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INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET), ISSN 0976 6340(Print), ISSN

N 0976 AND TECHNOLOGY3, Sep- Dec (2012) IAEME 6359(Online) Volume 3, Issue (IJMET)
ISSN 0976 6340 (Print) ISSN 0976 6359 (Online) Volume 3, Issue 3, September - December (2012), pp. 350-361 IAEME: www.iaeme.com/ijmet.asp Journal Impact Factor (2012): 3.8071 (Calculated by GISI) www.jifactor.com

IJMET
IAEME

FINITE ELEMENT MODEL TO PREDICT RESIDUAL STRESSES IN MIG WELDING


1

Mr. Harshal K. Chavan

Mr. Gunwant D. Shelake

Dr. M. S. Kadam

M.E. (Manufacturing) JNEC Aurangabad (M.S.)


harshal.k.chavan@gmail.com

M.E. (Manufacturing) HOD (Mechanical Department) JNEC Aurangabad (M.S.) JNEC Aurangabad (M.S.)
gunwantshelake@gmail.com mdaskadam@rediffmail.com

ABSTRACT
The objective of this research is to simulate the complex arc welding process by using the finite element method(ANSYS)[ ] . After the model is built and verified, the main objective of the research is to study the effects of varying the welding process parameters on the thermo-mechanical responses. In addition to that, the aim of this research is also to find a relationship between welding parameters and thermo-elastoplastic responses. In this research paper, the responses of single pass corner-joint of arc welding are evaluated through the finite element software (ANSYS). The study of this research paper covers only the effects of varying heat input, welding speed on the thermo mechanical responses of the weldment after cooling down to room temperature. Keywords:- Heat, Weld speed, Distortion, Elastic strain, Stress, FEA

INTRODUCTION
The problem of welding distortion during large steel fabrications causes to the dimensional inaccuracies and misalignments of structural members, which can result in corrective tasks or rework when tolerance limits are exceeded. This in turn, increases the production cost and leads to delays. In fabrication and design industries, expenses for rework such as straightening could cost lacks of Rupees. Therefore, the problems of distortion and residual stresses are always of great concern in welding industry. In order to deal with this problem, it is necessary to define prediction of the amount of distortion resulting from the welding operations. One way to predict the distortion and shrinkage of steel welding is through numerical analysis such as finite element analysis (FEA).

International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET), ISSN 0976 6340(Print), ISSN 0976 6359(Online) Volume 3, Issue 3, Sep- Dec (2012) IAEME

Once the techniques of prediction of the distortion and shrinkage are identified, then the problems can be controlled accordingly. Within the welding procedures, there are many factors such as welding process type, welding process parameters, welding sequence, preheat patterns, level of constraint and joint details that contribute to the distortion of the welded structure. Knowing which parameters have a major effect on the quality of the weld and which parameters give the most significant effects on the weld quality are the main issues in welding industry. The research activity in welding simulation started decades ago. Rosenthal (1941,1946)[37,39,41] was among the first researchers to develop an analytical solution of heat flow during welding based on conduction heat transfer for predicting the shape of the weld pool for two and three-dimensional welds. Understanding of the theory of heat flow is essential in order to study the welding process analytically, numerically or experimentally since the pioneering work of Rosenthal (1946), considerable interest in the thermal aspects of welding was expressed by many researchers such as. Chen et al. (2003)[10] Andrea Capriccioli, (2009)[12] ,and Heinze et al. (2012)[13].

PROCEDURE FOR FINITE ELEMENT MODEL


Present work requires that finite element model be created to study the effect of process parameter on, deformation, residual stress & strain. We must setup a transient thermal analysis to determine thermal state in the weld and surrounding components. Following this we are required to import the thermal loading to setup structural analysis which results in deformation, residual stress & strain. The weldment material properties employed in this paper were mild steel, which were taken from Andrea Capriccioli et al. (2009)[12].To simplify the heat transfer analysis, Dean Denga,(2007)[2] , Bonifaz (2000)[40] , assumptions were made. The heat input from weld electrode is modeled by using heat flux as input from electrode to weld surface and is depends on the efficiency of arc and welder setting. The heat flux distribution on the surface of weldment is given by Goldak et al. (1986) [30]

RESULT
Effect of Heat Input Heat input is one of the most important process parameters in controlling weld response. It can be referred to as an electrical energy supplied by the welding arc to the weldment. In practice, however, heat input can approximately (i.e., if the arc efficiency is not taken into consideration) be characterized as the ratio of the arc power supplied to the electrode to the arc travel speed, as shown in the following equation. Q=VI60/.

International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET), ISSN 0976 6340(Print), ISSN 0976 6359(Online) Volume 3, Issue 3, Sep- Dec (2012) IAEME

Where, I is welding current; V is welding arc voltage; v is the arc welding speed, and Q is the heat input. In this work, the effect of heat input on welding responses was evaluated using three values (heat input in Watt), characterized as low, medium, and high. Table 1 illustrates the values used for the analyses. This evaluation was carried out by considering the rest of parameters; welding speed was kept constant at low value and restraint was kept constant at high value. Table 1 Range of heat input used for FEA [27] LOW MEDIUM 1278W 1448W HEAT FLUX CALCULATION FOR FEA Voltage and current values for High, medium & low heat flux 1) For High Heat Flux Welding Voltage 14.2 V Welding Current 20 A Welding Current 3) For Low Heat Flux Welding Voltage 14.2 V Welding Current 15 A 17 A 2) For Medium Heat Flux Welding Voltage 14.2 V HIGH 1704W

Electrode Diameter = 25.4/8 = 3.175 mm Area of electrode = 3.14163.1753.175/4 = 7.9173mm2 = 0.0000079173 m2 Q= IV60/ 1) HIGH Q=2014.260/10= 1704W q=Q/a= 1704/0.0000079173= 2.15e8W/m2 2) MEDIUM Q=1714.260/10=1448W q=Q/a= 1448/0.0000079173= 1.82e8W/m2 3) LOW Q=1514.260/10 = 1278W

International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET), ISSN 0976 6340(Print), ISSN 0976 6359(Online) Volume 3, Issue 3, Sep- Dec (2012) IAEME

q=Q/a = 1278/0.0000079173= 1.61e8 W/m2 (Where q is heat input per unit area, a is area and Q is Heat input)

ANALYSIS OF RESULTS
Fig 1 shows that x elastic strain and y elastic strains are sensitive to heat input. As heat input changes strain changes respectively. Fig 2 shows that stress value decreases as heat input increases. This is due to fact that we cannot consider cooling time in the solution. As we can see from the graph that X-stress in the vertical plate is more sensitive to the heat input. Also we can see that Y-stress in horizontal plate is more sensitive to heat input as compare to other directional stresses. As heat input increases stresses decreases, this is due to the fact material properties such as youngs modulus decreases as temperature in the material increases. As the heat input increases temperature generates in the plate increases and thus the stress generated decreases.

International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET), ISSN 0976 6340(Print), ISSN 0976 6359(Online) Volume 3, Issue 3, Sep- Dec (2012) IAEME Sep

Horizontal Plate

Vertical Plate

Figure 1 Graphs Illustrate the Effects of Varying Heat input on Elastic Strain

International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET), ISSN 0976 6340(Print), ISSN 0976 6359(Online) Volume 3, Issue 3, Sep Dec (2012) IAEME Sep-

Figure 2 Graphs Illustrate the E Effects of Varying Heat input on Stress

International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET), ISSN 0976 6340(Print), ISSN 0976 6359(Online) Volume 3, Issue 3, Sep Dec (2012) IAEME Sep-

EFFECT OF VARIABLE SPEED


Welding speed represents the distance of the torch traveled along the weld line per unit of time. The heat input is inversely proportional to the welding speed. Therefore, when the heat input is larger, the welding speed is slower for a constant heat input rate. In this research, low, medium, and high welding speeds were investigated while considering the rest of parameters such as heat input is kept at low value and restraints at high value. Table 2 Range of Welding Speed for FEA nge LOW 2mmps MEDIUM 3mmps HIGH 4mmps

ANALYSIS OF RESULTS
As the speed of welding increases the stresses induced in the plate decreases because as welding speed increase time for welding decreases and thus It is noted that the faster the welding speed is made, the less heat is absorbed by the base metal and thus stresses induced decreases. The graph also shows the same trend. Effect of welding speed do not shows significant effect in plastic strain. Plastic strain is maximum in the weld zone and after that it becomes zero. Horizontal Plate Vertical Plate

International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET), ISSN 0976 6340(Print), ISSN 0976 6359(Online) Volume 3, Issue 3, Sep Dec (2012) IAEME Sep-

Horizontal Plate

Vertical Plate

Figure 3 Graph Illustrate Effect of Varing Speed On Elastic Strain

International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET), ISSN 0976 6340(Print), ISSN 0976 6359(Online) Volume 3, Issue 3, Sep Dec (2012) IAEME Sep-

Figure 4 Graph illustrate effect of varying welding speed on Stress

CONCLUSION
After completion of this work, several conclusions are made from the results shown above. Based on the simulation results i.e. results shown above in figures we can predict the distortion, shrinkages of weldment numerically. This is cost saving process because experimental processes are costly. From the simulation results we also conclude that heat input, welding speed has significant impacts on the weld response which are as follows Figure1 shows that x elastic strain and y elastic strains are sensitive to heat strain input. As heat input changes strain changes respectively Figure 2 shows that stress value decreases as heat input increases. This is due to fact that we cannot consider cooling time in the solution. As we can see solution. from the graph that X stress in the vertical plate is more sensitive to the heat X-stress input. Also we can see that Y stress in horizontal plate is more sensitive to Y-stress heat input as compare to other directional stresses. As heat input increases stresses decreases, this is due to the fact material increases properties such as youngs modulus decreases as temperature in the material increases. As the heat input increases temperature generates in the plate increases and thus the stress generated decreases. As the speed of welding increases the stresses induced in the plate decreases because as welding speed increase time for welding decreases and thus It is

International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET), ISSN 0976 6340(Print), ISSN 0976 6359(Online) Volume 3, Issue 3, Sep- Dec (2012) IAEME

noted that the faster the welding speed is made, the less heat is absorbed by the base metal and thus stresses induced decreases.

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