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a proposal submitted to Hadi Sumarto, M.Pd for mid test Linguistics and Educational Research


Wahyu Gondo Rabbani





The Background of Study Language is the human capacity for acquiring and using complex systems

of communication, and a language is any example of such a system of complex communication. The scientific study of language is called linguistics. It is impossible to know precisely how many languages there are in the world, and the number depends on a partly arbitrary distinction between languages and dialects. However, estimates vary between around 6,000 and 7,000 languages in number. Natural languages are spoken or signed, but any language can be encoded into secondary media using auditory, visual or tactile stimuli, for example in graphic writing, braille, or whistling. This is because human language is modalityindependent. When used as a general concept, "language" may refer to the cognitive ability to learn and use systems of complex communication, or to describe the set of rules that makes up these systems, or the set of utterances that can be produced from those rules. Human language is unique among the lifeforms of Earth because its complex structure affords a much wider range of possible expressions and uses than any known system of animal communication, all of which are generally closed systems, with limited functions and mostly genetically rather than socially transmitted. In contrast to non-human communication forms, human language has the properties of productivity, recursivity, and displacement. Human language is also the only system to rely mostly on social convention and learning. Language is thought to have originated when early hominins first started cooperating, gradually changing their primate communication systems as they acquired the ability to form a theory of other minds and shared intentionality.

This development is thought to have coincided with an increase in brain volume, and many linguists see the structures of language as having evolved to serve specific communicative functions. Language is processed in many different locations in the human brain, but especially in Brocas and Wernickes areas. Humans acquire language through social interaction in early childhood, and children generally speak fluently when they are around three years old. The use of language is deeply entrenched in human culture. Therefore, in addition to its strictly communicative uses, language also has many social and cultural uses, such as signifying group identity, social stratification, as well as for social grooming and entertainment. All languages rely on the process of semiosis to relate signs with particular meanings. Oral and sign languages contain a phonological system that governs how symbols are used to form sequences known as words or morphemes, and a syntactic system that governs how words and morphemes are combined to form phrases and utterances. Languages evolve and diversify over time, and the history of their evolution can be reconstructed by comparing modern languages to determine which traits their ancestral languages must have had for the later stages to have occurred. A group of languages that descend from a common ancestor is known as a language family. The languages that are most spoken in the world today belong to the Indo-European family, which includes languages such as English, Spanish, Portuguese, Russian and Hindi; the Sino-Tibetan languages, which include Mandarin Chinese, Cantonese and many others; Semitic languages, which include Arabic, Amharic and Hebrew; and the Bantu languages, which include Swahili, Zulu, Shona and hundreds of other languages spoken throughout Africa. The general consensus is that between 50 to 90% of languages spoken today will probably have become extinct by the year 2100.[1][2]

Mental faculty, organ or instinct

One definition sees language primarily as the mental faculty that allows humans to undertake linguistic behaviour: to learn languages and produce and understand utterances. This definition stresses the universality of language to all humans and the biological basis of the human capacity for language as a unique development of the human brain. Edward Sapir was one who advanced the view that "language is a purely human and non-instinctive method of communicating ideas, emotions, and desires by meaning of a system of voluntarily produced symbols."[7] The other view that the drive to language acquisition is innate in humans is supported by the fact that all cognitively normal children raised in an environment where language is accessible will acquire language without formal instruction. Languages may even spontaneously develop in environments where people live or grow up together without a common language, for example in the case of creole languages, and the case of spontaneously developed sign languages such as Nicaraguan Sign Language. This view which can be seen as a view of language going back to Kant and Descartes often understands language to be largely innate, for example as in Chomsky's theory of Universal Grammar or American philosopher Jerry Fodors extreme innatist theory. These kinds of definitions are often applied by studies of language within a cognitive science framework and in neurolinguistics.[8][9]

What makes human language unique

Main articles: Animal language and Great ape language Human language is unique in comparison to other forms of communication, such as those used by non-human animals. Communication systems used by other animals such as bees or non-human apes are closed systems that consist of a closed number of possible things that can be expressed.[17] In contrast human language is open-ended and productive, meaning that it allows humans to produce an infinite set of utterances from a finite set of elements, and to create new words and sentences. This we can do because human language is based on a dual code, where a finite number of meaningless elements (e.g. sounds, letters or gestures) can be combined to form units of meaning (words and sentences).[18] Furthermore the symbols and grammatical rules of any particular language are largely arbitrary, meaning that the system can only be acquired through social interaction.[19] The known systems of communication used by animals, on the other hand, can only express a finite number of utterances that are mostly genetically transmitted.[20] Several species of animals have proven able to acquire forms of communication through social learning, such as the Bonobo Kanzi who learned to express himself using a set of symbolic lexigrams. Similarly many species of birds and whales learn their songs by imitating other members of their species.

However while some animals may acquire large numbers of words and symbols,[21] none have been able to learn as many different signs as is generally known by an average 4 year old human, nor have any acquired anything resembling the complex grammar of human language.[22] Human languages also differ from animal communication systems in that they employ grammatical and semantic categories such as noun and verb, or present and past, to express exceedingly complex meanings.[22] Human language is also unique in having the property of recursivity; this is the way in which, for example, a noun phrase to contain another noun phrase (as in "[[the chimpanzee]'s lips]]") or a clause to contain a clause (as in "[I see [the dog is running]]").[23] Human language is also the only known natural communication system that is modality independent, meaning that it can be used not only for communication through one channel or medium, but through several - for example spoken language uses the auditive modality, whereas sign languages and writing use the visual modality and braille writing uses the tactile modality.[24] With regards to the meaning that it may convey and the cognitive operations that it builds on, human language is also unique in being able to refer to abstract concepts and to imagined or hypothetical events, as well as events that took place in the past or may happen in the future. This ability to refer to events that are not at the same time or place as the speech event is called displacement, and while some animal communication systems can use displacement (such as the communication of bees that can communicate the location of sources of nectar that are out of sight), the degree to which it is used in human language is also considered unique.[18]

The study of language

Main articles: Linguistics and History of linguistics

William Jones discovered the family relation between Latin and Sanskrit, laying the ground for the discipline of Historical linguistics.

Ferdinand de Saussure developed the structuralist approach to studying language.

Noam Chomsky is one of the most important linguistic theorists of the 20th century. The study of language, linguistics, has been developing into a science since the first grammatical descriptions of particular languages in India more than 2000 years ago. Today linguistics is a science that concerns itself with all aspects relating to language, examining it from all of the theoretical viewpoints described above.[32]

The academic study of language is conducted within many different disciplinary areas and from different theoretical angles, all of which inform modern approaches to linguistics. For example, descriptive linguistics examines the grammar of single languages; theoretical linguistics develops theories on how best to conceptualize and define the nature of language, based on data from the various extant human languages; sociolinguistics studies how languages are used for social purposes informing in turn the study of the social functions of language and grammatical description; neurolinguistics studies how language is processed in the human brain, and allows the experimental testing of theories; computational

linguistics builds on thoretical and descriptive linguistics to construct computational models of language often aimed at processing natural language, or at testing linguistic hypotheses; and historical linguistics relies on grammatical and lexical descriptions of languages to trace their individual histories and reconstruct trees of language families by using the comparative method.[33]

Early history
The formal study of language is often considered to have started in India with Pini, the 5th century BC grammarian who formulated 3,959 rules of Sanskrit morphology. However Sumerian scribes already studied the differences between Sumerian and Akkadian grammar around 1900 BC. Subsequent grammatical traditions developed in all of the ancient cultures that adopted writing.[34] In the 17th century AD the French Port-Royal Grammarians developed the idea that the grammars of all languages were a reflection of the universal basics of thought, and therefore that grammar was universal. In the 18th century, the first use of the comparative method by British philologist and expert on ancient India William Jones sparked the rise of comparative linguistics.[35] The scientific study of language was broadened from Indo-European to language in general by Wilhelm von Humboldt. Early in the 20th century, Ferdinand de Saussure introduced the idea of language as a static system of interconnected units, defined through the oppositions between them.[10] By introducing a distinction between diachronic and synchronic analyses of language, he laid the foundation of the modern discipline of linguistics. Saussure also introduced several basic dimensions of linguistic analysis that are still fundamental in many contemporary linguistic theories, such as the distinctions between syntagm and paradigm, and the Langue-parole distinction, distinguishing language as an abstract system (langue), from language as a concrete manifestation of this system (parole).[36] Language is a means of communication. Therefore the mastering of English is something which is very essential for everybody who wants to increase his or her knowledge and technology. English is an international language, almost people from all over the world use English for their communication that is why English is very important language. People use the language to express their emotions, feelings, and ideas. No one will be able to communicate internationally without using English since almost of scientific books are written in English. For that reason in Indonesia, English is the foreign language taught at the formal schools. Furthermore, the teaching of the language starts from the kindergarten.

English as a subject matter in school covers the four basic language skill: reading, speaking, writing and listening. In every subject, students learning activities involve reading. Reading is one of the complex ways in learning English. It is kind of activity to comprehend the writers idea or the way the writer communicates with the readers by way of the written or printed words. Reading is important for everybody in order to cope with new knowledge in the changing world of technological age. The reading skill becomes very important in education field, students need to be exercised and trained in order to have a good reading skill. Reading is also something crucial and indispensable for the students, because the success of their study defends on the greater of their ability to read. If their reading is poor they are very likely to fail in their study or at least they will have difficulty in making progress. On the other hand, if they have good ability in reading, they will have a better chance to success in their study. Reading is the process of constructing meaning trough dynamic interaction among readers in written language, in line with the reading situation. It is clear that, reading is an important activity in any language class, not only as the source of information and pleasure but also as a means of consolidating and extending ones knowledge of a language. Reading is the most emphasized in English teaching and learning process, quite simply, without solid reading second language readers cannot perform at levels they must succeed in reading. Thus, reading is not passive but rather an active process, involving the reader in ongoing interaction with the text .Furthermore; reading constantly involves guessing, predicting, checking and comprehending. Reading is form of non verbal communication. Reading enables students to understand and comprehend language through form like text passage. But some students thought that reading is perhaps the most difficulty language skill to learn.

However, in Indonesia the difficulties in mastering English are influenced by many factors, one of them is reading. Teaching reading for junior high school students must be differed from children in elementary school because of their different characteristic of psychological background. Peer approvals maybe considerably more important for the student than the attention of the teacher which, for younger children is so crucial. It is important for considering their classmates as the motivation in deep learning of improving teaching learning process of reading. Students must be encouraged to respond the text and situation with their own thoughts and experience, rather than just answering question and doing abstract activities. English teacher must give them tasks which they are able to do, rather than humiliating risk As we know the four skill of language consist of reading, listening, speaking and writing which should be learned by students .Those language skill are found in school curriculum. The curriculum of junior high school states that learning English in junior high school consist of reading, listening, speaking and writing should be taught with integrated. In Indonesia, not all of the citizen can speak English, although English already studied by Indonesian people from kindergartens until university, but English is uses just for formal occasion not in informal occasion that cause only a few Indonesian people can speak English The Indonesians students start learning English at the elementary school as the local content and the process continues at Senior High School and university .In fact, now, English is also taught in some kindergartens. The pupils are introduced to some English vocabularies. In addition to learning the language in formal education as mentioned above, people also learn it in non-formal education. English courses and private lessons are the examples of non-formal education. .This indicates the failure of teaching English in Junior High School in

Indonesia is not successful. It can be seen from the quality of SMP graduates mastery of English. In Indonesia, some English teachers still use traditional or conventional method to teach reading. Conventional method usually makes students bored because the method is monotonous and the students are not or discussion active, so it makes the learners get bored. One of the ways to make the teaching reading effective is making the student active. So they enjoy learning and they can improve their reading skill. Classroom is a small part of school environment; the classroom is top school activities. Whether or not an education program succeeded, it is started from the classroom. The successful teaching learning process is influenced by many factors, namely environment, teachers, pupil and teaching learning process in the classroom, tools and situation of the evaluation. Classes always consist of good students and weak students. These weak students sit in isolation as they lose confidence in their ability in learn English. Working in group, therefore, is believed to help solve the problem. Shy students who dont like speak in large class are more comfortable speaking out in smaller group. Group members can complement each another strength and weakness in English each students has different background and ability in English, which they can bring to the group. The English teachers are often faced with problem of students having good decoding skill but inadequate comprehension skill; they need to be able to successfully train students to use good technique, which provide students with the opportunity to reveal their independently-generated copying technique, thus, ensuring internalization of strategies, as well as sharing those techniques with other reader. Language strategies are steps taken by students to enhance their own learning. Strategies are especially important for language learning because they

are tool for competence. Appropriate language learning strategies result in improved proficiency active, self-directed involvement, which essential for developing communicative and greater self confidence. When the teacher uses the traditional setting, or model, they begin with an objective and presents primary instructions to the class. Primary instruction is mostly presented in the form of lecturers, text book readings, teacher-lie discussion or possible combination of any of these procedures. The traditional setting is just with rows of desks and teachers desk at front. Many researchers have been interested in doing research to investigate appropriate reading strategies to help students have better understanding when they read. Many reading methods have been used in classroom alternately. The result shows that some are successful with particular group students but some are not. Actually, what should be taken into consideration now is the way the knowledge is presented. As we know, teacher center approaches taking place in tradition classroom do not produce active recipients and results fossilized language learning. It is not effective enough to promote language acquisition. During the past decade, new approach called discussion technique seemed to attract a lot of attention and become popular. This conceptual approach is based on theoretical framework that provides general principle on how to structure learning activities in a teachers specific subject area, curriculum, student and setting. Teacher can use this approach to stimulate students to acquire the knowledge as well as create inter personal and team skill. Working in group, therefore, is believed to help the problem. Discussion technique exposes students to various points of view and to the ways of supporting those viewpoints; therefore, it helps students to learn the reading content, as well as teaches them how to know new content. Discussion technique also can help the students, with or without teacher presence, actively bring meaning to the written word. The technique chosen not only promotes reading comprehension but also provides opportunities for students to learn to monitor their own learning and thinking.

Discussion technique has recently been at the focus of educational research. Discussion technique is very simple to apply. It is observes that discussion technique effects increasing the academic success in addition to the social and intellectual abilities of the students. Various research have shown that especially at the primary, secondary and university level that discussion technique is effective in learning process of theoretical course, in the development of critical thinking process of students, not only in their ability to express themselves, but also in their communication skill. In discussion technique, student may enjoy from time to time getting away from the usual pattern of reading the story or article aloud at sight. This is particular true of better readers; what may be undesirable as routine procedure has real value as an occasional variation. By seeing the problem, it is important that study English especially reading should be done. The writer hope there will be an improvement in teaching of English. English subject is taught aside from the other subject. Many reading methods have been used in teaching English in classroom alternately. The result show that some are successful with some students but some are not. Traditionally, the teacher uses the traditional setting, or model, the teacher doesnt need to divide his students into small groups, he just discussed the lesson in large group or in classroom setting. Students have only a little chance to express their opinion because the teacher speaks all the time. They get knowledge just from the teachers explanation. The students focus all attention upon the teacher and discourage communication among students. All that they have to do is just listen their teacher and make notes for useful information. This strategy is a strategy without groups work. The students only receive the knowledge from their teacher: they dont explore the knowledge themselves. Based on the background above, the writer tries to raise the case of her thesis en title; INFLUENCE OF DISCUSSION TECHNIQUE ON STUDENTS READING ABILITY

B. The Identification of Problem The problem that is going to be discussed in this study is as follows: 1. 2. Are the students interested in discussion technique? Do the students become more active in reading? 1. Is it easier to understand the reading passage after

discussion technique activities? 2. How are any infuence of discussion technique on students reading ability? C. The Limitation of Problem. Not all the problem identified in identification of problem could be solved in this discussion. But to make the research more concentrated and get to the focus and due to the limitation of his time and theoretical knowledge, the writer limits the problem mainly on influence of discussion Technique on Students Reading Ability at The Eighth Grade Students. D. The Formulation of Problem Referring the limitation of problem above can be formulated the problem as follows; Is there any influence of discussion technique on students reading ability in the eighth grade students? E. The Benefit of the Study The benefits of research are as follows: 1. for the students:

The research intends influence of discussion technique in teaching reading comprehension will give good impact to the students. Students can optimize their reading ability and more motivate in learning English. 2. for the teachers: The result is expected to be useful for the writer herself and for the entire English teacher who might use this technique when they teach reading. The teacher should plan their teaching program.

CHAPTER II THEORETICAL DESCRIPTION, FRAMEWORK OF THINKING, AND HYPOTHESIS A. Reading Comprehension 1. The Definition of Reading Comprehension Reading comprehension is process in which the reader has to decide linguistic symbol and reconstruct them up to meaningful whole intended by the writer .reading comprehension is only a term referring to reading skill through the important thing is not on the pronouncing or load reading, but it is the understanding taken into consideration. Comprehension includes recognizing and understanding a main idea and related details. A good recognized that many ideas are implied and he must read between the lines to get the full meaning. Reading comprehension is a complex process which comprises the successful or unsuccessful use of many abilities[1] .When we read, we should be able to recall information afterwards. Meanwhile, according to Jannette Klingner Reading comparison is the process of constructing meaning by coordinating a number of complex processes that include word reading, word and word knowledge, and fluency[2] In reading their subject text books students frequently meet unknown words or phrases. For example, scanning heading and subheading, and skimming through text, can give an overview and set the scene. Using the index to a book and finding a words initial occurrence could often lead to finding definition or explanation[3] The amount of information gained in reading will vary greatly defending on several factors. One of the reasons for reading .if you only want to find a particular fact, such as a date, name, or place, at would be silly to begin at the

opening of a book and study the whole thing carefully. On the other hand, if you want to have a very complete understanding of a topic, you will not get it by skimming over the book quickly and superficially. For most reading purposes your best approach will be somewhere between quick skimming and a total, all-out effort to completely master the material. That means you have to decide in each case how slowly and carefully to read. We usually do so without thinking about the process of deciding on an approach .for example. Think about how you approach the telephone book. You dont usually spend time deciding whether to skim, scan, read, or study it. You go ahead and scan it. Looking for the one number you want .however, if you didnt already know the telephone book was organized you would have to pay some attention to how to find what you wanted. In many cases when you begin looking at a new boo, you do need to spend a moment examining it and deciding how to proceed. It may help to understand the comprehension process if you at it the way many experts in reading does. They often talk about three levels of comprehension. Each level involves more of an active role on the part of the reader. 1. Literal comprehension. This level of comprehension

represents the minimum of involvement on the part of the reader. It is the simple understanding of the words and ideas of author. The authors massage is received but not examined, evaluated, or utilized in any way. 2. Interpretive comprehension. At this level the reader not

only knows what the author said but goes beyond that simple knowledge. it involves an effort to grasp relationship, compare facts with personal experiences, understand sequences .see cause and effect relationship, and generally interpret the massage. It requires a more active participation on the part of the reader. 3. Applied comprehension. At this level reader does more

than merely receiving and interpreting the massage. The reader evaluates

the authors ideas, either accepting or rejecting them or applying then to some new situation. Generally the emphasis at this level of comprehension is on actively bringing the readers general understanding to bear on the ideas and Concepts contained in the reading passage. The synthesis is necessary for higher comprehension, especially on difficult material.[4] Reading comprehension is viewed as a process subject to the same constraints as human memory and problem solving.[5] It seems to involve language, motivation, concept development, the whole of experience itself. It seems to be subject to the same constrain as thinking, reasoning and problem solving Reading comprehension involves taking meaning to a text in order to obtain meaning from text. The ability to comprehend printed or written material, however involves much more than recognizing words, knowing, their appropriate meaning, and reading phrases and sentences. Reading comprehension is a complex process involving many different types of higher level thinking skills. Compressions frequently mentioned in cognitive and educational psychology, as well as, of course, the pedagogical literature.[6] There is often an assumption in the literature that is the goal of the reading process. A focus on comprehension is in line with our feeling that this is what reading to getting information from written texts. And there is no doubt that our monitoring of our own reading comprehension is of major importance. Judgments that we have not understood a text may well leave us unsatisfied, or lead us to re-read it, or perhaps reject it in disgust. Perhaps the most appropriate generalization for this section is; comprehension is easier if we can read the words accurately and automatically, but reading the words is easier when we can understand the message[7]. 2. The Purpose of Reading

The readers purpose plays an important part in determining the kind of reading they do. Different persons may read the same book in different ways, because their purposes vary. The readers establish their purposes by thinking and by asking question about what they plan to read. Comprehension and speed vary according to the readers purpose. It is important to read with purpose. It helps to understand more what is read by people. As we know that the purpose of reading is to get the meaning from the written symbol. One of the most important tasks on the reader is to find out what the writer said. There are two basic purpose of reading ability. a. Reading for information. It is reading to study for goal such as to obtain factual information and solve problem. b. Reading for pleasure. It is reading for enjoyment which may vary in to follow our favorite sport, comics, article, fairy tale and movie program. 3. The Type of Reading A good reader uses many different pattern of reading. Each involves the use of variety of skills and attitudes, the pattern used depends upon the type and complexity of the reading material, the purpose for reading, and the readers familiarity with the kind of idea expressed. Reading lesson maybe given in single class or it may be added as supplementary work. Whether it is given as a single lesson or a supplementary work, the material of reading must be graded defending on the level of the language learners; there are different types of reading: choral, silent, intensive, extensive, and supplement reading[8] 1. Choral reading

Even though choral reading is relatively uncommon in modern language classes, this type of reading is still important in improving learners pronunciation. Working in-groups will make language learners feel confident to pronounce words in this method. This technique is really helpful for language learners who are reluctant and shy to imitate the teacher expressions individually. 1. Silent reading

After language learners learn the words and expression and know how to pronounce them, the actual reading can begin. This can be done through silent reading. Silent reading can be with reading aloud by the teacher. The teachers reading is a model in accuracy an expressiveness it is secured by a happy combination of reading aloud reading by learners. To check whether the learners rest them by giving questions based on the text, by translation or by summarizing the text 1. Intensive reading

As the term indicated, each vocabulary and structural item is explained and made as part of the students active language, pronunciation and intonation one stressed and each concept of allusion is clarified[9].Intensive reading where the students are expected to read short passage and understand everything. Reading passage can be used for consolidating structure and vocabulary as a springboard for other classroom activities, to increase pupils passive vocabulary and for pleasure. 1. Extensive reading

Comprehension students are trained to comprehend or to understand the meaning or concept from a passage silently without teachers help.Beside it, extensive reading where the students read to understanding every word. 1. Supplementary reading

Supplementary reading is also done out of class. Language earners are free to choose reading material .reading materials may consist of newspapers, bulletins or magazines in the target language. Supplementary reading should be apart of the term work. Every language learners should be required to read at least one book in the target language. Again the teacher should give score to the work of supplementary reading. B. Discussion Technique 1. The Definition of Discussion Technique Discussion technique or group learning is an instructional strategy which organizes students into small groups so that they can work to gather to maximize their own and each others learning.[10]. According to Barker, Discussion technique is three or more people interacting face to face, with or without an assigned leader in such a way that each person influences, and is influenced by another person in the group[11] From several references the writer pointed out ddiscussion technique is design that provides opportunity for Discussion between teacher and students, and students to students. It is strategies that centre a shared conversation discussions and exchange of ideas in class. It gives opportunity for all to sit and listen, as well as talk and think, thus, emphasizing the process of coming to know as valuable as knowing the right answers. Begin small group discussion by focusing students attention on specific language tasks that are represented in the curriculum. Give students structured interview guides that describe learning scenarios and ask students question about what they are due to complete the task. Students can share responses in their groups and discuss why they believe certain techniques are more helpful. Within a group, students may disagree on the usefulness of strategies. This activity can also be done as warm-up at the beginning of class, present students with a single

learning scenario that they will have in class and ask them to share and discuss their strategies for copying with the situation. Discussion technique is structured and focused to make sure that learning is taking place. The teacher chooses the groups to reflect a diversity of viewpoint, abilities, gender and other characteristic. Discussion technique create the classroom community which involves students in a kind of interdependence whereby responsible for different aspect of content and teaching in other members of group. The group work is not complete until its entire member has masters the content. Furthermore, individual learning is reinforced as a result of explaining the content to others. Another definition come from Kenneth Gangel, she defines Discussion technique is a motivational technique which encourages a student to think through concept which has been hazy[12]. Another definition come from Mayflor Markusic Discussion technique or group learning is an instructional strategy which organizes students into small groups so that they can work to gather to maximize their own and each others learning.[13] 2. The Principle of Discussion Technique Discussion technique more than just putting students into group and asking them to do the task, there are some principles to differentiate between Discussion technique and traditional classroom activity. The basic elements should be applied by the teacher in implementing Discussion technique. The following are the five basic elements of discussion technique. Johnson and Holubec proposed five essential elements of principles of discussion technique. The five essential elements are as follow; positive interdependence, promotion interaction, individual accountability, social skill, group processing[14].

1. Positive Interdependence In cooperative learning teacher creates a situation in which student work together in a small group to maximize the learning of all members, sharing their resources, providing mutual support, and celebrating their join success, and to makes students feel need help each other. One learner are linked with others, its mean the success of one learner is dependent on the success of other learners. Within every cooperative lesson, positive goal interdependence must be established. Learn the assigned material and make sure that all members of your group learn the assigned material. In order to strengthen positive interdependence by achieve the goal; join reward, divided resources, and complementary roles. 2. Face- to-Face Interaction Once teachers establish positive interdependence, they need to maximize the opportunity for students to promote each others success by helping, assisting, supporting, encouraging, and praising each others efforts to learn. Face to face interaction demand the learner in group can face to face each other so they can do the dialogue, not only with teacher but also with other learners. This interaction make possible to the learner can be learning of resource so learning of resource can be more variation. There are cognitive activities and interpersonal dynamics that only occur when student get involved in promoting each others learning. These include orally explaining how to solve problems, discussing the nature of the concepts being learned, teaching ones knowledge to classmates, and connecting present with past learning. Social modeling, social support, and interpersonal rewards all increase as the face to face interaction among group members increase. 3 .Individual and Group Accountability Individual accountability exists when the performance of each individual student is assessed and the results are given back to the group and the individual. It is important that the group members know who needs more assistance, support,

and encouragement in completing the assignment. it is also important that the members know that they cannot hitchhike on the work of others. The purpose of cooperative learning group is to make each member a stronger individual in his or her own right. Students learn together so that they can subsequently perform more highly as individuals. To ensure that each member is strengthened, students are held individually accountable to do their share of the work. 4. Interpersonal and Small-Group Skill Teacher must provide opportunities for group members to know each other, accept and support each other, communicate accurately and resolve differences constructively. Contributing to the success of a cooperative effort requires interpersonal and small group skills. Placing socially unskilled individuals in a group and telling them to cooperate does not guarantee that they will be able to do so effectively. Person must be taught the social skills for highquality cooperative and be motivated to use them. Leadership, decision making, trust-building, communication and conflict-management skill have to be taught just as purposefully and precisely as academic skills. 5. Group Processing Teachers must also provide opportunities for the class to assess group progress. Group processing exist when group members discuss how well they are achieving their goals and maintaining effective working relationship. Groups need to describe what member action is helpful and unhelpful and make decisions about what behaviors to continue or change. Students must also be given the time and procedures for analyzing how well their learning groups are functioning and the extent to which students are employing their social skills to help all group members to achieve and to maintain effective working relationships within the group 3. The Teacher Role in Discussion Technique

The role of teachers in discussion technique is very important because the success of this method depend on the role of the teacher. There are five roles, first is the teacher as inquirer, second is the teacher as creator, third is the teacher as observer, the fourth is the teacher as facilitator and the teacher as change agent. Key elements of discussion technique teachers role: 1.The teacher as inquirer Cooperative learning teachers are continually examining and questioning their belief, values, and assumption. .Examining attitudes and values held about the culturally diverse learner, race, class, and minority language particularly important the context of teaching in a multilingual, multiracial classroom. 2.The teacher as creator Since the cooperative classroom is process oriented, teachers increased in effective group work must realized that the learning environment is highly structured and well organized, .According Johnson The teachers roles are a creator are creating the social climate, setting goals, planning and structuring the task, establishing the physical arrangement of the classroom, assigning materials and time[15] 3. The Teacher as Observer The teacher of cooperative classroom must constantly observe how group work. Observation replaces the traditional role of presenting information. Observation will indicate to the teacher when groups activities are more or less educative, when group are learning or have become bogged down in unproductive labor. The latter condition emerges in most groups at one time or another, as anyone knows who has participated in the work of committees. At such time, the teacher should intervene and assist group to redirect their energies and procedures

and to redefine their goals. Facilitative intervention requires astute assessment of a groups state, of the interaction among group members, and of the emotional climate of the group, whether it is supportive or not of each members work and thinking. Watching and listening to the student are natural activities in every teachers day .Such activities can be formal and informal, planed or unplanned As mentioned above, observation can be formal and informal. one type of informal methods is global observation while amore formal type is typically referred to as systematic observation .in global observation, the teacher stand back, listening to the groups and the teacher then records observation. The teacher of cooperative classroom must constantly observe how group work. 4. The teacher as facilitator The role facilitator means that the teacher is prepared to step aside to give the learner a more meaningful role. Effective facilities are preferred to intervene and to assist in the problem-solving process. They support and encourage the learners desire to learn. 5. The teacher as change agent The degree of change at the teacher level is strongly related to the extent teachers interact with one other. Demonstrations of the teachers working collaboratively are the best encouragement for cooperation among students [16] 4. The Procedure of Discussion Technique The classroom organization does not deal directly with the reading process or with materials, methods, or approaches to teaching reading comprehension, yet without good classroom organization and classroom management, reading instruction may be totally in effective. The writer also believe the discussion group applied to Junior high school students still has to get more direction from the teacher. Hence, the students might

have opportunity to arrange the chairs and Tables in order to have communicative class using a discussion technique in the class room after they get instruction from the teacher. David Nunan points out that setting in the classroom is important. Setting here refers to the classroom arrangements specifying or implying the task, and it also requires consideration whether the task is to be carried out wholly or partly in the classroom[17]. Robert A. Slavin, explained that to arrange an effective discussion, the group discussion session will be divided into three parts:[18] 1. Pre-discussion activities

Pre-reading activities were employed to give information about the techniques, procedures, and steps of discussions and the reading text to discuss in groups. In this activity, the teacher gives an example of reading text to discussion in groups and some questions The duration of this activity is 5 minutes. 1. Whilst discussion activities

In whilst reading activities, the students read and do the small group discussion about tee reading text, answering the questions that was given by the teacher, report their own discussion on the piece of paper that was provided by the teacher, and present the result of their discussion in their own group first and to other groups in panel discussion, while other member of groups may debate, clarify, give opinion, and criticize. During whilst discussion activities, the teacher should observe the groups discussion to make sure that all members of group participate in their own discussions. The time of group discussion is 15 minutes and panel discussion is 30 minutes. 1. Post discussion activities

The post discussion activities the teacher collects the works of group discussion, the teacher comments the group discussions and giving the reward (score) to each group and members of group who participate in discussions, the teacher may give some corrections if any, and the teacher may give several oral questions to members of group randomly. Those activities above can be conducted in several meetings with some different reding text to be discussed in groups. To check the students comprehension About the text that have discussed, the teacher may home work to analyze a text and gives a written test/quiz individually.

5. The Advantages and Disadvantages of Discussion Technique There are some advantages of using Discussion technique 1. Each student has practice it in self-teaching, which is the most valuable of the entire skill teacher can help them learn. 2. Students have can practice in peer teaching, which requires that they understand the material at deeper level than student typically do when simply asked to produce an exam 3. Increased frequency and variety of second language practice through different types of instructional. 4. Opportunities of students to act as resources for each, thus, assuming a more active role in their learning.

5. Freedom for teachers to master new professionals skill, particularly those emphasizing communication. Implementation of Discussion technique in class not only has the advantages but also disadvantages, such as follow: a. It takes much time to organize the group b. If one or two obstinate students dont participate a whole group or two will lose out on a piece of the text. 1. c. The lass situation become noisy, so the teacher needs to

control the students d. Teacher cannot monitor all groups at once. C. Framework of Thinking This research has two variables. They are using Discussion technique as a free variable, then reading comprehension as a suspended variables and an object in this research. For facilitate this research, the writer will describe again two variables as explained before. Reading comprehension can be defined as an active and interactive activity to produce the word mentally and vocally and tries to understand the content of reading text. Discussion technique is a technique in which students work in group, Discussion technique can be used in a variety of ways for variety goals, but it is primarily used for the acquisition and presentation of a new material, review, or informed debate.

Based on this theory, the writer assumes that reading lesson is more effective with discussion technique,because the students who using discussion technique get more significant in improving in reading comprehension. D. Hypothesis. Hypothesis is guessing or supposition tentative statment about things we observe in order to understand. In this paper,the hypothesis consists: 1. Null Hypothesis

There is no significant difference on studentsreading ability with and without discussion technique.(Ho) 1. Alternative Hypothesis

There is significant difference on students reading ability with and without discussion technique in rading comprehension. (Ha) In accordance with the basic assumption, the writer will formulated hypothesis as follows The students who are taught using Discussion technique can be predicted that they have ability on reading comprehension


A. The Objective of the Research The purpose of this research is to find the influence of discussion technique on reading ability at the eighth grade students of Madrasah Tsanawiyah Attaqwa Tangerang. The writer hopes that using Discussion technique could be better way for the teacher in teaching reading comprehension. B. The Time and Place of the Research The research of this study was held at Madrasah Tsanawiyah Attaqwa Benda Tangerang, which is located at Jalan K.H.Mumin, Belendung Benda Tangerang Banten 15123, telp. 0215534315. The writer asked permission to the school and began an observation on October 2nd. The she started to do the research there. The research held on October 4th up to October 25th for twice meeting in a week, so its total 6 meetings. After doing the research in the classroom, the writer collected the data from post-test, and then the writer began to analyze them. C. The Research Methodology This research is experimental study in which the experimental class and controlled class were conducted by the writer. In this research, the writer taught the students in experimental class by using discussion technique and controlled class by using traditional Method. The test to both of the class. Test was same in qualities and quantities to keep the reliability of the research. It was given to know how effective of discussion technique toward students in reading ability. D. The Population and Sample



The research population is the students at eighth grade of MTs Attaqwa Benda Tangerang . Thus, to get the information of the last score .The writer got the data by giving the test in the last meeting. The total population was two classes and consists of 80 students. 1. Sample

The sample in this research was taken randomly about 60 students from the population of eighth grade students in academic year 2010-2011.The students then were classified into two group .The first one, the sudents of control class who taught by traditional method .And the other one were the students of experimental class who were taught by discussion technique.Each group consists of 30 students. E . The Instrument of the Research The instrument of this research was test of reading test which consisting of 20 questions. They are multiple choices tests. They are divided into three categories: easy (30%), middle (60%), and difficult (10%). Multiple choices consist of 20 items from number 1 to 20. Its scores per item is 5, it means if the students can answer all of question correctly, they will get 100. From the description of each test form above, we can see that the high score of this test is 100 scores. 1. F. The Technique of Data Collecting

In this research, the writer uses the quantitative research approach, so the technique used to get the data which related to the teaching reading by the writer is doing test. The writer doing the test, after six meetings in teaching reading of two classes by using discussion technique and another by using traditional strategy . The tests which consist of 20 items are used to measure the students capability in reading comprehension skill.

G. The Technique of Analyzing Data After getting the data, researcher did was computing the data in applying a t-test. The writer used t-test for two conected sample is big sample because the sample is 30 students for each class. The formula is used t-test or t0 in condition with big sample (N>30) is as follows.[19]9

Notes : Mx : mean of variable X


: mean of variable Y

SEMx _ My : standard error of difference mean of

Variable X and Y

The writer processes and analyzes the data through the following steps: 1. Investiganti the work sheet of students, giving score and

describe score in table


Determining mean of variable X with the formula:

Mx = X N 1. Determining mean of variable Y with the formula:

My = Y N 1. 1. 1. 1. 1. Determining deviation score variable X with the formula Determining deviation score variable Y with the formula Determining standard error variable X with the formula Determining standard error variable Y with the formula Determining the differences of mean variable X and mean formula:

variable Y with

After all of data are calculated,the last procedure is determining df (degree of freedom) with formula: Df or db = (Nx + Ny)-2 Where M : The average of student score SD : standard deviation SE : Standard errors

X : Experiment class Y : Controlled class N : Total of the students df : Degree of freedom

FOOTNOTE [1] Gordon Wainwrigth, How to Read Faster and Recall More (Oxford: handbook,2007).P.37 [2]Jannette Klingner, Sharon Vaughhn and Alinson Boardman, Teaching Reading Comprehension to Students with Learning Difficulties, (Guilford Press,2007).p.2 [3]R.R Jordan.English For Academic purposes A guide and resource Book for Teachers, (Cambridge University Press Australia,1997).p.147 [4]Alton L.Raygor. PhD, Robin D.Raygor Ph.D. Effective Reading ;Improving Reading Rates and Comprehension,(America,1985) p.22 [5] Parson. P.David and Johnson, D.Dale .Teaching Reading Comprehension (Company,1978) p.8 [6] Urquhart A. Hand Weir C.J. Reading in a Second Language: Process, Product and Practice (Longman.1998)p.85 [7] Parson P David, Teaching Reading Comprehension, (United State of America,1974)p.15 [8] Huebener, Teaching English as a Foreign Language,(Graham Ilmu Yogyakarta ,2006)p.67 [9] Ibid p.67 [10] Retrieved on http ./www/dynamic flight method, page last update on November 11 2003 [11]Barker, larryl..G..Communication.Englewood Cliffs Jersey; (Prentice Hall, Inc. 1987.) p.168 [12] Kenneth Gangel. http bible-org/series page/teaching discussion nov 11 2003 [13] Retrieved on http./www/dynamic flight. Classroom Instruction on April 5. 2010 [14] Shlomo Sharon, Hand Book Of cooperative Learning Methods,(London: Prager Publisher ,1999)p.58-.59 [15] Carolyn Kessler. Cooperative Language Learning (New Jersey:PranticeHall,Inc,1992) p.155

[16] Carolyn Kessler. Cooperative Language Learning (New Jersey:PranticeHall,Inc,1992) p.164-171 [17] David Nunan , Paul and K,Donld..Method for Teaching, A skill Approach. (Ohio,Merril Company. 1989) p.91 [18] Robert A. Slavin 1995. Cooperative Learning: Theory, Research and Practice.( Second Edition. Needham Heights: Allyn and Bacon. 1995 ) p. 53 [19]9Prof . Drs Anas sudijono , Pengantar Statistik Pendidikan .(Jakarta,PT Raja Grafindo Persada 2003), p.324-325 ^ a b c d Austin & Sallabank (2011) ^ a b Moseley (2010) ^ "language". The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language (3rd ed.). Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company. 1992. ^ Lyons (1981:2) ^ Lyons (1981:18) ^ Trask (2007:12931) ^ dir_esc=y Language an introduction to the study of speech, Edward Sapir , ^ Hauser & Fitch (2003) ^ a b c Pinker (1994) ^ a b Saussure & Harris (1983) ^ Campbell (2001:96) ^ Chomsky (1957) ^ Trask (2007:93, 130) ^ a b c d Newmeyer (1998:36) ^ a b c Evans & Levinson (2009) ^ Van Valin (2001) ^ Hockett (1960); Deacon (1997) ^ a b Trask (1999:15) ^ Trask (1999:9) ^ a b Tomasello (2008) ^ The Gorilla Koko reportedly uses as many as 1000 words in American Sign Language, and understands 2000 words of spoken English. There are some doubts about whether her use of signs is based in complex understanding or in simple conditioning. ^ a b Deacon (1997) ^ Hauser, Chomsky & Fitch (2002) ^ Trask (2007:16566) ^ a b Haugen (1973) ^ Ulbaek (1998) ^ Chomsky (2000:4) ^ Fitch (2010:466507)

^ Fitch (2010:25092) ^ Foley (1997:7074) ^ Fitch (2010:2923) ^ Newmeyer (2005) ^ Trask (2007) ^ Campbell (2001:8283) ^ Bloomfield 1914, p. 310 ^ Clarke (1990:143144) ^ Foley (1997:8283) ^ Nichols (1984) "Functional grammar analyzes grammatical structure, as do formal and structural grammar; but it also analyzes the entire communicative situation: the purpose of the speech event, its participants, its discourse context. Functionalists maintain that the communicative situation motivates, constrains, explains, or otherwise determines grammatical structure, and that a structural or formal approaches not merely limited to an artificially restricted data base, but is inadequate even as a structural account. Functional grammar, then, differs from formal and structural grammar in that it purports not to model but to explain; and the explanation is grounded in the communicative situation." ^ Croft & Cruse (2004:1) ^ Trask (1999:1114; 105113) ^ Fisher, Lai & Monaco (2003) ^ a b Lesser (1989:2056) ^ Trask (1999:1057) ^ Trask (1999:108) ^ Sandler & Lillo-Martin (2001:554) ^ MacMahon (1989:2) ^ a b c d MacMahon (1989:3) ^ a b International Phonetic Association (1999:38) ^ MacMahon (1989:1115) ^ MacMahon (1989:611) ^ Ladefoged & Maddieson (1996) ^ a b Lyons (1981:1724) ^ Trask (1999:35) ^ Lyons (1981:21824) ^ Levinson (1983) ^ Levinson (1983) ^ Goldsmith (1995) ^ International Phonetic Association (1999) ^ Ladefoged & Maddieson (1996) ^ International Phonetic Association (1999:27) ^ a b Trask (2007:214) ^ International Phonetic Association (1999:4) ^ Sandler & Lillo-Martin (2001:53940) ^ Trask (2007:326) ^ a b Coulmas (2002) ^ Trask (2007:123)

^ Lyons (1981:103) ^ Allerton (1989) ^ Payne (1997) ^ Trask (2007:208) ^ Trask (2007:305) ^ Aronoff & Fudeman (2011:12) ^ Bauer (2003) ^ Haspelmath (2002) ^ Payne (1997:2829) ^ Trask (2007:11) ^ The prefixed asterisk * conventionally indicates that the sentence is ungrammatical, i.e. syntactically incorrect ^ Baker (2001:265) ^ Trask (2007:179) ^ Baker (2001:26970) ^ Trask (2007:21819) ^ Trask (2007:21819) ^ Nichols (1992);Comrie (1989) ^ a b Croft (2001:340) ^ Greenberg (1966) ^ Croft (2001:355) ^ Campbell (2004) ^ Austin & Sallabank (2011) ^ Levinson (1983:22678) ^ Levinson (1983:100169) ^ Bonvillian, John D.; Michael D. Orlansky and Leslie Lazin Novack (December 1983). "Developmental milestones: Sign language acquisition and motor development". Child Development 54 (6): 14351445. ^ O'Grady, William; Cho, Sook Whan (2001). "First language acquisition". Contemporary Linguistics: An Introduction (fourth ed.). Boston: Bedford St. Martin's. ^ Duranti (2003) ^ a b Foley (1997) ^ a b Foley (1997:31128) ^ Olson (1996) ^ Aitchison (2001) ^ Trask (1999:70) ^ Clackson (2007:2733) ^ Aitchison (2001:112) ^ Zentella (2002:178) ^ Labov (1994) ^ Labov (2001) ^ Thomason (2001:1) ^ Romaine (2001:513) ^ Campbell (2002) ^ Aikhenvald (2001)

^ Thomason & Kaufman (1988); Thomason (2001) ^ Matras & Bakker (2003) ^ a b c Lewis (2009) ^ Ethnologue's figure is based on numbers from before 1995. A more recent figure is 420 million ("Primer estudio conjunto del Instituto Cervantes y el British Council sobre el peso internacional del espaol y del ingls". Instituto Cervantes ( ) ^ Rickerson, E.M.. "What's the difference between dialect and language?". The Five Minute Linguist. College of Charleston. ebcluster&. Retrieved 17 July 2011. ^ Lyons (1981:26) ^ Katzner (1999); Comrie (2009); Brown & Ogilvie (2008) ^ Katzner (1999); Comrie (2009); Brown & Ogilvie (2008) ^ Austin & Sallabank (2011:1011) ^ Ladefoged (1992)

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