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said: 4 cou EXPLORE!

1. Spain (Spanish) 2. France (French) 3. England (Bri8sh) 4. Netherlands (Dutch) WHY?? Gold, God and Glory!

Christopher Columbus
Le@ Spain in 1492 Wanted to nd a water route to get to the trade route to Asia (Silk Road)

Samuel de Champlain
Founded the rst French SeIlement in the Americas Founded Quebec in 1608 and claimed the Great Lakes for France

Jacques Car@er
1542: explored the St. Lawrence River (between Canada and the United States) French claims were based on his explora8ons

Early European Explora@on and Coloniza@on

English and Spanish had violent conicts with the American Indians (First Americans or Na8ve Americans). Indians lost their tradi8onal territories and fell vic@m to diseases (like Small Pox) carried from Europe. Unlike Europeans, Africans and American Indians did not believe in land ownership. French rela8ons with na8ve peoples were more coopera8ve.

Early European Explora@on and Coloniza@on

Economic ins8tu8ons in the colonies developed in ways that were either typically European or were dis8nc8vely American. Climate, soil condi8ons, and other natural resources shaped regional economic development. A strong belief in private ownership of property and free enterprise characterized colonial life.

The First Successful English Colonies in America

1607 Spain: colonies (St. Augus8ne in Florida, Peru, etc.) France: trading posts in Canada French, English, Dutch: mapping Atlan8c Coast and trading sh between America & Europe BUT, no Europeans had seIled on the Atlan8c Coast between Canada and Florida

The First Successful English Colonies in America

1. Make $$$ for England 2. Fill up the land so that the Spanish and French could not take it over The London Company sponsored the rst two successful English colonies in America = Jamestown and Plymouth

Mayower Compact
o Declared their support for King James I o Created a government to establish rules for the colony o Was an important step in colonial self- government

South Carolina Labor Force o 1st: Indentured Servants o Then: African Slaves Slaves for life Knowledge of rice cultivation Led to black majority in South Carolina by the 1710s

o Group of trustees ruled the colony in its early years James Oglethorpe = key to the colonys early history Hoped the colony could serve as a haven for debtors who could leave jail if they agreed to relocate in Georgia

Life in the Colonies

Community Life Centered around the Mee8ng House Town mee8ngs: primary unit of local civil government in the New England colonies

The Great Awakening

Legacy Promoted the growth of New Light ins8tu8ons such as Princeton, Dartmouth, & Rutgers
Led to new divisions within the Protestant faith & a greater diversity of religion in the colonies Shaped church life & worship in America Encouraged egalitarian democracy

The Acts
1. Stamp Act 2. Declaratory Act 3. Townshend Acts 4. Sugar Act 5. Intolerable Acts

Phase 1: American Revolu@on

When: 1775-1776 Where: New England What: Great Britain thought the conict was a few outbreaks in New England
Bunker Hill: abandoned Boston and re-evaluated strategy

Phase 2: American Revolu@on

When: 1776-1778 Where: Middle colonies What: Great Britain wanted to isolate New England
Washington driven out of New York City Bri8sh defeated at Saratoga Bri8sh could control urban, but not rural France recognized US and assisted

Phase 3: American Revolu@on

When: 1778-1781 Where: South What: Rally loyalists in the South and use slaves
Strategy did not work Major Bri8sh victories (Savannah and Charleston) Bri8sh surrendered at Yorktown

The Big Picture

The Bri8sh victory in the French and Indian War (1754-1763) brought addi8onal lands in the West, but signicant war debts as well. To pay this debt, the Bri8sh parliament moved away from salutary neglect in favor of more strict colonial control.

The Big Picture

Colonial protest to new taxes, restric8ons on colonial self-government, and inuence from the European Enlightenment led to a colonial Declara8on of Independence in 1776.

The Big Picture

During the American Revolu8on, the overmatched colonists found a leader in George Washington and badly-needed French assistance a@er the BaIle of Saratoga. When the war ended, the Treaty of Paris in 1783 brought independence and the forma8on of the United States.

Shays Rebellion
Armed uprising in Central and Western MassachuseIs from 1786 to 1787 Poor farmers angered by crushing debt and taxes Lack of an ins8tu8onal response to the uprising The na@onal government was too weak Energized calls to reevaluate the Ar8cles of Confedera8on and strongly mo8vated the Cons8tu8onal Conven8on Began in May 1787

Cons@tu@onal Conven@on
Went to Philadelphia with the goal of revising the Ar@cles of Confedera@on The young delegates decided that to preserve the union, establish a strong democracy at home and protect American interests abroad a completely new Cons8tu8on was needed

Federalists vs. An@-Federalists

The Cons2tu2on
Favored the proposed stronger government Against the an8- federalists, (opposed to the Cons8tu8on) More respectable Embraced the cultured and proper8ed groups Former Loyalists

An@-federalists Said the Cons8tu8on included aristocra8c elements An8-democra8c document Poor farmers, illiterate Wanted more states rights

Hamiltons Economic Plan

1. Assump8on of state debt by the na8onal government 2. A whiskey tax 3. A na8onal bank 4. A tari to protect American manufacturing

Bank of the United States

Alexander Hamilton
If it wasnt forbidden in the Cons8tu8on, it was allowed Bank was necessary and proper Elas8c Clause (necessary and proper) expanded federal power Loose interpreta@on of the Cons8tu8on

Thomas Jeerson
If it wasnt allowed, it was forbidden Bank should be state- controlled 10th Amendment: Powers not delegated in the Cons8tu8on are le@ to the states Strict interpreta@on of the Cons8tu8on (word- for-word)

French Revolu@on
An8-Federalists (Jeerson) supported French Revolu8on Americans supported Frenchs desire to establish a Republic
Horried by mob hysteria and mass execu8on

The Pinckney Treaty

Spain saw the Jay Treaty as a sign that the US was growing closer to Britain (Spains enemy) Pinckney: US minister to Spain Spain opened lower Mississippi River and New Orleans to American trade

Alexander Hamilton
Distrusted and disliked what he called the common man Small farmers and urban workers who made up majority of popula8on Thought they had too much liberty for their own good Too stupid, selsh, and easily manipulated to be trusted to govern themselves Promo8on of the Electoral College

Thomas Jeerson
Farmers were the salt of the earth Ideal na8on would be a na8on of small farmers Working their liIle farms, vo8ng intelligently, and enjoying as much liberty as possible Had complete faith that, if educated properly, small farmers could be trusted to govern the na8on well through their elec8on of qualied representa8ves

Washingtons Farewell Address

Washingtons Farewell Address warned:

1.Against poli8cal par8es 2.Against building permanent alliances with foreign na8ons

1840s More than 1.5 million Irish and Germans Europe was running out of room America = land of freedom and opportunity

Irish Immigra@on
Irish Potato Famine
2 million died Dependent on the crop

Too poor for west so they went to coastal ci@es (Boston and New York) Faced discrimination

Mass produc8on of tex8les Steam factory system America slow to embrace the machine:
Soil was cheapthey could s8ll be out in the fresh air! Labor was scarce, un8l immigrants
So were consumersno domes8c market

Samuel Slater: 1st coIon-spinning machine Eli Whitney: coIon gin to handpick (way faster) coIon South @ed to King Co_on
Raising of cotton became highly profitable ($$) Demand for cotton tightened the chains on southern blacks

Robert Fulton engineered the steamboat.

Free Blacks
Northerners disliked free blackswhy?

The South liked the black individual but hated the race; the North claimed to like the race, but hated the individual.

Co_on Belt: Virginia through Texas Uncle Toms Cabin (Harriet Beecher Stowe) Northerners angry over the eects of the Fugi@ve Slave Act A cause of the Civil War

Fought back against the fact they could not have the American Dream FREEDOM! ULTIMATE GOAL: ____________ Slave revolts

Nat Turner _______________is famous for his Virginia revolt Effect of revolts 1. Whites were scared 2. Security and black codes were tightened

1844: James K. Polk became president Polk ran on a very clear "Manifest Des8ny" plasorm. To vote for Polk was to vote for expansion. Polk's victory was perceived by him as a "mandate" by the American peoplean order to go ahead with expansion of the United States.

The Oregon border issue was seIled England realized there were more Americans in Oregon than Brits. Bri8sh leverage was small Agreement: split the land at the 49th parallel (excluding Vancouver). Why did the U.S. agree to half of Oregon but push for all of the Mexican lands? England was strong and Mexico was weak

Mexican-American War
Phase 1 Get California Phase 2 - Figh8ng in Texas
Santa Anna was defeated

Phase 3 - Conquest of Mexico City

Gen. Wineld Sco_ conquered the capital city

Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo

Ended the war America got land, the Mexican Cession, entailing California, but also the future states of NV, AZ, NM, CO, and UT. The U.S. would pay $15 million for the land, and assume $3.5 million in debts owed from Mexico to the U.S. In essence, the U.S. had forced Mexico to "sell" the Mexican Cession lands.

10. Misunderstandings with Mexico

Final goal = getting CaliforniaWhats the problem?
It belonged to Mexico!

American tradition in acquiring land

(a) the U.S. tries to buy the land, if that doesn't work (b) the U.S. would use force

President Polk wanted ACTION

4,000 troops to the Rio Grande border Mexico disputed the move saying the TexasMexico border was the Nueces River, not the Rio Grande.

Mexico crossed the Rio Grande and a skirmish followed with the U.S. troops MEXICO Polk could now point to _________ as the aggressor

14. Profit and Loss in Mexico

"What will be done about slavery in these new lands?"
Wilmot Proviso suggested The Mexican Cession lands be closed to slavery

Wilmot Proviso failed in the _________ SENATE Importance of the Wilmot Proviso
Opened old wounds of slavery It's this question of slavery in the new lands that would start the Civil War in 1861, only 13 years later.

Harriet Beecher Stowe

Harriet Beecher Stowe wrote Uncle Tom's Cabin in 1852.
The book was about the splitting up of a slave family and the mistreatment of likable Uncle Tom by a cruel slave master.

A catalyst of the Civil War When President Lincoln met Stowe, he said, "So you're the little woman who wrote the book that made this great war."

Uncle Toms Cabin

North: It sheds light on slaves' situations. South: Its an unfair portrayal and purely fiction! Stowe has never been down South and she doesnt know the real Southern reality! Uncle Tom's Cabin helped prevent Britain from joining the war on the South's side.
British workers sympathized with Uncle Tom's hardships and held back their government

Compromise of 1820
Missouri Compromise: 1.Missouri would enter the Union as a slave state 2.Maine would enter the Union as a free state 3.A line would be drawn at 36 30 the southern border of Missouri 4.Slavery would be allowed below the line and slavery would be outlawed above the line
Missouri was the excep8on

Compromise of 1820

Compromise of 1850
1. California would be admiIed as a free state 2. More stringent Fugi8ve Slave Law 3. New Mexico and Utah could decide the ques8on of slavery based on popular sovereignty 4. New boundary between Texas and Mexico 5. Banned slave trade (not slavery) in Washington D.C.

Compromise of 1850

Fugitive Slave Law

1850: law was tougher and was aimed at elimina8ng the underground railroad. A@er 1850, slave catchers brought the brutal slave system to the streets of northern ci8es. Many northern ci8es passed personal liberty laws oering protec8on to fugi8ve slaves.

Kansas-Nebraska Act of 1854

Senator Stephen Douglas hoped the rst transcon8nental railroad would have a more northern route Wanted to divide the northern sec8on of the Louisiana Purchase into 2 organized territories: Kansas and Nebraska
Slave states or not?

It would be decided by popular sovereignty

Kansas-Nebraska Act of 1854

Bleeding Kansas
Unspoken understanding: Kansas would go slave and Nebraska free 1855, Kansas held elec8ons to choose:
1. Pro-slavery 2. An8-slavery

1,500 seIlers were recognized as legal voters, but 6,000 votes were cast
Pro-slavery Missourians came over the border for the day to cast votes

The Dred Sco_ Decision

Dred ScoI: Missouri slave whose owner moved with ScoI to Illinois, Wisconsin and then back to Missouri ScoI sued for his freedom, arguing that since he had lived in free states, he was free March 1857 the Supreme Court (Chief Jus@ce Roger Taney) handed down the Dred Sco_ decision

The Dred Sco_ Decision

1. Dred ScoI (and all slaves) was not a ci8zen and therefore not en8tled to sue. He lost. 2. Legislature/Congress cannot outlaw slavery (OMG!) 3. Missouri Compromise had been uncons8tu8onal all along (because itd banned slavery north of the 36 30 line and doing so was against the point #2 listed above) HUGE victory for the South Infuriated the North

Panic of 1857
Economics weren't par8cularly bad, it was the psychological fallout for a troubled 8me Causes for this panic were:
1.The Dred ScoI decision 2.Over-produc8on of grain 3.Over-specula8on (land and railroads)

Elec@on of 1860
Demonstrated the fractured The na8on now had a nature of the American President who had virtually poli8cal system on the eve no support in the South of the Civil War The Democra8c Party Democra8c Party: divided divided into hos8le between Northern Whigs northern and southern and Southern Whigs Whigs Northern Democrats: Stephen The winner won less than a Douglas majority of the popular Republican Party: Abraham vote Lincoln All of the above were features of the elec8on of 1860

Election of 1860
Lincoln repeatedly asked Douglas whether he favored the spread of slavery Douglas avoided the issue, putting forth popular sovereignty as a cure-all to the slavery question Lincolns stance: he would not tamper with slavery where it already existed
He promised to block its expansion to new territories in the West

Spoils System
Jackson thought that the government should be run by the common people
Middle class ideas Liberal educa8on Free press

Spoils system: rewarding poli8cal supporters with public oce

Introduced into the federal government on a large scale



Important element of Illiterates, the two-party system incompetents, and Loyalty to party plain crooks were The frequent rota8on of given posi8ons of oceholders had a public trust benecial (posi8ve) Imbalance of power eect on the government Let normal ci8zens par8cipate in government

Ba_le #1: The Tari of Abomina@ons

Relied on tex8le factories Believed that their future prosperity would ow from the factory rather than from the sea Did not have a huge issue with the tari

Did not manufacture many goods themselves Relied on other manufactured goods were Hos8le to taris Deeper issues: anxiety about possible federal interference with the slavery

Ba_le #1: The Tari of Abomina@ons

South Carolina Exposi8on
WriIen by Jacksons own Vice President, John Calhoun!

Said the recent tari was unjust and uncons8tu8onal. Clearly proposed that the states should nullify the tari
They should declare it null and void within their borders

Ba_le #2: Bank of the US

1832 Jackson vetoed re-charter of the Second Bank of the U.S.
Said that the bank was a monopoly that catered to the rich, and that it was owned by the wealthy and by foreigners.

Ba_le #3: Na@ve Americans

Cherokee Indian removal: "Trail of Tears"
A minority of the Cherokee tribe, despite the protest of the majority, had surrendered their Georgia land in the 1835 Treaty of New Echota. Winter of 1838 - 1839, troops under General Wineld ScoI evicted them from their homes in Georgia and moved them to Oklahoma Indian country. Many died on the trail; the journey became known as the "Trail of Tears".