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1

Randy P. Gubaton
MNHS



Each question is copied verbatim from the test paper to preserve the originality of the item.
For the purpose of study, some questions are rephrased with the authors comment in Note or COMMENT.


Trial Version

The accuracy of the answer in selected solutions (with Note)
is verified using The Geometers Sketchpad v. 3.10N and 4.06

2
MTAP 2012 Math 4
Detailed Solution

Randy P. Gubaton
Maloco NHS

Solve each item on scratch paper and write the answer on the blank. Give equation of
lines as 0 = + + c by ax .
1. definition of function
Which of the following is/are not
functions?
a. y = 5x 3 b. y = x
2
3x + 4
c. x = y
2
3y + 2

Solution:

a] is a linear a function. It takes the
form of the line 0 = + + c by ax .

b] is a quadratic function. It takes the
general form 0
2
= + + c bx ax .

c] is a quadratic relation. It is not a
function. Its graph is a parabola that opens
to the right. It fails as a function by the
vertical test.

d] is a radical function. Its graph is in
QI.

Answer: a, b, and d.

if n is an even integer, 0 ) ( > x g .

2
3
3 2
0 3 2
>
>
>
x
x
x


The domain is
2
3
> x .
2. domain, linear function
What is the domain of y = 4 4x?

Solution:

The domain is all permissible values of x.

We can assign any real number as x and
get a unique number y as a result.

The domain is R (all real numbers).
3. range of linear equation
What is the range of y = 8x 3?

Solution:

The range is the set of all resulting values
of y when x is used in a function.

In the equation 3 8 = x y , when x is
assigned any real number, y gives a unique
real number.

The range is R (all real numbers).
4. composition of function
If f(x) = 4x 3 and g(x) = 1 4 + x , what
is (fog)(6)?

Solution:

3
Evaluate ( )( ) 6 g f given ( ) 3 4 = x x f
and ( ) 1 4 + = x x g .

( )( ) ( ) ( ) 6 6 g f g f =

Since

( ) ( ) 5 25 1 24 1 6 4 6 = = + = + = g

therefore

( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) 17 3 20 3 5 4 5 6 = = = = f g f
5. equation of line, parallel
Write an equation of the line through (3,
5) and the parallel to the line 3x 5y 12
= 0.

Solution:

Since the required line is parallel to the
given line, their slopes are equal. Finding
the slope of the given line by rewriting it
to the slope-intercept form of the line
b mx y + = .

y x
y x
y x
=
=
=
5
12
5
3
5 12 3
0 12 5 3


Since the resulting equation is of the form
b mx y + = where m is the slope, we can
easily see that
5
3
= m .

With point (3, 5) and slope
5
3
= m , using
the point-slope form of the line,



( )
( )
( ) ( )
0 34 5 3
0 9 25 5 3
9 3 25 5
5
5
9 3
5 5
3 5
5
3
1 1
=
=
= +
|
.
|

\
|
= +
=
=
y x
y x
x y
x
y
x y
x x m y y

6. form y = mx + b
Write 7x 3y = 21 in the form y = mx + b.

Solution:

7
3 21 7
21 3 7
3
7
3
21
3
7
=
=
=
=
x y
x y
y x
y x

7. distance between two points
Find the length of the line segment joining
P( -7,8) & Q(5,-1).

Solution:

The distance d between two points is

( ) ( )
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
units 15 225
144 81 9 12
1 8 5 7
2 2
2 2
2
1 2
2
1 2
= =
+ = + =
+ =
+ = y y x x d

8. inequality, absolute
Solve for x: |2x + 3| 9.

4
Solution:
b E < is equivalent to b E b < < .

Rewrite 9 3 2 s + x in this form and solve
for x.

3 6
6 2 12
3 9 3 3 2 3 9
9 3 2 9
9 3 2
s s
s s
s + s
s + s
s +
x
x
x
x
x

9. y-intercept, parabola
If y = x
2
6x + c and the graph of the
function passes through A(2,3), what is the
value of c?

Solution:

The parabola contains the point A(2, 3).
Substitute these values to the given
equation.

( )
c
c
c
c
c
c x x y
=
= +
+ =
+ =
+ =
+ =
11
8 3
8 3
12 4 3
2 6 2 3
6
2
2

10. standard form, quadratic
Write y = 2x
2
+ 4x 3 is the form y = a(x
h)
2
+ k.

Solution:

Rewrite into the standard form
( ) k h x a y + =
2

by completing the
square.
( )
( )
( ) ( ) ( )
( )
( ) 5 1 2
2 3 1 2 2
2 3 2 2
3 2 2
3 4 2
3 4 2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
+ =
+ + =
+ + =
+ =
+ =
+ =
x y
x x
x x
x x
x x
x x y

11. vertex of parabola
What is the vertex of the graph of y = 2x
2
+
4x 3?

Solution:

Find the axis of symmetry first.

( )
1
4
4
2 2
4
2
= = = =
a
b
x

Substitute the result to the original
equation.

( ) ( )
5
3 4 2
3 1 4 1 2
3 4 2
2
2
=
=
+ =
+ = x x y

The vertex ( ) ( ) 5 , 1 , = k h .
12. roots, quadratic
Solve for the roots of 2x
2
9x 5 = 0.

Solution:

By factoring,
5
( )( ) 5 1 2 5 9 2
2
+ = x x x x
2
1
1 2
0 1 2
=
=
= +
x
x
x

5
0 5
=
=
x
x


The roots are
2
1
, 5.
13. quadratic equation, given roots
Find a quadratic equation with integral
coefficient whose roots are 4 and 5/6.

Solution:

0 4
4
=
=
x
x

0 5 6
5 6
6
5
= +
=
=
x
x
x


Set the values as factors in an equation and
expand.
( )( )
0 20 19 6
0 20 5 24 6
0 5 6 4
2
2
=
= +
= +
x x
x x x
x x

14. y-intercept of line
What is the y-intercept of 2x 3y = 6?

Solution:

b is the y-intercept of the line b mx y + = .

Rewrite the given equation in the above
form.
y x
y x
y x
y x
=
=
=
=
2
3 6 2
6 3 2
3
2
3
6
3
2


The y-intercept b is 2.
15. odd/even function
Evaluate f(x)= 2x
4
+ 2x
2
+ 5 at x = 2.
From the result, can you say what kind of
function it is?

Solution:

Evaluate ( ) 2 f and ( ) 2 f .

- If ( ) 2 f ,

( )
( ) ( ) ( )
( ) ( )
45
5 8 32
5 4 2 16 2
5 2 2 2 2 2
5 2 2
2 4
2 4
=
+ + =
+ + =
+ + =
+ + =
f
x x x f


- If ( ) 2 f ,

( )
( ) ( ) ( )
( ) ( )
45
5 8 32
5 4 2 16 2
5 2 2 2 2 2
5 2 2
2 4
2 4
=
+ + =
+ + =
+ + =
+ + =
f
x x x f


Since ( ) ( ) x f x f = , the function is even.
16. synthetic division
If the polynomial P(x) = x
3
3x
2
x + 3 is
written in the form P(x) = Q(x)D(x)+R(x),
if D(x) = x+1, what is Q(x)?

Solution:

6
( ) 1 + = x x D

takes the general form
( ) r x x D = . It follows that

1 1 = = r r

Use this as divisor to ( ) x P

by synthetic
division.

| |
0 3 4 1
3 4 1
3 1 3 1 1





( ) 3 4
2
+ = x x x Q .
17. remainder theorem
What is the remainder when 5x
4
+ 3x
3

4x
2
+ 5x 3 is divided by x + 1?

Solution:

| |
10 7 2 2 5
7 2 2 5
3 5 4 3 5 1





The remainder is 10.
18. equation, polynomial function
Find a polynomial function with integral
coefficients and of lowest degree whose
roots are -2, \2, 1.

Solution:

The roots are

2
1
= x 2
2
= x

2
3
= x

1
4
= x

Setting this up in an equation,
( ) ( )( )( )( )
( ) 4 2 4
1 2 2 2
2 3 4
+ + =
+ + =
x x x x x f
x x x x x f


Note: Answer Key says
( ) ( )( )( ) 1 2 2
2
+ = x x x x f .
19. perfect square polynomial
What polynomial of lowest degree must be
multiplied to 2x
3
5x
2
4x + 12 to make it
perfect square?

Solution:

A polynomial is a perfect square
polynomials if its extreme terms, when
arranged, are perfect squares.

The leftmost term is
3
2x . The lowest
perfect term to it is
4
4x . Finding the
quotient of the two values,

x
x
x
2
2
4
3
4
=


The rightmost term is 12. Its nearest
perfect square multiple is 36. Finding the
quotient of the two values,

3
12
36
=

The required factor is the sum of the two
values above.

The factor is 3 2 + x .
7
20. simplifying exponential expr.
Simplify and express as a product of
powers (integral or fractional) of primes:
(24)
1/4
(\32)(15)
2/3


Solution:

( ) ( )( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
3
2
12
11
4
13
3
2
12
8
12
3
4
4
4
6
4
3
3
2
3
2
4
1
2
2
2
3
4
3
3
2
3
2
2
1
2
2
1
3
4
1
4
1
3
2
1
2
1
4
1
3 / 2 4 / 1
5 3 2
5 3 3 2 2 2
5 3 3 2 2 2
5 3 2 2 3 2
5 3 4 8 3 8 15 32 24
=
=
=
|
|
.
|

\
|

|
|
.
|

\
|

|
|
.
|

\
|
=
=
|
.
|

\
|
|
.
|

\
|
|
.
|

\
|
|
.
|

\
|
|
.
|

\
|

21. quadratic equation
For what value of k will x5 be a factor of
kx
3
17x
2
4kx + 5?

Solution:

5 5 = x x

By factor theorem,

( ) ( ) ( )
4
420 105
0 420 105
0 5 20 425 125
0 5 5 4 5 17 5
0 5 4 17
2 3
2 3
=
=
=
= +
= +
= +
k
k
k
k k
k k
kx x kx

22. roots, polynomial equation
Find the roots of x
3
2x
2
x + 2 = 0.

Solution:

By synthetic division,

| |
| |
| |
0 1
2
2 1 2
2 1
0 2 1 1 1
2 1 1
2 1 2 1 1






The roots are 1, 1 and 2.
23. simplifying exponential expr.
Simplify (32)
2/5
.

Solution:

( ) ( ) 4 2 2 32 32
2
5
2
5
5
2
5 / 2
= = = =
|
.
|

\
|

24. domain, exponential function
What is the domain of the function f(x) =
2
x+2
?

Solution:

Test several values of x.

If 3 = x ,
2
1
1 2 3 2
2 2 2 = = =
+ + x


If 2 = x ,
1 2 2 2
0 2 2 2
= = =
+ + x


If 0 = x ,
4 2 2 2
2 2 0 2
= = =
+ + x

8

If 1 = x ,
8 2 2 2
3 2 1 2
= = =
+ + x




The graph shows the values of x are
continuous from negative infinity to
positive infinity( ) , .

The domain is R, or the set of all real
numbers.
25. range, exponential function
What is the range of the function
f(x) = 2
x3
?

Solution:

Test several values of x.

If 1 = x ,
16
1
2
1
2 2 2
4
4 3 1 3
= = = =
x


If 0 = x ,
8
1
2
1
2 2 2
3
3 3 0 3
= = = =
x


If 3 = x ,
1 2 2
0 3 3
= =



If 4 = x ,
2 2 2
1 3 4
= =





The graph shows the values of y are
continuous from above the x-axis to
positive infinity.

The range is 0 > y .
26. inverse of linear function
What is the inverse of f(x) = 5 3x?

Solution:

Let ) (
1
x f y

= .

Interchange y to x and solve for y.

y x
x y
x x f
3 5
3 5
3 5 ) (
=

=

3
5
3
1
3
5
5 3
3 5
+ =
+
=
+ =
=
x y
x
y
x y
y x

3
5
3
1
1
) ( + =

x x f .
6
4
2
-5 5
5
5
9
27. domain, logarithm
What is the domain of y = log
b
x?

Solution:

In exponential form,

x b
y
=

We cannot find a number x where 0 = x . It
is always more than 0.

The domain is 0 > x .
28. exponential form
Write in the exponential form: log(0.001)
= -3

Solution:

In common logarithm, the base is 10, not
usually written.

( )
001 . 0 10
3 001 . 0 log
3 001 . 0 log
3
10
=
=
=


29. exponential decay
The price of a car depreciates at the rate of
8% per year. Give the formula that will
give the value of a car that cost P600,000
at the end of three years.

Solution:

( ) ( )
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
3
3
92 . 0 000 , 600 3
08 . 0 1 000 , 600 3
1
=
=
=
P
P
r A t P
t

30. exponential equation
Solve for x: 9
2x + 3
= 27
x + 4
.

Solution:
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
6
12 3 6 4
4 3 3 2 2
3 3
27 9
4 3 3 2 2
4 3 2
=
+ = +
+ = +
=
=
+ +
+ +
x
x x
x x
x x
x x

31. exponential
The half-life of a radioactive substance is
75 years. How much of a 100-g of the
substance remains after 300 years?

Solution:

75
2
1
100
t
y
|
.
|

\
|
=


After 300 years,

25 . 6
16
1
100
2
1
100
2
1
100
2
1
100
4
75
300
75
=
|
.
|

\
|
=
|
.
|

\
|
=
|
.
|

\
|
=
|
.
|

\
|
=
t
y


6.25 grams remains after 300 years.
32. logarithmic expression
Simplify and express in terms of the
logarithms of the individual variables:
log
b
[a(
3
\mn) / p
2
]

Solution:

10
( ) | |
( )
( )
P n m a
P mn a
p
mn a
p mn a
b b b b
b b
b
b
log 2 log log log
log log
log
/ log
3
1
2
3
1
2
3
1
2 3
+ + =

=
(
(

=


Note: Answer Key says
( )| | n m a
b b b
log log log
3
1
+ +
33. logarithmic expression
Express as single logarithm: 2log(x 3) +
log(x+1) log(x + 3)

Solution:
( ) ( ) ( )
( ) ( ) ( )
( )( )
3
1 ` 3
log
3 log 1 log 3 log
3 log 1 log 3 log 2
2
+
+
=
+ + + =
+ + +
x
x x
x x x
x x x

34. logarithmic equation
Solve for x: log
3
(x 2) + log
3
(x + 4) = 3.

Solution:

Apply the logarithm of a product.

( ) ( )
( )( ) 3 4 2 log
3 4 log 2 log
3
3 3
= +
= + +
x x
x x


Change to exponential form and solve for x.

( )( )
( )( )
( )( ) 7 5 0
35 2 0
8 2 27
8 2 4 27
4 2 3
3 4 2 log
2
2
2
3
3
+ =
+ =
+ =
+ =
+ =
= +
x x
x x
x x
x x x
x x
x x

5
0 5
=
=
x
x

7
0 7
=
= +
x
x


Check each value of x.

If 5 = x , the result is true.

( ) ( )
3 3
3 2 1
3 3 log 3 log
3 9 log 3 log
3 4 5 log 2 5 log
2
3
1
3
3 3
3 3
=
= +
= +
= +
= + +


If, the result is false.

( ) ( )
( ) ( ) 3 3 log 9 log
3 4 7 log 2 7 log
3 3
3 3
= +
= + +


Since the logarithm of a negative number
does not exist, 7 = x is not a solution.

5 = x .

Note: Answer Key says 5 = x , 7 = x .
35. logarithm of a product
If log2 = 0.3010 log3 = 0.4771 log7 =
0.8451, find log 42.

Solution:

11
7/4
x
1
12
Factor 42 into primes.

7 3 2 42 =

Apply the logarithm of a product.

( )
7 log 3 log 2 log 42 log
7 3 2 log 42 log
7 3 2 42
+ + =
=
=


Substitute the given values to the equation.

6232 . 1 42 log
8451 . 0 4771 . 0 3010 . 0
7 log 3 log 2 log
7 log 3 log 2 log 42 log
=
+ + =
+ + =
+ + =

36. coordinates of pt. on unit circle
If (x, \7/4) is on the unit circle, find the
value of x in Q1.

Solution:

Find x by Pythagorean
Theorem.

4
3
16
9
16
9
2
16
7
16
16
2
16
7
2
2
2
2
2 2 2
1
1
4
7
= =
=
=
= +
=
|
|
.
|

\
|
+
= +
x
x
x
x
x
r y x


Since x is in the first quadrant, it is
positive.

4
3
= x .
37. magnitude of arc
How many degrees is the angle formed by
a ray that makes 3 1/5 complete rotations
counterclockwise?

Solution:

In a circle, 1 rotation is 360.
5
1
of a
rotation is

= 72 360
5
1



5
1
3 rotation is

( ) = + = + 152 , 1 72 080 , 1 72 360 3
38. clock problem
The minute hand of a clock is 12 cm long.
Find the length of the arc traced by the
minute hand as it moved from its position
at 3:00 to 3:40.

Solution:

One rotation of the minute
hand of the clock is 360.

In 5 minutes, the minute hand traces

= 30 12 360

From 3:00 to 3:40, the hand has traced

= 240 8 30


Convert this to radians.

12
h
150
30
60
x
30
30
lighthouse
ship
t
t t
3
4
3 2 3 10
4 2 3 10
180
240 =


=



Find the length of the arc.

( ) cm 22 . 50 16 12
3
4
= = =
=
t t
ur s

39. function of an angle
If u is a real number representing an arc of
length 28 t/6, in which quadrant is the
terminal point of u?

Solution:

Divide the unit circle into 12 congruent
arcs. Starting from the initial point A going
counterclockwise around the circle,

t
6
1
= B A

, t
6
2
= C A

, etc.

We continue going around until we stop at
the terminal point E with arclength t
6
28
.

E is at quadrant II.
40. exact value of angles
What is the exact value of (sin t/3)(cos
t/6)?

Solution:

4
3
2
3
2
3
6
cos
3
sin = = |
.
|

\
|
|
.
|

\
| t t

41. angle of elevation
What is the height of a tree if 150 meters
from its base, its top is sighted at an angle
of 30
0
?

Solution:


( )
h
h
h
h
=
=
=
=
=
m 61 . 86
5774 . 0 150
30 tan 150
150
30 tan
adj.
opp.
tanu

5774 . 0
3
3
3
3
3
1
cos
30 sin
30 tan
2
3
2
1
=
=
=
=

=


The tree is 86.51 meters high.

Note: Answer Key says 28.87 m.
42. angle of depression
An observer is on top of a lighthouse, 60

meters above sea level. The observer
sighted a ship at an angle of depression of
30
0
. How far is the ship from the
lighthouse?

Solution:



13
15 1
2
3
30
M
N
O
c = 15
a = 12
b
60
A
B
C
15
13
h
14 - x
x
A
C
B
D
( )
x
x
x
x
=
=

=
=
=
m 103.92
57735 . 0
60
30 tan
60
60
30 tan
adj.
opp.
tanu

5774 . 0
3
3
3
3
3
1
cos
30 sin
30 tan
2
3
2
1
=
=
=
=

=


The ship is 103.92 meters from the
lighthouse.
43. 30-60-90triangle
Triangle MNO has a right angle at N. If
MN = 15 cm and O = 30
0
, find the length
of NO.

Solution:

In a 30-60-90
triangle, the ratio of the sides is

x x 2 : 3 :


Find ON by proportion.

m 3 15
1
15
3
=
=
ON
ON

44. cosine law
Two sides of AABC are AB = 15 cm and
BC= 12 cm. If B = 60
0
, how long is AC.
Give the answer as a simplified radical.

Solution:

Solve for b using the
cosine law.

Note: Answer Key
says cm 31 3 .

( )( )( )
( )
cm 21 3 21 9 189
189 180 369
360 225 144
60 cos 15 12 2 15 12
cos 2
2
2
1
2
2 2 2
2 2 2
= = =
= =
+ =
+ =
+ =
b
b
b
b
ac c a b |

45. geometric mean
In AABC, AB = 13 cm, AC = 15 cm and
BC = 14 cm. Find the length of the altitude
from A to BC.

Solution:

In right triangle
ADB,


169
169
13
2 2
2 2
2 2 2
+ =
= +
= +
x h
x h
x h



In right triangle ADC,


( )
29 28
29 28
225 28 196
15 14
2 2
2 2
2 2
2 2 2
+ + =
= +
= + +
= +
x x h
x x h
x x h
x h


Equate and .



14
5
140 28
29 169 28
169 29 28
169 29 28
28
140
2 2
=
=
=
=
= +
+ = + +
x
x
x
x
x
x x x


Substitute the result to .

( )
cm 12 144
144
25 169
169 25
13 5
13
2
2
2
2 2 2
2 2 2
= =
=
=
= +
= +
= +
h
h
h
h
h
x h

46. trigonometric equation
On 0 u 180, find all the values of u
for which 4 cos
2
u = 3.

Solution:

2
3
cos
4
3
cos
cos
cos
3 cos 4
4
3
2
4
3
2
2
=
=
=
=
=
u
u
u
u
u

The values of u for which
2
3
cos = u are

{30, 150, 210, 330}.

But given the restriction s s 180 0 u , the
permissible values are

{30, 150}.
47. projectile
An object is projected upward from the
ground. After t seconds, its distance in feet
above the ground is s = 144t 16t
2
. After
how many seconds will the object be 128
feet above ground in coming down?

Solution:

After t seconds, its distance from the
ground is 128 feet, or

2
2
16 144 128
16 144
t t
t t s
=
=


Solve for t.

( )( ) 0 1 8
0 8 9
9 8
16 144 128
2
2
2
=
= +
=
=
t t
t t
t t
t t

8
0 8
=
=
t
t

1
0 1
=
=
t
t


The object is 128 feet above ground going
up after 1 second, and reaches the same
height after 8 seconds after launch going
down.

The object will be 128 feet above
ground after 8 seconds after launch going
down.


15
x
x
x
N
O
M
P
Q
R S
T
x 2
x
x
T
M
Q
P
48. volume of cube
The diagonal NQ of cube MNOPQRST
measures 12 cm. What is the volume of
the cube?

Solution:

Let x be the length of
the cube.

Find MO by Pythagorean Theorem.

MQ x
MQ x
MQ x
MQ x x
=
=
=
= +
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2 2


Solve for x in ANMO by Pythagorean
Theorem.

( )
( )( ) 0 2 6
0 12 4
12 4
12 2
2
2
2 2
2
= +
= +
= +
= +
x x
x x
x x
x x

6
0 6
=
= +
x
x

2
0 2
=
=
x
x


We reject 6 = x since it is negative. So,
2 = x .

Find the volume using 2 = x .

3 3
3
cm 8 2 = =
=
V
a V

49. arithmetic series
The nth term of a series is 9n + 7. What is
the result of subtracting the kth term from
the (k + 1)th term?

Solution:

Multiply 1 k + by 9.

( )
9 1 9 9 k k + = +

Add 7 to the result.

9 9 7 9 16 k k + + = +

Subtract the nth term (in terms of k) from
the result.

( ) ( )
9 16 9 7 9 16 9 7 9 k k k k + + = + =
50. sum of roots
Find k so that the sum of roots of 3x
2
(3k
+ 2)x + 18 = 0 is 6.

Solution:

The given equation is in the general form
0
2
= + + c bx ax . Rewrite it in the form
0
2
= + +
a
c
a
b
x x .

( )
0
3
18
3
2 3
0 18 2 3 3
2
2
= +
+

= + +
x
k
x
x k x


We see that

x
12
2 x
M
N
Q
16

3
2 3
3
2 3
+
=
+
=
k
a
b
k
a
b


The roots of quadratic function are

a
ac b b
x
2
4
2
1
+
=


and
a
ac b b
x
2
4
2
2

=


The sum of the roots of a quadratic
function is


a
b
a
b
x x
a
ac b b
a
ac b b
x x
=

= +

+
+
= +
2
2
2
4
2
4
2 1
2 2
2 1


Since the sum of the roots is 6, then,
equating and ,

3
16
16 3
18 2 3
6
3
2 3
=
=
= +
=
+
k
k
k
k