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ConservationAction Todaysquestions: T d ti I. I II. III. IV. Howcanwedesigneffectiveprotectedareas? H d i ff i d ? Howcanwemitigatethreats? Howcanwerestoredamagedecosystems? Howcanwelowerourecologicalfootprints?

I. Howcanwedesigneffectiveprotectedareas? Efficiencyissue:protectingthelargestnumberofspecies inthesmallestpossibleareas A.Whendataare lacking:Jared Diamonds recommendations fornationalpark for national park systeminIrian Jaya (IndonesianNew (Indonesian New Guinea)

Irian Jaya

Papua NewGuinea

He makes assumption that if birds diversity is high, then the diversity of other organisms could also be high.

B.Currentapproach:Mapareaswithhigh#sendemic plants;highlevelofthreat(ConservationInternational) plants; high level of threat (Conservation International) WhyistheAmazonbasinnotincluded? WhyisJapanincluded? Wh i J i l d d?

Not near the water! Lower level of threat.

Completely surrounded by water. High level of threat.

Thereisaglaringmismatchbetweenthelocationsofthe There is a glaring mismatch between the locations of the worldsbiodiversityhotspots(highestdensityofspecies and/orhighestdensityofthreatenedspecies)andthe / g y p ) worldsexistingprotectedareas.Why?
High diversity areas tend to be resource-rich so harder to get public support for protecting them. There tends to be higher diversity areas near coastal areas which are often more targeted for development.

C.Establishingwildlifecorridors Experimentwithconnectedvunconnectedpatchesin longleafpinewoodlands(seUSA)


S Speciesr richness

Unconnected d


Time(yearafterexperimentalplotsestablished) Time (year after experimental plots established)

Newissue:Howdoesresearchonwildlifecorridorsrelate New issue: How does research on wildlife corridors relate toclimatechange? As climate change reduces habitable areas, wildlife
corridors to connect areas that are viable for habitation by species will help make sure that gene flow continues.Increase genetic variation through gene flow may help give species alleles to cope with environmental changes. Allow range changes, organisms can track climate change.

Isassistedmigrationagoodideaorabadidea?(E.g. Torreya taxifolia fromFloridatoNorthCarolina,Georgia). f g Whataretheprosandcons?

Pros: - Species diversity will increase if the species are going extinct but we are helping them move to an appropriate location.

Cons: - Invasive species? Disrupt communities function where you introduce them. - Affect ecosystem function at source site.

II.Howcanwereducethreats? Fromyesterday:overexploitation,habitatloss,invasives From yesterday: overexploitation habitat loss invasives A.Asabiologist,whatmeasureswouldyouadvocate? OverexploitationHabitatloss Local L l
Legislation/ regulation for protected areas and sustainable practice. E.g. - Overexploitation: Against over-fishing - Habitat Loss: Protecting habitats with high species diversity. For habitat loss, wildlife corridors would also help.



B.Controllinginvasives B Controlling invasives Purpleloosestrife,importedfromEurope,wastaking Purple loosestrife, imported from Europe, was taking overlargeexpansesofmarshesinNorthAmerica AresearcherfoundtwospeciesofbeetlethatfeedONLYon


III.Howcanwerestoredamagedecosystems? III. How can we restore damaged ecosystems? Wangari Maathai;theGreenBeltMovement Startedin1977,thisNGOhasnoworganized theplantingofover45milliontreesinKenya Localexamplesofrestorationprojects:

IV.Howcanwelowerour ecologicalfootprints? IV. How can we lower our ecological footprints? See http://www footprintnetwork org/en/index php/GFN/ page/calculators/ Afootprintisanestimateofhowmanyhectaresof productivelandittakestosupportyourlifestyle. Usuallyassessfood,transportation,shelter,goods/services

Otheractiontoloweryourecologicalfootprint: Food:


Goods/services: Goods/services: