technical Report No. ACC-ACQ-8-73,
November 1973. NTIS Accession No. AD 771-915,
515 with David A. Hill, Ezcitation of a homogeneous conductive cyUndel' of
finite Zength by a pl'esc1'ibed axiaZ CU1'1'ent Radio Science,
Vol. 8, No. 12, 1169-1176, 1973.
516 David A. Hill and James R. Wait, Perturbation of magnetic dipoZe fieZds
by a pel'fectZy conducting pl'oZate Radio Science, Vol. 9, No. I,
71-73, January 1974.
517 State of of anaZyticaZ techniques fol' eZectl'omag-
netic t,,)CZVe pl'obZems l'eZevant to mine Reprinted from Proceedings
of "Tbru-the-Earth Electromagnetics Workshop", pp. 9-14, Final Report on
U.S. Bureau of Mine Contract No. G 133023, 31 December 1973. (PB 231 154)
518 with Kenneth P. Spies, Range dependence :;f the surface impedance and t,,)CZVe
tiZt f01' a Zine-sOUJIce e:cited IEEE Trans. on Antennas
and Propagation, Vol. AP-21, No.6, pp. 905-907, November 1973.
519 Ray J. King and James R. Wait, EZectl'omagnetic gl'oundztJave pl'opagation theoroy
and Proceedings of "Teoria Mathematica de11'electromagnetismo",
Roma, 19/22, Febbraro, 1974, Published in the series 'Symposium Mathematica',
No. U, Academic Press.
520 David A. Bill and James R. Wai t, SubBW'face eZect1'ic fieZds of a gl'ounded
cabZe of finite Zength f01' both frequency and time Pure and Applied
Geophysics (pAGEOPB), Vol. Ill, 2324-2332, 1973/X.
521 em t'hs eZect1'omagnetic puZse l'esponse of a dipoZe ovel' a pZane Can.
J. Phys., Vol. 52, No.2, 193-196, 1974.
522 ReviBlJ of gl'ound l.l)tZve pl'Opagation ovel' non-uniform Paper reprinted
from Conference Pre-Print No. 144, AGARD Heeting on Electromagnetic Wave
Propagation Involving Irregular Surfaces and Inhomogeneous media, 22-1-22-20,
Held in the Bague, Netherlands, 25-29 March 1974.
523 David A. Bill and James R. Wait, Diffusion of eZect1'omagnetic puZses into
the ea1'th fl'Om a Zine IEEE Trans. AP, Vol. 22, No. I, 145-146, 1974.
524 D. C. Chang and J. R. Wai t, E%tl'e",eZy ZOLJ fl'equency (ELF) pl'Opagation aZong a
h01'iaontaZ we located above 01' bu1'ied in the IEEE Trans. on COIIIIlUni-
cations, Special Issue (ed. J.R. Wait), Vol. COM-22, No.4, 421-426, April
525 Excerpts from IEEE Special Issue edited by J.R. Wait: Historical Back-
gJ'ownd CD1d Intl'oduction to the Special Issue on E:r:tl'emeZy Low Froequency
(ELF) Conrrrunication; Dedication to Janis Galejs; Guide to Papezos in This
Issue; The Guest Editol"s l?ast Intel'est -!on E:r:tl'emely Low F1'equency (ELF)
EZectzoomagnetics, IEEE Trans. on Communications (Special Issue). Vol.
COM-22. No.4. April 1974.
526 J.T. deBettencourt. D. Davidson and J.R. Wait. LEEE Guide fol' radio
methods ofmeas'Ul'ing earth conductivity, IEEE Std 356-1974. pp. 1-30.
Feb. 20. 1974. (available from the Institute of Electrical &Electronics
Engineers, Inc •• 345 East 47 Street. New York. NY 10017), also published
in IEEE Trans •• AP-22. No.2. 373-400. March 1974.
527 S.F. Mahmoud and J.R. Wait. Theozoy oflJave propagation along a thin lJire
inside a rectangular lJaveguide, Radio Science. Vol. 9. No.3. 417-420.
March 1974.
528 COtmIents on "The Use of the LOl'entz Pecip1'ocity Theol'em to Pzoove Equality
of the Open Cil'cuit Voltages of a Receiving DipoZe and a Monopole", IEEE
Trans •• EHC-16. No.1. p. 51. February 1974.
529 Canments on "Shielding Pel'f01'l1lance of Metallic CyZindel's" and COtmIents by
C. W. Harrison, Jr., and Reply to D. Schiebel', IEEE Trans •• EHC-16. No.1.
p. 52. February 1974.
530 The01'Y of the terzoestrial propagation of VLF electromagnetic lJaves (This
is an up-dated and revised version of the author's chapter in Vol. 25 of
Advances in Electronics and Electronic Physics. ed. by L. Marton. Academic
Press, Inc •• 1968). Also used as Lecture Notes prepared for NATO Advanced
Study Institute, Spatind, Norway. April 17-27, 1974.
531 with R.H. Ott and T. Telfer (editors). Pzooceedings of Workshop on Radio
Systems in Forested ana/ol' Vegetated Environments, Advanced Concepts
Office, U.S. Army Communications Command. Fort Huachuca. AZ 85613.
February 1974. Available from NTIS Accession No. AD 780-716.
532 Applied Mized-Path Theories, Presented at the Workshop on Radio Systems
in Forested and/or Vegetated Environments. U.S. Army Communications
Command, Fort Huachuca. AZ, 6-9 November 1973.
533 COl'l'ection to lettezo "On Electl'omagnetic Induction in Elongated are
B o d i e s ' ~ Geophysics, v. 38, no. 5, p. S8t-S85, Geophysics. p. 235.
April 1974.
534 D.A. Hill and J.R. Wait. Pezoturbation of magnetic dipole field by a
finitely conducting circular cylindezo, Rivista Italiana di Geof1sica.
Vol. XXII. No. 5/6, pp. 421-424, 1973.
535 S.F. Mahmoud and J .R. Wait. Guided electl'(71lagnetic lJaVes in a curved
l'ectangular mine tunnel, Radio Science, Vol. 9, No.5, 567-572, May 1974.
536 D.A. Hill and J .R. Wait, EZectl'omagl;etic l'esponse of a conducting cyUndel'
of finite Geofisica Internacional, Vol. 12, No.4, 245-266,
October 1972.
537 h wave-optical field solution fol' a line source ovel' nonpaPallel
stl'atified Radio Science, Vol. 9, No.6, 593-597, June 1974.
538 Propagation undel' the eaPtr.'s Conference Publication No. 114,
URSI Symposium on Electromagnetic Wave Theory, pp. 80-85, The Institution
of Electrical Engineers, London, July 1974.
539 S.F. Mahmoud and J.R. Wait, EM waVe pl'opagation in l'ectanguLaP mine
tunneLs containing an axial Conference Publication No. 114,
URSI Symposium on Electromagnetic Wave Theory, pp. 89-91, The
Institution of Electrical Engineers, London, July 1974.
540 with D.A. Hill, Guided waves aLong an axial. conductOl'
in a cil'culaP Succinct paper, IEEE Transactions on Antennas
and Propagation, Vol. AP-22, No.4, 627-630, July 1974.
541 Recent anaLytical investigations of ground propa-
gation over inhomogeneous eaPth Proceedings IEEE, Vol. 62,
No.8, 1061-1072, August 1974.
542 with D.A. Hill, Coa=ial and bifilar modes on a transmission in a
circuZar Applied Physics, Vol. 4, No.4, 307-312, September 1974.
543 Theory of transmission of waVes aLong muLti-conductor
Lines in the proximity of walZs of mine Proceedings of the
International Colloquium on Leaky Feeder Communication Systems, 8-10
April 1974, Guildford Surrey, England (pp. 97-107). also published in
The Radio and Electronic Engineer, Vol. 45, No.5, pp. 229-232, May 1975.
544 Theory of the teroztestriaL propagat{:Jn of VLF electromagnetic
J.A. Holtet (ed.), ELF/VLF Radio Wave Propagation, pp. 129-147, D.
Reidel Publishing Co., Dordracht-Ho:ladd, 1974.
545 D.A. Hill and J .R. Wait, E:t:cit,::r;ior: of monofilaP and bifilaP modes on
a transmission line in a circuLaP J. Appl. Phys., Vol. 45, No.8,
3402-3406, August 1974.
546 Theory for the excitation propagation of electromagnetic waves guided
by an elevated refractive ir.iex 'ontinuity in the Can. J.
Phys., Vol. 52, No. 19,1852-1861, :974.
547 The enigma of the continuous epectrwn in acoustic gravity wave propagation
in an isothermal J. Geophys. Res., Vol. 79, No. 33, 5055-5056,
November 20, 1974.
548 D.A. Hill and J.R. Wait, Gap of an conductor in a
circuZar Journal of Applied Physics, Vol. 45, No. II, 4774-4777,
November 1974.
549 with D.A. Hill, fieZds of a coated coaxiaZ
'cabZe an interTUpted shieZd, OT Technical Memorandum 75-192,
January 1975.
550 s.r. Mahmoud and J.R. Wait, optical for
in mine tunneZs, Radio
Science, Vol. 9, No. 12, 1147-1158, December 1974.
551 Comments or. "The antenna a conducting
haZf-space: and admittance", Radio Science, Vol. 9, No. 12,
p. 1165, December 1974.
552 with L. Thrane and R.J. King, The eZectric fieZd of an
of on the IEEE Trans. on Antennas
and Propagation, Vol. AP-23, No.2, 261-264, March 1975.
553 with D.A. Hill and S.r. Mahmoud, AnaZyticaZ studies of
on and in and
mine tunneZs, Proceedings of International Conference "Radio: Roads,
Tunnels and Mines", Liege (Belgium), 1-5 April 1974.
554 with K.P. Spies, fields a segmented
ONR Tech. Rept. No.7, 31 May 1974 and J. Geomag. Geoelect., 26, 449-
458, 1974. (Tech. Rept. available from AD 781740) --
555 Comments or. 0: poLzrized
antenna', IEEE Trans. on Vol. BC-21, No.2, pg. 39-40,
June 1975.
556 with D.A. Hill, Proopagation along a coaziaZ cabZe ir. a
tunneZ, IEEE Trans. on MTT, Vol. MTT-23, No.5, 401-405, May 1975.
557 on excitation of the waveguide, IEEE
Trans. AP, Succinct Papers, 425-428, May 1975.
558 with D.A. Hill, On the fieZd of a coated
coa:r:iaZ cabZe an shieZd, IEEE Trans. on Ant. and
Prop., Vol. AP-23 , No.4, 470-479, July 1975.
559 with D.A. Hill, of the transmission of
down a mine hoist, Radio Science, Vol. 10, No.6, 625-632, June 1975.
560 - and Contribution
<;0 the "Review of Radio Science, 1972-74" prepared for 18th General
Assembly of the International Union of Radio Science (URSI), held in
Lima, Peru, 11-19 August 1975.
561 Radio Wave Proopagation, by t.. Piauenard John WHey & Sons,
1974, 340 pages), Book ReView, IEEE Circuits &Systems, Vol. 7, No.7,
June 1975. Also published in the IEEE Proceedings, Vol. 63, No. 10,
p. 1534, October 1975.
562 Theory of EM wve propagation through tunnels, Radio Science, Vol. 10,
No.7, 753-759, July 1975.
563 with D.A. Hill, EleC1:rcxnagnetic fieZds of a dielec1:ric coated coarial
cable an interrupted shield - Quasi-static approach, IEEE Trans.
on Antennas and Prop., 6S0-682, September 1975.
564 D.A. Hill and J.R. Wait, Elec1:rcxnagnetic fields of a coa:cial cable with
an shield in a circular tunnel, Journal of Applied
Physics, Vol. 46, No. 10; 4352-4356, October 1975.
565 Some corrections to published formulas on biconical st;ructures irmIersed
in sphericalZy s1:ratified media, IEEE Trans. on Antennas and Prop.,
Vol. AP-23, No.6, p. 864, November 1975.
566 D.A. Hill and J.R. Wait, Coupling betlJeen a radiating coaxial cable and
a dipole antenna, IEEE Trans. on Communications, Vol. 23, 1354-1357,
November 1975 (Correction, Vol. 24, p. 479, April 1976).
567 W.J. Hughes and J.R. Wait, Effective wave tilt and surface impedance
over a laterally inhcxnogeneous tlJo-layer earth, Radio Science, Vol. 10,
No. II, 1001-100S, November 1975.
568 Scattering frCTf1 a break in the shield of a braided coaxial cable - Theory,
Archiv fur Elektronik und Ubertragungstechnik, Electronics and Communi-
cation (AEU), Band 29, 467-473, 1975.
569 W.J. Hughes and J.R. Wait, Elec1:ramagnetic induction a tlJo-layer
earth a sinusoidal overburden, Pure and Applied Geophysics (PAGEOPH),
Vol. 113, 591-599, 1975.
570 J.A. Fuller and J.R. Wait, A Pulsed Dipole in the Earth, 'Topics in
Applied Physics' (Editor L.B. Vol. 10, 5, 238-270,
(Springer-Verlag), 1976.
571 Scxne basic elec1:rcxnagnetic aspects of ULP field variations in the
atmosphere, Pure and Applied Geophysics (PAGEOPH), Vol. 114, 15-28,
572 C.H. Stoyer and J.R. Wait, Analysis of source location errore for a
magnetic dipole buried in a laterally inhcxnogeneous oonducting earth,
Pure and Applied Geophysics (PAGEOPH), Vol. 114, 39-51, 1976.
573 S.F. Mahmoud and J .R. Wait, Calculated channel characteristics of a
braided coaxial oalle in a mine tunnel, IEEE Trans. on Communications,
Vol. COM-24, No.1, 82-87, January 1976.
574 Note on the theory of transmission of electrcxnagnetic lJatIes in a coal
seam, Vol. II, No.4, 263-265, April 1976.
575 D.A. Hill and J.R. Wait, Calculated transmission loss a leaky feeder
cOTmlUnication system in a circ:ulcrr Radio Science. Vol. 11. No.4,
315-321. April 1976.
576 D.A. Hill and J.R. Wait. Scattering from a break in the shield of a
braided coa:r:iaZ cable - Nwnerica.l results" AEU (Archiv fur Elektronik
und Ubertragungstechnik). Vol. 30. No.3, 117-121. 1976.
577 J.R. Wait and D.C. Chang, Theory of electromagnetic scattering from a
layered mediwn a laterally varying Radio Science, Vol.
II, No.3. 221-229. March 1976.
578 D.A. Hill and J .R. Wait. Electromagnetic scattering of an arbitrary
plane wave by a uire mesh bonded Canadian Journal of
Physics. Vol. 54. No.4. 353-361. 1976.
579 Electromagnetic field analysis fo1' a coa:cia.l cable periodic
IEEE Trans. on Electromagnetic Compatibility, Vol. EMC-I9. No. I, 7-13,
February 1977.
580 Electromagnetic the01'y of the loosely braided coa:r:ial Part
IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory and Techniques, Vol. MTT-24. No.9,
547-553, September 1976.
581 D.A. Rill and J.R. Wait, Propagation along a braided coa:r:ial cable
located close to a tunnel IEEE Trans. on Microwave Theory and
Tech., Vol. MTT-24, No.7. 476-480. July 1976.
582 J .R. Wait and D.A. Hill, Low-frE.quency radio transmission in a circuZa:ro
tunneZ containing a conducto1' near the Electronics Letters,
Vol. 12, No. 13, 346-347, 24th June 1976.
583 J .R. Wait and D.A. Hill, Electromacnetic scattering by perpendic:uZa:ro
grids over a conducting Radio Science. Vol. 11. Nos. 8,9,
725-730. August-September 1976.
584 Long-wave behaviour of the Beverage wave Electronics Letters.
Vol. 12, No. 14, 358-359. 8th July 1976.
585 of scattering from grid and mesh Summary of
invited review paper for Nat'l Conf. on EM Scattering, June 15-18. 1976.
University of Illinois at Chicago Circle, Chicago, IL.
586 D.A. Hill and J .R. Wait. AnaZysis of electromagnetic scattering from
Electronics Letters, Vol. 12. No. 17. 427-428,
19th August 1976.
587 S.H. Cho and J.R. Wait, Transmission of modes around a
periodically modulated impedance Canadian Journal of Physics,
Vol. 54. No. 18. 1839-1849, 1976.
588 Lette1' to the Edito1' 1'ega1'ding "SanguineISeafCl.1'e1''' by G1'ove1' EHis
(Sie1'1'a CZub ApPil 1976), Sierra Club Bulletin. Vol. 61.
No. 10. November/December 1976.
589 D.C. Chang and J.R. Wait, An analysis of a 1'esonant loop as an
electromagnetic senso.r of cval seam From of
URSI Conference on Propagation in Non-Ionized Media. LaBaule. France.
28 April-6 May 1977. pp. 141-146 (Radio Sci., Vol. 13. p. 399. 1978).
590 with D.A. Hill, Sub-supface EM t1'ansmission in tunneZ From
Proceedings of DRSI Conference on Propagation in Non-Ionized Media,
LaBaule, France. 28 April-6 May 1977. pp. 125-128.
591 S.H. Cho and J.R. Wait, AnaZytical study of whispe1'ing gaZZe1'y t1'ans-
mission in a From Proceedings of DRSI Conference
on Propagation in Non-Ionized Media. LaBaule. France. 28 April-6 May 1977.
pp. 37-41.
592 The eccent1'icaZZy located wi1'e in a cyZind1'ical cavity in a conducting
medium and the limit of a planar' Radio Science. Vol. 11,
No. II, 897-899, November 1976.
593 with D.A. Hill, Impedance of an elect1'ic dipole located in a cylindrical
cavity in a dissipative medium, Applied Physics, Vol. 11. No.4,
351-356, December 1976.
594 R. J. King and J .R. Wait, {J1'0undJJave p7'opagation-theo1'y
and ezp61'iment, Ist1tuto Nazionale di Alta Mathematica. Symposia
Kathematica, Vol. XVIII, Academic Press, 1976.
595 D.A. Hill and J.R. Wait. Analysis of Mdio fl'equency t1'ansmission along
a t1'oZZey wi1'e in a mine tunnel, IEEE Trans. on Electromagnetic Com-
patibility, Vol. EMC-18, No.4, 170-174, November 1976.
596 D.A. Hill and J.R. Wait. Electl'omagnetic pl'opagation eve1'
a bonded wi1'e mesh, IEEE Trans. on Electromagnetic Compatibility. Vol.
EMC-19, No. I, 2-7, February 1977.
597 with D.A. Hill, Attenuation on a sUl'face 1.IXZVe G-line suspended within
a ci1'culCl.1' tu.nneZ, Journal of Applied Physics, Vol. 47, No. 12, pp.
5472-5473, December 1976.
598 Lette1' to the Edito1' conceroni1"ofJ the pape1' "Pot.Je1' dissipated in dipole
ezcitation of an eZectromagnetic field above a conducting half-space"
by L. V. Kochmanova and V.P. Pe1'ov, Radiotechnika i Electronika, Vol.
21, No. II, p. 2451, 1976.
599 C.H. Stoyer and J.R. Wait, Resistivity p7'obing of an "e:r:ponential"
Ba1'th with a homogeneous ovel'buzoder., Geoexploration. Vol. 15, 11-18.
600 Letttn' to the Edito1' on the F01't1'an "Sphel'e" P1'ogroam fol' G1'ound Wave
Microwave Journal. Vol. 19. No.8. p. 68. August 1976.
601 Analysis for the electromagnetic fieZds 0; a dipole located within a
metal-cased borehole, Journal of Applied Physics, Vol. 48, No.3,
1009-1012, March 1977.
602 with D.A. Hill, Inj1uence of spatial dispersion of the shield transfer
impedance of a braided coaxic! cable, IEEE Trans. on Microwave Theory
and Techniques, Vol. 25, 72-74, January 1977.
603 with D.A. Hill, Radio via a trolley wire in a
tunnel with a rail return, IEEE Trans. on and Propagat.,
Vol. AP-2S, No.2, 248-253, March 1977.
604 EXcitation of a coaxial cable or wire conductor located over the ground
by a dipole radiator, Archiv fur Elektronik und Ubertragungstechnik (AEU)
Vol. 31, 121-127, 1977. (Errata, AEU, Vol. 31, p. 230,1977).
605 D.A. Hill and J.R. Wait, hetween a dipole antenna and ar. infinite
cable over an ideal ground plane, Radio Science, Vol. 12, No.2, 231-238,
March/April 1977.
606 with D.A. Hill, Slectromag1;et::c s;lielding of sources within a metal-
cased bore hole, IEtE Transactions on Geoscience Electronics, Vol.
GE-lS, No.2, 108-112, April 1977.
607 Propagation of ELF electromagnetic waves and Project Sanguine/Seafarer,
IEEE Journal of Oceanic Engineering, Vol. OE-2, No.2, 161-172, April 1977.
608 On the theory of scattering fY'OlTI a periodicaUy loaded wire grid, IEEE
Trans. Antennas and Propagation, Vol. AP-2S, No.3, 409-413, May 1977.
609 with D.A. Hill, Electromagnetic fields of a dipole source in a ciY'cular>
tunnel containing a surface wave line, Int. J. Electronics, Vol. 42,
No.4, 377-391, 1977.
610 Low-frequency behaviour of aeriaZ, Electronics Letters,
Vol. 13, No.9, p. 272, 28th April 1977.
611 Quasi-static limit foY' the pY'opagating mode along a thin wire in a
circular tunnel, IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation,
Vol. 25, No.3, 441-443, May 1977.
612 D.A. Hill and J.R. Wait, 0: a lossy jacket or. the external fields
of a coaxial cable with an inteY'rupted shield, IEEE Trans. on Antennas
and Propagation, Vol. AP-25, No.5, p. 726, September 1977.
613 D.A. Hill and J.R. Wait, Analysis of radio frequency transmission in a
semicircular mine tunnel coni-aining two axial conductors, IEEE Trans.
on Communications, Vol. CQM-25 , No.9, 1046-1050, September 1977.
614 Reply to Professor R.W.P. Kin; his comments on the exponential curY'ent
modes on an infinitely long the earth, Proceedings of the IEEE,
Vol. 65, No.7, p. 1062, July 1977.
615 R.K. Rosich and J.R. Wait, A generQZ fer
frem two-dimensional periodic surfaces, Radio Science, Vol. 12, 5,
719-729, September/October 1977.
616 MUltiple scattering between a buried line conductor and the earth's
surface, Geophysics, Vol. 42, 7, 1470-1472, December 1977.
617 S.H. Cho and J.R. Wait, EZect"pema;J'Yi.etic l.oXZve pl'opa?ation in a lateralZy
troposphel'e, Radio Science, Vol. 13, Xo. 2, March/April 1978.
(The complete text of this article is available on microfiche. Order
from the American Geophysical 1909 K Street Washington, DC
20006. Document 785-001; $1.00).
618 Seme earth l'esistiJity problens involving buried cables, Colorado School
of Mines Quarterly, Vol. 73, Xo. 1, 1-21, January 1978.
619 Excitation of ar. enserr.bZe 0,.1 naraZi.eZ cables by ar; extel'na: ii:;;:Jlc over
a layered groune, AEU (Arcniv' fur Elektronik unc
Vol. 31, No. 12, 489-493, 1977.
620 D.A. Hill and J.R. Wait, scattering ;l'Dm ar.
wire mesh located neQ1' the air-ground IEEE
Trans. on Electromagnetic Compatibility, Vol. EMC-19, 4, 402-406,
November 1977.
621 Analysis of alternating current excitation 0.<:' a l...'il'e rope bI- Q tOl'oidal
coil, D.A. Hill and J.R. Wait, J. Appl. Phys., Vol. 48, No. 12, 4893-
4897, December 1977.
622 EXcitation of CU1'1'ents on a bvyied cable, J. Appl. Phys.,
Vol. 49, No.2, 876-880, February 1978.
623 R.K. Arora and J.R. Wait, Re.f'raction theories of'radiowave propagation
through the troposphere - A Summary published in Radio Science,
Vol. 13, No.3, 599-600, May-June :978. Full paper available as Micro-
fiche Document 785-002 available from American r.eophysical Union, 1909
K St. N.W., Washington, DC 20006.
624 R.G. Geyer and J.R. Wait, Electrar:a;:metic fields of a vertical magnetic
dipole above a laterally inhemogeneous thin layer of conductive overburden,
Pure and Applied Geophysics, Vol. 116, 181-197, 1978.
625 Comments on "Measured Field 0.<:' a Directional' Antenna SUUnerged in a Lake"
IEEE Trans. on Antennas and Propagation, Vol. AP-26, No.2, p. 366,
March 1978.
626 D.A. Hill and J.R. Wait, The01'etical and numerical studies of mesh
structures, Sensor and Simulation Note No. 231, pp. 1-80, 10 June 1977,
Published by Kirtland Air Force Base, Albuquerque, NM 87117, U.S.A.
627 with D.A. Hill, Analysis of the dedicated communication line in a mine
tunne l for a shunt- loaded tro Hey, IEEE Trans. on COlllll1unica tions,
Vol. COM-26, No.3, 355-361, March 1978.
D.C. Chang and J.R. Wait, An anaZycis of resonant Zoop as an eZectronag-
netic sensor of coaZ seam thickness, Radio Science, Vol. 13, No.2, p.
399, March/April 1978 (The full text of this article in the Proceedings
of the La Baule Symposium. Copies of the Symposium proceedings may be
obtained from P. Misme, C.N.F.R.S., 3 Avenue de la Republique, 92131
Issy-les-Moulineaux, France.
D.A. Hill and J.R. Wait, The impedance of dipoZes in a circuZar tunneZ
with ar. aria! conductor, IEEE Transactions on Geoscience Electronics,
Vol. GE-16, No.2, 118-126, April 1978.
Guided eZectromagnetic waves in a periodicaZZy tunneZ, IEEE
Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, Vol. AP-26, No.4, 623-625,
July 1978.
D.B. Seidel and J.R. Wait, Transmission. modes in a braided cClariaZ cabZe
and coup Zing to a tunneZ IEEE Transactions on Microwave
Theory and Techniques, Vol. MTT-26, No.7, 494-499, July 1978.
K.R. Umashankar and J.R. Wait, Electromagnetic coupling to an
cabZe placed behind a sZot-perforated screen, IEEE Transactions on
Electromagnetic Compatibility, Vol. EMC-20, No.3, August 1978, pp. 406-411.
D.A. Hill and J.R. Wait, Scattering by a slender void in a homogeneous
conducting rope, Applied Physics, Vol. 16, 391-398, 1978.
Excitation of an eZevated cabZe over a stratified earth by ar.
current system, Int. J. Electronics, Vol. 44, No.6, 609-616, 1978.
D.A. Hill and J.R. Wait, EZectromagnetic propagation over
a rectangular-bonded mesh, IEEE Transactions on Electromagnetic
Compatibility, Vol. EMC-20, No.4, 488-494, November 1978.
Errata, EKe-2l, No.3, 276, Aug. 1979.
Concise theory of radio in the earth-ionosphere guide,
Reviews of Geophysics and Space Physics, Vol. 16, 3, 320-326,
August 1978.
D.A. Hill and J.R. Wait, Electromagnetic basis of drill-rod telemetry,
Electronics Letters, Vol. 14, No. 17, 532-533, 17th August 1978.
Theories of' scatterir.g from grid and mesh structures, Reprinteci
from book "Electromagnetic Scattering", Edited by P.L.E. Uslenghi,
pp. 253-287, Academic Press, 1978.
D.A. and J.R. Wait, Surface propagation on a
bonded l.nre mesh located over the ground, Radio Science, Vol. 13,
No.5, 793-799, September/October 1978.
EZectromagnetic response of an anisotropic conducting cyUnder to an
external source, Radio Science, Vol. 13, No.5, 789-792, September/
October 1978.
641 COImIents on "Inf1,uence of the Earth in the HF Transmission of LPD
tEEE Trans. on Antennas and Propagation, Vol. AP-26.
No.5, p. 756, September 1978.
642 D.B. Seidel and J .R. Wait, Role of controZZed mode conversion in 'Leaky
feeder mine communication IEEE Trans. on Antennas and Propa-
gation, Vol AP-26, No.5, 690-694, September 1978.
643 S.H. Cho and J.R. Wait, Analysis of microwave ducti1'l{J in an inhomo-
geneous Pure and Applied Geophysics, Vol. 116. No.6,
1118-1142, 1978.
644 D.A. Hill and J.R. Wait, Theory of electromagnetic methods for nondes-
tructive testi1'l{J of From Proceedings of the Fourth West
Virginia University Conference on Coal Mine E1ectrotechnology, August
2-4, 1978.
645 The electromagnetic basis for nondestructive testi1'l{J of cyZindrical
IEEE Trans. on Instrumentation and Measurement. Vol. IM-27 ,
No.3, 235-238, September 1978.
646 Corrments on 'Light lJaVeS guided by a si1'l{Jle cupved surface r Applied
Optics, Vol. 17, No. II, p. 6978. 1978.
647 D.A. Hill and J .R. Wait, Bcznd1JJidth of a leaky coa:rial cable in a cir-
cutar IEEE Transactions on C01lllDUnications, Vol. COM-26, No. 11
pp. 1765-1771, November 1978.
648 D.A. Bill and J .R. Wait, Ezaitation of the Zenneck surface la1CZve by a
vertical Radio Science, Vol. 13. No.6, pp. 969-977, Nov/Dec
649 Electromagnetic response of an anisotropic cyZindPical Elec-
tronic Letters, Vol. 14, No. 24, pp. 750-752, 23 Nov. 1978.
650 D.A. Hill and J.R. Wait, Electromagnetic fieU perturbation by an in-
ternal void in a conducti1'l{J cyZinder e%cited by a Applied
Physics, Vol. 18, pp. 141-147, 1979.
651 Theory of Comm.cnication in Tunne'Ls Using Open Transmission and Leaky
ORSI Meeting, XIXth General Assembly, Helsinki. Finland, 31
July-S August 1978.
652 D.B. Seidel and J.R. Wait. Radio transmission in an elZiptical tunneZ
IJith a contained a:r:ial J. Appl. Phys., Vol. 50(2) p. 602-
60S, Feb. 1979.
653 Comments on Papers DiscUBsi1'l{J the Underlying the Computation
of I.P. Parameters in a Heterogeneous Geophysical Prospecting,
Vol. 27, No.1, 292, March 1979.
654 with K.R. U1IUl8hankar, Analysis of the Earth resistivity response of
bJatied Pure and Applied Geophysics, Vol. 117, PP' 711-742
655 with D.A. Hill. Theory of t1'ansmission of eZeetr01lagnetic waves al,ong a
dril,l rod in eondueting IEEE Trans. on Geosc. Elec•• Vol. GE-17.
No.2, 21-24, April 1979.
656 On defining transmission toss in radio-wave Teleco1lllll.
Journal, Vol. 46-V!1979, p. 297.
657 James R. Wait (Editor). EM Guided Waves in Mine Proeeed-
ings of a u.s. Bureau of Mines. Open File Report. 134-78.
31 May, 1978, available from N.T.I.S., PB-289742.
658 with Robert L. Gardner, Eleetr01lagnetie nondestructive testing of
cyZindricaZZy 1.ayered IEEE Trans. on Instru. and Measmnt ••
Vol. IM-28, No.2, pp. 159-161, June 1979.
659 Applications of eleetromagnetie theory to geophysieal
Proc. IEEE, Vol. 67, No.7, pp. 979-980, July 1979.
660 Samir F. Mahmound. Adel Z. Botros and James R. Wait, Transient el,eetro-
magnetic fieZds of a vertical, magnetic dipoZe on a ttJo-layer
Proc. IEEE, Vol. 67. No.7. pp. 1022-1029, July 1979.
661 Reviet.J of e"Leetrarzagnetic methods in nondestruetive testing of LJire
Proc. IEEE. Vol. 67. No.6. pp. 892-903. June 1979.
662 with D.A. Hill and D.B. Seidel, Proineipl,es of R.F. eorrrnunication in
tunnels using open transmission l,ines and l,eaky Proc. of AGARD!
NATO Confer. "Special Topics in H.F. Propagation" Lisbon. pp. 36-1 -
36-3, Hay 1979.
663 with D.A. Hill. E:citation of the R.F. surfaee LJave by vertical, and
horizontal apertures. Radio Science. Vol. 14, No.5. pp. 767·780,!Oct. 1979.
664 D.A. Hill and J.R. Wait, Comparison of loop and dipoZe antp.nnas in leaky
feeder CCf'ff'fflmication Int. :J. Ueettonics, \101. 47, No.2. 155-
166. 1979.
665 D.B. Seidel and J.R. Wait. Mode cCMversion by tunnel, non-unifozwmities in
leaky feeder eCf'ff'fflmication IEEE Trans •• Vol. AP-27, No.4. pp.
560-564, July. 1979.
666 Book review of NikoZa TesZa Col,orado Springs Notes (ed. by
A1ekaandar Marincic, No1ite. Belgrade. Yugoslavia, 1978, IEEE Spectrum.
Vol. 16, No.8. Aug. 1979.
667 with D.A. Hill, E1.ectrO'Tlagnetic interaetion bettJeen a eondueting eyZinder
and a 80Z,snoid in relative Jour. Appl. Phys •• Vol. 50. No.8.
pp. 5115-5119, Aug. 1979.
668 David A. Hill and James R. Wait, CaZcuLated admittance of ar. idealized
drill antenna in a lossy IEEE Trans. on Antennas and
Propagation, Vol. AP-27, No.5, September 1979.
669 E:z:act 8ta'face impedance for a cylindrical Elect. Ltrs.,
Vol. 15, No. 20, 659-660, September 1979.
670 with D.A. Hill, Dynamic electromagnetic response of a hanogeneous
conducting cylinder f01' syrrrnebtic Appl. Phys., Vol. 20,
89-96, 1979.
671 On naturaZ slot Radio Science, Vol. 14, No.5, pp. 765-766,
Sept/Oct. 1979.
672 Vignette of guided (2 page summary), Combined Session,
National Radio Science Meeting, Boulder, Colorado, 5-8 November 1979.
673 Ezact sta'face impedance for a spherical Proc. IEEE, Vol. 68,
No.2, February 1980.
674 Elecbtanagnetic sta'face impedance for a "Layered earth for general
Radio Science, Vol. 15, No.1, pgs. 129-134, Jan/Feb. 1980.
675 D.A. Hill and James R. Wait, Propagation aZong a coa:::iaZ cabZe tJith a
helical IEEE Trans. on Microw. Theory and Tech., Vol. MTT-28
No.2, Feb. 1980.
676 K. Tsubota and J .R. Wait, The frequency and the time danain l'esponse
of a buried azial Geophysics, Vol. 45, No.5, 941-951, May
671 D.A. 8111 ad It. Wait, Ground wve att..-rtion frmction fCJlO a
.,,-tla with arbitrary 811Z'fac" imp«lQlltJfl. lladio Science. Vol.
15. No.3. PIS. 637-643. May/June 1980.
678 COfIl1Z«1l11Oi:le tlIttZZgri. fCJlO a l'f01fWfifDlWl tl'optJephftoic .... bdio
Science. Vol. 15. 10. 3. PIS. 667-673. May/June 1980.
679 D.A. Bill and J.It. Wait, n"ctJ"omtIg7Uttic thllOrY of the Z008eZy bl'aided
coa:riaZ cabu: pazot II - IhIttmccZ IEEE Trans. on Micro. Theory
MTT-28. Mo. 4. AprU 1980.
680 David A. B11l and J... R. Wait. Ckl the excitation of the Zennec:k
surface wave CJY8r the grolDl at 10 tIIz. tExcitat1cD de I' onde de
ZenDeck G1 eo1 • 10 tItz.), Annales des Teleccm,,11catians, t:aIa 3S,
.... 5/6, Ha1-JuiD. 1980.
681 with D. A.' B11l, Fielda of • bDrizantal 1aap of ubltrm:y 8bIIpe
buried in • tIIO-laJu urth. Rad10 Sdece, Vol. 15, Ro. S,
903-912, Sept. - OCt. 1980.
* 689
'lbeorles for nd10 grOIDi ¥aYe ewer a 11111d.8ect1cn
path, Badia Sc:ieDce, Vol. lS, No. S, 971-976, Sept. - Oct. 1980.
Beply to M. G. Margan' S CCXlii&lt on "A new to the VLF
iqMIdance tneasUreIIIents of island slot antemas. ' Radio Science.
Vol. lS, tb. 5, 969, Sept. - Oct. 1980.
Coupled t:rapospher.i.c mde analysis for a range dependent UDdel.
Archiv for Electranick wid and
CCIIiIIiilCadCi, &id 34, Heft 10;m:4%6, ociOber, 1980.
Propagat1on in rectangular tunnel with iJq)erfectly conductuJg
walls, Electtcaics Letters, Vol. 16, No. 13, 521-522, 19 June 1980.
D. A. Hill and J. R. Wait, Elect:rallBgnetic characteristics of a
coaxial cable with periodic slots, IEEE Trans. a-te, Vol. 22, No.4,
303-307, Hay 1980. Qiiiiidbility)
M. A. Ralston and J. R. Wait, '1beory of law-frequency c:cnductivity
prabq of mot etruetu:res in coal 1IIlDes, Jad10 Science, Vol. IS,
No.6, 110S-1108, Nov. - Dec., 1980. (S\IImiiY of HLiOfiche
article) .. Paper h a".Ua.ble on microfiche from
American Geophysical Union. ZOOO Florida Ave NW, Washington
DC, Z0009, .bttering frc::m an Isolated Irregularity in a
'l'xopaspheric Duct, Acta Physic:a Austriaca, Vol. 52, 193-202, 1980.
tow-qle radiatian of an antenna over an irregular plane.
"cti Della Fondaziane Ronchi, norence, Vol. 35, No.5,
..ietfOiitite:oEtCi6ii 1980, 5 -583.
Coupled IIIDde malysia for ground wave pmpagation aver
paths, Electranaptics,· Vol. 1; 91-100, (Hemi.spb£re
T\i)l'l..ltWlg <mporatiaii) 1981.
la: "A gramded vertical long-wire source system for plalle wave
IJ8II'I8totelluric: analog 1IDde1ing" Geophysics, Vol. 46, No.6. 934-
935, Jwle 1981.
D. A. lU.U mel J. R. Wait, HF Grtuld wave pxopsgat1on aver Sea Ice
for • apberical earth IIlOdel, IEEE Trans., Vol. AP-29. tb. 3,
S2S-527, Hay 1981.
D. A. HUla J. I. Wait, HF Iad10 wave tranIIIIlsalon ewer sea ice
IDd z.Dt.e ...qpau1bil1t1a, IEEE Tnns., (GeoecieDce _
t.Dte>, Vol. <iE-19, No.4, 204-209, Oct. 1981.
D. A. HUl mel J. Il. Wait, !IF GrolInd ww prop8pt1on over mbred
la, sea and ..-tee paths, IEEE Trans., Vol. GE-19, No.4, 210-
216, Oct. 1981.
Towards a general tbeoIy of induced electrical polarization 1n geo-
physical exploration, IEEE Trans., Vol. GE-19, No.4, 231-234, Oct.
S. S. cdJ. R.
scattering fma a buried cyliPdrical inside a lossy
earth, Radio Sc:1ence, Vol. 16, No.6, 1285-1298, Nov. -Dec. 1981.
Also: Wave J'heorI. (by J. R. Wait), Pergaam Press,
l;ew York, 1981.
D. A. Hill and J. R. ,"lait, Graund wave propagation over a mixed
path with an elevatia:l change, IEEE Trans., Vol. AP-30, No. I,
139-141, JaD. 1982.
D. N. Henrot and J. R. Wait, Analysis of DIXie conversion phenomena
:in Dan mifODll parallel plate wsvegu1de, Radio Sc:iax:e, Vol. 17,
No.2. 337. MEc:b 1982. ( .ummary of microfiche article).
Paper is available On microfiche from
American Cieophysical Union, ZOOO Florida Ave NW, Washington
DC, Z0009. -
K. A. Nabulsi and J. R. Transient coupling between finite
drcu1cs on a anisotropic ca1Cb:dn8 balf-spacep GeophYs. Pro!p.,
Vol. 30, 470-485, 1982.
ElectraJllFl!tic response of a III!d1un loaded with coaced
part:icles, IEEE Trans., Vol. GE-20, No.4, 500-504, OCt. 1982.
Also: (by J. R. Wait), Academic Press, New York,
1982. [Soviet E! "Nedra" 1987],
Effective electric:a1 properties of heee;eneaus earth mcde1s, Radio
Sc:1ent:e, Vol. 18, 19-24. 1983. (CorrectioJ:.: PI. 796, .ame VOLT
Electrical transient analysis for disseminated mineralization,
Science, Vol. 18, 25-27, 1983.
c:cnductivity of disseminated spbe%oidal ore grains, Gerlsnds
Beitr. Geophxsik, Vol. 92, 49-69, 1983.
lesistivity respanae of • taopneous earth with. c:onta:lned
vertical c:mdPJctDr, IEEE Tr_. on Geoscience sod R81Dte 5eftsg,
Vol. GE-21, 109-113, 1983.
coupl.q betw82 gm.mded c:1rcu1ts mel the effect of • thin
wrt1c:al CClDductor in the earth, IEEE. 'l'rana., Vol. AP-31, No.4,
640-644, July 1983.
A v1aw of the 1nduced-polm:izatiaD 1'88pCIrtM of 81\ 1ab:d.w
elactt· Hi.petic ayarea. IEEE Tans. an eea.dence mel
I81Dte S!n!b' Vol. GE-21, SOS-S07, 1983.
General fomtledm of the fDb:ticn l.oaU1R prcblem for
ccn::entric layEa • the borehole, IEEE Tnas. an Geoadence
_ I81Dte Sensing.;;..,l. GE-22, 34-41, 1984.
R elaxation and induced polarisation, C eoexploration
(Elaevler), Vol 22, 107-127, 1984.
Eiectromalnetic re'pon.e of a d18crete1y grounded circuit,
Gcgpby.ic;., Vol. 49, 577.580, 1984
On ''Jcmo.pheric induced wry low frequellcy electric field wavetilt
,Qcophy.iCl, VoL 49, 60-62,1984
On modeling a well for re.18tivlty and induced polarization,
Ceophy.iCl, VoL 49, 2061·2063, 1984
A1.0: Electromagnetic Wave Tbeory, Harper and Row, New York.
1984 # (3rd Printing 1986), "ill1ey Interhationa"l Edition. 1988
with P. Debrowe. Induced polarisation in electromagnetic iDductive
"heme., Ceophy.ical Pro'pectins, VoL JZ, No. 6,1147-1154,1984
P. W. Fa_pn aDd J. R. Wait, laduced polarization relpon.e of
dh.eminated miDenlbation for .pheroidalgeometrie., Radio
Science, Vol. 20, 147-148,1985 (IUmmary of microfiche paper) ..
Pager is available on microfiche from
American Ceophysical Union, 2000 Florida Ave NW,
DC, 20009,.
with P. D ebroux, The induced malnetic dipole of a polarized
.phere, IEEE Tran•• Vol, AP-33, 465-467, 1985
T. P. and J, Il. Wait, DUution and d18tortion effect. in
the lDduced polarisation re'pon.e of a two layer earth, IEEE
Trail. Vol. CE-Z3, 606-609,1985
with P, Debroux, lacluctive coupliD. between loop. 1yin. on a
poJarisable balf••pace, IEEE Trail•• Vol CE-Z3. 609-610.1985
Focu.ed heatiDI in cyUndrical, Part I, g:EE Tran.
Vol. MTT-33. 647-649,1985
with J. T. WWiam., EM and IP re'pon.e of a .teel wen
for a four electrode .urlace array, Part 1:theory, Ceophy.ical
Pro. pectins, Vol, 33, 7Z3-735,1985
J, T. WWiam. aDd J. R. Wait, EM and IP reapoD" of a .teel-eU
ca.inl for a four electrode 'urlace array, Partn: Numerical
re.ult., C.ophx.ical Pro.pectins, Vol. 33, 736-745, 1985
Ferrollagnetic implants in hyperthermia, IEEE Trans.vol.SME-32,
707-708, 1985
Interaction of electromagnetic and electrochemical effects
in geophysical probing, Electronics Letters,vol.22,no.7,393-394,
27 March,1986 <with T.P. Gruszka )
with M.Lullori,Focused heating in cylindrical targets,pMrt
II, IEEETrans.Yol.MT.T-:14 1986
Analysis of the radiation leakage for a four-aperture
phased array applicator in hypertharmia therapy,IEEE Trans•
.Yol.MTT-3.,531-S." 1986.
Extensions to the phenomenological theory of induced polar-
ization, IEEE Trans. Vol. GE-24, 409-414,1986
D.A. Hill and J.R.W8it,Ancn8lous vertical ..gnetic field for 'e1ectralBg.
induction in a laterally varying thin conductive sheet,
. Radio SCience, Yol.21,617-621 ,1986 .
Impedance conditions for a coated cylindrical conductor,
Radio SCience, Yol.21 ,623-626. 1986
with T. P. Gruszka. On electromagnetic coupling "removal"
from induced polarization surveys, Geoexploration,Yol.24
Propagation effects for electromagnetic pulse transmission,
Prcc. IEEE, Vol. 74, 1173-1 181 , 1.986
Electromagnetic response of a thin layer,ElectronicsLetters
Gerardo Aguirre and J.R. Wait, Resistivity and induced polarization
response of a thin sheet, Pure and Geophysics, Vol.
123,882-892,1985 ( actual publicaHon da e : aec.1986 ! )
Excitation of an enclosed lossy cylinder by an aperture
source, Trans.vol.MTT-35,210-212, 1987
General solution for excihtion by slotted aperture source in
conducting cylinder with concentric layering, IEEE Trans.
vol.MTT-35,321-325,1987. Also:
Introduction to Antenuas and Propagation,Peter Peregrinus
Ltd.Stevenage UK, lEE (available from the publisher and from
IEEE service Center, PPL Dept.445 Hoes
G.Aguirre and J.R.Wait,Surface impedance of a three layer
earth with a thin intermediate layer,Int. J. Electronics,
with T.P. Gruszka,Resistivity and induced polarization
response for a borehole model,IEEE Trans.,vol.GE-25;369- ,
372, 1987
Physical model for the complex resistivity of the earth,
Electronics Letters, vol.2J, 979-980, 1987
Com.ent s on' Correction of Maxwell's equations for signals, I and II',
1m 1:ln5. vOl.EMC-29,256-257, 1987
General cylindrical model for focussed power deposition
from an external antenna system, Jour. of Electromagnetic
Waves and Applications,vol. 2,77-84,1987
Determining the strength and orientation of an elevated
dipole, Electronics Letters,vol. 24, 32-33, 1988
A. Sezginer, T.M. Habashy and J.R. Wait, An image method
to compute the static magnetic field due to currents injected
into a homogeneous,conducting, and .agnetically polarizable
half-space, Radio Science , vol. 23, 41-45, 1988
Determining transient dipole source from observed field
waveforms, Electronics Letters, vol. 24 ,282-283, 1988
S.F. Mahmoud, S.C. Tantawi, and J.R.Wait, Interpretation of
muti frequency cOlllplex resistivity data for a layered earth
model, IEEE Trans. vol.GE-26,399-608, 1988
Multipole expansion for the EM fields of a linear radiator
IEEE Trans., vol EMC-30,413-415,1988
Electromagnetic RAdiation from Cylindrical Structures,(1959)
Corrected reprint edition, Peter Peregrinus Ltd.UK, 1988
Comment on .. Electric field of a transmission line over multi-layered
Media", Prac. IEEE, vol. 76,284, 1988
Comments on "Closed form solution for underqround impedance
calculation" Proc.IEEE, vol. 76,1396-1397,1988
Let ter to the Edi tor, ( on VLF radiation from lightning),
Geoexploration, vol. 25, pg. 173, 1988
Complex resistivity of the earth, Progress in Electromag-
netic Research(P1ER),vol.1, No.1, 1-175,1989 (Elsevier)
111 defense of J.A. stratton, IEEE Trans. 590,1988
J.L. Young and J.R.Wait, Note on the impedance of a wire
grid parallel to a homogeneous interafce,IEEE Trans. vol.
MTT-37, 1136-1138, 1989
T.P. Gruszka and J.R. Wait, Interaction of induced polar-
ization and electromagnetic effects in borehole probing,
Geoexploration, vol.25, 267-277, 1989
J.L. Young and J.R.Wait, Shielding properties of an ensemble
of thin, infinitely long, parallel wires over a lossy half
space, IEEE Trans. vol. EMC-31, 238-244,1989
Comments on "Electric field sensors in electromagnetic
sounding", IEEE Trans. vol. GE-27(Geoscience and Remote Sens-
ing), 789-791, 1989
M.L.O.Lumori, J.R. Wait and T.C.Cetas, Power deposition and
focussing in a lossy cylinder by a concentric phased array,
Radio Science, vol.24, 433-442, 1989
B.A. Baertlein, J.R. Wait and O.G. Dudley, Scattering by a con-
ducting strip over a lossy half-space, Radio Science, vol.24,
485-497, 1989
7'2 Co••ants on -Magnetotelluric exploration for hydrocarbons",Proc.
1iSI, vol.77,1'8., 1989 -
7'3 Radiation from vertical electric dipole located over laterally
anisotropic ground plane, Electronics Letters ,vol.26,74-76, 1990
7'4 A note on the Quasi-static approach in teaching electromagnetics,
IEEE Trans. vol. ED-33 (Education),164, 1990

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