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Situation : Situated to the south of North America, mostly in the Southern

Hemsphere. It is surrounded by the Caribbean Sea in the north, Atlantic
Ocean in the east, Antarctic Ocean in the south and Pacific Ocean in the
South America as well as Mexico, Central America and West Indies are
collectively known as Latin America.




Gulf of Guayaquil

West of Ecuador in the Pacific Ocean.

Gulf of Penas

Southern Chile in the Pacific Ocean

Gulf of San Jorge

East of Argentina in the Atlantic Ocean.

Gulf of San Matias

North of Valdes Peninsula (Argentina) in the Atlantic Ocean.

Taitao Peninsula

Surrounded by Gulf of Penas and the Pacific Ocean in Southern Chile

Valdes Peninsula

Lowest part of South America surrounded by Gulf of San Matias (North),

Gulf of San Jose (West), Gulf of Nuero and the Atlantic Ocean.

Magellans Strait

Separates southern end of South America, the Tierra Del Fuego.

Drake Passage

Strait between South America and Antarctica.




Lake Maracaibo (12,950 sq. km

North of Venezuela, is one of the major oil

producing region.
Largest lake of South America.

Lake Titicaca (12,500 feet above sea level)

Situated between Bolivia and Peru.

Highest navigable lake in the world.

Lake Popo

Lies in the Altiplano (high Plateau between the

Andes mountain chain) in Bolivia.

Galapagos Islands

Home of many unique species of reptiles

(turtles), birds and fishes.


Amazon River Basin

Source : Andes Mountain, Peru

Mouth : Macapa (Brazil) in the Atlantic Ocean
6,500 km long river flowing through Peru and Brazil to the Atlantic Ocean.
Worlds second longest river after Nile and has the greatest volume.
Madeira is the largest tributary of the Amazon River.
The river basin is covered with dense equatorial forest which are locally
called Selvas.
Rubber was first discovered in its wild state as Para rubber in the Amazon
Guicas practice subsistence agriculture in the river basin.


Orinoco River Basin

Source : Guiana highlands.
Mouth : Enters the Atlantic Ocean via huge delta.
The river basin is covered with Lianos, Savanna like vegetation.
Angel Falls, the highest in the world is located on the river.


Forms the second highest mountain system in the world, next to the

The Andes Mountain System

Aconcagu (6960 m), an extinct volcano is the highest peak of Western
Hemisphere lies in Argentina.
A part of seven countries; Venezuela, Colombia, Ecuador, Bolivia, Peru, Chile
and Argentina.
The Andes range is widest in Bolivia (640 km) and comprises two chain
(Cordillera Occident al and Oriental); the Altiplano (high plateau) lies
between these two chains.
(i) Cordillera Occidental
(ii) Cordillera Central
(iii) Cordillera Oriental


Three parallel north-south ranges of the Andes dominate the western part
of Colombia with altitudes between 3,000 m and 5,000m.
The two parallel north-south ranges of the Andes dominate the Central
Chimborazo (6,310 m) is the highest peak of Ecuador and Mt Ojas del Salado
the highest active volcano in the world, is in Argentina.


Rising from Brazils Atlantic coast and levels off into high towards the
western side of Brazil.
Rich in mines, coffee plantation, and cattle ranches.
Highland region is characterized by coniferous forest while the drier region
is covered with Savanna-like grassland (Campos).


A great lowland centred on western Paraguay, northern Argentina, and

south eastern Bolivia.
It has warm temperate forest and grassland to the south of Selvas.
Dry scrubland used mainly for cattle rearing.
It means The Hunting Land in the local language.

A coastal desert in Chile.

The worlds driest desert.
It contains a number of salt lakes.
Rich in gold, nitrate (caliche), copper and sulphur.


Vast monotonous temperate grassland that covers about 20% area of

Argentinas heartland.
One of the worlds greatest agricultural regions for grain and beef.
Alfa-Alfa, a nutritious leguminous grass is grown for commercial grazing.

Piedmont plateau of the Southern Argentina, rain shadow region with little
rain called Patagonia desert.
Grazing land for sheep and cattle.