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TRANSFORMER PROTECTION

TRANSFORMER FAULTS
EARTH FAULTS PHASE FAULTS INTER TURN FAULTS CORE FAULTS TANK FAULTS AND COOLING FAILURE TAP CHANGER FAULTS

TRANSFORMER ABNORMAL
OVERLOAD
Increase copper loss & Temperature rise

SYSTEM FAULTS OVERVOLTAGE OVERFLUXING

EARTH FAULT CURRENT DEPENDS ON


Method of Earthing Impedance of the winding Position of the fault on the winding

TYPES OF EARTHING
EFFECTIVE EARTHING Solid and low impedance earthed systems During Earth fault healthy phase voltage is below 80% of nominal Used in higher voltage level

Solidly Earthed Systems

TYPES OF EARTHING
NON - EFFECTIVE EARTHING

High resistance and Reactance earthed systems Systems are subjected to high over voltage Suitable for Lower voltage distribution networks

Impedance Earthed Systems

Degradation of winding insulation due to lightning or switching 70 to 80% of the Transformer failures

Inter-turn Faults

Core Faults
Breakdown in the insulation b/w silicon steel core lamination Breakdown in the core bolt insulation Causes excessive eddy currents to flow and hot spots formed in Transformer core

Due to

Tap Changer Faults

Flashovers Selector or Divertor failure Contact failure Burn out of divertor resistors

Transformer Reactance
4 5 6 7

Fault Current
25 20 16.6 14.2

Permitted Duration (Sec)


2 3 4 5

System Short Circuit


Limited by self reactance Severe mechanical stress

Over Voltages
Transient Surge Voltage Arise from switching & Lightning disturbances Cause interturn faults Power frequency Voltage Load throw off condition Increase stress on the insulation Damage the core bolt and coil insulation

OVERALL TRANSFORMER PROTECTION REQUIREMENT


SENSITIVITY FOR INTERNAL FAULT FASTER OPERATION FOR INTERNAL FAULT THROUGH FAULT STABILITY MAGNETIC INRUSH STABILITY OVER FLUXING STABILITY

TYPES OF PROTECTION
OVER CURRENT AND EARTH FAULT HIGH IMPEDANCE DIFFERENTIAL BIASED DIFFERENTIAL RESTRICTED EARTH FAULT WINDING / OIL TEMPERATURE BUCHOLZ GAS

Biased Differential
CT error Tap Changer variation Magnetizing Inrush Through fault stability Through fault stability - CT saturated condition Overfluxing Stability

4.5 4.0

Highset Differential at 12x (12A)

| I1 - I2 | 3.0 2.5 (A)


2.0 1.5 1.0 0.5 0.5 1.0

3.5

OPERATE

RESTRAIN Measured Point under Maximum Load


1.5 2.0 2.5 3.0 3.5 4.0

| I1 + I2 | / 2

(A)

Biased Differential Protection

R Y

R Y Supply

B
SETTING RESISTOR REF RELAY

IP IF
SETTING RESISTOR REF RELAY

METROSIL

EARTHING RESISTOR

METROSIL

Figure 8.

Restricted Earth Fault

Restricted Earth Fault

100

RESTRICTED EARTH FAULT RELAY

15

80 PERCENTAGE OF WINDING PROTECTED

12 CURRENT AS A MULTIPLE OF FULL LOAD

60 DIFFERENTIAL RELAY 40

9 Earth Fault Current - I F

20

Primary Current - I P

10

15

20

25

30

FAULT SETTING - PERCENTAGE OF FULL LOAD

20 40 60 80 100 K - PERCENTAGE OF WINDING FROM NEUTRAL AT WHICH EARTH FAULT OCCURS

Protection against Earth Faults Variation of Earth Fault Current with position (solidly earthed)

Protection Overview

Current amplitude correction (0.25 - 3.0) Vector group compensation Proven biased differential protection Low or high impedance REF/SEF Backup IDMTL and DTL overcurrent and earth fault Overfluxing protection DTL Overvoltage

Protection Overview
4-stage Undervoltage / under-frequency load shedding Neutral voltage displacement Trip circuit supervision

Biased Differential Protection Settings


Differential, Initial setting (10 - 200% xIn) Differential, Bias Slope (0 - 70%) Setting > maximum percentage unbalance (tap mismatch, CT mismatch) Differential, Bias Slope Limit (1-20 xIn) Aids stability for heavy external faults accompanied by CT saturation Setting > transformer maximum 3phase through fault current/2

Biased Differential Protection Settings

Differential, Highset (1-30 xIn) Setting > max through fault, and Setting > max magnetizing inrush Mag. Inrush Restraint Level (10-50% x Id) Determines level of even harmonic that will cause relay to be inhibited

Single phase line diagram


Mag inrush detector RMS converter
+ -

Phase inhibit

Inrush level 5% of In Initial setting Bias limit Bias slope


Operate

+ -

Inhibit enable

Other phase inhibits

I1

I1-12 I1+12

RMS converter I1 + 12 2

Trip
Restraint

I2

+-

0.5

RMS converter

Trip from other phases

Biased Differential Characteristic


8 Highset Differential Set to x7

Operate Current (I1 - I2)

6 OPERATE 4

RESTRAIN

0
Initial Setting

2
Bias Slope Setting

10

Bias Slope Limit Set at x4

Restraint Current ( |I1| + |I2| ) / 2

A.C. line diagram

Duobias - Line currents

Duobias - Output relays

Transformer Details:
7.5 MVA; 66 / 11 KV; Dyn11; HVCT ratio = 100/1; LVCT ratio = 450/1; HV full load current HV CT secondary current LV full load current LV CT secondary current Tap changer range = 7.5MVA / (1.732 x 66KV) = 65.61A = (65.61 x 1) / 100 = 0.656A = 7.5MVA / (1.732 x 11KV) = 393.65A = (393.65 x 1) / 450 = 0.875A = -10% to +10%

HV ICT multiplier LV ICT multiplier Transformer Impedance

= 1 / 0.656 = 1.52 = 1 / 0.875 = 1.14 = 12.5%

DUOBIAS - M Relay SETTINGS: Initial setting Bias setting Bias slope High set over current HV ICT vector connection HV ICT multiplier LV ICT vector connection LV ICT multiplier = 20% = 20% = 4 x In = 8 x In = Ydy0, 0 = 1.52 = Yd1, 30 = 1.14.